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40.

Batukapur murni dikalsinasi dalam kiln vertikal berkelnjutan oleh gas hasil
pembakaran kontak secara langsung. Gas hasil pembakar menanjak melewati umpan
yang turun. Batukapur yang masuk pada suhu 25oC dan kapur terkalsinasi tertarik
keluar pada suhu 900oC gas masu pada suhu 600oC dan dibakar dengan udara teoritis
pada suhu 25OC, gas masuk pada suhu 200oC analisa gas produk dengan volume
sebagai berikut:
CO2

9.21 %

O2

1.62 %

CO

13.60 %

N2

75.57 %

Buat massa dan panas reaksi.


Penyelesaian:
25C
MgCO3
CaCO3

200C

600C
900C

CO2

CO2 = 9,21%

MgO

O2

O2

CaO

N2

= 1,62%

CO = 13,6%

CO

N2 = 75,57%
CaCO3

CO2 + CaO

MgCO3

CO2 + MgO

CO + 1/2 O2

CO2

Basis 150 grmol


Mol CO =

13,6
x 150 grmol=20,4 grmol
100

1,62
x 150 grmol=2,43 grmol
Mol O2= 100

75,57
x 150 grmol=113,355 grmol
Mol N2= 100

O2 teoritis =

( 12 x 20,4 grmol)2,43 grmol

= 7,77 grmol
O2 dari udara =

100
x 7,77 grmol
21

= 37 grmol
O2 masuk = (37+ 2,43) grmol
= 39,43 grmol
N2 dari udara =

79
x 37 grmol
21

= 139,1904 grmol
N2 masuk = (139,1904 + 113,3555) grmol
= 252,5455 grmol
O2 berlebih = (37 7,777) grmol
= 29,233 grmol
9,21
x 150 grmol=13,815 grmol
Mol CO2= 100
MgCO3 = 150 grmol
CaCO3 = 150 grmol
CO2 keluar = (CO2 dalam MgCO3 + CO2 dalam CaCO3 + CO2 dalam CO + CO2 bbg)
= ( 150 + 150 + 20,4 + 13,815) grmol
= 334,215 grmol
N2 keluar = (139,1904 + 113,3555) grmol
= 252,5459 grmol
CaO = 150 grmol
MgO = 150 grmol

Neraca masuk
Komponen
MgCO3
CaCO3
O2
N2
CO2
CO

Mol (grmol)
150
150
39,43
252,5459
13,815
20,4
Total

BM (gr/grmol)
84
100
32
28
44
28

Massa (gr)
12600
15000
1261,76
7071,372
607,86
571,2
37112,192

Komponen
CaO

Mol (grmol)
150

BM(gr/grmol)
56

Massa (gr)
8400

MgO

150

40

6000

O2

29,233

32

935,456

N2

252,5459

28

7071,2852

CO2

334,215

44

14705,46

Neraca keluar

Total
37112,2012

HR
HR MgCO3 = (n.Hf CO2 + n.Hf MgO) n.Hf MgCO3
= 150 grmol (-94,0518 143,84)kcal/grmol 150 grmol (-266 kcal/grmol)
= 4216,23 kcal
HR CaCO3 = (n.Hf CO2 + n.Hf CaO) n.Hf CaCO3
= 150 grmol (-94,0518 151,9)kcal/grmol 150 grmol (-288,45
kcal/grmol)
= 6374,733 kcal
HR CO2 = (n.Hf CO + n.Hf O2) n.Hf CO2
= 13,815 grmol (-26,4157 0)kcal/grmol 13,815 grmol (-94,0518 kcal/grmol)
= 934,387kcal
HR= HR MgCO3 + HR CaCO3 + HR CO2
=4216,23 kcal + 6374,73 kcal + 934,387 kcal
= 11525,347 kcal
1173

Hp

1173

298

1173

n cp MgO2 dT + n cp CaO dT

1173

298

1173

+ n cp CO 2 dT + n cp O2 dT + n cp N 2 dT
298

HpCaO

298

298

= n (Cpm T2.T2-Cpm T1.T1)


= 150 grmol [(212,5 x 10-3kcal/grmol.K x 1173 K) (212,5 x 10-3kcal/grmol.K
x 298 K)]
= 27890,625kcal

HpMgO

= n (Cpm T2.T2-Cpm T1.T1)


= 15 grmol [(262,5 x 10-3kcal/grmol.K x 1173 K) (262,5 x 10-3kcal/grmol.K
x 298 K)]
= 45404,6255 kcal

= A = 6,339 B = 10,14 x 10-3 C = 3,415 x 10-6 T2

Cp CO2

473

HP CO2

=n

cp CO 2 dT
298

= 334,215 grmol[(6,339 +
3

10,14 x 10 (
3,415 x 10
473+ 298 )
(4732 + ( 473 x 298 ) +2982 ) dT
2
3
= 334,215 grmol(6,339+ 3,90897-0,5162)gcal/grmol.K (473-298) K
= 569188,114 gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal
= 569,188 kcal
Cp O2

= A=6,117 B= 3,162 x 10-3 C= 1,005 x 10-6


473

HP O2

=n

cp O2 dT
298

= 29,23 grmol[(6,117 +
3,162 x 103 (
1,005 x 106
473+298 )
( 4732+ ( 473 x 298 ) +298 2) dT
2
3
= 29,23 grmol(6,117+ 1,2228785 0,151918)gcal/grmol.K (473-298) K
= 36763,30 gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal
= 36,76 kcal
Cp N2

= A = 6,457 B = 1,389 x 10-3 C = 0,069 x 10-6


473

HP N2

=n

cp CO 2 dT
298

= 252,545 grmol[(6,457 +
1,389 x 103 (
0,069 x 106
473+298 )
(4732 + ( 473 x 298 )+ 2982) dT
2
3
= 252,545 grmol(6,457+ 0,53546-0,0104)gcal/grmol.K (473-298) K
= 308483,71 gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal
= 308,483 kcal
Hp

= Hp CaO+ Hp MgO+ Hp CO2 + HP O2 + HP N2


= 27890,625 kcal + 45404,625 + 569,188 kcal + 36,76 kcal + 308,483 kcal
= 74209,68 kcal
298

HR

873

298

873

n cp MgCO 3 dT + n cp CaCO3 dT + n CO 2 dT ++ n O2 dT
298

298

298

873

+ n cp N 2 dT + n cp CO dT
298

298

298

HRMgCO3

=n

cp MgCO 3 dT
298

= 150 grmol x 11,44 cal/grmol.K (298-298)K


=0
298

HR CaCO3

=n

cp CaCO3 dT
298

= 15 grmol x 19,561 cal/grmol.K (298-298)K


=0
Cp CO2

= A= 6,339 B = 10,14 x 10-3 C = 3,415 x 10-6


873

HR CO2

873

=n

cp CO2 dT
298

298

= 13,815 grmol[(6,339 +
10,14 x 103 (
3,415 x 106
873+298 )
(8732+ ( 873 x 298 ) +2982 ) dT
2
3
= 13,815 grmol(6,339+ 5,93697- 1,2648)gcal/grmol.K (873-298) K
= 87468,5673 gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal
= 87,468 kcal
= A= 6,117 B = 3,162 x 10-3 C = 1,005 x 10-6

Cp O2

873

HR O2

=n

cp O2 dT
298

= 39,43 grmol[(6,117 +
3,162 x 10
2

( 873+298 ) 1,005 x 10 (8732 + ( 873 x 298 )+298 2) dT


3
= 39,43 grmol(6,117+ 1,8543 0,37231)gcal/grmol.K (873-298) K
= 172286,20 gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal
= 172,2862 kcal

Cp N2

= A = 6,457 B = 1,389 x 10-3 C = 0,069 x 10-6


873

HR N2

=n

cp CO2 dT
298

= 252,545 grmol[(6,457 +
1,389 x 103 (
0,069 x 106
)
873+298
(873 2+ ( 873 x 298 ) +2982) dT
2
3
= 252,545 grmol(6,457+ 0,81226-0,02555)gcal/grmol.K (873-298) K

= 1051795,31 gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal


= 1051,7953 kcal
= A= 6,350 B = 1,811 x 10-3 C = 0,2675 x 10-6

Cp CO

873

HR CO

=n

cp O2 dT
298

= 2,04 grmol[(6,350 +
3

1,811 x 10 (
0,2675 x 10
873+298 )
( 8732+ ( 873 x 298 ) +2982 ) dT
2
3
= 20,4 grmol(6,350+ 1,0603 0,09907)gcal/grmol.K (873-298) K
= 85761,180gcal x 10-3 kcal/gcal
= 85,76118 kcal
HR

= HR MgCO3 + HR CaCO3 + HR CO2 + HR O2 +HR CO + HR N2


= 0 + 0 +87,468 kcal + 172,2862 kcal + 85,76118 kcal + 1051,7953 kcal
= 1397,31068 kcal

HRT

= H0R+Hp-HR
= 11525,347 kcal +74029,68 kcal 1397,31068kcal
= 86952,33 kcal