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Myers PSYCHOLOGY

(7th Ed)

Chapter 6

Perception
James A. McCubbin, PhD
Clemson University

Worth Publishers

Perception
Selective Attention
focus of conscious
awareness on a
particular stimulus

Change Blindness

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Organization:
Gestalt
Visual Capture
tendency for vision to dominate
the other senses

Gestalt--an organized whole


tendency to integrate pieces of
information into meaningful wholes

Perceptual Organization:
Gestalt
Grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize
stimuli into coherent groups

Grouping Principles

proximity--group nearby figures together


similarity--group figures that are similar
continuity--perceive continuous patterns
closure--fill in gaps
connectedness--spots, lines, and areas
are seen as unit when connected

Perceptual Organization:
Illusory Contours

Perceptual Organization
Figure and Ground--organization of the
visual field into objects (figures) that
stand out from their surroundings
(ground)

PerceptualOrganization:
Grouping Principles

PerceptualOrganization:
Closure
Gestalt
grouping
principles
are at
work
here.

PerceptualOrganization:
Grouping Principles
Gestalt
grouping
principles
are at
work
here.

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception
Depth Perception
ability to see objects in three dimensions
allows us to judge distance

Binocular cues
retinal disparity
images from the two eyes differ
closer the object, the larger the disparity

convergence
neuromuscular cue
two eyes move inward for near objects

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception

Visual Cliff

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception
Monocular Cues
relative size
smaller image is more distant

interposition
closer object blocks distant object

relative clarity
hazy object seen as more distant

texture
distant

coarse --> close fine -->

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception

Relative Size

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception

Interposition

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception
Monocular Cues (cont.)
relative height
higher objects seen as more distant

relative motion
closer objects seem to move faster

linear perspective
parallel lines converge with distance

relative brightness
closer objects appear brighter

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception

Relative Height

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception

Perspective Techniques

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception

Light and Shadow

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception
Illusory Depth

Perceptual Constancy
Perceptual Constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even
as illumination and retinal image
change
color
shape
size

Perceptual Organization

Perceptual Organization:
Depth Perception
Illusory Depth
Explanation

Perceptual Organization:
Muller-Lyer Illusion

Perceptual Organization:
Size-Distance Relationship

Perceptual OrganizationBrightness Contrast

PerceptualOrganization:
Grouping Principles
Impossibl
e
doghouse

Sensory Restriction:
Blakemore & Cooper, 1970
Kittens raised
without exposure
to horizontal
lines later had
difficulty
perceiving
horizontal bars.

Perceptual
Interpretation
Perceptual Adaptation
(vision) ability to adjust to an
artificially displaced visual field
prism glasses
Perceptual Set
a mental predisposition to
perceive one thing and not
another

Perceptual Set:
Schemas
What you see in the
center is influenced
by perceptual set

Perceptual Set:
Schemas

Flying Saucers or Clouds?

Perception and the


Human Factor
Human Factors Psychology
explores how people and machines interact
explores how machine and physical
environments can be adapted to human
behaviors

Perceptual Set:
Human Factors
10

Altitude
(thousands
of feet)

Pilots perceived
descent path

8
6
4

Altitude looks
this much higher

Actual
descent
path

20

18

16

14

12

10

Distance from runway (miles)

Is There
Extrasensory
Perception?
Extrasensory Perception
controversial claim that perception can
occur apart from sensory input
telepathy
clairvoyance
precognition

Parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena
ESP
psychokinesis