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Rocks, Rock!

Lets learn about the different


types and how they are
formed.

3 Types of Rocks
Sedimentary
Igneous
Metamorphic

Sedimentary Rocks
What is a sedimentary rock?
A rock that is made of layers of
sediment (sand, clay, mud) close to the
earths surface.
Sediments become pressed or cemented
together
Conglomerate

Breccia

Sedimentary Rocks
Where are they formed?
Under rivers, lakes,
oceans, or streams.
Usually squeezed
and stuck together.

Sedimentary Rocks
Check out the layers of sedimentary
rocks.

Igneous Rocks
What is an igneous rock?
A rock that is created by a volcano.

Some rocks cool quickly and are very shiny.


Other rocks cool as they fly through the air
and release lots of air, causing holes in the
rock.

Obsidian

Scoria

Igneous Rocks
Where and how are igneous rocks
formed?
They are formed when
magma pours out of a
volcano as lava and cools.

Magma molten rock beneath Earths


surface.
Lava molten rock from a volcano
flowing on Earths surface.

Igneous Rocks
Check out these different types of
igneous rocks.
Basalt
Rhyolite

Metamorphic Rocks
What is a metamorphic rock?
A metamorphic rock is any sedimentary
or igneous rock that has been changed,
or morphed, because of pressure and
heat.
Marble
Schist

Metamorphic Rocks
How are they made?
Metamorphic rocks
are made deep inside
the earth where the
heat and pressure
change the rocks.

You can see this is the picture shown.

Metamorphic Rocks
Check out how heat and pressure
changes these rocks
Granite
Gneiss

Igneous

Metamorphic

Metamorphic Rocks
Check out how heat and pressure
changes these rocks
Shale
Slate

Sedimentary

Metamorphic

rock definitions

Breccia - composed of angular, pebble-sized fragments that are held


together by a cement
Conglomerate - composed of rounded, pebble-sized fragments that
are held together by a cement
Basalt - a fine-grained, hard rock that forms when bits of lava shoot
out of volcanoes, so it's one kind of igneous rock.
Shale - composed of very small particles of mud, which have been
compacted and cemented together. Individual mud grains are very
small; they will rarely be visible and has a variety of colors
Schist - composed of visible minerals, mostly micas. Form under
moderately high pressure conditions; this causes the naturally platy
mica crystals to line up, giving the rock a platy look.
Marble - composed exclusively of large commonly visible crystals of
calcite. The gray/white bands in some of the samples are due to
impurities within the calcite. Comes in a variety of colors, including
black, gray, white, and pink.

rock definitions

Granite an igneous rock that cooled very slowly. We know this


because the minerals in granite are very large. It takes a long time
(hundreds of thousands of years) for rocks to grow to visible size.
Basalt cooled more quickly than granite. Geologists know this
because the minerals are not visible with the naked eye, but are
visible with a specialized microscope. The quicker an igneous rock
cools the smaller the crystals.
Obsidian or volcanic glass, cooled very quickly giving minerals
no time to form. Obsidian cooled faster than granite or basalt. The
chemical composition is silicon dioxide (the same as quartz and
glass).
Scoria - Scoria is partly composed of pre-existing rock and new
lava being cooled. It usually is reddish brown, with many gas
pockets throughout the rock. Scoria is denser than pumice, but
still relatively light in weight.