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Analysisanddesignofprestressedconcreteboxgirderbridge

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By
Miss.P.R.Bhivgade
Abstract:Bridgeconstructiontodayhasachievedaworldwidelevelofimportance.BridgesarethekeyelementsinanyroadnetworkUseofbox
girderisgainingpopularityinbridgeengineeringfraternitybecauseofitsbetterstability,serviceability,economy,aestheticappearanceandstructural
efficiency.Thestructuralbehaviorofboxgirderiscomplicated,whichisdifficulttoanalyzeinitsactualconditionsbyconventionalmethods.Inpresent
studyatwolanesimplysupportedBoxGirderBridgemadeupofprestressedconcretewhichisanalysisformovingloadsasperIndianRoadCongress
(IRC:6)recommendations,PrestressedCode(IS:1343)andalsoasperIRC:18specifications.TheanalyzedofboxgirderusingSAP200014Bridge
Wizardandprestressedwithparabolictendonsinwhichutilizefullsection.Thevariousspan/depthratioconsideredtogettheproportioningdepthat
whichstressescriteriaanddeflectioncriteriagetsatisfied.
Keywords:ConcreteBoxGirderBridge,PrestressForce,Eccentricity,PrestressLosses,Reinforcement,Flexurestrength,shearstrength,SAPModel.
I.INTRODUCTION
Prestressconcreteisideallysuitedfortheconstructionofmediumandlongspanbridges.Eversincethedevelopmentofprestressedconcreteby
Freyssinetintheearly1930s,thematerialhasfoundextensiveapplicationintheconstructionoflongspanbridges,graduallyreplacingsteelwhichneeds
costlymaintenanceduetotheinherentdisadvantageofcorrosionunderaggressiveenvironmentconditions.Oneofthemostcommonlyusedformsof
superstructureinconcretebridgesisprecastgirderswithcastinsituslab.Thistypeofsuperstructureisgenerallyusedforspansbetween20to40m.T
orIgirderbridgesarethemostcommonexampleunderthiscategoryandareverypopularbecauseoftheirsimplegeometry,lowfabricationcost,easy
erectionorcastingandsmallerdeadloads.InthispaperstudytheIndiaRoadLoadingconsideredfordesignofbridges,alsofactorwhichareimportant
todecidethepreliminarysizesofconcreteboxgirders.AlsoconsideredtheIRC:182000forPrestressedConcreteRoadBridgesandCodeofPractice
forPrestressedConcreteIndianStandard.AnalyzetheConcreteBoxGirderRoadBridgesforvariousspans,variousdepthandchecktheproportioning
depth.
II.FORMULATION
A.LoadingonBoxGirderBridge
Thevarioustypeofloads,forcesandstressestobeconsideredintheanalysisanddesignofthevariouscomponentsofthebridgearegiveninIRC
6:2000(SectionII.Butthecommonforcesareconsideredtodesignthemodelareasfollows:
DeadLoad(DL):Thedeadloadcarriedbythegirderorthememberconsistsofitsownweightandtheportionsoftheweightofthesuperstructureand
anyfixedloadssupportedbythemember.Thedeadloadcanbeestimatedfairlyaccuratelyduringdesignandcanbecontrolledduringconstructionand
service.
SuperimposedDeadLoad(SIDL):Theweightofsuperimposeddeadloadincludesfootpaths,earthfills,wearingcourse,stayinplaceforms,ballast,
waterproofing,signs,architecturalornamentation,pipes,conduits,cablesandanyotherimmovableappurtenancesinstalledonthestructure.
LiveLoad(LL):Liveloadsarethosecausedbyvehicleswhichpassoverthebridgeandaretransientinnature.Theseloadscannotbeestimatedprecisely,
andthedesignerhasverylittlecontroloverthemoncethebridgeisopenedtotraffic.However,hypotheticalloadingswhicharereasonablyrealisticneed
tobeevolvedandspecifiedtoserveasdesigncriteria.Therearefourtypesofstandardloadingsforwhichroadbridgesaredesigned.
i.IRCClass70Rloading
ii.IRCClassAAloading
iii.IRCClassAloading
iv.IRCClassBloading
ThemodelisdesignbyconsideringIRCClassAloading,whichisnormallyadoptedonallroadsonwhichpermanentbridgesandculvertsare
constructed.Totalloadis554,theFig.1showthecompletedetailsofClassA.

OtherinformationregardingLiveloadcombinationasperIRC:62000ClauseNo.207.1NoteNo.4
B.ThicknessofWeb
Thethicknessofthewebshallnotbelessthand/36plustwicetheclearcovertothereinforcementplusdiameteroftheductholewheredistheoverall
depthoftheboxgirdermeasuredfromthetopofthedeckslabtothebottomofthesoffitor200mmplusthediameterofductholes,whicheveris
greater.
C.ThicknessofBottomFlange
Thethicknessofthebottomflangeofboxgirdershallbenotlessthan1/20thoftheclearwebspacingatthejunctionwithbottomflangeor200mm
whicheverismore.
D.ThicknessofTopFlange
Theminimumthicknessofthedeckslabincludingthatatcantilevertipsbe200mm.Fortopandbottomflangehavingprestressingcables,thethickness
ofsuchflangeshallnotbelessthan150mmplusdiameterofducthole.
E.LossesinPrestress
Whileassessingthestressesinconcreteandsteelduringtensioningoperationsandlaterinservice,dueregardshallbepaidtoalllossesandvariationsin
stressresultingfromcreepofconcrete,shrinkageofconcrete,relaxationofsteel,theshortening(elasticdeformation)ofconcreteattransfer,andfriction
andslipofanchorage.
Incomputingthelossesinprestresswhenuntensionedreinforcementispresent,theeffectofthetensilestressesdevelopedbytheuntensioned
reinforcementduetoshrinkageandcreepshallbeconsidered.
F.CalculationofUltimateStrength
Ultimatemomentresistanceofsections,underthesetwoalternativeconditionsoffailureshallbecalculatedbythefollowingformulaeandthesmallerof
thetwovaluesshallbetakenastheultimatemomentofresistancefordesign:
i.Failurebyyieldofsteel(underreinforcedsection)
Mult=0.9dbAsFp
Where,
As=theareaofhightensilesteel
Fp=theultimatetensilestrengthforsteelwithoutdefiniteyieldpointoryieldstressorstressat4percentelongationwhicheverishigherforsteelwitha
definiteyieldpoint.
db=thedepthofthebeamfromthemaximumcompressionedgetothecentreofgravityofthesteeltendons.
ii.Failurebycrushingconcrete
Mult=0.176bdb2fck
Where,
b=thewidthofrectangularsectionorwebofbeam
fck=characteristicsstrengthofconcrete
G.CalculationofSectionuncrackedinflexure

b=widthinthecaseofrectangularmemberandwidthoftheribinthecaseofT,IandLbeams
d=overalldepthofthemember
fcp=compressivestressatcentroidalaxisduetoprestresstakenaspositive.
III.ANALYSISANDDESIGNOFPOSTTENSIONEDDECKTYPEBOXGIRDERBRIDGE
AposttensioneddecktypeBoxGirder
Bridgesofclearspan30mandwidthofroadwayis7.5m.AssumeLiveLoadasperIRC:62000vehicleispassingoverdeckgiveninchapter4and

tableno.4.2.TheBridgeanalysisfordifferentL/dratiostartingfrom15to20anddifferentL/dratioconsideredareasfollows:
Case1L/d=19,d=1.6
Case2L/d=18,d=1.7
Case3L/d=17,d=1.8
Case4L/d=16,d=1.9
Case5L/d=15,d=2.0
Preliminarydata
Clearspan=30m
Widthofroadway=7.5m
Overhangfromfaceofgirder=1.2m
Deckthickness=0.2m
Bottomslabthickness=0.2m
Girderthickness=0.3m
Thetendonprofileisconsideredasparabolicinnature.
AsperIRC:182000
fck=50Mpa,fci=0.8fck=40Mpa,
fct=0.5fci=20Mpa,fcw=0.33fck=16.5Mpaft=1/10fct=2.0Mpa,ftw=0
AsperIS:13431980
Ec=5700fck1/2=40.30kN/m2
fp=1862Mpa,n=0.85,E=2105Mpa

ValidationofResuts
Thebendingmoment,shearforceanddeflectionresultobtainedbySAP2000.Thebendingmomentandshearforcearecalculatedbyconsidering
differentloadingconditionsuchasdeadload,liveloadandsuperimposedload.Sameasdeflectioncalculated.ThisresultsaretheCase:1.
Table.1Deflection
LoadCase

DL+
SIDL

Live Prestressing
Load Force

Deflection(at
30.8mm 25.2
midspan)

14.36mm

mm
Table.2BendingMoment(t.m)
Span
0.0L
(m)

0.1L

0.2L

0.3L

0.4L

0.5L

DL

0.00 353.56 628.56 824.98 942.84 982.12

LL

0.00 218.76 381.63 494.10 564.85 587.82

SIDL

0.00

53.46

95.04 124.74 142.56 148.50

Total

0.00 625.78 1105.23 1443.82 1650.26 1718.45


Table.3ShearForce(t)

Span
0.0L
(m)
DL

0.1L

0.2L 0.3L 0.4L

130.9 104.7 78.57 52.4

26.3

0.5L

0.0

LL

32.92 23.29 14.27 7.42

2.62

0.0

SIDL 19.80 15.84 11.88 7.92

3.90

0.0

Total 183.6 143.9 104.7 67.7

32.8

0.0

Table.4CalculationofPrestressForce

Table.5CalculationofEccentricity
Eccentricity Prestressing
(mm)
Force(kN)
440

21617.96

548

19380.69

650

17655.06

731

16489.15

Theeccentricity
whichgive
minimum
prestressingforce
(e)=731mm

Table.6CalculationofPrestressLosses
(AsperIS:13431980)
Span
(m)

^S ^C ^E ^A ^F ^R Total

0.0L

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

90

0.1L

2.6 2.3 78

9.7

90 182.6 0.9

2.6 2.4 39

22

90 155.8 0.91

0.2L
0.3L

8E
05

90

0.95

2.6 2.4 26 36.7 90 157.7 0.91

0.4L

2.7 2.5 20 54.3 90 169.0 0.9

0.5L

9.1 8.3 16 171 90 294.0 0.85

Where,
^S=Shrinkage
^C=Creep
^E=Shorteningofconcrete
^A=Slipinanchorage
^F=Friction
^R=Relaxation
n=Efficiency
AfterLosses,effectivePrestressingForce
(P)=P(1Losses)=14011.51kN
Table.7CalculationofStressesattopandbottomfibre
AtTransfer
Span
(m)

AtServiceLoad

Top
Fibre

Bottom
fibre

Top
fibre

Bottom
Fibre

0.0L

4.16

4.16

4.16

4.16

0.1L

2.98

5.48

6.35

0.00

0.2L

1.91

6.67

8.37

0.00

0.3L

2.112

6.44

7.46

0.00

0.4L

2.24

6.29

6.88

0.00

0.5L

3.00

6.24

6.42

0.00

CompressiveStressat
Transfer=6.66<0.5fcj=20mpa
Service=8.367<0.33fck=16.5mpa
Tensilestressat
InitialStage=2.979<3mpa
(AsperIS:13431980)
WorkingStage=Notensilestress
Table.8CalculationofUltimateFlexureStrength
Failureby
Failureby
UltimateMoment
crushing
Span
yieldingof
Mu=(1.5DL+2.5
of
(m)
steel
LL)(kN.m)
concrete
(kN.m)
(kN.m)
0.0L

0.00

0.1L

11574.43

0.2L

20394.85

340578.53 5970560

0.3L

26598.28

0.4L

30402.45

0.5L

31654.88

Table.9CalculationofUltimateShearstrength
Span Ultimate Shear Balance Spacing
(m) Moment capacity Shear
(mm)
Vu=
Vcw
(kN)
(1.5DL (kN)
+2.5LL)
(kN.m)
0.0L

3084.27 363.85 2720.43

55

0.1L

2391.35 419.97 1971.38

75

0.2L

1713.50 432.54 1280.96

100

0.3L

1089.90 470.56

619.34

200

0.4L

517.85

492.95

24.90

300

0.5L

0.00

0.00

0.00

DesignofReinforcementinBoxGirderBridge
P=14011.51kN,d=1350mm,bw=200mm
Assume150mmwideand150mmdeepdistributionplate,locatedconcentricallyatcentre.
ypo/y0=75/150=0.5,
AsperIRC:182000,FromtablevalueofFbst/Pk=0.17andFbst=452.753kN
Using12mmdiameterlinks,areaofsteellinksare,
Ast=1254mm/2
Providing24barsof12mmdia,750mmalsobarof12mmdia@110mmc/chorizontallytoformmesh.
SideFaceReinforcement
Asperclause18.6.3.3ofIS:13431980
Ast=0.05x1350x300/100=202.5mm/2
Provide612mmdiaoneachfaceofweb
DesignofDeckSlab
UsingM30gradeconcreteandFe415
TotalmomentduetoDL+SIDL+LL=1427.0kN.m
Depthrequired=150.4<250mm
MainReinforcement
Ast=3192.6824mm/2
Providing16mmbarsdia100mmc/c
DesignofTransverseReinforcement
M=0.3ML+0.2(MDL+MSIDL)
M=324kN.m
Ast=724.74mm/2
Providing12mmdiabars@160mmc/c

IV.COMPARSIONOFRESULTFORVARIOUSSPAN/DEPTHRATIO
Thecomparisonofprestressforce,deflectionandstressesvaluesareobtainedforvariousspan/depthratio(tableno.10&11)forboxgirderbridge.The
valuesarecalculatedasperIS:13431980.
Table.10ComparisonofDeflectionforvariousspan/depthratio.
Deflection
Prestress
Eccentricity
Span/Depth Force
(mm)
(kN)

DL+LL
DL

Prestress
Prestress
Force
Force

1.6

16.48

731

11.2

36.4

1.7

15.66

777

11.4

33.6

1.8

14.83

829

30

1.9

14.02

886

6.6

26.6

2.0

13.20

950

5.6

25.3

Note:Alldimensionintonnesandmm.
Permissible(DLPrestressForce)=12mm
Permissible(DLLLPrestressForce)=85.7mm
Table.11Comparisonofstressforvariousspan/depthratio

Eccen
Span/
Depth

Stressatmidspan
(N/mm2)

Prestress
Tricity
Force
(tonne)

(mm)

AtTransfer

At
Working

Top Bottom

Top

1.6

16.48

731

3.0

4.1

6.74

1.7

15.66

777

2.8

3.8

6.33

1.8

14.83

829

2.6

3.6

5.91

1.9

14.02

886

2.4

3.4

5.48

2.0

13.20

950

2.2

3.2

5.08

Note:Stressatmidspanatworkingbottom=0
V.CONCLUSION
Thispapergivesbasicprinciplesforportioningofconcreteboxgirdertohelpdesignertostartwithproject.Boxgirdershowsbetterresistancetothe
torsionofsuperstructure.ThevarioustrailofL/dratioarecarriedoutforBoxGirderBridges,deflectionandstresscriteriasatisfiedthewellwithin
permissiblelimits.Asthedepthincreases,theprestressingforcedecreasesandtheno.ofcablesdecrease.Becauseofprestressingthemorestrengthof
concreteisutilizedandalsowellgovernsserviceability.
VI.REFERENCES
1.IRC:182000DESIGNCRITERIAFORPRESTRESSEDCONCRETEROADBRIDGES(POSTTENSIONEDCONCRETE)THEINDIAN
ROADSCONGRESS.
2.IRC:62000STANDARDSPECIFICATIONSANDCODEOFPRACTICEFORROADBRIDGESTHEROADCONGRESS.
3.IS:13431980CODEOFPRACTICEFORPRESTRESSEDCONCRETEINDIANSTANDARD.
4.AndrePicardandBrunoMassicotte,MemberSERVICEABILITYDESIGNOFPRESTRESSEDCONCRETEBRIDGESJOURNALOFBRIDGE
ENGINEERING/FEBRUARY1999
5.FerhatAkgulandDanM.FrangopolLifetimePerformanceAnalysisofExistingPrestressedConcreteBridgeSuperstructuresJOURNALOF
STRUCTURALENGINEERINGASCE/DECEMBER2004
6.JamesH.Loper,1EugeneL.Marquis,2MembersandEdwardJ.RhombergFellow.PRECASTPRESTRESSEDLONGSPANBRIDGES
JOURNALOFSTRUCTURALENGINEERINGASCE
7.JohnR.Fowler,P.Eng,BobStofko,P.Eng.PrecastOptionsforBridgeSuperstructureDesignEconomicalandSocialLinkagesSessionofthe2007
AnnualConferenceoftheTransportationAssociationofCanadaSaskatoon,Saskatchewan.
8.KrishnaRajuDESIGNOFBRIDGESOXFORD&IBHPUBLISHINGCO.PVT.LTD.
9.Prof.Dr.Ing.G.RombachConceptsforprestressedconcretebridgesSegmentalboxgirderbridgeswithexternalprestressingTechnicalUniversity,
HamburgHarburg,Germany.
10.TusharV.Ugale,BhaveshA.PatelandH.V.Mojidra(2006).
Weatengineeringcivil.comarethankfultoEr.PriyankaBhivgadeforsubmittingherresearchonAnalysisanddesignofprestressedconcretebox
girderbridgetous.Wearehopefulthatthiswillbeofgreatusetoallcivilengineerswhoarewillingtounderstandthedesignofprestressedconcrete
boxgirder.
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Comments
HameedAjmalSheikhMay7,2013at12:47am
ItisveryusefulinformationfordesignengineersespeciallyBridgeDesignengineer.IshallbethankfulifyoucouldsendmetheExcelsheetsfor
thisdesignasIintendtouseitinnearfuture.Thanksandregards
Engr.HameedASheikh
ReplyLinkQuote
YosephAsratJuly9,2013at5:19am
Igotmoreinformationfromthedocumentsaboutbridgedesign.Ifusendmemoreotherinformationaboutbridgedesignorotherrelated
documentsIdevelopmyknowledgeforthefuture.Thanksforyourcooperation.
Eng.YosephAsrat.
ReplyLinkQuote
SharmaRLSeptember6,2013at11:10am
Ifinditveryinterestingandknowledgeable.
Kindlysendmoreinformation,Excelsheetsandotherrelevantdetails
Thanks
SharmaRL
ReplyLinkQuote
SHOAIBAHMEDDecember10,2014at8:48pm
ItisveryusefulinformationfordesignengineersespeciallyBridgeDesignengineer.IshallbethankfulifyoucouldsendmetheExcelsheetsfor
thisdesignasIintendtouseitinnearfuture.Thanksandregards
Engr.SHOAIBAHMED
ReplyLinkQuote
Md.NurulAminFebruary24,2015at11:56am
ItisveryusefulinformationfordesignengineersespeciallyBridgeDesignengineer.ItwillbemorehelpfulifthetheExcelsheetsforthisdesignis
attached.Withthanksandregards
Engr.Md.NurulAmin
ReplyLinkQuote
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