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for Waves and Sound:

Definitions and theory:

Mechanical waves, electromagnetic waves, wavelength, amplitude, equilibrium line,

frequency, period, pulse, oscillation, transversal wave, longitudinal wave, crest, trough,
compression, rarefaction, wave front, ray, incident, normal, reflection, fixed boundary, free
boundary, Superposition, constructive interference, destructive interference, node,
antinode, standing wave, wave interference, path difference, diffraction, refraction,
refractive index, apparent depth, critical angle, total internal reflection, beats, beat
frequency, Doppler effect, natural frequency, resonance, fundamental frequency, harmonics,
overtones, open tube, closed tube.


Drawings and diagrams:

Graphs: position displacement
graphs, displacement time graphs,

Sketch transversal and
longitudinal waves.

Drawing wavefronts and rays
after reflections

Boundary questions sketching
the shape of wave pulses after a
change in medium

Super position wave pulse

Sketching standing waves (strings,
open/closed tubes)

Reading Huygens diagrams

Wavefronts during Doppler effect

Solve problems using wave velocity

Determine the frequency or period from a
given number of cycles in a given amount
of time.

Determine wavelength, amplitude or
frequency from wave graphs.

Determining , v or f during a change in

Solve problems involving standing waves
given a harmonic or a number of
nodes/antinodes between ends.

Solve problems involving path difference
to a point on a nodal/antinodal line given
two sources that are either in phase or
out of phase.

Discuss properties that affect the degree
to which waves diffract qualitatively.

Use Snells law to solve refraction
questions involving a change in medium.
Must be able to solve for an angle, a
refractive index, the relative refractive
index or a velocity of the wave.

Solve problems involving apparent depth.

Solve problems involving critical angle
and total internal reflection.

Determine the beat frequency between
two sources.

Use the Doppler equation to solve for f, f,
vo or vs

Solve problems involving resonating
open/closed tubes.

Practice Questions:

A person sitting in a boat attempting to catch fish counts 18 waves passing by the boat
every minute. If the distance between crests is 1.4 m determine the speed of the

Give an example of a longitudinal wave , a transverse wave, and an object that can
function as either one.

Sketch the pulses 4 seconds later:



Sketch the 3rd overtone of a closed end tube in the diagram below

Laser sighting can be used to calculate the apparent distance to an object. A

laser in air (at 25 from the normal) detects an impurity in a sample of glass
and records the apparent depth as 2.34 m. Calculate the actual depth of the



Two friends are practicing dribbling basketballs at the same rate but completely out
of phase from each other.

a) A third friend standing a distance away hears nothing, Is this friend on a
nodal line or antinodal line?
b) If the third friend determines that they are one the 2nd _____________ line and is

from part a
7m away from the one friend and 8.2m away from the second friend,
determine the wavelength of the sound.

Given that the light moves at a speed of 3.00 x 108 m/s, determine the n value for the
unknown medium and find the velocity of light in that medium.






Which wave will diffract more? Explain your reasoning.

A student finds an unlabeled tuning fork and attempts to determine the frequency of
the fork. They set up the lab equipment used during the resonance lab and find
lengths of tube (closed tube) that produce loud noises. The first loud noise is detected
at a length of 0.184 m

a) What is the frequency of the tuning fork if the temperature in the room is
exactly 20.0o C

b) The student measured the next loud point at a length of 0.552 m. Does this
agree with the data collected and our understanding of closed tubes standing

Bonus: What note is this tuning fork tuned to?




An ambulance is driving toward a person on the sidewalk. Typically sirens emit a

frequency of 1.300 x 103 Hz. The observer hears a frequency of 1.393 x 103 Hz. What
speed is the ambulance travelling at?

Two tuning forks with slightly different frequencies are played at the same time and a
beat frequency of 6 is heard. The lower frequency tuning fork in inscribed with the
number 304. What is the frequency of the second turning fork?

Given the pressure vs. distance graph for a longitudinal wave, determine the
wavelength of the wave.

Equation Sheet:

( ) = !

!"#$% = 331 + 0.6

!"#$% (!" !" ! !"#$%) = 343 /

! ! !
! ! !

= 3.0010! /



! 1!2!

! = !! ! !

! = !

! = !