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ENVIRONMENTAL

Engineering
Instructor for KAEA3152 :
Dr. Nuruol Syuhadaa Mohd
n_syuhadaa@um.edu.my

Phone: 03-79677650
Office: Block F
Class time & location:
Lecture Days: W Time: 9am 10am
ThTime: 9am 11am

Venue: BK202
Venue: BK201

ASSESSMENT
Assignments
Lab Classes
Test
Final

10%
10%
20% (Date: TBD)
60% (Date: TBD)

Attendance, Quiz, Test and Exam Policies:


Regular attendance is required for all class meetings.
A minimum of 80% class attendance must be fulfilled.
Punctuality to classes is also expected.
Unless otherwise specified, quizzes will normally be given during
classes. No make-up quizzes except for documented medical
reasons (you must have a note from the doctor).
No make-up test/exam will be given except for documented medical
reasons.

The Test & Exam are based on the


textbook, class notes, handouts and
assignments.
Those who do the homework honestly,
will earn the better grades.

Some Relevant Definitions


Environment
Surroundings in which an organisation operates, including air, water, land,
natural
resources, flora, fauna, communities and their interrelation.
The unabridged Random House dictionary defines environment as:
The aggregate of surrounding things, conditions or influences, especially as
affecting the existence or development of someone or something.

Pollution
Can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or
biological
characteristics of the air, water and land that can harmfully affect the
health,
survival or activities of humans or other living organisms
The American Heritage dictionary defines environment as:
The act or process of polluting or being polluted, especially the contamination
of soil, water, or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances.
Slide No. 2

Water-Air-Land Interactions

Definitions

Environmental Science (or studies)

Environmental engineering

Interdisciplinary studies in natural sciences, including geology,


climatology, hydrology, ecology, and their interaction with
social sciences such as economics, political science, sociology,
anthropology, geography
Application of science and engineering principles to improve the
environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide
healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other
organisms, and to remediate polluted sites.

Abatement Processes

Technology or process that applied or measurement that taken


to reduce pollution and/or its impacts on the environment.
7

Definitions

Environment

Ones surrounding. include both living (biotic) and non-living


(abiotic) components.

Environmentalism

social movement for protecting earths life support systems for us


and other species
Ecology
study of the interactions between organisms and between
organisms and their environment
Ecosystem
includes all organisms living in an area and the physical
environment with which these organisms interact.

Environmental science
is an
interdisciplinary
field, drawing on
many diverse
disciplines.

Figure 1.6

When humans add something to an environment, the added entity is


known as a Contaminant.
a contaminant is a substance present in greater than natural concentration as a
result of human activity that causes deviations from the normal composition of
the Environment.

A contaminant is a Pollutant when it harms the environment


a Pollutant is a substance present in greater than natural concentration as a
result of human activity that has a net detrimental effect upon the Environment
or one of its components.
A Pollutant becomes Toxic (a "toxicant") when it harms one or more
biota within the environment.
a Toxic Pollutant is a substance present in greater than natural concentration as
a result of human activity that has a net detrimental effect upon the life functions
of one or more biota of a given Environment

Ecosystem Components
Limiting factors determines distributions

11

Biological Components of Ecosystems

Producers (autotrophs)
Consumers (heterotrophs)
Herbivores, carnivores,
omnivores
Decomposers and
detritivores
detritus = dead
organic material

12

The Nature of Ecology


Levels of study in Ecology:
Organisms single animal
Populations same species
Communities populations living together
Ecosystems community +
physical environment
Biosphere all the earths ecosystems

13

The Earths Life-Support Systems

Atmosphere
Thin membrane of air
Troposphere
11 miles
Stratosphere
12-30 miles
Lower portion (ozone)
filters out harmful sun
rays
Allows life to exist on
earth
Lithosphere
Earths crust
Hydrosphere
water
Biosphere
Living and dead
organisms

14

Pollution

An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological


characteristics of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health,
survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.

Point source
Single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the
environment. ( smoke stack, exhaust pipes, industrial discharge)

Non-point source
Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns
that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area.
(stormwater, septic tanks)

15

Environmental Problems

16

Environmental and Resource Problems

17

Environmental and Resource Problems


Five root
causes

18

Environmental Impact (I) = (P)(A)(T)

19

Anything that occupies space and


has mass

Matter and Energy


http://www.hk-phy.org/contextual/heat/tep/trans/kinetic_theory.gif

Kinetic energy- energy


of motion
ex.- temperature
(molecular movement),
boats racing

http://www.sei.ie/uploadedfiles/Education/Unit2_2C_speed_boats1

http://www.greenscreen.org/articles_sr/energy/images_potential_kinetic_energy/potential_kinetic.jpg

http://www.citruscollege.edu/pic/46/c05_05.jpg

Basic Vocabulary
Matter: Anything that has mass and volume
Mass: Amount of matter in an object

Weight: Measure of the force of attraction between


objects due to mass and gravity
Volume: Amount of space an object takes up
Density: Measurement of how much mass is
contained in a given volume

More Vocabulary
Atoms: Smallest particle of an element that has all the
properties of matter:
Protons- particles in the nucleus with positive charge
Electrons- particles orbiting around nucleus with negative charge
Neutrons- particles in the nucleus with no charge

Elements: Simplest form of a pure substance


Compounds: Two or more elements chemically combined
to form a new substance

Sub-Atomic Particles
Part of
Atom

Charge

Location

Electron

- negative

outside
nucleus

Proton

+ positive

inside nucleus

Neutron

no charge

inside nucleus

Periodic Table

Using the Periodic Table


17

Atomic Number
Equal to # protons = # electrons
Periodic Table is arranged by this number

Cl
35.5

Symbol
Shorthand for the element Note 2nd letter is
always lowercase

Atomic Mass Number


Total AVERAGE mass of Protons + Neutrons +
Electrons

Electron Energy Levels


Electrons are arranged in Shells around nucleus in
predictable locations
Fill seats closest to nucleus first (concert best seats)
Seats available

Shell #1
Shell #2
Shell #3
Shell #4
Shell #5
Shell #6

2 electrons
8 electrons
8 electrons
18 electrons
32 electrons
50 electrons

Ex. Carbon has 6 total electrons so


Two electrons on first energy level
Four electrons on second energy level

Atomic Structure
Total # of protons and electrons (in a neutral atom)
17 protons in nucleus
17 electrons orbiting nucleus

17

Cl
Element Name
Chlorine

35.5

Total Mass of Nucleus


36 - 17 = 18 neutrons
(Round Atomic Mass)

Notice: electrons follow energy level rules


from previous slide.

Atomic Mass Fractions?


Look at Chlorine (atomic number 17)
Atomic mass of 35.5? I dont get it!
Where does the 35.5 come from?

0.5 protons? 0.5 neutrons? No

Atomic Mass = average number of protons


and neutrons in nature

Types of Chemical Bonds


Ionic- Two elements bond by transferring electrons to create ions
that attract together (+ is attracted to - after an electron is transferred)

Covalent- Two elements bond by sharing electrons (strongest


bond type)

Metallic- Two metals bond and form a common electron cloud.


This is a cluster of shared electrons (weakest bond type)

Chemical Reactions

Chemical Reaction: a process in which the


physical and chemical properties of the
original substance change as new
substances with different physical and
chemical properties are formed

Chemical Reaction Basics

H2 + O2 --> H2O
Reactants

Products

Reactants- substance that enters into a reaction


Products- substance that is produced by a chemical reaction

Evidence of Chemical Change


EPOCH is an acronym that stands for evidence that a
chemical reaction has occurred.

E Effervescence (bubbles and/or gives off gas)


P Precipitate (solid crystals form)
O Odor (change of smell is detected)
C Color change
H Heat (reaction either heats up or cools down)

Does sighting evidence of a chemical reaction mean that a


chemical reaction has undoubtedly taken place?

Chemical Equations
Concise representations of chemical
reactions

Anatomy of a Chemical Equation


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Anatomy of a Chemical Equation


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

Products appear on the


right side of the equation.

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Anatomy of a Chemical Equation


CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)

Coefficients are inserted to


balance the equation.

CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

The Keys to the Chemistry


Kingdom
Mole ratio is the key for calculations
based upon a chemical equation.
With a balanced chemical equation and
the mole ratios, you have the ability to
determine the amount of any other
reactant in the equation and maximum
amount of products you can obtain

Using Moles

Moles provide a bridge from the molecular scale


to the real-world scale

How to Read Chemical Equations


2 Mg + O2

2 MgO

2 atoms Mg + 1 molecule O2 makes 2 formula units MgO


2 moles Mg + 1 mole O2 makes 2 moles MgO

48.6 grams Mg + 32.0 grams O2 makes 80.6 g MgO

IS NOT
2 grams Mg + 1 gram O2 makes 2 g MgO

Types of Reactions
Romance Chemistry :)

SynthesisA + B = AB
DecompositionAB= A + B
Single-ReplacementA + BC = AC + B
Double-ReplacementAB + CD = AC + BD

Combination Reactions
Two or more
substances
react to form
one product

Examples:
N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3 (g)
C3H6 (g) + Br2 (l) C3H6Br2 (l)
2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO (s)

2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO (s)

Decomposition Reactions
One substance breaks
down into two or more
substances

Examples:
CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
2 KClO3 (s) 2 KCl (s) + O2 (g)
2 NaN3 (s) 2 Na (s) + 3 N2 (g)

Combustion Reactions
Rapid reactions that
produce a flame
Most often involve
hydrocarbons
reacting with oxygen
in the air
Examples:
CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)
C3H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g) 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g)

Cartoon Chemistry

This is an example of synthesis

Cartoon Chemistry

This is an example of a decomposition

Cartoon Chemistry

This is an example of a double replacement

Reaction Types Review

Match each chemical reaction with one of


the reaction types on your chemical
cartoons.
Zn + 2HCl H2 + ZnCl2
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
2KI + Pb(NO3)2 2KNO3 + PbI2
2MgCl Mg2 + Cl2

Conservation of Mass
Atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a
chemical reaction.
What goes in must come out.
So we must balance equations to
conserve mass.

Balancing Equations
Rules:
We can not add or subtract subscripts from either side
of the equation
We can only add coefficients to the front of each
compound
Ex. 2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
H=4
O=2

Before

H=4
O=2

must match

After

See Balancing Act worksheet for more examples

Balancing Chemical Equations


1. Write the correct formula(s) for the reactants on
the left side and the correct formula(s) for the
product(s) on the right side of the equation.
Ethane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water
C2H6 + O2

CO2 + H2O

2. Change the numbers in front of the formulas


(coefficients) to make the number of atoms of
each element the same on both sides of the
equation. Do not change the subscripts.
2C2H6

NOT

C4H12

3.7

Balancing Chemical Equations


3. Start by balancing those elements that appear in
only one reactant and one product.
C2H6 + O2

2 carbon
on left
C2H6 + O2

6 hydrogen
on left
C2H6 + O2

CO2 + H2O

1 carbon
on right

start with C or H but not O

multiply CO2 by 2

2CO2 + H2O

2 hydrogen
on right

multiply H2O by 3

2CO2 + 3H2O

3.7

Balancing Chemical Equations


4. Balance those elements that appear in two or
more reactants or products.
C2H6 + O2

2 oxygen
on left

2CO2 + 3H2O

4 oxygen
(2x2)

+ 3 oxygen
(3x1)

7
O
2 2

2CO2 + 3H2O

2C2H6 + 7O2

4CO2 + 6H2O

C2H6 +

multiply O2 by

7
2

= 7 oxygen
on right
remove fraction
multiply both sides by 2

3.7

Balancing Chemical Equations


5. Check to make sure that you have the same
number of each type of atom on both sides of the
equation.
2C2H6 + 7O2

4CO2 + 6H2O

4 C (2 x 2)

4C

12 H (2 x 6)

12 H (6 x 2)

14 O (7 x 2)

14 O (4 x 2 + 6)
Reactants

Products

4C

4C

12 H

12 H

14 O

14 O

3.7

Stoichiometric Calculations
From the mass of
Substance A you can
use the ratio of the
coefficients of A and
B to calculate the
mass of Substance B
formed (if its a
product) or used (if
its a reactant)

Converting grams to moles.


Determine how many moles there are in 5.17 grams of Fe(C5H5)2.

Given
5.17 g Fe(C5H5)2

Use the molar mass to


convert grams to
moles.

Goal

units match

mol
185.97 g

= 0.0278

moles Fe(C5H5)2

Fe(C5H5)2
2 x 5 x 1.001 = 10.01
2 x 5 x 12.011 = 120.11
1 x 55.85 = 55.85

185.97 g
mol

Stoichiometry (more working with ratios)


Ratios are found within a chemical equation.

2HCl +1 Ba(OH)2 2H2O + 1 BaCl2

coefficients give MOLAR RATIOS

2 moles of HCl react with 1 mole of Ba(OH)2 to form 2 moles of H2O and
1 mole of BaCl2

Mole Mole Conversions


When N2O5 is heated, it decomposes:

2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)


a. How many moles of NO2 can be produced from 4.3 moles of N2O5?

2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)


4.3 mol
? mol Units match

4.3 mol N2O5 4mol NO


2

= 8.6

2mol N 2O 5

moles NO2

b. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 4.3 moles of N2O5?

2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)


4.3 mol

4.3 mol N2O5

1mol O 2
2mol N 2O 5

? mol

= 2.2
60

mole O2

gram mole and

gram gram conversions

When N2O5 is heated, it decomposes:


2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
a. How many moles of N2O5 were used if 210g of NO2 were produced?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
? moles
210g

210 g NO2

mol NO 2
46.0g NO 2

Units match

2mol N 2O 5
4mol NO 2

= 2.28

moles N2O5

b. How many grams of N2O5 are needed to produce 75.0 grams of O2?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
75.0 g
? grams
75.0

g O2 mol O 2
32.0 g O 2

2mol N 2O 5
1mol O 2

108g N 2O 5
mol N 2O 5

506

grams N2O5

Gram to Gram Conversions


Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid produces
hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of aluminum chloride
can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are reacted with an excess of
hydrochloric acid?

2 Al(s) + 6HCl(aq)

AlCl
2 3(aq) +

First write a balanced


equation.

H23(g)

Gram to Gram Conversions


Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid produces
hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of aluminum chloride
can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are reacted with an excess of
hydrochloric acid?
2 Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3(aq) +
? grams
3.45 g

3 H2(g)

Now lets get organized.


Write the information
below the substances.
63

gram to gram conversions


Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid produces
hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of aluminum chloride
can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are reacted with an excess of
hydrochloric acid?
2 Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3(aq) +
? grams
3.45 g

3 H2(g)
Units match

3.45 g Al

mol Al
27.0 g Al

2 mol AlCl 3 133.3 g AlCl 3


mol AlCl 3
2 mol Al

Letsmust
We
Now
use
workthe
always
themolar
problem.
convert
ratio. to
mass
to moles.
convert
to grams.

17.0 g AlCl3

Limiting
Reactants

How Many Cookies Can I Make?


You can make cookies
until you run out of one
of the ingredients
Once this family runs
out of sugar, they will
stop making cookies
(at least any cookies
you would want to eat)

How Many Cookies Can I Make?


In this example the
sugar would be the
limiting reactant,
because it will limit the
amount of cookies you
can make

Limiting Reactants
The limiting reactant
is the reactant
present in the
smallest
stoichiometric
amount

Limiting Reactants
The limiting reactant is the reactant present in
the smallest stoichiometric amount
In other words, its the reactant youll run out of first (in
this case, the H2)

Limiting Reactants
In the example below, the O2 would be the
excess reagent

Solution Chemistry
Mixtures: Matter that consists of two or more substances mixed
but not chemically combined
Solutions: Homogeneous Mixture in which one substance is
dissolved into another
Solute = Substance that gets dissolved (ex. Kool-Aid powder)
Solvent = Substance that does the dissolving (ex. Water)

Acid: Compound with a pH below 7 that tastes sour and is a


proton donor.
Ex. Citrus foods

Base: Compound with a pH above 7 that tastes bitter and is a


proton acceptor
Ex. Cleaning Products (soap)