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MPU2313/MPU3313

OUM BUSINESS SCHOOL

SEMESTER : JANUARI 2016

MPU2313/MPU3313

HEALTH AND WELLNESS

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E-MEL

LEARNING CENTRE

SABAH LEARNING CENTRE

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CONTENT

PAGES

1.0

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

2-3

2.0

EIGHT DIMENSIONS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF A

3-4

PERSONS WELLBEING
3.0

ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IN WELL-BALANCED DIET

5-6

4.0

THERAPEUTIC DIET FOR A DIABETIC PERSON

6-7

5.0

EATING DISORDER

7-8

6.0

IMPORTANCE OF DISEASE PREVENTION

9-10

7.0

CORONARY HEART DISEASES

10-11

1.0

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE


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1.1

Introduction
Today, health is regarded as a dynamic and ever-changing concept that is very

much dependent on personal choices. This implies that a person can influences his or her
health either positively or negatively through life-style preferences. Conversely, there are
people today who experience an on-going struggle between choosing to indulge in
negative habits or maintaining a healthy lifestyle. People nowadays prefer to choose their
busy lifestyle to have a better life in wealth. A healthy lifestyle offers a choice of living
behaviours which maximise the state of wellness and decrease risk of illness and
premature death.
1.2

The Characteristics Of A Healthy Lifestyle


Choices for leading a healthy lifestyle can be influenced by a multitude of

personal factors as well as external influences. The characteristics of a healthy lifestyle


will be determined by the effects of the choices the we makes in response to personal
habits and the external influences that will shape ours health status. One of the character
of healthy lifestyle is we must eating a well-balanced and nourishing diet. A balanced diet
based on starchy food such as potatoes, bread, rice, plenty of fruit and vegetables, some
protein such as beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and some milk. The components of
healthy diet must have proteins, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins. Other character is to
maintain a healthy body weight. Healthy body weight means any ideal weight for our
bodys height. Therefore, to have an ideal weight, we must have a regular exercising to
maintain our appearance. Just have a regular walking and jogging to make our bodys
weight maintain. Next character is we able to control our stress in whatever situation in
our life. A healthy person is more likely to have positive outlook at life and be able to
control stress and change perceptions that lead to an unnecessary build-up of stress.
Hence, we able to manage an extreme emotions by always keep positive ways in our life.
An adequate rest and sleep helps our body get enough energy to make a daily activities
and always feels energetic. Engaging in spiritual nourishment or worship according to
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ones faith also can make a healthy lifestyle. Spiritual worshiping can make we feel calm
and positive. .
1.3

Conclusion
To have a healthy lifestyle are in our hand to choice or not. Eventhough there are

many guidelines to make a better health, we always like to do the wrong and negative
way. Therefore, we as a human being have a brain and knowledges to make a good
choices to make a better and healthy lifestyle.
(435 words)

2.0

EIGHT DIMENSIONS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF A PERSONS


WELLBEING
2.1

Introduction
The health of the people is really the foundation upon which all their happiness

and all their powers as a state depend (Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881). There are other
dimensions as well that are essential to health and wellness. There are eight dimensions to
wellness namely physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, social, occupational,
environmental and financial.
2.2

Eight dimensions of wellness


When all the dimensions to health and wellness are integrated and function

together, one will achieve a high level of wellness or optimal health. Physical dimension
are contribute to the physical well-being of a person or individual including physical
fitness, regular exercise and well balanced diet. Nowadays, most people recognise that
participating in fitness programmes would improve their quality of life. It also sufficient
lower the risk for disease and ensure better health. The emotional dimension of health
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encompasses the ability to cope with stress such as remaining flexible and compromising
to resolve problems. For instance, emotionally well people are able to express and
manage their feelings effectively, maintain close relationships, deal with conflicts and
remain grounded during stressful times. The spiritual dimension of wellness involves
exploring meaning and purpose in human existence. Prayer is the core of most spiritual
experiences as a mode of communicating with our Creator. Religious activities or
meditation can have a positive effect on our social lifestyle as they may help us in
overcoming crisis and provide us with better coping techniques to deal with future
trauma. Intellectual dimension is the ability to process and act on information, clarify
values, beliefs and decision-making. We are self-motivated to enchance our life in terms
of further studies while holding our own ideas and philosophies. Occupational dimension
is employment that provides personal satisfaction and enrichment in ones life. For us, a
healthy workplace environment that contributes to our sense of well-being need and not
be tied to a high salary. For environmental dimension, it is described as a lifestyle that is
supposed to be respectful of and in harmony with our environment. Environmentally well
people consciously choose to live in ways that protect the world around us. Financial
dimension is satisfaction with current and future financial situation. Financial wellness
programmes may help reduce employee absenteeism, boost productivity and increase
employees loyalty. Lastly, social dimension is the relationships that we have and how we
interact with others. It can encourages us to involve ones community and initiating better
communication by encouraging healthier lifestyle.
2.3

Conclusion
In order to achieve positive wellness, we must free from symptoms of disease

such as pain, being active, in good spirits and feeling emotionally healthy. That is why
the eight dimensions of wellness must also be in tune with one another in order to
produce harmony.
(453 Words)
3.0

ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IN WELL-BALANCED DIET


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3.1

Introduction
Healthy diet and healthy food intake to improve our lives tremendously. Most

people are aware of the role of nutrition in health and they want to eat better for health
purposes but fail to translate their desire into proper action.
3.2

Essential Nutrients
In order to eat right and plan our diet, we need to know the components of a

healthy diet. Generally, our body requires proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins,
minerals and water which can be found in food we eat. Proteins are the basic of our body
structure for muscles and bones. In our body, we use 20 amino acid to build the protein
required for physiological process so that we can be continue healthy. Proteins also as
shield to defend our body against various diseases. We can get protein from egg, milk,
meat, fish, nuts, beans and soy products. For carbohydrates, it is a combination of sugar
units and the major energy source for the body. It also sole source of energy for the brain
and nervous system. We can get it from rice, noodles, bread, cereals and tubers. Fats in
the diet helps our body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K) as well as add
important flavour and texture to foods. Fats are the major fuel for our body during rest
and light activities. We can get fats from fruits, fish, nuts, sugar and so on. Vitamins are
organic compounds required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction and
maintenance of health. We need 13 types of vitamins to unleash energy stored in
carbohydrates, protein and fats. Some of them act as antioxidants which help preserve
healthy cells in our body. Vitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables and grains. For
minerals, it is important to regulate body functions, aid in the growth and maintenance of
body tissues and help release energy. There are 17 essential minerals that our body needs
and we can get that from lean meats, dairy products, green leafy vegetables, potatoes and
certain fruits. Water forms the basis of blood, digestive juices, urine and perspiration, and
is contained in lean muscle, fat and bones. Our body needs water to regulate body
temperature.

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3.3

Conclusion
Food is generally good but it can also get us in trouble. By increasing our

awareness of healthy eating, we can prevent ourselves from getting sick. Food pyramid
are always recommend for healthy diet by dieticians and it content all the essential
nutrients that we needs.
(409 words)

4.0

THERAPEUTIC DIET FOR A DIABETIC PERSON


4.1

Introduction
A therapeutic diet is a meal plan that controls the intake of certai food of nutrients.

It is usually a modification of a regular diet, modified or tailored to fit the nutrition need
of a particular person.
4.2

Therapeutic Diet For Diabetes


Diabetes is a chronic disorder characterized by high blood glucose and either

insufficient or ineffective insulin, depending on the type of diabetes. The diabetes diet is
known as medical nutrition therapy (MNT). It is about eating variety nutritious o foods in
moderate amounts and following regular mealtimes. It is not a restrictive diet but MNT is
a healthy eating plan that naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and calories. This diet
emphasises fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Recommended foods for diabetes patients
are healthy carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low fat dairy
products. Other than that, fibre-rich foods are important to reduce risk of heart disease
and help controlling blood sugar control. For example, vegetables, fruits, beans, nuts,
whole-wheat flour and wheat bran. Diabetic person can eat fish at least twice a week for
lowering blood fats. A Goods fats like avocados, almonds, pecans, walnuts, olives and
peanut oil can help lower diabetic patients to lower their cholesterol levels. Foods that
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diabetes person needs to avoid are saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium for
prevent from heart diseases and stroke. Beef, hot dogs, sausage and bacon contain a lot
saturated fats. We must limit these foods to ensure we can stay healthy. Trans fats are
found in processed snacks, baked goods, shortening and stick margarines, so that we
should avoided completely. The sources of cholesterol include animal proteins, egg yolks,
shellfish, liver and other organ meats. High sodium is highly not recommended as it can
increase our risk for high blood pressure and other diseases. We must aim less than
2,300mg of sodium a day.
4.3

Conclusion
Planning for healthy diet can prevent us to become a diabetes person. Eating more

fruits and vegetables, cooking meals at home and reducing our fat and sugar intake will
help to improve mood and lower of risk of diabetes problem.
(357 words)

5.0

EATING DISORDER
5.1

Introduction
Most of us have our own image or perception of how we would like to look,

particularly if it concerns our body weight. The ideal body weight management is an
important aspect of wellbeing. Nevertheless, sometimes we have a common eating
disorders that affect our wellbeing.

5.2

Eating Disorder

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Eating disorders is a serious conditions related to persistent eating behaviours that
negatively impact our health, emotions and ability to function. Firstly, someone who
consumes too much food and loves eating is at risk of obesity lead to eating disorder. This
disorder is known as bulimia nervosa. Secondly, someone who refuses to eat is at risk of
an extreme condition known as anorexia nervosa. Teenagers and young women are those
groups of people who mostly experience eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa is a complex
disorder that has three important features, namely refusal to maintain ideal and healthy
body, fear of gaining weight and distorted body image. They willing to extremes lose
weight, eventhough they are already skinny. The health risk of anorexia nervosa are for
women, they can stop menstruating because of extreme weight lose. They also
intolerance of cold temperature, low blood pressure and low heart rate. For bulimia
nervosa, it is also a serious, potentially life-threating eating disorder. They eating large
amounts of food and then purge, trying to get rid of the extra calories in an unhealthy
way. For example, they try to force themselves to vomit or engage in excessive exercise.
Health risk for bulimia nervosa is tooth decay. Tooth decay may develop because of the
large consumption of sugar. Repeated vomiting or use of laxatives in combination with
deficient calories intake may damage liver and kidneys and also cause abnormal heart
rhythm.
5.3

Conclusion
To overcome the anorexia nervosa problem among teenage and young women, we

can avert a medical crisis by ensuring adequate body weight, the counter this with
psychological counselling. For treat bulimia nervosa disorder, a person suffering from
this needs to stabilise the eating pattern and improve their coping skills. For medical
treatment, they need to get an advice from qualified psychiatrists and nutritionists.
(352 words)

6.0

IMPORTANCE OF DISEASE PREVENTION

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6.1

Introduction
Promoting good habits to maintain health is a better option than seeking cure for

an ailment. People who practice healthy habits as a way of life have a higher chance to
enjoy freedom from disease as dependence on medications and treatments to maintain
wellness is not a healthy way of living.
6.2

Disease Prevention
We need to learn about disease prevention as a means to promote health and

wellness in ourselves. Nowadays, people are living longer with significantly improved
quality of life and not succumbing easily to debilitating diseases. In Malaysia, the
average life expectancy has risen dramatically in the last 50 years from below 60 years
during the Independence era to an average of 75 years today (MOH 2015). The
promotion of healthy lifestyles and prevention of diseases through lifestyle changes has
greatly contributed in raising the health standards in this country. Empowering people
with appropriate knowledge and skills to modify their lifestyles and to take active roles to
prevent illnesses has become a compelling inducement for those who understand the
benefits of staying healthy. Most people now prefer to take an active role in decisions
related to their health matters as they dread the prospect of being hooked to a lifetime of
medications to cope with chronic illness. Furthermore, increasing awareness on the role
of clean environment on health and wellness is also becoming a major concern among
many people as they begin to realize the direct impact the environment has on their
health. The United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) work
closely with member countries to promote health and wellness of the community. The
promotion of health behaviours by health authorities has effectively reduced the burden
of preventable diseases and promoted better quality of life and sense of well-being among
the population. With the effective control of dreaded infections and communicable
diseases especially in countries with modern healthcare system, chronic and noncommunicable diseases due to lifestyle choices is now emerging as significant form of
disease patterns.
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6.3

Conclusion
People who do not practice healthy lifestyles will become more vulnerable to such

non-communicable diseases which have long term effects in our body and are much
difficult to control. Therefore, these diseases can be controlled and even prevented
through lifestyle modifications
(377 words)

7.0

CORONARY HEART DISEASES


7.1

Introduction
Coronary heart diseases is a condition where the hearts blood supply is reduced

or completely blocked by plaque which is formed due to build-up of fats or other deposits
such as tar from cigarettes within the walls of the coronary arteries.
7.2

Prevention Strategies Of Coronary Heart Diseases


There are several ways that we can help reduce risk and prevent of developing

coronary heart disease (CHD). A heart-healthy lifestyle can lower the risk of CHD. It can
prevent our CHD from getting worse by changes our lifestyle in eat a healthy and
balanced diet. A low fat, high fibre diet is recommended, which should include plenty of
fresh fruit and vegetables. Taking healthy foods can keeping blood sugar and pressure
under control. Be more physically active can prevent the CHD risk. Combining a healthy
diet with regular exercise is the best way of maintaining a healthy weight and can reduces
our chances of developing high blood pressure. Knowing our body mass index (BMI)
helps us to find out a healthy weight in relation to our height and gives an estimate of our
total body fat. Giving up from smoking, alcohol and drugs also can reduce our risk of
developing CHD. Smoking is a major risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. It also
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causes the majority of cases of coronary thrombosis in people under the age of 50.
Learning how to manage our stress, feel relax and cope with problems can improve our
emotional and physical health by attend a stress management program, meditation,
relaxation therapy and talking things out with friends and family. Other than that, taking
any prescribed medicines regularly and having a positive outlook in life can prevent of
coronary heart diseases. Always put the positive outlook in our life to make life more
cheerful and worth to live.
7.3

Conclusion
Many lifestyle habits begin during childhood. Thus, parents and families should

encourage their children to make heart-healthy choices, such as following diet and being
physically active. Make following a healthy lifestyle a family goal. Making lifestyle
changes can be hard but if we make these changes as a family, it may be easier for
everyone to prevent or control our CHD risk factors.
(368 words)

REFERENCES

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Ethel R. Nelson (1991), Eight Secrets Of Health, Thailand Publishing House
Raijah Rahim, Rames Prasath Mahatam Rai, Rosnida Abu Bakar and Shaari Abd. Hamid
(2015), Health And Wellness, Open University Malaysia (OUM)
Coronary Heart Disease-Prevention

[Online]. Available:

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/

Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/Prevention.aspx ( 29 Mac 2016)


Eating A Balanced Diet [Online]. Available: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages
/Healthy/Eating.aspx ( 29 Mac 2016 )
How To Prevent And Control Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors [Online]. Available:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hd/prevent ( 29 Mac 2016)
The

Eight

Of

Wellness-SAMSHA

STORE.[Online].

Available:

gov/shin/content/SMA10-4568/SMAIO-4568.pdf ( 29 Mac 2016 )

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http://store.samsha.