Anda di halaman 1dari 91

Introduction to Submarine Design Concept

Aug 8th, 2012

Index

1.

Outline

2.

Submarine Development History

3.

Submarine Systems

4.

Design and Building

5.

Development Trend

-2-

Outline
Feature of Submarine and Change in the Perception
Stealth is the unique advantage Not visible, not audible
Among the existing naval weapon systems, submarine can carry
out most various missions, safely, transports and projection with
powerful weapons.
Since 1970, submarine is recording
No.1 position in every countries
combat Fleet List and Janes Fighting
Ship list by beating even aircraft
carriers

-3-

Outline
Diving and Surfacing method
Diving when sea water is filled in main ballast tank(MBT) which is
placed in forward & after
Surfacing when sea water is ejected by compressed air

Ballast tank
Trim / compens.tank

-4-

Outline
Depth and Direction Control
3 dimension movement as
fixed-wing aircraft
Depth & direction control
by Rudder and Hydroplane

-5-

Outline
Detection

The only detection method under sea is SONAR which use


acoustic wave
Detection performance of SONAR is influenced by ocean
environments
-6-

Outline
Submarines Mission and Operation

-7-

Outline
Classification
Size

Midget
Submarine

Mission

( Yugo)

( Collins)

( Ohio)

( Virginia)

Strategic
submarine
Tactical submarine

Propulsion

Conventional
submarines
Nuclear powered
submarine

( 212)

-8-

( Vanguard)

History
The early stage of Submarine
Drebbel 1618(Netherlands) :
Manufactured with wood and leather
Bushnell 1770 (USA) : Constructed
with wood, operating propeller&
pumping with man power
Bauer 1850 (Germany) :
Constructed with Steel Hull equipped
Ballast tank
Holland 1899(USA) :
Constructed Submarine using Engine
and electric motor

-9-

Bushnells
turtle
Holland

History

Submarine made by DREBBEL (1623)


- Ship with12 Paddles
- Covered with oil coating leather, prevent from water flow in
- Dive into 15 feet, and voyage 2 miles for 3 hours

-10-

History

TURTLE of DAVID BUSHNEL [USA,1776)

(The First Submarine of Offense)

Constructed for attacking British Battle ship in the American


Revolutionary War

Length: 7.5FT / Height: 6FT / FLOATING EGG type

Attacked British warship Eagle in Hudson river, but failed

Damaging British Armada HMS Celvelas1777 in New London

-11-

History

HUNLEY, Submarine made by DAVID (USA,1863)

The South Army constructed to attack warship of the North Army

Torpedo HOUSATONIC , warship of the North Army, with installing


bomb in the end of BOOM (1864)

All the crew were killed by explosion and sinking

-12-

History
1st Milestone Holland 1

-13-

History

Holland VIII (USA, 1900)

(The First Modern Submarine]


Adopted by every nations Navy( USA, UK, Germany, Japan)
Used Paraffin Engine for Voyage, Electric Engine for Diving
Equipped with A Torpedo Tube and DECK GUN

-14-

History
Submarine in World War I: Germany constructed U Boat
Equipped Diesel Engine & Lead-acid Battery, operated guns, torpedoed
and mine
Sink 13,000,000 tons of vessels of the Allies, Damaged 7,500,000 tons,
loss of 14,000 lives

Mission & Task


Cut off logistic support attacking vessels by torpedo
Block port or narrow area of the sea by laying mines
-15-

History
Character of Submarine in WWI
Hull & Weapons
Streamlined Hull form(Mainly for Surface navigation)
Installing 3 inch Cannon on deck
Embarking a lot of sea mine inside storehouse

Characteristic

Constructing 500-900t level submarine, capacity of installing weapon increased


Maximize its usage by surface operation on night time, and diving on day time
Speed increased by using Steam turbine
-16-

History
Submarine in WW II(Germany)
Submarine mass construction and advanced performance
Submerged depth 200m, double hull, snorkel, torpedo and
anti-air gun

-17-

History
Submarine in WW II(USA, UK)
Large size up to 3,000t, increase of cruising range, development
of radar & sonar

UK R Class

-18-

History
Submarine in WW II
Hull & Weapons

Torpedo tube{forward 4 EA /after 2 EA)

Surface ship hull form(700 ~ 1200t)


Diesel/ electric propel(including SNORKEL system)

Improve loading unit &

Installed Periscope, Radar


The first submarine loaded aircraft(M2) (UK)

Development of Homing Torpedo

loading plenty of torpedo


Installed guns on the deck(20mm ~ 5)

-19-

History
Snorkeling
For charging battery generator needs air.
So raise up snorkel mast for intake oxygen, and charging
battery

-20-

History
USS Nautilus 1955
1st nuclear powered Submarine

Equipped with PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor)


-21-

History
The change of submarine hull form
Type of Hull
FLEET TYPE

Submarine before SNORKEL type(used by WW II)


Surface vessel, Stream Line hull form
Especially for surface operation, minimize wave-making
resistance

Surface speed is faster than submerged speed

<Surface vessel type, Gato class submarine in WW II>


-22-

History
TEAR DROP Type
Cylindrical, Tear Drop hull form

Mainly for underwater operation


Streamlined and small sized Conning Tower
Minimize Frictional resistance, decreased hydrodynamic noise
Submerged speed is faster than surface speed

<The first Tear Drop hull submarine : Albacore, USA 1953>


Submarine diving when it needed
Changed
Submarine surfacing when it needed
-23-

History
Nuclear Submarine
1954 USA, The worlds first Nuclear Submarine(Nautilus)
1959 USA, Constructed the worlds first submarine equipped
with Nuclear warhead Intercontinental ballistic missile
USA and the Soviet Union constructed a number of SSBN &SSN
in the Cold War period

Seawolf

Akula
-24-

History
Figures of nuclear powered submarine
Characteristic
Cylindrical or Tear drop hull
Noise reduction
Increased underwater detection
Divided into SSN, SSBN

Armament
Wire Guided
Torpedo
Anti-ship Missile
Land attack missile
Mine

Task & Mission


SSBN : restrain nuclear war
SSN : additional mission to SS
mission
- Carrier Battle Group Support
- SSBN protection
-25-

History
Nuclear Powered Attack Submarine (SSN)

Los Angels class

SEAWOLF class

Submerged speed 32kts/ Submerged


displacement 6,927t,

Submerged speed 36kts/ Submerged


displacement 9,137t,

Maximum submerged depth 450m / Torpedo


tube 4 EA (533mm)

Maximum submerged depth 610m / Torpedo


tube 8 EA(660mm)
SUB - HARPOON, TOMAHAWK, MK 48

SUB - HARPOON, TOMAHAWK, MK 48


-26-

History
Strategic Submarine Ballistic Nuclear (SSBN)

OHIO class SSBN (USA)


Submerged displacement 18,750t
Missile mounted (Trident II 24EA / 6,500NM)
Nuclear Deterrence by retaliation to preemptive
strike
Nuclear attack to strategic target
TYPOON class SSBN(Submerged displacement
26,500t / Russia) SS-N-20 20 EA / 4,500NM)
-27-

History
Trident 2 D5 SLBM

-28-

History
Modern diesel submarine
Feature
Cylindrical or Tear drop hull
Noise reduction
Increased underwater detection
Diesel-electric propulsion +AIP(1990s)

Increased Task & Mission


Anti-surface ship, anti-submarine
Sea lane containment &
protection
Port containment
Early Warning
Mine laying Support special
operations
-29-

Armament
Wire Guided
Torpedo
Anti Ship Missile
Mine

History
Conventional diesel submarine
Underwater propulsion by battery
Recharging by diesel generator when battery discharged

Gotland
(Stirling)

Type 209
KILO

Collins
-30-

History
AIP submarine
Enlarging diving period of conventional diesel submarine
Stirling Engine, Fuel Cell, CCDE and MESMA
Gotland
(Stirling)

212(FC)
Agosta 90(B)
(MESMA)
-31-

History
The Changing Role in Wars
Operational effectiveness of submarine was proved during world war I&II
Stealth, retaliation, cost-effectiveness are superior
Actual threat of submarine was proved again in Falklands war(1982)
Argentina : Cruiser was sunk at the early outbreak of the war, only 1
submarine 209 class, San Luis was available
British Task Fleet: about 20 vessels of light aircraft carrier, nuclear
powered submarine, destroyer, frigate were on a full alert against
submarine attack, discharged 200 rounds of anti-submarine weapons
Due to recent change to littoral combat, development of submarine is
accelerated
Nuclear powered submarines of the Big Powers has more strengthen in
littoral operations
Conventional submarine has advanced performance and various
armament
-32-

Submarine Systems
Submarine Systems

Group

Name

100

200

300

400

500

Hull

Propulsion
Systems

Electric
Systems

Command &
Surveillance
Systems

Auxiliary
Systems

-33-

600

Outfit and
Furnishing

700

Armament

Submarine Systems
Arrangement example - I

Class 209

34

Submarine Systems
Arrangement example - II

Class 214

35

Submarine Systems
Arrangement example - III

Class 212

36

Submarine Systems
Tank arrangement

37

Submarine Systems
Electrical Technology Development
Category

Present

Development in process

Electric
Propulsion

DC Motor

PEM Motor
- Light, small
- Reliability
Superconductivity Motor is in
development

Electrical
System

Voltage regulating

Constant Voltage
- Safety & Efficiency

Automation

Integrated control
- Multi-Function Control Console
(MFCC)
- Integration systems

Special control panel


Independent Control

-38-

Submarine Systems
Propulsion
Indirect driven method
Battery -- Propulsion motor - Shaft - Propeller

39

Submarine Systems
Diesel-powered propulsion

Major equipment : Propulsion motor, Diesel Generator, Battery, Switchboard


40

Submarine Systems
AIP(Air Independent Propulsion) - Fuel Cell

41

Submarine Systems
AIP types

Fuel Cell
Closed Cycle Diesel Engine(CCDE)

MESMA

Stirling Engine
42

Submarine Systems
Nuclear-powered propulsion

43

Submarine Systems
Combat system
Navigation

Signal Buoys
Decoys

Flank
Array Sonar

Periscopes
Electronic Support Measures
Radar
Communications
Intercept
Sonar

Torpedoes
Missiles
Mines

Bow
Sonar
Towed Array
Sonar
3rd Party
Data

Command
Command
Management
Management
System
System
44

Combat Support
System

Submarine Systems
Combat System
Command & Control system
Periscope
Data Bus(LAN), MFCC, CMS
Acoustic Detection System
TAS, FAS, BPS, PRS, IS, AS,
ESM
MAS, ONA
R/D
Non-acoustic System
Periscope, ESM, Radar, IFF
Navigation Sys.
INS, GPS, EM-Log, depth
C&C
sounder, DRT, NDMC
Communication Sys
HF, VHF, UHF, SHF, LF, VLF
Internal Communication &
SONAR Console
Announcing Sys.

45

Communication
Antenna
Torpedo, Guided
Missile

SONAR
sensors

Submarine Systems
Acoustic Counter Measure System

Flank
Array Sonar
Intercept
Sonar

Torpedoes
Missiles
Mines

Bow
Sonar
Towed Array
Sonar

46

Submarine Systems
Non-acoustic Counter Measure System
Periscope Pressure Hull penetrate type/ non-penetrate type

47

Submarine Systems
Non-acoustic Counter
Measure system
Radar
Navigation Radar
Available with
periscope/Snorkel and
only in surface
navigation
ESM
Acquire target data by
analyzing enemy radar
wave
Available with
periscope/Snorkel and
only in surface
navigation

48

Submarine Systems
Communication system
High Speed Buoyant
Cable Antenna

Mast Mounted Antennas


at Periscope Depth

Towed
Buoy

Expendable
Communications
Buoy

VLF/HF/UHF (EHF)

VLF

Depth

VLF

ELF

Towed
Antenna

Speed

49

Submarine Systems
Mast

50

Submarine Systems
Auxiliary Systems
Living Quarter
Bedroom & dining room
Kitchen & Food storage

51

Submarine Systems
Air regeneration system
Density limits of gas
Oxygen : keep 21 ~ 18%
CO2 : keep under 1%
Hydrogen : keep under 2%

52

Submarine Systems
Escape and rescue system

53

Submarine Systems
Escape and rescue system

Rescue sphere

DSRV

SRC

DSRV
54

Submarine Systems
Weapon
Mounted weapon : Torpedo, guided missile, mine, torpedo
decoy
Weapon launcher : Torpedo tube, decoy launcher

55

Submarine Systems
Torpedo tube

56

Submarine Systems
Weapon handling system

57

Submarine Systems
Torpedo

58

Submarine Systems
Guided missile

Exocet
range 70 km

Harpoon
range 90 km

1m

Tomahawk
range 450 km (anti-ship)
2000 km (land targets)

59

Submarine Systems
Anti-ship missile - Harpoon

60

Submarine Systems
Anti-aircraft missile

61

Submarine Systems
Mine

Submarine Launched Mobile Mine (SLMM)

62

Submarine Systems
Torpedo decoy
- Floating type, navigator type

63

Submarine Systems
UNMANNED UNDER- WATER VEHICLE(UUV)
- shallow sea forward searching
- Mine search & removal

64

Design and Building


Countries who
can design and
build submarine

Country
USA
UK
Germany

General Dynamics - General Dynamics, Groton


NewPort News SB - Newport News Shipbuilding
BAE Submarine Solution
HDW - Howaldtswerke, kiel
GSC - German Submarine Consortium (Comprising Hdw and Thyssen)

France

DCN - DCN, Cherbourg Naval Dockyard


Cherbourg - Cherbourg Dockyard

Russia

Servmash - Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk - Severodvinsk 492 Shipyard
Komsomolsk - Komosomolsk
Admiralty Yard - Admiralty Yard, St Petersburg
Nizhny Novgorod - Nizhny Novgorod, Gorky

China

Huludao SY - Huludao Shipyard


Wuhan SY - Wuhan Shipyard

Japan

Mitsubishi - Mitsubishi, Kobe


Kawasaki - Kawasaki, Kobe

North Korea
Sweden
Netherland

Refer to Janes
Underwater warfare
System (07-08)

Shipbuilder

Italy
Total

Sinpo shipyard / Sang-O class


Yukdaeso-ri shipyard / Yugo class
Kockums - Kockums, Malmo / Gotland class
RDM - Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij, Rotterdam / Walrus class
Fincantieri - Fincantieri, Monfalcone / Sauro class

Design and Building capable countries

11 EA

Design and Building capable shipbuilders

21 EA

65

Design and Building


Countries who can build submarine
Country
South Korea

Shipbuilder
Daewoo - Daewoo Okpo
Hyundai Hyundai Ulsan

Spain

Navantia - Navantia shipyard / Scorpene class

Brazil

Rio de Janeiro DY - Rio de janeiro Dock yard / 209 class

Total

Submarine building capable countries

3 EA

Submarine building capable shipbuilders

4 EA

Refer to Janes Underwater warfare System (07-08)

66

Design and Building


Submarine development procedure

-67-

Design and Building


Comparison of designing
Korean type

Germany

Feasibility Study

Tactical Technical
Requirement study

Concept design

Pre-feasibility Phase

Basic
design

UK

Feasibility And
Concept Design

Concept
studies

Preliminary
design

Feasibility
Phase

Preliminary
Design Phase

Feasibility
Phase

Contract
design

Definition
Phase

Contract
Design Phase

Design for
Build

Detail Design and


Construction
Phase

Detail Design
And Construction
Phase

Production
Design

Detail design/
shipbuilding

1)
2)

US

U.S. Navy Design Process and Construction


Concepts in Submarine Design(UCL)

-68-

Design and Building


Major contents by each step of design
Feasibility Study
Contents
Concept
& Period

Action
item

Result

Specification and building alternatives are deduced for new


building requirement, based on initial operation performance
Required period : 6 ~ 12 months
Development trend

Propulsion system

Space / general placement

Alternatives deduction

Submarine size estimation

Detection & weapon system

Required engine speed

Weight estimation

Shape and material review

Procurement plan & budget

Feasibility Study review report & drawings

-69-

Design and Building


Major contents by each step of design
Concept design
Contents
For ROC confirmation/ Top Level Requirement (TLR) writing,
select optimistic hull form based on the alternatives which is
Concept & deduced from feasibility study step.
Period
On this step, rough design solution is provided about technical
issues and guideline for basic design
Required period : 6 ~ 12 months

Action
item

Concept of design, ship size estimation, hull form design,


general arrangement
Stability, special performance, propulsion system, combat
system
Major equipment list, required budget estimation, etc.

Result

Requirement for Operational Capabilities (ROC), Top Level


Requirement (TLR)
-70-

Design and Building


Major contents by each step of design
Basic design
Contents
Design for TLR requirement and generate the specification,
performance, armament, equipment arrangement, equipment
Concept &
specification, system integration, drawing for detail design & building
Period
contract, building cost, etc. In the result, TLS is made
Period : 3 ~ 4years
Ship dimensions & hull form decision : model test in parallel
Various systems design/arrangement and performance review
Criteria for specific performance and analysis
Action item
Crew living quarter design
GFE/CFE specification decision
Official design review
Result

Top Level Specification(TLS), Building Specification

-71-

Design and Building


Major contents by each step of design
Detail design/shipbuilding
Contents
Stage of generating detailed technical data and making detailed
Concept & working plan for shipbuilding & equipment arrangements based on
basic design
Period
Period : 3 ~ 6years

Action
item

Detail design and ship building plan establishment


Major equipment installation scheme review and decision
Materials supply plan and quantity estimation
Integrated logistics support plan
Pressure hull detail structure modeling
Test and Evaluation Plan
Various systems design, etc.

Result

Detail report/construction drawing for building, operation manuals


-72-

Design and Building


Submarine WBS(Work Breakdown Structure)
Submarine

0000
System
integration

System
performance
Configuration
management
Quality
assurance

1000
Hull
structure

2000
Propulsion
system

3000
Electric system

4000
Command &
detection sys.

5000
Auxiliary
system

6000
Outfitting
system

Shell plate

Propulsion
system

Power
generator sys.

Command &
control sys.

General
Auxiliary sys.

General
outfitting sys.

Guided
missile

Generator,
Propeller sys.

Electric
supply sys.

Navigation
sys.

Air
regeneration

Hull Outfitting

Mine

Living
quarter

Torpedo

Pressure hull
BHD
structure
Foundation

Propulsion
Auxiliary

Ship control
& watch sys.

Hull form

Communicati
on

Sea water
sys.

Underwater
detection sys.

Clean water
sys.

7000
Weapon
system

ILS
Ship control
sys.

Set based on MIL-HDBK-881A and US Navy SWBS(Ship Work Breakdown Structure)

-73-

Design and Building


Hull structure technology status and development trend
Category

Status

Pressure hull
material

High Yield Strength Steel


(HY-80, 100)
High Strength Low Alloy
Steel (HLES)
Nonmagnetic steel
(titanium)

Hull structure
design

Theoretical calculation of
steel plates
Stress concentration part
FEM analysis

-74-

Development
High Yield Strength
Steel (HY-130)
Considering submerged
depth, operating area and
Workability

FEM analysis
expansion

Design and Building


Hull structure technology status
Safety Factor
Calculation depth / Maximum diving depth: 1.5 2.0

Hull Material
To minimize weight of pressure hull, steel strength is increased
High Yield Steel is used

HY-80, HY-100, HY-130

High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) applying is increased


Pre-Heating is unnecessary, cost saving
Research on composite material application
The case using Titanium on the former Soviet Unions submarine

The former Soviet Unions Alfa class (1977 built)


- made of Titanium
- dive available to maximum 1300m

-75-

Design and Building


Acoustic Stealth Technology Status
Underwater radiated noise level of advanced countries is
decreasing 10dB by 10years
Underwater radiated noise of submarine tends to decrease 10dB
by additional displacement of 1,000 ton

-76-

Design and Building


Acoustic Stealth Technology Status
Category

Technical status

Development trend

Underwater
radiated noise,
Sonar self-noise,
ship internal noise,
etc.

Low noise machines installation


Complex multi vibration isolation
system (Raft,. Elastic platform)
Acoustic enclosure
Elastic mount
Hull coating (damping increase)

Active mount applied


Research on magnetic
levitation vibration isolation
system application
Research on active control
submarine noise

Acoustic Target
Strength

Shape design
Anechoic coating material applied

Passive + active anechoic


coating material
development in research

(Raft)

(Acoustic enclosure)

-77-

Design and Building


Radiated noise from mechanical noise sources
Passive Sonar

Radiated noise from propeller

Submarine Noise

Flow noise
Active Sonar

Target strength

78

Design and Building


Machinery noise
decrease scheme

Sound absorption

Underwater noise
insulation coating
Acoustic shielding
Mount
Vibration isolation
Common bed

Fluid noise decrease scheme


Streamlined design
Minimize the size & qty of the Openings

Propeller noise decrease scheme


Singing : Processing on blade edge, High Damping
Material
Increase number of blades, highly Skewed Propeller
79

Design and Building


Non-acoustic stealth, shock, etc technology status
Underwater electromagnetic technology
Non-magnetic hull development, in applying
Deperming & Degaussing System applied
Expanded application to permanent magnetic field & AC electromagnetic
field decreasing
RCS minimization : minimized RCS design on major mast

Minimize IR detection : Exhaust gas cooling equipment


Shock
Design for underwater explosion
Equipment & crew protection design
Some advanced countries conducted real shock test
Shock design verification & crew training
By installation COTS Equipment, anti-shock design required

-80-

Design and Building


Safety concept
Safety Factor

81

Design and Building


Rescue concept

FREE ASCENT
60
FREE ESCAPE
SRC

180

260
DSRV
RESCUE
SPHERE

MAX.
DIVING
DEPTH

COLLAPSE DEPTH

82

Design and Building


Submarine building process

83

Design and Building

84

Design and Building

85

Design and Building

86

Design and Building


Korean submarine type
Dolphin class small submarine

209 class submarine

214 class submarine

-87-

Development Trend
Structure development trend
Larger
Deeper depth
Maximized diving duration
Low noise
Various weapon installation & integration
Improved detection & information process capability
Littoral operations capability

-88-

Development Trend
Submarine technology development trend
Continuous increase of stealth
Improved diving duration ability => Application AIP, next
generation battery development
Improved stealth performance => Noise decrease measures,
coatings, low noise shape, etc.
Increased submerged depth => High tension steel development
Hull with sensors & intelligent combat management system
Weapon diversification & maximize precision strike ability
Land attack/Anti-aircraft guided missile
Unmanned underwater vehicle, etc.

-89-

Schedule for Design Lecture at DSME


Lecture
Course

Target

Basic
Performances

Trainees
1st

2nd

Period
(week)

Basic design
engineers from
shipyard

Hull Structure

Hull structure
design engineers
from shipyard

Machinery
System

Mechanical
engineers from
shipyard

Electric
System

Electric engineers
from shipyard

Electronic &
Weapon
System

Electronic
engineers from
shipyard

12

Total

-90-

Terima Kasih
Q&A
Partner of Submarine ToT for Indonesia