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Widener University

Earthquake Response of Structures


Time History Response
Three Story Shear Frame
SYSTEM INFORMATION:
T

Moment of Inertia:

I [ 42875 42875 42875 ] in

Young's Modulus of Concrete (fc=7000psi):

E 5072.2 ksi

Story Heights:

L [ 12 10.67 10.67 ] ft

GLOBAL STIFFNESS MATRIX:


kip
k1 2621.89
in

kip
k2 3733.13
in

kip
k3 3733.13
in

k1 + k2 k2
0

K k2 k2 + k3 k3

k3
k3
0

6355.02 3733.13

0
kip

K = 3733.13 7466.26 3733.13

0
3733.13 3733.13 in
MASS MATRIX:
2165.74 kip
m1
g
2165.74 kip
m2
g
2165.74 kip
m3
g
m1 0 0
M 0 m2 0

0 0 m3

NATURAL FREQUENCIES
Mansoor Illahi

m1 = 67313.257 slug

Mass of First Floor

m2 = 67313.257 slug

Mass of Second Floor

m3 = 67313.257 slug

Mass of Third Floor

67313.257

0
0

slug
M=
0
67313.257
0

0
0
67313.257

Page 1 of 11

NATURAL FREQUENCIES:

DM

1132.916 665.509

0
1

D = 665.509 1331.017 665.509


2

0
665.509 665.509 s

1
eigenvals (D)
2
s
sort ()

Eigenvalues:

106.752
1
= 924.024
2098.666 s 2

Number of Modes:

n3

Natural Circular Frequency:

10.332
rad
= 30.398
45.811 s

Natural Period:

2
T
i

0.608
T = 0.207 s
0.137

i1n

Mode Shapes:

eigenvec D ,
i
i

0.385
= 0.593
1
0.707

0.756
= 0.237
2
0.611

0.53
= 0.769
3
0.357

Eigenvector Matrix:

augment , ,
1 2 3

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0.385 0.756 0.53


= 0.593 0.237 0.769
0.707 0.611 0.357

Page 2 of 11

EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION (NORTHR/MUL279):


Time Variables:
Time Increment:

t 0.01 s

t = 0.01 s

Number of data Points:

N 8900

N = 8900

Range of Data Points:

j1N4

Starting Time:

tstart 0 s

Time Step Array:

t tstart + j t

tstart = 0 s

Seismic Data:
www.strongmotioncenter.org
Record of Fri Apr 18, 2008 04:37:37.0 CDT
(Avol1 v7.5 7/07 CSMIP)

CSMIP Preliminary Processing


(Origin: To be determined)

02407-K4180-08109.01
Start time: 4/18/08, 09:37:37.0 UTC (GPS)

Station No. 2407 38.494N, 90.281W


K2 s/n 4180 (3 Channels)

St. Louis - Jefferson Barracks VAMC USGS

Chan 1: 90 Deg

Record of Fri Apr 18, 2008 04:37:37.0 CDT Fri Apr 18, 2008 04:37:37.0 CDT
Hypocenter: To be determined.
ML: To be determined.

Instr Period = .0049 sec, Damping = .700, Sensitivity = 1.25 v/g (Nominal)

Record length = 89.000 sec.

8900 points of accel data equally spaced at .010 sec, in cm/sec2.


cm
Edata READEXCEL (.\CE 634 Project Data (Raw).xlsx , Data2!A1:H1113)
2
s

Edata =

Mansoor Illahi

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003

0.002 0.004 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.003


cm

0.005 0.002 0.006 0.01


0.002 0.011
s2

0.019 0.023 0.016 0.001 0.012 0

0.013 0.04 0.051 0.038 0.016 0.016

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Table data
nper_row 8

8 data points per row

N
nrow
nper_row

nrow = 1112.5

Table Edata

nrow 1112

Transpose the data

1
ag ag Table
for j 1 nrow 1
j

a stack ag , Table
g

ag

Stack the columns from Table to form a


vector containing the ground acceleration

Create the "unity" vector that applies the ground acceleration


to the horizontal translational degree of freedom. All DOF are
horizontal translation DOF, therefore:

one [ 1 1 1 ]

GROUND ACCELERATION VS. TIME PLOT:

0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005

ag ( g )

-0.005
-0.01
-0.015
-0.02
-0.025

0.01

1.99 2.98 3.97 4.96 5.95 6.94 7.93 8.92 9.91 10.9 11.8912.8813.8714.8615.8516.8417.8318.8219.81 20.8

t (s)

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Page 4 of 11

Specify Initial Conditions


T

Initial Displacement:

x0 [ 0 0 0 ] in

Initial Velocity:

T
in
v0 [ 0 0 0 ]
sec

Transform initial conditions to modal coordinates


T

M x0
i
q0
T
i
M
i
i

0
q0 = 0 in
0

M v0
i
q'0
T
i
M
i
i

0
in
q'0 = 0
0 s

Calculate modal stiffnesses


Km

T
K

598.819
kip
Km = 5183.255
11772.336 in

i,i

Calculate modal mass terms


Mm

T
M

67313.257
Mm = 67313.257 slug
67313.257

i,i

Define modal damping ratios


T

Modal Damping Ratio:

m [ 0.03 0.04 0.05 ]

Cm 2 Mm m

3477.4
s
Cm = 13641.1 lbf
in
25697.5

Transform modal damping matrix to natural coordinates for use in Part 2:

i
2 m
i
i M
m
i

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0
0

1
slug s slug s

0
0

2
slug

s
slug

0
0

3

slug s slug s
Page 5 of 11

15522.18 7236.219 483.009


s
Cnat = 7236.219 17193.175 7575.451 lbf
in
483.009 7575.451 10100.734

Cnat M M

Inertial forces in modal coordinates

M one

9453.152
2
lbf s
= 2144.033
in
662.142

i
norm
i
Mm

1.685
norm = 0.382
i
0.118

i,j

ag
i

3 , 2472

lb ft
= 19139.083
2
s

Calculate modal displacements using central difference method.


Calculate the starting acceleration

0
in
a0 = 0
0 s 2

1
a0
P Cm q'0 Km q0
i
i
i
i
i
Mm i , 1

a0 t

fictitious displacement q-1.

qm q0 t q'0
i
i
i
2

Calculate the central difference coefficients for each mode.


4 Mm 2 Km t
i

A
i
Cm t + 2 Mm
i

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Cm t 2 Mm
i

B
i
Cm t + 2 Mm
i

2 t
C
i
Cm t + 2 Mm
i

Page 6 of 11

Calculate the modal response


Revised Number of Data Points:

N 3246

problem is the data


is cut off

qnN

for i 1 3

qi , 1 q0i

qi , 2 Ai q0i + Bi qmi + Ci Pi , 1

for i 1 3
for j 3 , 4 n 1

+B q
+C P
q A q
i
i,j1
i
i,j2
i
i,j1

i,j

Plot Time-Histories for the Modal Displacements


0.024

0.02

0.016

0.012

0.008

1,j

(in)0.004
0

q
q

2,j

3,j

(in)
-0.004

(in)-0.008
-0.012

-0.016

-0.02

-0.024

10

15

20

25

t (s)

30

35

40

45

50

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Page 7 of 11

Calculate response in natural (displacement) coordinates


x q
k

k1n

index for number of nodes

n=3

1
i=2
3

For time series calculations

Displacement:

x ( q)
i

Natural Displacement Response


0.043
0.034
0.026

1,j

(in)0.017
0.009
0

2,j

(in-0.009
)
-0.017
-0.026

3,j

(in-0.034
)
-0.043
0

10

15

20

25

t (s)

30

35

40

45

50

Plot Mode Shapes:


In order to plot the mode shapes, we add a "node" at the base of the frame.

stack 0 ,
i
i

and generate story heights

0 ft

L
1

h L +L
1
2

L1 + L2 + L3

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0.385
=
1
0.593
0.707
Zero line for plot

0
0
z
0
0

Page 8 of 11

Mode Shapes

35

31.5

28

24.5

21

17.5

h (ft)

14

h (ft) 10.5
h (ft)

h (ft)

3.5

-0.9

-0.75

-0.6

-0.45

-0.3

-0.15

0.15

0.3

0.45

0.6

0.75

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Page 9 of 11

Determine Interstory Drift:


First Story Drift:

1
x1 max x = 0.026 in

Second Story Drift:

2
x2 max x x1 = 0.012 in

Third Story Drift:

3
x3 max x x2 = 0.03 in

Maximum Story Drift:

Xmax max x1 , x2 , x3

Xmax = 0.03 in

x1 0.026
x x2 = 0.012 in
0.03
x3

Determine Interstory Force:

192.014
F = 225.589 kip
112.795
Calculate the Relative Acceleration Response:
(Using Central Difference Method)

F diag (K) Xmax

q'' n N

for i 1 3

qi , 1 q0i

qi , 2 Ai q0i + Bi qmi + Ci Pi , 1

for i 1 3

qm 2 q0 + q
i
i,2
i


q''

i,1
t

for i 1 3
for j 3 , 4 n 1

+B q
+C P
q A q

i
i,j1
i i,j2
i
i,j1
i,j

for i 1 3
for j 2 n 2

q

2q +q
i,j
i , j + 1

i,j1
q''

i , j
2
t


for i 1 3

q''i , n 1 q''i , n 2

q''

C
tM d lA
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ti

t N t

lC

di

Page 10 of 11

Convert Modal Acceleration to Natural Coordinates:


For time series calculations:
x''r q''
k

Absolute Acceleration:
1

in
x''r1 max x''r = 37.898
2
s
2

in
x''r2 max x''r x''r1 = 9.213
2
s
3

in
x''r3 max x''r x''r2 = 32.091
2
s
Maxima:

Amax max x''r1 , x''r2 , x''r3

Amax = 0.098 g

Maximum Absolute Acceleration in Terms of Gravity at Each


Level for each instant of time

0.1
0.08
0.06

x''r

1,j

(g)

0.04
0.02
0
0

x''r

2,j

(g)

18

27

36

45

54

63

72

81

90

-0.02
-0.04
-0.06

x''r

3,j

(g)

-0.08
-0.1
-0.12

t (s)
j

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Page 11 of 11