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CPR Then and Now


Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation or CPR is one of the most common medical procedures
that has proven to be highly successful. The origin of CPR dates back to even before the United
States won its independence from England. Since 1900 CPR has evolved tremendously. In
today's day and age there are new procedures to perform CPR. If CPR is started within 4 minutes
of collapse and defibrillation provided within 10 minutes a person has a 40% chance of survival.
By utilizing CPR procedures successfully, countless lives have been saved since its origin.
CPR can be very successful and has evolved tremendously due to the advancement of
information from many different doctors. James Elam was the first doctor along with his partner,
Dr. Peter Safar, to discover and publish the truly effective method known as CPR. Their method
was a result from August 1767 in which a group of wealthy civic-minded citizens in Amsterdam
formed The Society for Recovery of Drowned Persons (History of CPR). The society was
the first organized effort to respond to sudden death. Now with CPR a person's chance of
survival from sudden cardiac arrest was doubled opposed to not doing anything.
Due to the advances by some of the most noteworthy doctors the performance of the
procedure was not the same in the past as it is today. The first time is different than now. In the
early 1950s there was only the chest compressions and the mouth to mouth rescue breathing
method which is still used today, however one of the techniques is more valuable than the other.
Besides the fact that chest compressions and rescue breaths are still used we now have
technological machines to assist us with the procedure of CPR. At first CPR only required an
even number reps and breaths now mouth to mouth is not as important. Doctors learned that
pumping blood into your heart using chest compressions is more vital than mouth to mouth (Pro

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CPR Article). The heart must continue to pump blood in order to heighten your chances of
surviving. Today, more chest compressions are needed in CPR than rescue breaths.
From the past to now chest compressions have become a more needed technique in CPR
even more needed than rescue breaths. Over the years of study doctors learned how much more
important chest compressions are then rescue breaths. Doctors have learned chest compressions
are more important because if the heart stops beating it needs blood flow over anything(Pro CPR
Article). Also doctors have discovered that rescue breaths arent needed as much because they
take time away from chest compressions. The LUCAS machine is a clear example of how chest
compressions are more vital, the machine does one thing because it has one important job;
keeping your heart pumping blood through your body. It automatically delivers chest
compressions to the victim(Ideon). If rescue breaths were more or even just as vital as chest
compressions the LUCAS machine wouldnt only just pump your chest, the machine would also
include a respirator. This further proves how the CPR methods have changed over the years as
well as proving that rescue breaths are no longer as important as chest compressions.
Even though CPR is a tiring process, the procedure only consists of three simple steps.
The first step in a CPR situation is to check the victim to see if they are unresponsive. If they are
not responsive, find a phone nearby and call emergency services. After calling for help while
they are enroute to the location, start chest compressions by pumping the victim's chest with
ones hands so the heart is still pumping blood. After thirty chest compressions it's time for
rescue breaths. First tilt the victims head back and lift the chin. Then pinch the victims nose,
next cover their mouth with your own and blow until the chest rises. Two rescue breaths should
be given every thirty chest compressions and each rescue breath should take one second . Chest
compressions are important for CPR because every time someone's heart pumps during a CPR

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situation their chance of living increases by one minute (Eisenberg). Rescue breaths play a big
role as well, when the heart stops beating, the person stops breathing, rescue breaths send oxygen
from your mouth down your airway in to your lungs making it possible to breathe. The process
provided clearly shows only three simple steps are needed for the procedure of CPR to help save
lives.
Over the course of time many medical devices besides the LUCAS have been invented to
assist people in succeeding in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Such devices are the defibrillator
and the breathing bag. The defibrillator is a last resort when it comes to CPR, it is only used if
mouth to mouth and chest compressions fail during CPR. The defibrillator sends a electrically
charged bolt of electricity to your heart in order to get it working again. Two pads are placed on
the body, one on the right chest, the other below the heart so the energy is sent right to the heart.
Think of defibrillation as trying to jumpstart a car the heart is the car battery and the defibrillator
is the jumper cables. Once both sides of the cables connected, start the running car, its energy
going right through the cables into the dead battery giving the battery power(Pro CPR Article). In
the operating room, it's almost the same scenario. Once the doctor places the pads on, they yell
clear and send the energy from the defibrillator right to the unbeating heart to start it up again.
A defibrillator saved my life at least four times, including two when I completely passed out
says Matthew Murray who was a victim of cardiac arrest (Feder). Although it's proven to be
successful, the use of defibrillators has declined. Doctor and patients decide the risks and
uncertainties the device pose may outweigh their potential benefit. This strongly proves how
even though the defibrillator can be dangerous it is successful in saving people.
Another important device used for CPR is the breathing bag. This bag covers the victim's
nose and mouth. It has a thick rubber bag attached to the side which has an oxygen tube running

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from the bottom of the bag all the way to the tank of oxygen. The facepiece cover the nose and
mouth to send direct oxygen to the lungs. While oxygen is running through the bag someone
must squeeze the bag while the facepiece is on the victim sending oxygen directly into the
victim's lungs so the patient can breathe. After the bag is squeezed, one must loosen the grip of
the hands from the bag and let it self-inflate from its other end drawing in either ambient air or
low pressure oxygen flow. If a person's airway is closed, the breathing bag can be attached to an
endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway to open the patient's airway so they can
breathe(proCPR Article). These alternative types of devices are helpful when trying to save lives
of people suffering from Cardiac arrest. By utilizing these devices more lives can be saved.

CPR certification is offered to citizens that would like to learn this procedure. People
have to option of being CPR certified which trains people about what to do in a medical
situation. Anyone can become certified by taking a CPR or First-Aid class at a medical facility.
Certification is also available on the internet. CPR training will teach a person how to check the
scene of the emergency, how to determine the needs of a victim, and how to know when to call
911. Also included are first aid skills for controlling bleeding and treating cuts, scrapes, bee
stings, insect and snake bites. The instructor also shows you the signs and symptoms of a heart
attack. CPR certification classes can be found on the internet (How to get First Aid and CPR
Training) or in your local community hospitals hold CPR classes for people interested. Most
importantly, Earning a first aid and CPR certification will prepare you for emergencies and
make you a better caregiver ). Of course its important to become CPR and first aid certified,
but its equally vital to take refresher courses.(How to Get First Aid and CPR Training) As
stated by Don Lauritzen, spokesperson from American Red Cross, 70% of Americans feel

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helpless to act during a cardiac emergency because they dont know how to perform CPR or
their training has significantly lapsed(Motivation Monday) The American Heart Association
stated Any CPR is better than no CPR, the chance of a person surviving drops 10% every
minute CPR is delayed. Cardiac arrest can happen at anytime and anywhere, it can occur at
home, work, grocery store, gym. Knowing how to perform CPR can save lives, also knowing
CPR can make a person a hero.

In some professions it is necessary to be CPR certified and some jobs prefer people to be
certified in CPR and being CPR certified looks great on a resume. The employer will see this as
a very useful asset (Martinez). People can become certified by taking actual classes at a place
or they can get certification online. I believe everyone should know how to provide the basic
lifesaving skills associated with CPR.(Sieler) Jobs such as being a Nanny or any other job that
involves being around young children and babies require their applicants to be CPR certified,
(Nanny Job Description). The American Red Cross offers CPR certification and first aid training
on their home website (Online CPR Certification). Also CPR and first aid certification are
offered at a very inexpensive price. If someone needs or would like to become CPR certified
people can easily get certified, it also proves that learning CPR for an hour and a half can give
someone the power and knowledge to save a life in a minutes.
The evolution of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation has made such an impact that the ways
of the procedure today outdated the procedure methods that were first created. The origin dates
back to the 1640s. The first time was all hands on but now there are machines and equipment
used to assist people in making CPR a success. Today people use the LUCAS machine to
automatically give chest compressions to the victim. There is also the defibrillator which is used
to shock the victim's heart in hope of saving their life. CPR certification is very beneficial as

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people are trained to professionally act in a cardiac situation. The certification also empowers
people by giving them confidence in knowing how perform CPR when needed. Today's
generation is more than lucky CPR is as advanced as it is. CPR is one procedure that saves
almost Ninety two thousand lives a year,(Kelli Cline) People can learn CPR and how to perform
it at the easiest expenses.

Work Cited
Cline, Kelli. "How Many Are Saved with CPR Yearly?" KelliClinecom RSS. American
Heart Association, 5 Apr. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2016.
Eisenberg, Mickey. "CPR Illustrated in Three Simple Steps." CPR Illustrated in Three Simple
Steps. The American Heart Association, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.
Feder, Barnaby J. "Defibrillators Are Lifesaver, but Risks Give Pause." The New York Times. The
New York Times, 12 Sept. 2008. Web. 10 Feb. 2016.

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"History of CPR." CPR & First Aid Emergency Cardiovascular Care. The American Heart
Association, 2015. Web. 10 Jan. 2016.
"How to Get First Aid and CPR Training. nbsp; Jennifer Geisman,Care.com, Inc., 2007. Web.
07 Jan. 2016.
Ideon, Jolfie AB. "History." Welcome to Lucas CPR About Us. Publiciteta & Co., n.d. Web. 11
Jan. 2016.

Martinez, Christian. "CPR Looks Great on Any Resume." Lifesaver Blog. Life Saver Team, 28
Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
"Motivation Monday: CPR Basics with Chris Freytag."KARE. KARE 11 Staff, 3 Aug. 2015.
Web. 07 Jan. 2016.
"Nanny Job Description." Coverlettersandresume.com. N.p., 14 Jan. 2015. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
"Online CPR Certification & Online First Aid Certification: CPRToday! CPR Course
&amp; First Aid Course Introduction." <i>Online CPR Certification &amp; Online First
Aid Certification: CPRToday! CPR Course &amp; First Aid Course Introduction</i>.
CPRToday! Inc., 1999. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
"ProCPR Article - CPR Certification - Why Is It Required?" ProCPR. Ed. Cindy Sieler.
ProTrainings, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2016.
"When I Started My New Job, I Needed CPR Certification Overnight. ProCPR Helped Me Start
Work on Time. Online CPR Certification and Blended CPR Training. Pro Trainings,
2015. Web. 17 Dec. 2015.
Williams, Dr. Mary. "The Benefits of BLS Training." The Benefits of BLS Training. CPR
Certified.com, 27 July 2015. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.