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PENENTUAN CADANGAN

MATERIAL BALANCE
Reference :
1. Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering - LP
Dake
2. Petroleum Engineering Principles & Practices
Archer
3. Diktat TEKRES ITB Asep K Permadi

By: Isrianto Kurniawan

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

1.

2.

3.

Reservoir akan tetap berada dalam keadaan


kesetimbangan seperti pada saat reservoir tersebut
terbentuk kecuali ada gangguan
Gangguan tersebut adalah kegiatan produksi
Akibat dari kegiatan produksi (dari zona oil), maka
situasi di reservoir yang mengandung gas, minyak,
dan air akan berubah
Perubahan yang terjadi adalah:
Tekanan reservoir turun sehingga gas cap
mengembang dan gas-oil contact (GOC) turun
Ada rembesan air (influx) dari aquifer sehingga wateroil contact (WOC) naik
Jika tekanan turun di bawah tekanan bubble maka
solution gas akan keluar dari minyak

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
MATERIAL BALANCE
PADA RESERVOIR MINYAK
A

=
Penambahan akibat ekspansi
minyak dan gas terlarut mula-mula

=
Penambahan akibat ekspansi
Gas cap mula-mula

=
Penambahan akibat
pengurangan HCPV karena kombinasi
dari efek-efek penambahan Connate
Water dan pengurangan volume pori
reservoir

HCPV

Hydrocarbon Pore Volume

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Persamaan material balance diturunkan melalui


volume balance
Volume balance menyatakan bahwa produksi
kumulatif, dinyatakan dalam underground
withdrawal, adalah sama dengan perubahan
volume akibat ekspansi fluida di reservoir karena
tekanan reservoir turun.

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Underground
withdrawl (rb)

=
Expansion of oil + originally dissolved gas (rb) +
Expansion of gascap (rb) + Reduction in HCPV

N is the initial oil in place (STB)


N

Rp

V (1-Swc) / Boi

STB

m
=
Gas cap
volume of oil
Np
=

initial hydrocarbon volume of the


initial hydrocarbon

Rp

Cumulative Gas Oil Ratio

Cumulative Gas Pr oduction


Cumulative Oil Pr oduction

Cumulative Oil Production (STB)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Jika produksi HC yang dicatat di permukaan dinyatakan dalam


underground withdrawal dan dihitung pada tekanan p (artinya semua
volume produksi HC dikembalikan ke reservoir pada tekanan p) maka:

Volume HC yang terproduksi


= Volume A + B + C
= Total perubahan volume (HCPV) akibat
ekspansi fluida dan pengurangan PV

Jadi, MB (atau volume balance) dalam Reservoir Barrel (RB)


adalah:

Underground withdrawal = Ekspansi minyak + Solution gas+ Ekspansi


gas pada gas cap
+ pengurangan volume (akibat ekspansi connate water & pengurangan
PV)+ water influx

Catatan: Volume water influx tidak dimasukkan dalam gambar.

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Persamaan Umum
Notasi Yang Digunakan
Data PVT dan volume hidrokarbon pada waktu awal:
pi (psia), Boi (RB/STB), Bgi (RB/SCF), Bw
(RB/STB), Rsoi (SCF/STB), N (STB), m, cw (psi-1),
cf (psi-1) dimana :

Data PVT dan data produksi pada suatu waktu t:


Np (STB), Wp (STB), We (RB), Rp (SCF/STB), p, p,
Bo (RB/STB), Bgi (RB/SCF) dimana :

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Ruas Kiri:
Underground withdrawal
= minyak terproduksi +
gas terproduksi
= Np Bo + Np (Rp Rso) Bg
= Np [Bo + (Rp Rso) Bg]
dimana
Rp = producing GOR
Rso
= solution GOR

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Ruas Kanan:
Ada 4 (empat) suku, yaitu
Ekspansi minyak + solution gas = ekspansi minyak +
ekspansi gas yang keluar
Ekspansi gas pada gas cap
Pengurangan HCPV karena connate water expansion dan
pengurangan PV
Net water influx

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Ruas Kanan:

Ekspansi minyak + solution gas = ekspansi minyak


+ ekspansi gas yang keluar dari larutan
= N (Bo Boi) + N (Rsoi Rso) Bg
= N [(Bo Boi) + (Rsoi Rso) Bg]

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Ruas Kanan:

Ekspansi gas pada gas cap:

Volume gas cap pada waktu awal (pada p = pi) = m N


Boi
Pada suatu p dimana p < pi, volume gas tersebut = m
N Boi

Maka :

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

EXPANSION TERMS
B. EXPANSION OF GAS CAP
TOTAL VOLUME OF GAS CAP
G mNBoi
G

mNBoi
Bg i

( rb )
( scf )

AT THE REDUCED PRESSURE (P)

Bg
G p mNBoi
Bg i

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
CHANGE IN HCPV DUE TO THE CONNATE WATER EXPANSION
AND PORE VOLUME REDUCTION:
d (HCPV) = - (dVw + dVf)
d (HCPV) = - (cwVw + cfVf) p
Vf = TOTAL PORE VOLUME

Vf

HCPV
1 Swc

Vw = CONNATE WATER VOLUME

Vw V f . Swc

HCPV
.Swc
1 Swc

TOTAL HCPV INCLUDING GAS CAP :


(1+m) N Boi (rb)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

THE HCPV REDUCTION

Cw.Swc Cf
d HCPV 1 m NBoi
1 Swc

.P

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Net water influx


Produksi air dari reservoir = Wp Bw
Air yang masuk ke reservoir dari
aquifer = We
Sehingga net water influx = We Wp
Bw

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

- UNDERGROUND WITHDRAWL

VOLUME OF OIL PLUS DISSOLVED GAS


= Np . Bo
(rb)
LIBERATED AND GAS CAP GAS PRODUCED
= Np (Rp - Rs) Bg (rb)

TOTAL UNDERGROUND WITHDRAWL


= Np (Bo + (Rp - Rs)Bg)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

MATERIAL BALANCE

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Boi

N p Bo R p Rs Bg NBoi

Bg

Cw.Swc Cf

1 1 m
p
m
1 Swc

Bg i

We Wp Bw

We

= Cumulative water influx from the aquifier into the reservoir

(stb)

Wp

= Cumulative amount of aquifer water produced

(stb)

Bw

= Water formation volume factor

(rb/stb)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION
Present
oil
volume

Original
oil
volume

N N B
p

Freed
solution
gas

Gas
cap
expansion

Net
water
influx

Rock and
connate water
expansion

Injected
volume

N Boi

B N R i N N R G s
G (G ) (B )
g s

p c

g c

G(Bg )i

W p Bw
Cf Swi Cw

1

Sw
i

N Boi 1 m p

inj

Bw Ginj Bg

N p Bo Rs Bg s Gp s Bg s G G p c Bg c G Bgi We W p Bw Winj Bw Ginj Bg

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg s Boi

C f S wi Cw
1 m
1

S
wi

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
MATERIAL BALANCE AS A LINEAR FUCTION
= HAVLENA & ODEH =
THE UNDERGROUND WITHDRAWAL
F = NP [ Bo + (RP- RS) Bg] + WPBW

(RB)

THE EXPANSION OF THE OIL & ITS DISSOLVED GAS


EO = (Bo - Boi) + (Rsi - Rs) Bg

(rb/stb)

THE EXPANSION OF THE GAS CAP

Bg

1
Bg i

E g Boi

(rb / stb)

THE EXPANSION OF CONNATE WATER & REDUCTION IN PORE VOLUME

Cw.Swc Cf
1 Swc

E fiw 1 m Boi

(rb / stb)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
F = N (EO + mEg + EFIW) + We.Bw
IF: -

No Initial GasCap
Negligible Water Influx
Connate Water & Rock Compressibility Neglected

==> F = N EO
IF: There is Water Influx

F
We
N
Eo
Eo
F/Eo is Linear Plot as a Function of We/Eo

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Berdasarkan persamaan umum MB, dapat dibuat


persamaan khusus MB untuk reservoir tertentu
Beberapa contoh:
1. Reservoir tanpa gas cap (tidak jenuh,
undersaturated)
2. Reservoir gas
3. Oil reservoir tanpa gas cap (undersaturated) dan
bersifat volumetrik
4. Saturated oil reservoir (tekanan reservoir p pb)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

RESERVOIR DRIVING MECHANISMS


Solution Gas Drive
Gas Cap Drive
Natural Water Drive

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
RESERVOIR DRIVE MECHANISMS
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE
UNDER SATURATED

owc

BELOW BUBBLE
POINT

owc

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

ABOVE BUBBLE POINT


No Gas Cap m = 0
Aquifer is Relatively Small in Volume
Water Influx Negligible
Rs = Rsi = Rp
(All The Gas Produced at Surface Must Have
Been Dissolved in The Oil in The Reservoir)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Jika diplot p/z vs. Gp berbentuk g

Terlihat bahwa untuk p/z = 0, maka Gp = IGIP

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

3. Reservoir Minyak Tanpa Gas Cap dan Volumetrik

Tidak ada gas cap (undersaturated) m = 0


Volumetric reservoir We = 0, Wp = 0
Connate water dan pengurangan volume pori diabaikan:
Np [Bo + (Rp Rso)Bg] = N [(Bo Boi) + (Rsoi
Rso)Bg
Dua kasus berdasarkan keadaan tekanan reservoir
terhadap tekanan gelembung:
(1)
Pada p > pb, maka Rso = Rsoi = Rp, sehingga
persamaan MB:
Np Bo = N (Bo Boi)
(2)
Pada p < pb, maka persaman MB di atas berlaku.

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

N=

Np [Bo (Rp R so) Bg] (We Wp Bw)


Bg

[(Bo Boi) (R soi R so) Bg m Boi (


1)]
Bgi

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

BELOW BUBBLE POINT


Gas Will be Liberated from Saturated Oil
Free Gas Saturation Will Develop in The
Reservoir

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
The Free Gas Saturation Can Be Deduced in Two Ways:
1.

GasStill
Total amount LiberatedGas GasPr oduced

Dissolved

of Gas inTheReservoir atTheSurface

in TheOil

Liberated Gas Total amount Gas Pr oduced Gas Still Dissolved

inThe Re servoir

of Gas at The Surface


in The Oil

Liberated Gas rb NRsi N p R p N N p Rs Bg


Then

and :

Sg

N R

si

Rs N p R p Rs Bg .1 S wc
NBoi

NBoi
HCPV

The Pore Volume


1 S wc 1 S wc

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
The Free Gas Saturation Can Be Deduced in Two Ways:
2.

Initial Total
Liberated Gas
Current Oil Volume

Volume
of
Oil
inThe Re servoir

in The Re servoir in The Re servoir

NBoi N N p Bo
Then

and

Sg

NB N R B .1 S
oi

NBoi

N p Bo

1 S wc
S g 1 1
N
B

oi

wc

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Find Out Abandonment Pressure Pa


m =0 ; No Initial Gas Cap
The Term

C w S wc C f
NBoi
1 S wc

Once a Significant Free Gas

Saturation Develops

is Negligible

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
Material Balance Equation Becomes:

Underground Withdrawal

=
Expansion of The Oil Plus
Its Originally Dissolved Gas

N p Bo R p Rs Bg N Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Recovery Factor at Abandonment Pressure :

RF pa

Np
N

pa

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg
Bo R p Rs Bg

Since Bo, Rs and Bg are Evaluated at Pa Condition,

RF pa

Rp y

x and y are Constant at Pa Condition,

pa

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

RF

pa

Rp

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
GAS CAP DRIVE

INITIAL ONDITION Pi

We

PB

Material Balance Equation Becomes:

N p Bo R p Rs Bg NBoi

Bo Boi Rsi Rs Bg

Boi

Bg

m
1
B

gi

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
HAVLENA & ODEH

F f E

F N Eo mE g
m too small

mE g

m is Started to Have The Straight Line


Correct Value of m

F (rb)

m too large

(Eo + m Eg) (rb/stb)

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
NATURAL WATER INFLUX
Water Influx =

Aquifer
x
Compressibility

Initial Volume
of Water

We Cw C f Wi p
Cw C f 10 5 psi
Using Havlena&Odeh Technique (assumed Bw=1)

F = N (Eo + mEg + Ef,w) + We


Assumed :

- No Gas Cap
- Ef,w Neglected (if dealing with water influx)

= N E o + We

(F/Eo) = N + (We /Eo)

Pressure
Drop

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
If The Aquifer Shape is Radial

We Cw C f

2
re

2
ro

fhp

We too small
We correct
incorrect geometry

(F/Eo) (rb)

We too large

45o
N

(We / Eo) (stb)

Re
ro
f
h

=
=
=
=
=
=

radius of aquifer
radius of reservoir
fractional encroachment angle
average reservoir thickness
porosity
pressure drop

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

We too small

If The Aquifer Has a Gas Cap

We correct
incorrect geometry

We too large

F N Eo mE g We

We
F
N
Eo mE g
Eo mE g

F
Eo mE g
N

Plot

F
Eo mE g

vs

We
Eo mE g

Tg = 1

We
Eo mEg

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
To Maintain The Pressure above Bubble
point Pressure
1.) water injection
2.) Gas Injection
Water Treatment
Plant

Production
Well

Water
Injection

owc

oil
Sealing
Fault

PENENTUAN CADANGAN
If

Vb
h

=
=

Bulk Volume of a Rock Sample


hickness

The Uniaxial Compaction :

Vb h

Vb
h
h
h

Cb C f

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Verticall
Stress

B
Permeable
Disc

h/h
A

Lateral
Stress
Elastic
Sleeve

Grain Pressure

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

FINISH

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Pi
R (producing GOR)

Pb

Rsi

Pressure
decline
Water cut (%)
time

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Producing well

Exloration
well

GAS
(mNBoi -rb)
GOC
OIL
(Nboi .-rb)

owc

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Pi
Producing GOR

Pressure

R=Rsi

Watercut
time

PENENTUAN CADANGAN

Pi
Pressure

Watercut

Rsi
Producing GOR

time