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Sizesandscaleranges

1.Nominalsizes
1.1Gaugesizesinch(mm):11/2(~40),2(~50),21/2(~63),31/2(~80),4(~100),
6(~150),81/2,12,16

1.1.1ASMEgaugesizes

1.1.2ENgaugesizes(forcomparison)

2.ScaleRanges

2.1Positivegaugepressure

2.2Negativegaugepressure

2.3Compoundpressure

2.4Receiver

3.Units

3.1SIunits

3.2MKSAunits(hasbeenreplacedbySIunits)


3.3Customaryunits(mainlyinAmerica)

Designandconstruction

0.Commondesignrequirements

Methodsofjoining:softsoldering,silverbrazing,welding
1.Casedesignandconstruction

1.1Withandwithoutpressurerelief(blowoutdevice)

1.2Solidfrontwithpressurereliefback(safetypattern)

2.Windowdesigns

2.1Laminatedglass
ANSIZ26.1compliantreducedpossibilityofglassscattering(pressure
elementrupture)

2.2Temperedglass(25xplainglass)

ASTMC1048compliantheattreated

ASTMC1422compliantchemicallytreated

2.3Plastic

Impact,abrasiveenvironment;temperature,corrosiveatmosphere

2.4Plainglass
Abrasion,chemical,wearresistantpropertiesmaybenotsuitablefor
certainhazardousapplications

3.Mountingdesigns
2.1Mountingtypes:stem,surface,flush,panel

a)Stemmountedbottom,back
b)Surfacemountedbottom,back
c)Flushmountedback
2.2Mountingmeasurements

4.Shank(connector)designandconstruction
a)Taperconnection uptoandfor20,000psi(~160,000kPa)(usually)
1/827NPT;1/418NPT;1/214NPT
above20,000psi(~160,000kPa)1/4andlargerhigh
pressureconnection

b)Otherthantapered(e.g.straight)forbothlowerandhigherpressure

Severvibrationandstemmountingwithliquidfillinglargerconnection(1/2
NPTinsteadof1/4NPT)and/orstrongermaterial(SSinsteadofbrass)
5.Bourdon
6.Dials(scales)andpointerdesign

4.1Dialsandscales

4.1.1Markings
a)Absoluteordifferentialpressuresareindicated(upperlower
bothOK)ABSOLUTE/ABS;DIFFERENTIAL/DIFF;or P

b)Manufacturersorcustomers(orboth)trademark
c)Acetylene,ammonia,chemical,oxygengaugesspecialmarking
d)Vacuumgauges()signbeforenumbersORmarkthedialwith
wordVAC/VACUUM(upperlowerbothOK)(e.g.inHg(nominussign
beforenumbers)placeVACunderit)
4.1.2Scalearc

270deg.Maybegreaterorlessinspecialcases
4.1.3Graduationlines

TBW(seeENrecommendation)
4.1.4GraduationnearZero
(Useofgaugesnearzeropressureisnotrecommendedaccuracy
problem)

3Aand4Agauges(3rdpicture)notakeup(minorgraduationspacing
nearzeroshallbethesameasatotherpartsofthescale)
Restofthegaugestakeupmaybeincorporatedinthiscase,
indicatethepressurevaluewherethegraduationstarts
a)Gaugeswithstoppin(1stpicture)nograduationornumerals,or
both,atpointerstopposition(pointercanrestagainstthestoppin)
b)Gaugeswithoutstoppin(2ndpicture)takeupshouldbeindicated
withaperpendicularhashmark(pointercanrestanywherewithin
hashmark)


4.1.5Dualscaledial

4.2Pointers

4.2.1Pointerdimensions

Tipwidth(Class4A,3A)<widthofminorgraduationline
4.2.2Pointerstops

4.2.2.1Internalstop
Retardmechanism(restrainsthemotionofthepressure
elementorthemechanism)

4.2.2.2Maximumstop
Approx.atmidwaybetweenlastandfirstdialgraduation.Motion
cannotberestrainedatlessthan105%offullscalepressure.

4.2.2.3Minimumstop
Mustpreventpointermotionbelowapoint5%lowerthanthe
firstscalegraduation.(alsosee4.1.4)
5.Safetydesign

5.1Pressurereliefmeans

Recommended:
a)gaspressure400psi(2800kPa)orhigher
b)liquidpressure1000psi(7000kPa)orhigher

5.1.1Solidfrontwithpressurereliefback(safetypattern)

Toreducethelikelihoodofwindowshatteringandprojectionofparts
throughthefrontofthegauge
Thisadditionalprotectioncannotinfluencethegaugesnormal
operation.

5.1.2Openfrontwithpressurerelief(blowoutdevice)
Protectsagainstslowlybuiltuppressureinsidethegauge,butnot
efficientagainstrapidlyincreasingpressure(projectionofparts
throughthefrontispossible)
5.Liquidfilling

Notsuitableforstrongoxidizingagents,e.g.oxygen,chlorine,nitricacid,
hydrogenperoxideetc.

Accuracy,overloadandotherdesignrequirements

1.Accuracyandoverload

1.1Accuracygrades

1.2Generalaccuracyrelatedproperties
a)Elasticelementmaterialandcorrosionresistancearerelated.Sometimes
dependingontheusedmediatheusedmaterialspropertiesmaynot
beoptimalmayhaveanimpactonaccuracy.
b)Environmentalormediatemperaturecanbothinfluencetheaccuracyof
theelasticelementincreasestheindicationerror
c)Temperaturechangeselasticelementstiffnesschanges

Errorcausedbytemperatureinpercentage:

0.04x(t2t1)%,where

t1=referencetemperatureinoC(about20oC)

t2=ambienttemperatureinoC(actualtemperature)
E.g:every25oCchangeintemperatureapprox.1%erroroffull
scale
Permanent(stable)temperatureconditions(differentfrom
referencetemp.)correctioncalculatetheapproximate
errorateachappliedpressureandaddorsubtractitfrom
indicatedvaluerecalibrategaugebasedondata
d)Sealedcases(liquidfilledornot)compensationisrequired(pressure
reliefvent)
increaseintemperatureincreaseinpressureinsidegauge
decreaseinindicatedpressure
decreaseintemperaturedecreaseinpressureinsidegauge
increaseinindicatedpressure
e)Retardgauges

Expandedportionofthescalethisportionsaccuracyisindicated

Compressedportionofthescaledifferentaccuracy(notindicated)

f)Suppressedgauges

TBW
g)Compoundgauges

Accuracypercentageofspan
h)Moreaccurategaugebiggergaugesize(readability)
j)Mountingpositionaffectsaccuracy

Normalpositionupright,vertical
k)Absolutepressuregauges

TBW

Testing

1.Testing

Standard(referencedevice)error=1/4oftestedgaugesaccuracygrade

e.g.:0200psigrade1A(1%)gaugestandardsaccuracy<1/4of1%=
0.5psi
(ASMEPTC19.2tocalibratereferencedevices)

Referencetemperature:20C+1C(approx.68F+2F)

Reference(barometric)pressure:101.32kPa(29.92inHg)(atzero)

1.1Testingmethod
a)Grades3Aand4Aapplymax.indicatedpressure(orvacuum)test
thegaugewithin10mins
b)AllgradesIncreasinganddecreasingpressure(valueisread,gauge
slightlytapped,valueisreadagainnotevaluedifferences)
Doit1moretime!

(Shouldincludepointswithin10%ofendsofdialrange)
c)HysteresisrefertoEN8371

1.2Hightemperatureerrortest
Placeitina60Ctestchamberfornotlessthan4hourstestitin
accordancewithPoint1.1comparedata(ateachpoint)withdata
obtainedduringPoint1.1(onroomtemperature)hightemperature
errordatacanbereceived
1.3Lowtemperatureerrortest

Sameas1.2,butat20C
1.4Storagetemperaturetest
TestgaugeaccuracyinaccordancewithPoint1.1.Placegaugeintotest
chamberat70Cfor24hours.Thenplaceitintestchamberat40Cfor24
hours.Repeatthis4moretimes.RemovefromtestchamberLetit
warmuptoroomtemperature.TestaccordingtoPoint1.1compare
datawithdataobtainedbeforetemperaturetest=effectofstorage
temperatureshowninpercentage
Gaugeshallnotchangeitsappearance
Dialandpointershallnotcrack,blister,changecolor

1.5Overpressuretest
TestgaugeaccordingtoPoint1.1applyproofpressurefor1min.(Proof
pressureisthemaximumpressuretowhichadevicemaybeexposedafter
whichitwillreturntoitsnormaloperatingpressurerangeandperform
withinspecification.)Releaseproofpressure(waittostabilize)Test
gaugeaccordingtoPoint1.1comparedatawithdataobtainedbefore
proofpressureisapplied(notedifferencesinpercentage)
1.6Rupturepressuretest
Applypressuretothegaugeincreasepressurebynotmorethan20%of
fullscalepersecondrupturepressureisthepressureatwhichthe
pressureelementdoesntholdpressureanylonger(notreversible)
1.7Liquidfilledgaugessealintegrityandstabilitytest

a)Mountgauge(normalposition)
b)Heatgaugeto(supplier)recommendedmaximumtemperatureandhold
itformin.2hours
c)Reducetemperatureto(supplier)recommendedminimumtemperature
andholditformin.2hours
d)Repeatcycle20x
e)Checkforleakage
f)Check:dialisreadable,nodiscolorationoffluid
1.8Caseslowleaktest

(onlyforsealedandunventedcases)

a)Openuptheelasticelement

b)Opensocketholeto1/8inchdiameter(3.175mm)

c)Forliquidfilledgaugesrefillgauge

d)Testiscarriedoutat18Cto30C

e)Applygaspressureandslowlyincreaseitatanapprox.1psi/secspeed
d)Recordpressurerequiredtoactivatereliefmechanismapplied
pressuremustberelievedthroughthereliefmechanism(otherparts
cannotbeejected)