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# Amplification of Accidental Torsion (A x)

ASCE-7-05 (E q 12.8-14)
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E, or F,
Where Type la or lb torsional irregularity exists as defined in
Table 12.3-1 shall have the effects accounted for by multiplying
M, at each level by a torsional amplification factor (A x)
Determined from the following Equation.
In other words if torsional irregularity exists and Ax is greater than 1.0 at any level (or
levels), a second torsional Analysis must be performed using the new accidental
eccentricities.

## How to apply the previous equation in Etabs:

From Etabs when assigning (Qx with eccentric ratio 5%) to a structure.
I.

II.

## Go to file > print tables > summary report.

III.

Go to this paragraph:

## STORY MAXIMUM AND AVERAGE LATERAL DISPLACEMENTS

STORY

STORY4
STORY3
STORY2
STORY1

QX
QX
QX
QX

DIR

MAXIMUM

AVERAGE

RATIO

X
X
X
X

0.0026
0.0020
0.0013
0.0005

0.0021
0.0015
0.0009
0.0003

1.272
1.310
1.356
1.414

For every story from the previous paragraph do the following to get
A x:

## 1-divide the ratio by 1.2 then square the answer

Story 4: Ax = (1.272/1.2)2 = 1.1236
Story 3: Ax = (1.310/1.2)2 = 1.1917
Story 2: Ax = (1.356/1.2)2 = 1.2769
Story 1: Ax = (1.414/1.2)2 = 1.3884
Note:
Ratio obtained by Etabs = (max / average) however if we checked story no 4 for our
case Ratio = 0.0026/0.0021 is not equal to 1.272 this is due to that values given
in summary report for max & average are approximate if you want to check the
exact values refer to the model and it will lead to the value obtained in summary
report (1.272)
In other words values given for ratio in summary report are exact and can
depend on for Ax calculations.

## Condition to apply in Etabs

Ax > 1
(If Ax < 1 for all stories no need to apply Ax at all)

## To apply in Etabs calculate the perpendicular width of building per

every story (L) to the applied seismic force (in our example Q x).
Say L = 15 m
Story 4: absolute Ecc. = 0.05x15x1.1236=0.8427
Story 3: absolute Ecc. = 0.05x15x1.1917=0.8937
Story 2: absolute Ecc. = 0.05x15x1.2769=0.9576

## Story 1: absolute Ecc. = 0.05x15x1.3884=1.0413

Go to define > static load case > Qx > show lateral load

Run the model again then you will have all eccentricity corrected.
General note regarding the previous consideration in Etabs program:
However, it is not required to find the resulting new Ax values and repeat the process a second or
third time
(Until the Ax Converges to a constant or reaches the limit of 3.0).
The results of the first analysis with the use of Ax are sufficient for design purposes.