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CEMENT PLANT

GROUP 3

CEMENT
A powdery substance made with calcined lime and
clay. It is mixed with water to form mortar or mixed
with sand, gravel, and water to make concrete.
Acementis a binder, a substance that sets and
hardens and can bind other materials together. The
word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman
term opus caementicium, used to describe
masonry resembling modern concrete that was
made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.

It is manufactured through a closely controlled


chemical combination of calcium, silicon,
aluminum, iron and other ingredients.
Common materials used to manufacture cement
include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl
combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace
slag, silica sand, and iron ore. These
ingredients, when heated at high temperatures
form a rock-like substance that is ground into
the fine powder that we commonly think of as

CHARACTERIZATION
NON-HYDRAULIC
-It will not set in wet conditions or underwater; rather, it sets as it dries and
reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It can be attacked by some aggressive
chemicals after setting.
HYDRAULIC
-It set and become adhesive due to a chemical reaction between the dry
ingredients and water. The chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that
are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from
chemical attack. This allows setting in wet condition or underwater and further
protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for
hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash with lime.

TYPES
Portland cement
Portland cement blends
Portland blast-furnace slag cement, or blast furnace cement
Portland-fly ash cement
Portland pozzolan cement
Portland silica fume cement
Masonry cements
Expansive cements
White blended cements
Colored cements

USES
IT IS USED IN MORTAR FOR PLASTERING,MASONRY WORK, POINTING, ETC.
IT IS USED FOR MAKING JOINTS FOR DRAINS AND PIPES.
IT IS USED FOR WATER TIGHTNESS OF STRUCTURE.
IT IS USED IN CONCRETE FOR LAYING FLOORS, ROOFS AND CONSTRUCTING LINTELS, BEAMS, STAIRS,
PILLARS ETC.
IT IS USED WHERE HARD SURFACE IS REQUIRED FOR THE PROTECTION OF EXPOSED SURFACES OF
STRUCTURES AGAINST THE DESTRUCTIVE AGENTS OF THE WEATHER AND CERTAIN ORGANIC OR
INORGANIC CHEMICALS.
IT IS USED FOR PRECAST PIPES MANUFACTURING, PILES, FENCING POSTS ETC.
IT IS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPORTANT ENGINEERING STRUCTURES SUCH AS BRIDGES,
CULVERTS,DAMS, TUNNELS, LIGHT HOUSES ETC.
IT IS USED IN THE PREPARATION OF FOUNDATIONS, WATER TIGHT FLOORS, FOOTPATHS ETC.
IT IS EMPLOYED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF WELLS, WATER TANKS, TENNIS COURTS, LAMP POSTS,
TELEPHONE CABINS, ROADS ETC.

CEMENT
PLANT

MANUFACTURING

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
DRY PROCESS
WET PROCESS
CEMENT MAKING PROCESSES:
1. QUARRY
2. PROPORTIONING, BLENDING & GRINDING
3. PREHEATER TOWER
4. KILN
5. CLINKER COOLER & FINISH GRINDING

THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS

dumper

loader

Quarry face

storage at
the plant

crushing
conveyor

THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS

storage at
the plant

Raw mill
conveyor

Raw mix

preheating

kiln
cooling
clinker

THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Gypsum and the secondary additives are added


to the clinker.
clinker
storage

Finish grinding

silos

dispatch
bags

QUARRY
THE FIRST STEP IS TO QUARRY THE PRINCIPAL RAW
MATERIALS, MAINLY LIMESTONE, CLAY, AND OTHER
MATERIALS. AFTER QUARRYING THE ROCK IS CRUSHED. THIS
INVOLVES SEVERAL STAGES. THE FIRST CRUSHING REDUCES
THE ROCK TO A MAXIMUM SIZE OF ABOUT 6 INCHES. THE
ROCK THEN GOES TO SECONDARY CRUSHERS OR HAMMER
MILLS FOR REDUCTION TO ABOUT 3 INCHES OR SMALLER.
FOR ITS RAW MATERIALS, CEMENT USES MINERAL CONTAINING
THE FOUR ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS FOR ITS CREATION: CALCIUM,
SILICON, ALUMINUM & IRON

MOST PLANTS RELY ON A NEARBY QUARRY LIMESTONE. THE MOST


COMMON COMBINATION OF INGREDIENTS IS LIMESTONE (FOR
LIMESTONE) COUPLED WITH MUCH SMALLER QUANTITIES OF CLAY
AND SAND (AS SOURCES OF SILICA, ALUMINUM AND IRON)
OTHER RAW MATERIALS, SUCH MILL SCALE, SHALE, BAUXITE AND
FLY ASH, ARE BOUGHT IN FROM OUTSIDE WHEN NECESSARY
ROCK BLASTED FROM THE QUARRY FACE IS TRANSPORTED TO THE
PRIMARY CRUSHER, WHERE CHAIR SIZED ROCKS ARE BROKEN
INTO PIECES THE SIZE OF BASEBALLS. A SECONDARY CRUSHER
REDUCES THEM TO THE SIZE OF A GRAVEL (SOME PLANTS NOW
CRUSH MATERIALS IN A SINGLE STAGE)

PROPORTIONING, BLENDING & GRINDING

PLANTS GRIND THE RAW MATERIALS WITH HEAVY, WHEEL-TYPE


ROLLER THAT CRUSH THE MATERIALS INTO POWDER AGAINST A
ROTATING TABLE. AFTER GRINDING, THE MATERIAL IS NOW READY
FOR THE KILN OR PREHEATER, DEPENDING ON PLANT TYPE.
THE RAW MATERIALS ARE NOW ANALYZED IN PLANT LABORATORY,
BLENDED IN PROPER PROPORTION, AND THEN GROUND EVEN
FINER
THE CRUSHED ROCK IS COMBINED WITH OTHER INGREDIENTS
SUCH AS IRON ORE OR FLY ASH AND GROUND, MIXED, AND FED TO
A CEMENT KILN OR PREHEATER

preheater

PREHEATER TOWER
THE PREHEATER TOWER SUPPORTS A SERIES OF VERTICAL
CYCLONE CHAMBERS THROUGH WHICH THE RAW MATERIAL
PASS ON THEIR WAY TO THE KILN
TO SAVE ENERGY, MODERN CEMENT PLANTS PREHEAT THE
MATERIALS BEFORE THEY ENTER THE KILN, RISING MORE THAN
200 FEET, HOT EXIT GASES FROM THE KILN HEAT THE RAW
MATERIALS AS THEY SWIRL THROUGH THE CYCLONES

KILN

kiln KILN.
RAW MATERIAL NOW ENTER THE HUGE ROTATING FURNACE CALLED

THE HEART OF THE CEMENT MAKING PROCESS A HORIZONTALLY SLOPED


STEEL CYLINDER, LINED WITH FIREBRICK, TURNING FROM ABOUT 0NE TO
THREE RPM
THE CEMENT KILN HEATS ALL THE INGREDIENTS TO ABOUT 2,700 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT IN HUGE CYLINDRICAL STEEL ROTARY KILNS LINED WITH
SPECIAL FIREBRICK. KILNS ARE FREQUENTLY AS MUCH AS 12 FEET IN
DIAMETERLARGE ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE AN AUTOMOBILE AND
LONGER IN MANY INSTANCES THAN THE HEIGHT OF A 40-STORY BUILDING.
THE LARGE KILNS ARE MOUNTED WITH THE AXIS INCLINED SLIGHTLY FROM
THE HORIZONTAL.
WORLDS LARGEST PIECE OF MOVING INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT
THIS INTENSE HEAT TRIGGERS CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHANGES.
EXPRESSED AT ITS SIMPLEST, THE SERIES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
CONVERTS THE SILICON AND CALCIUM OXIDES INTO CALCIUM SILICATES,
CEMENTS PRIMARY CONSTITUENTS. AT THE LOWER END OF THE KILN, THE
RAW MATERIALS EMERGE AS A NEW SUBSTANCE: RED HOT PARTICLES
CALLED CLINKER

CLINKER COOLER & FINISH GRINDING


AS THE MATERIAL MOVES THROUGH THE KILN, CERTAIN ELEMENTS ARE DRIVEN
clinker
OFF IN THE FORM OF GASES. THE REMAINING ELEMENTS UNITE TO FORM A
NEW SUBSTANCE CALLED CLINKER. CLINKER COMES OUT OF THE COOLER AS
GREY BALLS, ABOUT THE SIZE OF MARBLES.
CLINKER IS DISCHARGED RED-HOT FROM THE LOWER END OF THE KILN AND
GENERALLY IS BROUGHT DOWN TO HANDLING TEMPERATURE IN VARIOUS TYPES
OF COOLERS. THE HEATED AIR FROM THE COOLERS IS RETURNED TO THE
KILNS, A PROCESS THAT SAVES FUEL AND INCREASES BURNING EFFICIENCY.
THE CLINKER IS GRIND IN A BALL MILL A HORIZONTAL STEEL PIPE FILLED WITH
STEEL BALLS. AS THE PIPE ROTATES, THE STEEL BALLS TUMBLE AND CRUSH
THE CLINKER. A SMALL AMOUNT OF GYPSUM IS ADDED DURING FINAL
GRINDING TO CONTROL THE SET. ALSO ADDED WITH LIMESTONE

BAGGING AND SHIPPING


FROM THE GRINDING MILLS, THE CEMENT IS CONVEYED TO SILOS WHERE IT
AWAITS SHIPMENT.
THE CEMENT IS NOW READY FOR TRANSPORT TO READY-MIX CONCRETE
COMPANIES TO BE USED IN A VARIETY OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. MOST
CEMENT IS SHIPPED IN BULK BY TRUCKS, RAILS OR BARGE.
A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE CEMENT IS BAGGED FOR CUSTOMERS WHO
ONLY NEED SMALL AMOUNTS OR FOR SPECIAL USES SUCH AS MORTAR

WET PROCESS
ESSENTIALLY ALIKE WITH DRY PROCESS EXCEPT THE RAW MATERIALS ARE
GROUND WITH WATER BEFORE BEING FED INTO THE KILN.

REFERENCES:
HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/CEMENT#MODERN_CEMENTS
HTTP://CIVILTODAY.COM/CIVIL-ENGINEERING-MATERIALS/CEMENT/46-USES-O
F-CEMENT
HTTP://WWW.CEMENT.ORG/CEMENT-CONCRETE-BASICS/HOW-CEMENT-IS-MAD
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HTTP://WWW.CEMENT.ORG/CEMENT-CONCRETE-BASICS/HOW-CEMENT-IS-MAD
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