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Arteries, Arterioles, Veins,

Venules, & Capillaries

Arteries
Large hose-like vessels
Carry blood away from
the heart.
Have thick, multilayered muscular walls.
Walls are capable of
stretching to
accommodate the
pulse of blood when
the heart beats.

Arteries
Capable of expanding
and contracting to
change and maintain the
blood pressure.
NO valves
Blood spurts
Blood inside them is
high in oxygen & low in
carbon dioxide except in
pulmonary artery.

Arteries
Blood inside is bright
red
Blood inside is under
High pressure
Examples:
Coronary (heart),
Brachial (arms),
Carotid (head),
Femoral (legs),
Renal (kidney).

Arterioles
Tiny branches off of the arteries.
Cannot be seen with unaided eye microscopic
Thinner, less muscular walls (compared to
arteries)
Feed blood into the capillaries.
Narrower than arteries, but wider than
capillaries.

Capillaries
Flow and pressure of blood
is controlled by sphincters
that are outside of the
capillaries.
Microscopic vessels ~ 8 m
in diameter.
Erythrocytes (rbcs) pass
through in single file.
Walls are only one cell thick
(to facilitate diffusion of
materials/exchange).

Capillaries
Thinness allows for
easy diffusion
outward or inward
through the single cell
layer.
Form capillary beds networks of vessels
linking arterial and
venous blood.

Capillaries
Oxygen , nutrients and other materials
move out of the capillaries and into the
extra-cellular fluid and then into cells.
Carbon dioxide, wastes and other materials
are picked up and move into the capillaries:
(both involve diffusion for the movement).

Venules
Vessels larger than capillaries but smaller
(i.e. narrower and thinner walls) than veins.

Veins

Larger inside diameter compared to


arteries
Take blood towards the heart
Thinner, less muscular walls than
arteries, but still 3 layers
No stretching or contracting of walls
except by external muscles.
Contain valves to help return the
blood to the heart (compensate for
lower venous pressure, less muscle
in walls, and large diameter).

Veins - Valves

Veins

Blood:
Moves smoothly.
Low in oxygen except
pulmonary circulation.
Dull red.
Low pressure.
Examples: cardiac (heart),
brachial (arms), jugular
(head), femoral (legs),
renal (kidney).

Varicose Veins (copy this)


When the valves
dont function
properly, blood
leaks backwards
and pools in veins
Veins sag, stretch
and swell, creating
bulging knarled
vessels

The END!!