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Radioisotopes are used in industry, medicine and chemical analysis.

For
ONE of these fields, relate the use of a named radioisotope to its
properties.
Cobalt-60 is used in medicine as a treatment for cancer. This isotope decays by
beta emission and also releases gamma rays. Gamma radiation kills cancer cells
because it is able to penetrate quite deeply into the body tissue and is high
enough in energy to Destroy DNA within cells.
Cobalt-60 has a half-life or 5.3 years, which is enough so that it doesnt need to
replacing often in the equipment, but it short enough that the source of the
radiation emits enough energy to be effective in killing cells.
Name ONE type of cell, other than the dry cell or lead-acid cell that you
have studied. Evaluate it in comparison with either the dry cell or leadacid cell, in terms of chemistry and the impact on society. Include
relevant chemical equations in your answer.

Mercury button cell compared to dry cell


Both have a zinc anode but cathode in the mercury cell is C and HgO while
in the dry cell it is C and MnO2.
Both cells use a paste-type electrolyte, KOH in the mercury cell and NH4Cl
in the dry cell
The anode and cathode reactions are different in each cell:
Mercury: Anode reaction Zn + 2OH- ZnO + H2O + 2eDry cell: Cathode reaction Zn Zn2+ + 2eMercury: Cathode reaction HgO + H2O + 2e- Hg + 2OHDry cell: Cathode reaction 2NH4 + 2MnO2 + 2e- MnO3 +
2NH3 + H2O
The dry cell is portable, robust and east to story. For these reasons they
allow portability of torches and radios etc. However, the mercury button
cell has also had a large influence on society because of its small size, it
has allowed miniaturisation of technology such as cameras.
One of the problems with the dry cell is that the voltage drops during use
and it is therefore only useful for infrequent use, for example torches. The
mercury cell provides a constant voltage over a long period of time and is
thus useful in hearing aids and watches.
Both cells are relatively inexpensive.
The dry cell contains small about of zinc and slightly acidic electrolyte
paste. These materials do not cause environmental damage if dry cells are
placed in household garbage. For mercury cells, batteries should be
recycled as it is a heavy metal to eliminate contamination to the
environment.
Cyclohexene/cyclohexane
Br2 + H2O HOBR +HBR
HOBR + C6H10 C6H10BROH
The Difference between alkenes and alkanes
Alkanes and their corresponding alkenes are non-polar carbon chain molecules
with weak dispersion forces between the molecules. Physical properties such as
melting point and solubility are due to intermolecular forces. These properties
are therefore similar.

Chemical properties are due to bonding with the molecules. Alkenes have at
least one reactive double bond. Alkanes have only unreactive single bongs within
the molecule. Thus alkenes undergo additions reactions readily whereas alkanes
are unreactive.
The conditions under which as nucleus is unstable is:

Large