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EFFECT OF

PERFORATION
DAMAGE ON WELL
PRODUCTIVITY
By : MUHAMMAD TAUFIQ
QURRAHMAN
CINDY CLARA AFRISCA
RADEN MAS FAUZAN

Content

Tujuan
Sejarah perforasi
Evaluasi kerusakan formasi akibat perforasi
Faktor- faktor penurunan Well Deliverability
akibat Perforasi

TUJUAN

Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara Well Deliverability


dengan Perforation Damage berdasarkan kedalaman dan
besarnya kerusakan permeabilitas yang disebabkan oleh
proses pengeboran dan proses perforasi .

SEJARAH
Gun perforation telah
digunakan selama lebih dari 40
tahun untuk menghasilkan aliran
terkontrol antara reservoir
minyak , reservoir gas dan sumur
injeksi atau sumur produksi . Gun
Perforation ini pertama kali
diperkenalkan oleh Union Oil Co
of California , Los Angeles
County, California . , Di 1932 .
Sejak saat itu banyak jenis peluru
khusus dan jet telah
diperkenalkan untuk
meningkatkan proses perforasi ,
dan sehingga terciptalah istilah
gun perforating "

EVALUATION OF FORMATION
DAMAGE

As matter of fact, perforation are never clean. the act of perforating


crushes the rock and forces the particles from the hole area into the
surrounding formation. Under adverse conditions of too great wellbore
pressure and presence of drilling mud or dirty completion fluid, severe
additional damage may result.
As a result of this work, the industry adopted in 1962 a standard test
procedure, API Recommended Practice No. 43 (RP 43), for comparing
the flow properties of perforations. The 1962 edition of RP 43 describes
perforation effectiveness in terms of a Well Flow Index (WFI)
determined for flow through a perforation made into a standard
cylindrical Bore area sandstone core under simulated wellbore
conditions. WFI was defined as the ratio of the apparent permeability of
the perforated core (kP)to the pemleability of the unperforated core
with both ends open (kO),The WFI so defined was misleading in that
the effect of perforation damage was masked by the effect of
penetration depth. The index name was a misnomer because it had no
relation to down-hole weHproductivity in a radial system.

Contd

In recognition of these problems, API RP 43 was revised in 1971to


provide a measure of permeability damage in the perforation. In the
new procedure, the apparent permeability measured in a core with a
real damaged perforation (Kp) is compared mathematically with the
permeability of a core with an ideal, clean perforation of the same
depth (ki). This new measure of perforator performance is called Core
Flow Efficiency (CFE) and is defined in RP 43 (197 1) as

CFE near 1,0 indicates a relatively clean perforation; CFE < 1.0, a
dirty or damaged perforation.

EFFECT OF PERFORATIONS
Flow resistance through the
permeable media is described by
pic below ; we used four different
permeabilities:
1. Virgin undamaged reservoir
rock permeability, K1= 1.0.
2. Permeability of the region
around the wellbore damaged
by drilling, 0.0< k2 <1.0.
3. Permeability of the region
around the perforation
damaged by perforating, 0.0<
K3<1,0.
4. Permeability of the region
damaged by both drilling and
perforating, K4

Contd

The relationship between Core


Flow Efficiency (CFE), as defined
in API 22P 43, and a similar
term,Well Flow Efficiency (WFE),
that we defined for flow into a
perforated well, WFE is defined as
the ratio of flow rate into a cased
well through a real perforation. in
a zone that has been damaged by
perforating, drilling, or workover
to the flow rate into the same well
through a clean, ideal perforation
of the same depth in an
undamaged zone
The effect on WFE of a
permeability-damaged region
around the wellbore, such as
might be caused by the drilling or
workover process when the
perforations are ideal and
undamaged.

The effect on WFE of a


permeability-damaged region
around the perforation, such
as might be caused by the
perforating process, in a
formation without formation
damage from drilling or
workover
Finally, we combined all
these. effects to determine
how WFE is affected when
both drilling damage and
perforation damage are
present at the same time.

Faktor utama yang sangat


berpengaruh terhadap turunnya well
deliverability
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Perforation Fluid
Crushed Zone and Perforation Debris
Underbalance Perforation
Depth of Perforation
Diameter of Perforation
Shot Density

Contd

PERFORATION FLUID
Setiap fluida yang kontak dengan formasi mempunyai potensi untuk merusak.
Pengaruh ini akan semakin besar bila fluida terinvasi melalui perforasi sehingga
mencapai kedalaman tertentu. Lumpur bor dan semen mungkin mengandung aditif
yang dimaksudkan untuk mengurangi fluid loss ke dalam formasi, tetapi fluid loss
additive di dalam fluida perforasi dapat menyumbat lubang perforasi dan sulit
dihilangkan.
Tindakan mitigasi yang harus dilakukan untuk menghindari penyumbatan perforasi
dan pori formasi dengan jalan membersihkan secara keseluruhan casing, rangkaian
peralatan dan alat-alat permukaan dengan bahan kimia pencuci, asam, caustic
serta bahan abrasive sebelum casing diperforasi. Sumur harus diisi dengan fluida
yang bersih dan telah disaring. Jika setelah perforasi, fluid loss terlihat berlebihan,
maka densitas dari fluida harus diturunkan seminimum mungkin dalam kadar
aman. Fluid loss additive berupa padatan harus dihindari, untuk itu hanya padatan
yang cukup kasar yang dipakai agar invasinya minimal dan harus larut dengan air,
asam atau minyak agar mudah dihilangkan

Contd
CRUSHED ZONE AND
PERFORATION DEBRIS
Kerusakan formasi pada saat perforasi menembus
suatu formasi akibat injeksi material dari
perforating gun. Tembaga, timbal (lead) dan
karbon merupakan komponen-komponen pecahan
yang paling banyak dijumpai dari pengujian Jet
Perforating Gun.
Bila peluru perforasi ditembakkan, maka peluru
perforasi akan menembus casing, semen, formasi
dan membuat lubang. Material pada alur peluru
tidak hilang, sebagian logam dan semen
mengalami disintegrasi/hancur dan sebagian

Contd
UNDERBALANCE PERFORATION
Ekstensi compacted zone dan permeabilitasnya
tergantung pada sifat fisik batuannya,
perforating charge dan kerusakan sebelum
perforasi. Perforasi underbalance dapat
mengurangi pengaruh kerusakan dengan jalan
memecah compacted zone tersebut, dengan
kata lain semakin kuat suatu batuan, semakin
tinggi beda tekanan yang dibutuhkan

Contd
DEPTH OF PERFORATION
Saucier menyimpulkan bahwa kedalaman
penetrasi dari suatu perforasi tidak dipengaruhi
oleh beda tekanan selama perforasi. Kedalaman
dan diameter perforasi ditentukan oleh ukuran
dan desain dari perforating gun, ukuran charge,
jarak gun dengan dinding casing dan kekuatan
formasi. Kinerja sumur meningkat bila dipakai
perforating gun yang penetrasinya melampaui
zona terinvasi dan perforasi terbatas dan dalam
lebih efektif dibanding dengan perforasi banyak
tapi dangkal.

Contd

DIAMETER OF PERFORATION
Untuk ukuran gun dan charge tetap, maka
penetrasi akan berkurang bila diameter
bertambah. Diameter lebih dipentingkan pada
formasi pasir unconsolidated, karena penetrasi
akan dalam jika batuannya lunak dan aliran
melewati perforasi gravel pack akan makin baik
jika diameter perforasinya lebih besar. Pada
formasi keras, penetrasi lebih dipentingkan
dibanding diameter, sehingga lubang perforasi
cenderung 3/8 inci atau lebih kecil.

Contd
SHOT DENSITY
Well Flow Analysis atau Nodal Analysis (Mach)
adalah cara yang paling baik untuk menghitung
pengaruh shot density terhadap kapasitas
produksi sumur. Dua uji analisis hasil, pertama
memberikan data se-realistik mungkin dan
hitung kinerja perforasi optimum. Kedua
menghitung perforation density berdasar
kondisi ideal dan usahakan mencapai sedekat
mungkin dengan hasil sebelumnya (matched)
dengan meminimalkan kerusakan formasi dan
memaksimalkan keefektifan perforasi.

THANK
S
REFERENCE : EFFECT OF PERFORATION DAMAGE ON WELL
PRODUCTIVITY
SPE-4654-PA