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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATION

SPIRIT LEVEL - INSTRUMENT OR TOOL CAPABLE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL


LINE CHECK.

PLUMB BOB - ITS USES FOR VERTICAL LINE CHECK.

PLASTIC HOSE FILLED W/ WATER A METHOD OF LEVELLING (HORIZONTAL)


BATTERBOARDS WITHOUT TRANSIT.

3-4-5 MULTIPLES W/ THE USE OF STEEL TAPE MEASURE A MANUAL METHOD OF


SQUARING THE CORNERS OF BUILDING LINES IN BUILDING LAYOUT.

1.

BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS, SEE TO IT THAT A BUILDING PERMIT IS


FIRST SECURED FROM THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES CONCERNED.

2.

RELOCATE THE BOUDARIES OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. IT IS SUGGESTED


THAT THE RELOCATION OF THE PROPERTY LINE SHALL BE DONE BY GEODETIC
ENGINEER SPECIALLY FOR THOSE LOTS WITHOUT EXISTING REFERENCE
POINTS OR ADJOINING STRUCTURES.

3.

CLEAR THE SITE OF ANY EXISTING STRUCTURE, TREES, AND OTHER ELEMENTS
THAT WILL OBSTRUCT THE CONSTRUCTION WORK.

4.

CONSTRUCT AND ALLOCATE A SPACE FOR LABORERS QUARTERS,


CONSTRUCTION OFFICE, BODEGA FOR THE MATERIALS AND WORKING TOOLS
AND TEMPORARY WASTE DISPOSAL.

5.

APPLY FOR A TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS OF ELECTRIC AND WATER SUPPLY.


ELECTRIC CURRENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE POWER NEEDS OF THE TOOLS AND
EQUIPMENT AND IS NECESSARY ON OVERTIME SCHEDULES ESPECIALLY IN THE
TIME OF CONCRETING. WATER IS ALSO A PRIME NEED IN CONSTRUCTION.

6.

CONSTRUCT A TEMPORARY FENCE AROUND THE CONSTRUCTION.

7.

VERIFY THE MEASUREMENT IN THE PLAN IF THE DISTANCES INDICATED ARE


FORM:

SHEET PILLING A BARRIER FORMED TO PREVENT THE MOVEMENT OF SOIL TO


STABILIZE FOUNDATION.

LAYOUT AND EXCAVATIONS


LAYOUT IS SOMETIMES CALLED STAKING OUT WHICH MEANS THE PROCESS
OF RELOCATING THE POINT OF BOUNDARIES AND PROPERTY LINE OF THE SITE WHERE
THE BUILDING IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED.
IT INCLUDES CLEARING, STAKING, BATTER BOARDS AND ESTABLISHES THE
EXACT LOCATION OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION AND WALL LINE ON THE GROUND.

LAYOUT METHODS AND PROCEDURES

STAKE ARE WOODEN STICKS USED AS POSTS SHARPENED AT ONE END DRIVEN
INTO THE GROUND TO SERVE AS BOUNDARIES OR SUPPORTS OF THE BATTER
BOARDS.

BATTER BOARD WOOD STICK OR BOARD NAILED HORIZONTALLY AT THE STAKE


WHICH SERVE AS THE HORIZONTAL PLANE WHERE THE REFERENCE POINT OF THE
BUILDING MEASUREMENTS ARE ESTABLISHED.

STRING IS EITHER PLASTIC CHORD OR GALVANIZED WIRE ACROSS THE BATTER


BOARDS USED TO INDICATE THE OUTLINE OF THE BUILDING WALL AND
FOUNDATION.

8.

CENTER TO CENTER

OUTER TO CENTER

OUTER TO OUTER

INSIDE TO INSIDE

FIX THE BATTER BOARD TO ITS HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE AID OF LEVEL
INSTRUMENT PREFERABLY PLASTIC HOSE WITH WATER.

9.

AFTER ESTABLISHING THE REFERENCE POINT AND LINE OF THE FOOTING,


TRANSFER THE INTERSECTING POINTS OF THE STRING ON THE GROUND BY THE
AID OF PLUMB BOB AND INDICATE THE SIZE AND WIDTH TO BE EXCAVATED.

EXCAVATION
EXCAVATION WORK IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IS CATEGORIZED INTO TWO
TYPES: THE MINOR AND MAJOR EXCAVATION DEPENDING UPON THE SIZE AND NATURE
OF THE FOUNDATION TO BE CONSTRUCTED. EXCAVATION FOR A SMALL CONSTRUCTION
WITH INDEPENDENT WALL, OR COMBINED FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE MINOR
EXCAVATION, WHILE THE REST WHICH REQUIRES SIZEABLES OR TOTAL EXTRACTION OF
THE EARTH FALL UNDER THE CATEGORY OF MAJOR CONSTRUCTION.

MINOR EXCAVATION

3.

HOW AND WHERE TO DISPOSE THE EXTRACTED SOIL INVOLVES THE EFFECTIVE
MANNER OF MANEUVERING THE PAYLOAD AND DRUMPTRUCKS IN HAULING
WITHOUT OBSTRUCTING THE PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC FLOW.

4.

WHERE TO DISPOSE THE UNDERGROUND WATER TO BE DRAINED BY THE WATER


PUMP DURING THE PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION WHICH MIGHT CAUSE MUDDY
ROAD AND CREATE INCONVENIENCE TO TRAFFIC.

5.

THE KIND OF SHEETING AND BRACING TO BE USED IN SHORING OR UNDERSPINNING


TO PROTECT THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED.

FOUNDATION AND FOOTING


THE FUNCTION OF A FOUNDATION IS TO TRANSFER THE STRUCTURAL LOADS
FROM A BUILDING SAFELY INTO THE GROUND.

EXCAVATION UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE THOSE CONSTRUCTION HAVING


INDEPENDENT FOOTING AND HOLLOW BLOCK WALL FOOTING WHERE THE DIGGING OF
THE SOIL FOR THE FOOTING EXTEND TO A DEPTH FROM 1.00 TO 1.50 METER AND ABOUT
HALF A METER DEPTH FOR THE WALL FOOTING.

ALL FOUNDATIONS SETTLE TO SOME EXTENT AS THE SOIL AROUND BENEATH


THEM ADJUST ITSELF TO THESE LOADS.

MAJOR EXCAVATION

UNIFORM SETTLEMENT IS USUALLY OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCES IN A BUILDING,


BUT A DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT CAN CAUSE SEVERE STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THAT REQUIRES WIDE EXCAVATION OR TOTAL


EXTRACTION OF THE SOIL ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO CATEGORIES DEPENDING UPON
THE CONDITION OR LOCATION OF THE SITE. WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION
SITE IS BIG THAT THERE IS ENOUGH SPACE TO ACCOMMODATE WORKING ACTIVITIES,
STORING OF MATERIALS AND DUMPING GROUND FOR THE EXCAVATED SOIL.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ON A BUSY COMMERCIAL CENTER WITH ADJACENT
EXISTING STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED TO THE MOST COMPLICATED AMONG THE
VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION WORKS SINCE THIS REQUIRES CAREFUL STUDY AND ANALYSIS
OF THE RIGHT APPROACH.

3 MAJOR PARTS OF A BUILDING:

SUPERSTRUCTURE WHICH IS THE ABOVE GROUND PORTION OF THE BUILDING.

SUBSTRUCTURE WHICH IS THE HABITABLE BELOW-GROUND PORTION.

FOUNDATION WHICH ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE BUILDING THAT TRANSFER


ITS LOAD INTO THE SOIL.

PROBLEMS MIGHT BE ENCOUNTER:

3 TYPES OF SUBSTRUCTURES:

1.

THE MANNER OF THE EXCAVATION TO BE EMPLOYED WHICH WILL NOT AFFECT OR


DAMAGED THE ADJOINING STRUCTURE.

SLAB ON FILL

CRAWLSPACE

2.

THE KIND OF EQUIPMENT TO BE USED IN THE DIGGING AND EXTRACTING THE


GROUND MAY NOT BE A PROBLEM BUT THE PLACE WHERE TO STATION THE
EQUIPMENT DURING THE OPERATION.

BASEMENT

2 BASIC TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS:

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ARE THOSE THAT TRANSFER THE LOAD TO THE EARTH AT
THE BASE OF THE COLUMN OR WALL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE.

RETAINING WALL A WALL OR LATERALLY BRACED, THAT BEARS AGAINST AN


EARTH OR OTHER FILL SURFACE AND RESISTS LATERAL AND OTHER FORCES.

DEEP FOUNDATIONS TRANSFER THE LOAD AT A POINT FAR BELOW THE


SUBSTRUCTURE.

CANTILEVER WALL A REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL WHICH


OVERTURNING BY THE USE OF CANTILEVER FOOTING.

FOUNDATION IS THAT PORTION OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS THAT CARRY OR


SUPPORT THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING.

GRAVITY WALL A MASSIVE CONCRETE WALL THAT RESIST OVERTURNING BY


VIRTUE OF ITS OWN WEIGHT.

FOOTING IS THAT PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE STRUCTURE WHICH


DIRECTLY TRANSMIT THE COLUMN LOAD TO THE UNDERLYING SOIL OR ROCK, FOOTING
IS THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FOUNDATION STRUCTURE.

BEARING WALL A WALL CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING AN IMPOSED LOAD.

FOUNDATION BED - REFERS TO THE SOIL OR ROCK DIRECTLY BENEATH THE


FOOTING.
PILE FOUNDATION WHEN A FOUNDATION BED IS TOO WEAK TO SUPPORT A RAFT
FOOTING, THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO PROVIDE A SUITABLE MATERIALS WHERE TO
TRANSFER THE EXCESS LOAD TO A GREATER DEPTH WHEREIN PILES IS THE ANSWER.
PILE IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER OF SMALL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA WITH
REASONABLE LENGTH DRIVEN DOWN THE GROUND BY MEANS OF HAMMERS OR
VIBRATORY GENERATOR.

FOOTING ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES:


WALL FOOTING OR STRIP FOOTING IS A STRIP OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WIDER
THAN THE WALL WHICH DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD TO THE SOIL.
A STEEL PERCENTAGE EQUALS TO 0.2 TO 0.3% OF THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA
OF CONCRETE IS SAID TO BE ADEQUATE EXCEPT ON UNUSUAL CASES.
COLUMN FOOTING IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES:
1.

PILE IS DISTINGUISHED FROM A CAISSON BY BEING DRIVEN INTO PLACE RATHER


THAN DRILED & POURED.
PILES ARE GENERALLY DRIVEN CLOSELY TOGETHER IN CLUSTERS CONTAINING
FROM TWO TO TWENTY-FIVE PILES. EACH CLUSTER IS LATER JOINED AT THE TOP BY A
REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE CAP.
PILE CAP DISTRIBUTES THE LOAD OF THE COLUMN OR WALL EQUALLY AMONG
THE PILES.

2.

CAISSONS IS SIMILAR TO A COLUMN FOOTING IN THAT IT SPREADS THE LOAD


FROM A COLUMN OVER A LARGE ENOUGH AREA OF SOIL.

FOUNDATION WALL THAT PART OF THE BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH FORMS


THE PERMANENT RETAINING WALL OF THE STRUCTURE BELOW GRADE.
GRADE BEAM THAT PART OF A FOUNDATION SYSTEM W/C SUPPORTS THE
EXTERIOR WALL OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BEARS DIRECTLY ON THE COLUMN
FOOTING.

RESIST

3.

ISOLATED OR INDEPENDENT FOOTING IS A KIND OF FOOTING REPRESENTS THE


SIMPLEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL TYPE, IN THE FORM OF:

SQUARE BLOCK FOOTING

SQUARE SLOPE FOOTING

SQUARE STEPPED FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING IS USED WHEN TWO OR MORE COLUMNS ARE SPACED


CLOSELY TO EACH OTHER THAT THEIR FOOTING WILL ALMOST OR COMPLETELY
MERGE. ITS EITHER :

RECTANGULAR

TRAPEZOIDAL

CONTINUOUS FOOTING IS SOMETIMES CLASSIFIED AS WALL FOOTING WHICH


SUPPORT SEVERAL COLUMNS IN A ROW. ITS EITHER:

4.

INVERTED SLAB FOOTING

INVERTED TEE FOOTING

RAFT OR MAT FOOTING ITS OCCUPIES THE ENTIRE AREA BENEATH THE
STRUCTURE AND CARRY THE WALL AND THE COLUMN LOADS.

CONCRETE MIXTURE:

CLASS

UNIFORM SLAB

THICKENED SLAB

BEAM & GIRDER

CONCRETE
CONCRETE IS AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE OUT FROM THE MIXTURE OF
CEMENT, SAND, GRAVEL AND WATER. THIS IS KNOWN AS SOLID MASS OR PLAIN
CONCRETE. CONCRETE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS EMBEDDED IN SUCH A MANNER
THAT THE TWO MATERIALS ACT TOGETHER IN RESISTING FORCES IS CALLED
REINFORCED CONCRETE.

AA
cu.m.
A
0.5
B
0.5
C
0.5

0.68 lb. OF WATER / lb. OF CEMENT WILL PRODUCE CONCRETE CAPABLE OF


DEVELOPING 2,500 PSI IN 28 DAYS.

A
cu.m.

LESS WATER PRODUCE STRONGER CONCRETE.

MORE WATER PRODUCE LESSER STRENGTH.

50 kg. CEMENT - 320mm X 320mm X 330mm

0.5

7.5

1.0

CLASS

40 kg. CEMENT 300mm X 300mm X 300mm

9.5

1:3:6

DESIGNING OF CONCRETE MIXTURE IS BASED ON THE WATER-CEMENT RATIO.

12

GRAVEL

1:21/2:5
1.0

SIZES OF MEASURING BOX FOR :

SAND

1.0

50kg.

1:2:4

SLUMP TEST A READY MEANS OF DETERMINING THE CONSISTENCY OF FRESHLY


MIXED CONCRETE.

ADMIXTURE ACCELERATES OR RETARDS CONCRETE SETTING.

40kg.

1:11/2:
1.0 cu.m.

MIXTURE

MORTAR MIXTURE:
MIXTURE

40kg.

50kg.

SAND

1:2

18

14.5

1:3

12

9.5

1.0

1:4

1.0

1:5

7.5

1.0

1.0

POST AND COLUMN


POST REFERS TO A PIECE OF TIMBER OF EITHER CYLINDRICAL, SQUARE OR OTHER
GEOMETRICAL CROSS SECTION PLACED VERTICALLY TO SUPPORT A BUILDING.

COLUMN REFERS TO VERTICAL STRUCTURE USE TO SUPPORT A BUILDING MADE OF


STONE, CONCRETE, STEEL OR COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE MATERIALS.
STOREY IS THE SPACE IN A BUILDING BETWEEN FLOOR LEVELS OR BETWEEN A FLOOR
AND A ROOF ABOVE.
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN ARE CLASSICIFICATION

SHORT COLUMN WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS NOT GREATER THAN TEN
TIMES THE SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.

LONG COLUMN WHEN THE UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES THE
SHORTEST LATERAL DIMENSION OF THE CROSS SECTION.

TIED COLUMN HAS REINFORCEMENT CONSISTING OF VERTICAL OR


LONGITUDINAL BARS HELD IN POSITION BY LATERAL REINFORCEMENT CALLED
LATERAL TIES.

TENSION STRESS

3.

SHEAR STRESS

4.

TORSION STRESS

REINFORCEMENT NEED TO PROVIDE ON BEAM TO RESPONSE TO POSITIVE AND


NEGATIVE BENDING WHICH MAY CAUSE FAILURE OR COLLAPSE OF THE
STRUCTURE.

REINFORCED CONCRETE IS A COMBINATION OF CONCRETE AND STEEL.

CONCRETE IS STRONG IN SUPPORTING COMPRESSION LOAD BUT WEAK IN


RESISTING TENSION FORCES.

STEEL POSSESSES THE STRENGTH TO RESIST BOTH COMPRESSION AND TENSION.

BALANCE BEAM WHEN THE AREA OF THE CONCRETE AND STEEL ARE JUST
ENOUGH TO CARRY THE COMPRESSION AND TENSION FORCES SIMULTANEOUSLY.

INFLECTION POINTS REFER TO THE PORTION OF A BEAM WHERE BENDING


MOMENT CHANGES FROM POSITIVE TO NEGATIVE.

NO BENT BARS WHEN BARS ARE NOT BENT, AN ADDITIONAL STRAIGHT


REINFORCING BARS ARE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORTS
EXTENDED TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH.

TYPES OF COLUMNS

2.

SPIRAL COLUMN IS THE TERM GIVEN WHERE A CIRCULAR CONCRETE CORE IN


ENCLOSED BY SPIRALS WITH VERTICAL OR LONGITUDINAL BARS. THE VERTICAL
REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED WITH EVENLY SPACED CONTINUOUS SPIRAL HELD
FIRMLY IN POSITION BY AT LEAST THREE VERTICAL BAR SPACERS.

COMPOSITE COLUMN WHERE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMN IS EMBEDDED INTO


THE CONCRETE CORE OF A SPIRAL COLUMN.

COMBINED COLUMN WITH STRUCTURAL STEEL ENCASED IN CONCRETE OF AT


LEAST 7 cm. THK. REINFORCED WITH WIRE MESS SURROUNDING THE COLUMN AT A
DISTANCE OF 3 cm. INSIDE THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE CONCRETE COVERING.

BENT REINFORCING BARS ARE BENT UP ON OR NEAR THE INFLECTION POINT


AND ARE EXTENDED AT THE TOP OF THE BEAM ACROSS THE SUPPORT TOWARDS THE
ADJACENT SPAN.

LALLY COLUMN IS A FABRICATED STEEL PIPE PROVIDED WITH A FLAT STEEL


BARS OR PLATE WHICH HOLD A GIRDER, GIRTS OR BEAM. THE STEEL PIPE IS
SOMETIMES FILLED WITH GROUT OR CONCRETE FOR CORROSION.

4cm. ALLOWANCE PROTECTIVE COVERING OF STEEL BARS FROM THE OUTSIDE OF


THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT.

ADVANTAGE OF THE BEND BARS, ITS RESIST THE DIAGONAL TENSION.

BUILDING CODE REQUIRED THAT A BALANCE BEAM SHALL PROVIDE, THAT THE
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE EQUAL TO .005 TIMES
THE CROSS SECTIONAL PRODUCT OF THE WIDTH AND THE DEPTH OF THE BEAM.

USED LATERAL TIES

METAL REINFORCEMENT
THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF STRESSES THAT MAY ACT ON THE STRUCTURE ARE:
1.

COMPRESSION STRESS

10mm dia. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 32mm SMALLER

BRIDLE JOINT A JOINT IN WHICH TWO TONGUES PROJECT FROM THE SIDES OF
THE TENONED MEMBER, THESE TONGUES FIT INTO CORRESPONDING SLOTS IN THE
MORTISED MEMBER.

TENON THE PROJECTING END OF A PIECE OF WOOD, OR OTHER MATERIALS WHICH


IS REDUCED IN CROSS SECTION, SO THAT IT MAY BE INSERTED IN A
CORRESPONDING CAVITY IN ANOTHER PIECE IN ORDER TO FORM A SECURE JOINT.

YACAL LUMBER PREFFERED WHEN IN CONTACT WITH CONCRETE.

BOARD FOOT THE VOLUME OF A PIECE OF WOOD ONE INCH. THICK, ONE FOOT
WIDE AND ONE FOOT LONG.

BOLIDEN SALT TREATMENT IN WOLMANIZED LUMBER.

DAP A NOTCH IN A TIMBER FOR RECEIVING ANOTHER TIMBER.

DADO A RECTANGULAR GROOVE CUT ACROSS THE FULL WIDTH OF A PIECE OF


WOOD TO RECEIVE THE END OF ANOTHER PIECE.

SOLIGNUM TRADE NAME FOR ANTI-TERMITE SURFACE APPLICATION ON WOOD.

12mm dia. IF LONGITUDINAL BARS 36mm BIGGER

THREE FACTORS FOR SPACING OF THE LATERAL TIES:

SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 16 TIMES THE DIA. OF THE LONGITUDINAL


OR MAIN REINFORCING BARS.

SHOULD NOT BE MORE THAN 48 TIMES THE DIA. OF THE LATERAL TIES.

NOT MORE THAN THE SHORTEST DIMENSION OF THE COLUMN.

WOOD CONSTRUCTION

SCAB A SHORT FLAT PIECE OF LUMBER WHICH IS BOLTED, NAILED OR SCREWED


TO TWO BUTTING PIECES IN ORDER TO SPLICE THEM TOGETHER.

FISH PLATE A WOOD OR METAL PIECE USED TO FASTEN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF
TWO MEMBERS WITH NAILS OR BOLTS.

SPLICE PLATE A METAL PLATE USED FOR FASTENING TWO OR MORE MEMBER
TOGETHER.

COGGED JOINT A CARPENTRY JOINT BY TWO UNEVEN TIMBERS, EACH OF WHICH


IS NOTCHED AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY MEET.

NOTCHING JOINING OF TIMBERS, USUALLY MEETING OR CROSSING AT RIGHT


ANGLES, BY CUTTING A DAP IN ONE OR BOTH PIECES.

CROSSLAP JOINT A JOINT CONNECTING TWO WOOD MEMBERS WHICH CROSS


EACH OTHER, HALF THE THICKNESS OF EACH IS CUT SO THAT THE THICKNESS WILL
THE SAME AS THAT OF EACH MEMBER.

FLOOR STRUCTURE
WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM
FLOOR FRAMING IS THAT PLATFORM STRUCTURE
SUSPENDED BY POSTS, COLUMNS, WALLS AND BEAMS.

OF THE BUILDING

THE DESIGN OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING


CONSIDERATIONS:
1.

LIVE LOAD REFERS TO THOSE MOVABLE LOADS IMPOSED ON THE


FLOOR.

2.

DEAD LOAD REFERS TO THE STATIC LOAD SUCH AS THE WEIGHT OF


THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS WHICH GENERALLY CARRY THE
LIVE LOAD.

3.

TYPES OF MATERIALS TO BE USED THE CHOICE FROM THE


VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SUCH AS LUMBER, CONCRETE,
AND STEEL.

SQUARE SPLICEA TYPE OF HALF LAPPED USED TO RESIST TENSION.

4.

THE SIZING AND SPACING OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS


DEPENDS UPON ITS STRENGTH AND CAPABILITY TO CARRY THE LOAD
AT A CERTAIN SPACING.

5.

SPAN OF THE SUPPORTS PERTAINS TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN


THE POSTS, COLUMNS OR SUPPORTING WALLS.

THE PLATFORM - FLOOR FRAMING STRUCTURE IS CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING

DRAFTSTOP PLATE IS A PIECE OF LUMBER USES TO DRESS UP THE EDGE OF THE


JOISTS.

SOLE PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER WHICH SERVES AS A BASE FOR THE STUDS IN
A STUD PARTITION.

SILL PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER, AT THE BOTTOM OF THE FRAME OF AWOOD


STRUCTURE WHICH REST ON THE FOUNDATION.

TOP PLATE A HORIZONTAL TIMBER AT THE UPPER PORTION OF THE STUDS IN


ASTUD PARTITION.

CRIPPLE STUD IN ABUILDING FRAME, A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT THAT IS SHORTER


THAN USUAL, AS A STUD ABOVE AND BELOW OPENING.

BLOCK OR SOLID BRIDGING SHORT MEMBERS WHICH ARE FIXED VERTICALLY


BETWEEN FLOOR JOISTS TO STIFFEN THE JOISTS.

CROSS BRIDGING DIAGONAL BRACING IN PAIRS, BETWEEN ADJACENT FLOOR


JOISTS TO PREVENT THE JOISTS FROM TWISTING.

TYPES:
A.

THE PLANK AND BEAM FLOOR TYPE

B.

THE PANELIZED-FLOOR SYSTEM

C.

THE CONVENTIONAL FLOOR FRAMING SYSTEM

THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLATFORM FLOOR SYSTEM ARE:

GIRDER IS A PRINCIPAL BEAM EXTENDING FROM WALL TO WALL OF A BUILDING


SUPPORTING THE FLOOR JOISTS OF FLOOR BEAMS.

HANGER OR STIRRUP A METAL SEAT, ATTACHED TO A GIRDER TO RECEIVE AND


SUPPORT A JOIST.

SILL THAT PART OF THE SIDE OF A HOUSE THAT RESTS HORIZONTALLY UPON THE
FOUNDATION.

BALLOON FRAMING CONSTRUCTION HAS STUDS CONTINOUS TO ROOF


SUPPORTING SECOND FLOOR JOISTS.

FLOOR JOISTS ARE THOSE PARTS OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM PLACED ON THE
GIRDERS WHERE THE FLOOR BOARDS ARE FASTENED.

WESTERN FRAMING THAT HAS SUBFLOOR EXTENDED TO THE OUTER EDGE OF


THE FRAME AND PROVIDE A FLAT WORK SURFACE AT EACH FLOOR.

HEADER AND TRIMMER HEADER IS A SHORT TRANSVERSE JOISTS THAT SUPPORT


THE END OF THE CUT-OFF JOIST AT A STAIR WELL HOLE. TRIMMER IS A SUPPORTING
JOIST WHICH CARRIES AN END PORTION OF A HEADER.

REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM

FLOORING THE TONGUE AND GROOVE WHICH ARE POPULARLY KNOWN AS T & G
IS GENERALLY SPECIFIED FOR WOOD FLOORING.
TAIL BEAM OR TAIL PIECE A SHORT BEAM, JOIST OR RAFTER WHICH IS
SUPPORTED BY A HEADER JOIST AT ONE END AND A WALL AT THE OTHER.
LEDGER STRIP A STRIP OF LUMBER WHICH IS NAILED TO THE SIDE OF THE BEAM,
FORMING A SEAT FOR THE JOISTS.

BEAM - IS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER THAT SUPPORTS THE TRANSVERSE LOAD


WHICH USUALLY REST ON SUPPORTS AT ITS END.
GIRDER IS THE TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT SUPPORTS ONE OR MORE
SMALLER BEAM.
BEAM ARE CLASSIFIED AS :
A)

SIMPLE BEAM

B)

CONTINUOUS BEAM

1.

SPACING OF THE COLUMNS.

C)

SEMI CONTINUOUS

2.

THE MAGNITUDE OF THE LOADS TO BE SUPPORTED

3.

LENGTH OF THE SPAN

4.

THE COST OF THE CONSTRUCTION

SIMPLE BEAM REFERS TO THE BEAM HAVING A SINGLE SPAN SUPPORTED AT


ITS END WITHOUT A RESTRAIN AT THE SUPPORT. SIMPLE BEAMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED
AS SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM.
RESTRAINT MEANS A RIGID CONNECTION OR ANCHORAGE AT THE SUPPORT.
CONTINUOUS BEAM IS A TERM APPLIED TO A BEAM THAT REST ON MORE
THAN TWO SUPPORTS.
SEMI-CONTINUOUS BEAM REFERS TO A BEAM WITH TWO SPANS WITH OR
WITHOUT RESTRAINT AT THE TWO EXTREME ENDS.

WEB REINFORCEMENT

ONE WAY SLAB ONE WAY SLAB IS THE COMMON TYPE OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM WHICH THE REINFORCEMENTS RUNS ONLY IN ONE
DIRECTION. MADE OF SOLID SLAB SUPPORTED BY TWO PARALLEL BEAMS. IT IS
COMPARATIVELY ECONOMICAL FOR A MEDIUM AND HEAVY LIVE LOADS ON SHORT
SPANS RANGING FROM 2.00 TO 3.50 METERS LONG. ALTHOUGH THE REINFORCEMENTS
ARE ALSO PLACED IN THE SLAB PARALLEL WITH THE BEAMS PERPENDICULAR WITH THE
MAIN REINFORCEMENTS CALLED TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENTS. USUALLY NO. 3
STEEL BAR IS USED TO COUNTERACT THE EFFECT OF SHRINKAGE AND CHANGES IN
TEMPERATURE. IT ALSO DISTRIBUTES POSSIBLE CONCENTRATION OF LOADS OVER A
LARGER AREA.

WEB REINFORCEMENT IS THE SAME AS THEIR STIRRUPS USED IN THE BEAM TO


HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT IN ITS DESIGNED POSITION. THE WEB REINFORCEMENT IS
NOT ONLY INTENDED TO HOLD THE REINFORCEMENT AND PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT
BUT ALSO SERVES TO RESIST DIAGONAL TENSION AND COUNTERACT THE SHEAR ACTION
ON THE STRUCTURE. THE VERTICAL STIRRUPS SHOULD ENCIRCLE THE MAIN
REINFORCEMENT AND HOOK BENT WITH A DIAMETER NOT LESS THAN 5 TIMES THE
DIAMETER OF THE STIRRUPS AT ITS END AND SECURED PROPERLY TO PREVENT SLIPPING
OF THE MAIN REINFORCEMENT IN THE CONCRETE.

TWO WAY SLAB SLAB WHICH ARE SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES WHERE THE
FLOOR PANEL IS NEARLY SQUARE IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL TO EMPLOY THE TWO
DIRECTIONS OF REINFORCING BARS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH EACH OTHER.

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB:

RIBBED FLOOR SLAB IS AN ECONOMICAL TYPE OF FLOOR CONSTRUCTION


BUT IS APPLICABLE ONLY TO MEDIUM SPAN LENGTH WITH LIGHT OR MEDIUM LOAD.

THE CODE SPECIFIES THAT THICKNESS OF THE SLAB SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN
4 INCHES OR 10 CM. NOR LESS THAN THE PERIMETER OF THE SLAB DIVIDED BY 180. THE
SPACING OF THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 3 TIMES THE SLAB
THICKNESS.

REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO THE FOLLOWING


TYPES:
1.

ONE WAY SOLID SLAB AND BEAM.

2.

TWOWAY SOLID SLAB BEAM.

3.

RIBBED FLOORS.

4.

FLAT SLAB OR GIRDERLESS FLOORS SOLID OR RIBBED.

EACH TYPE OF THE FLOOR SYSTEM HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGES IN APPLICATION
DEPENDING UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS:

A RIBBED FLOOR SLAB CONSISTS OF SMALL ADJACENT T-BEAM WHEREIN THE


OPEN SPACES BETWEEN THE RIBS ARE FILLED BY CLAY TILES, GYPSUM TILES OR STEEL
FORMS. THE TILES ARE GENERALLY 30 X 90 CM. WITH DEPTH OF 10 TO 40CM. O.C.
PLACED @ 5CM. O.C. MAKING THE RIBS 10 CM. WIDE.
THE CONCRETE SURFACE LAYER PLACED ON TOP OF THE TILES RANGES FROM 5
TO 6.5 CM. THICK. THE REINFORCEMENT OF A RIBBED FLOOR SYSTEM CONSIST OF TWO
BARS PLACED AT THE LOWER PART OF THE RIB WHERE ONE IS BENT AND THE OTHER
REMAINED STRAIGHT, OR SOMETIMES, STRAIGHT BARS ARE PALCED AT THE TOP AND
BOTTOM OF THE RIB. TEMPERATURE BARS ARE EITHER NO. 2 BARS OR 6 MM. OR WIRE
MESH WHICH RUNS AT RIGHT ANGLE WITH THE RIBS.
FLAT SLAB IS A RECTANGULAR SLAB DIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY COLUMNS
WITHOUT BEAMS OR GIRDERS. THESLAB IS EITHER UNIFORM IN THICKNESS OR

PROVIDED WITH SQUARE SYMMETRICAL AREA DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN


REINFORCED WITH BARS RUNNING IN TWO DIRECTIONS. THE INCREASED AREA
DIRECTLY ABOVE THE COLUMN CALLED DROP PANEL OR SIMPLY DROP. ON THE OTHER
HAND, A FLARED HEAD IS EMPLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FLAT-SLAB FLOOR
MAKING A CAPITAL OF THE COLUMN.
WHEN THE COLUMN DESIGN IS NOT PROVIDED WITH CAPITAS, A STRAIGHT
FLAT UNDERNEATH IS PROVIDED IN THE SLAB THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEM, WHICH IS
CALLED FLAT PLATE CONSTRUCTION.

3.

DIVIDE THE RUN DISTANCE IN METER BY .25 OR .30m.

4.

IF THE RESULT, FOUND IN STEP THREE IS LESS THAN THE NUMBER FOUND IN
STEP TWO, THE RUN LENGTH HAS TO BE EXTENDED.

5.

THERE SHOULD BE NO FUNCTIONAL VALUE OF A RISER. SHOULD THERE BE


FROM THE RESULT OF STEP TWO, ADJUST A FUNCTIONAL VALUE IN EQUAL
PROPORTION TO THE NUMBER OF RISER HEIGHT, BUT IN NO CASE SHALL THE
RISE PER STEP BE GREATER THAN 19 CM OR LESS THAN 17 CM OTHERWISE, THE
STAIRS WILL NOT BE AN IDEAL ONE.

THIS FLOOR SYSTEM IS ECONOMICAL IN TERMS OF MATERIALS AND LABOR.

CONSTRUCTION JOINT A JOINT WHERE TWO SUCCESSIVE PLACEMENT OF


CONCRETE MEET.

CONTRACTION JOINT OR EXPANSION JOINT A JOINT BETWEEN ADJACENT PARTS


OF A STRUCTURE WHICH PERMITS MOVEMENT BETWEEN THEM.

CONTROL JOINTS EMPLOYED TO REDUCE RESTRAINT BY ACCOMODATING


MOVEMENT OF MASONRY WALL.

BLOCK OUT IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES UNDER CONSTRUCTION, A SPACE WHERE


CONCRETE IS NOT TO BE PLACED.

COLD JOINT A JOINT FORMED WHEN A CONCRETE SURFACE HARDEN BEFORE THE
NEXT BATCH OF CONCRETE IS PLACED AGAINST.

CREEP PERMANENT DEFORMATION OF A MATERIAL UNDER A SUSTAIN LOAD.

CAMBER CONVEX CURVATURE IN BEAM OR TRUSS

LAYING OUT OF STAIRS


THE METHOD OF LAYING OUT STAIRS ARE:
1.

DETERMINE THE CLEAR HEIGHT OF THE RISE IN METER.


ORDINARILY, THE RISE PER STEP IS 17 TO 18 CM AND THE MINIMUM TREAD
WIDTH IS 25 CM.

2.

DIVIDE THE RISE ( HEIGHT IN METER) BY .17 OR .18 TO DETERMINE THE


NUMBER OF STEPS.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A CROSS SECTIONAL SKETCH OF A STAIR BEFORE


MAKING THE FINAL PLAN LAYOUT INDICATING THE NUMBER OF STEPS TO
AVOID ADJUSTMENTS OF THE RUN DURING THE ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION.

TYPE OF STRINGERS
THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF STRINGER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE
METHOD OF ATTACHIND THE RISERS AND THE TREADS.
1.

CUT

2.

CLEATED

3.

BUILT-UP

4.

RABBETED (HOUSE)

BALUSTER ONE OF A NUMBER OF SHORT VERTICAL MEMBERS OFTEN CIRCULAR


IN SECTION, USED TO SUPPORT A STAIR HANDRAIL.

BALUSTRATE AN ENTIRE RAILING SYSTEM INCLUDING A TOP RAIL, VERTICAL


MEMBERS AND BOTTOM RAIL.

BULL-NOSED STEP A STEP USUALLY LOWEST IN AFLIGHT, HAVING ONE OR BOTH


ENDS ROUNDED TO A SEMI-CIRCLE AND PROJECTION BEYOND THE FACE OF THE
STAIR STRING/S.

BANISTER HANDRAIL FOR A STAIRCASE.

RISER A VERTICAL FACE OF ASTAIR.

DOME- IS
OBNSERVATORIES.

KICKER PLATE STAIR ANCHOR TO CONCRETE.

TYPES OF ROOF
THERE ARE SEVERAL FORMS OF ROOF AND NUMEROUS VARIETY OF SHAPES
THAT ONE HAS TO BE FAMILIAR WITH:
SHED OR LEAN-TO ROOF- IS CONSIDERED AS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF ROOF
CONSISTING OF ONE SINGLE SLOPE.

A HEMISPHERICAL

OF

ROOF

USUALLY

USED

ON

CONICAL ROOF OR SPHIRE- IS A STEEP ROOF OF CIRCULAR SECTION THAT


TAPERS UNIFORMLY FROM THE CIRCULAR BASE TO A CENTRAL POINT
TYPES OF ROOF FRAME
THE THREE TYPES OF ROOF FRAME COMMONLY USED ARE:

GABLE OR PITCH ROOF- THE MOST COMMON TYPE AND ECONOMICAL FORM
OF ROOF MADE OF TRIANGULAR SECTIONS CONSISTING OF TWO SLOPES MEETING AT
THE CENTER OF THE RIDGE FORMING A GABLE.

1.

RAFTERS TYPE

2.

TRUSS TYPE

SAW TOOTH ROOF- IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SHED MADE INTO A SERIES
TO LEAN-TO ROOF COVERING ONE BUILDING. THIS IS COMMONLY USED ON FACTORIES
WHERE EXTRA LIGHT IS REQUIRED THROUGH THE WINDOW ON A VERTICAL SIDE.

3.

LAMINATED TYPE

DOUBLE GABLE ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF A GABLE OR A HIP AND VALLEY

FORM

THE VARIOUS KINDS OF RAFTERS FOR ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS ARE:

ROOF.

COMMON RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS EXTENDED AT RIGHT ANGLES FROM THE PLATE
OR GIRTS T THE RIDGE.

HIP ROOF- IS ALSO A COMMON FORM USED IN MODERN HOUSES HAVING


STRAIGHT SIDES ALL SLOPING TOWARD THE CENTER OF THE BUILDING TERMINATING AT
THE RIDGE.

HIP RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS LAID DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNER OF A PLATE OR
GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.

VALLEY RAFTERS- RAFTERS PLACED DIAGONALLY FROM THE PLATE OR GIRTS AT


THE INTERSECTION OF GABLE EXTENSION WITH THE MAIN ROOF.

OCTAGONAL RAFTERS- ARE RAFTERS PLACED ON AN OCTAGONAL SHAPED PLATE


AT THE CENTRAL APEX OR RIDGE POLE.

JACK RAFTERS- ANY RAFTER WHICH DOES NOT EXTEND FROM THE PLATE OR
GIRTS TO THE RIDGE.

HIP AND VALLEY ROOF- IS A COMBINATION OF THE HIP ROOF AND AN


INTERESTING GABLE ROOF FORMING A T OR L SHAPED BUILDING. THIS TYPE OF ROOF
FORM HOWEVER, HAS A VARIETY OF MODIFICATION WHICH ARE NOT ILLUSTRATED.
PYRAMID ROOF- IS A MODIFICATION OF THE HIP ROOF WHEREIN THE FOUR
STAIGHT SIDES ARE SLOPING TOWARDS THE CENTER TERMINATING AT A POINT.
GAMBREL ROOF- IS A MODIFICATIN OF THE GABLE ROOF WITH EACH SIDE
HAVING TWO SLOPES.
BUTTERFLY ROOF- IS A TWO SHED ROOF WHERE THE SLOPE MEET AT THE
CENTER OF THE BUILDING.
MANSARD ROOF- WHERE THE SIDES OF THE ROOF SLOPE STEEPLY FROM EACH
SIDE OF THE BUILDING TOWARDS THE CENTER FORMING A FLAT DECK ON TOP.
FRENCH OR CONCAVE MANSARD ROOFMANZARD ROOF WHERE THE SIDES ARE CONCAVE.

IS A MODIFICATION OF THE

JACK RAFTERS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO:


1.

HIT JACKS

2.

VALLEY JACKS

3.

CRIPLE JACKS

JACK RAFTERS FRAMED BATWEEN HIP RAFTERS AND GITS ARE CALLED HIP JACKS. THE
FRAME BETWEEN THE RIDGE AND VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED VALLEY JACKS,
WHILE THOSE FRAMES BETWEEN THE HIP AND THE VALLEY RAFTERS ARE CALLED
CRIPPLE JACKS.
TRUSS IS A BUILT-UP FRAME COMMONLY EMPLOYED ON A LONG SPAN ROOF
UNSUPPORTED BY INTERMEDIATE COLUMNS OR PARTITIONS. TRUSS IS A DESIGN OF A
SERIES OF TRIANGLES USED TO DISTRIBUTE LOAD, STIFFEN THE STRUCTURE AND
FLEXIBILITY FOR THE INTERIOR SPACING AS WELL AS STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY.

PURLINS THE STRUCTURAL MEMBER PLACED ON TOP OF A RAFTER OR TOP CHORD OF


A TRUSS THAT SUPPORTS THE ROOF SHEATING.
PURLINS SIZE AND SPACING:
SPAN:

2.00

SIZE:

THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRUSSES ARE:

SCISSORS

3.00

50mm X 100mm

3.50

50mm X 150mm

4.50

50mm X 200mm

ROOF AND ROOFING MATERIALS

LIGHT TRUSSES:
PITCHED

50mm X 75mm

HOWE

THE TERM ROOF USED HERE MEANS THE TOP COVERING OF A BUILDING THAT
SERVES AS A PROTECTIVE COVERING FROM THE WEATHER.

RAISED CHORD
ROOFING CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MATERIALS USED:

SAWTOOTH

1 STORY FRAME

FIBER

WOOD

METAL

SLATE

TILES

REINFORCED CONCRETE

PLASTICS

FIBERGLASS

FLAT UTILITY
BOWSTRING

HEAVY TRUSSES:
HOWE TRUSS

BELGIAN

FINK

PRATT

SCISSORS

CAMBERED FINK

WARREN
SAW TOOTH

FLAT HOWE
FLAT PRATT

METAL ROOFING IS THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,


THIS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS:

GALVANIZED IRON

ALUMINUM

GALVANIZED ZINC COATED MATERIALS.

TIN

A FRAME A 3-PIECE RIGID STRUCTURAL FRAME IN THE SHAPE OF THE UPRIGHT


CAPITAL A.

TITANIUM COPPER ZINC

CHORD A PRINCIPAL MEMBER OF A TRUSS.

COPPER

BATTEN WOOD STRIPS TO SUPPORT ROOF TILES.

STAINLESS STEEL

SPLIT RING CHORD SPLICE CONNECTORS FOR TRUSSES.

LEAD

AMONG THE METAL ROOFING ENUMERATED, GALVANIZED IRON SHEET IS THE


MOST COMMONLY SPECIFIED CONSIDERING THE ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFER.
GALVANIZED IRON ROOFING IS EITHER PLAIN OR CORRUGATED. THE
THICKNESS ARE MEASURED IN TERMS OF GAUGE FROM ga. 14 TO ga. 30. Gauge 26 IS THE
MOST COMMONLY USED FOR ROOFING.
THE STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE WIDTH IS 0.80 m. WITH LENGTH THAT
RANGES FROM 1.50 TO 3.60 m.

FORM, SCAFFOLDING AND STAGING


FORM IS A TEMPORARY BOARDING, SHEATING OR PANS USED TO PRODUCE
THE DESIRED SHAPE AND SIZE OF CONCRETE. FORMS ARE USED IN CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION. STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF A BUILDING ARE BUILT-UP INTO ITS
SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS BY THE USE OF FORMS THAT SERVES AS MOULD FOR THE MIXED
CONCRETE.

PLAIN G.I. SHEET COMMERCIAL STANDARD SIZE IS 0.90m. X 2.40m. ITS ALSO
USED FOR ROOFING, GUTTERS,FLASHING,RIDGE,HIP AND VALLEY ROLLS, DOWNSPOUT,
AND STRAP FOR RIVETING.

FORMS SHOULD BE WATERTIGHT, RIGID AND STRONG ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN


THE WEIGHT OF CONCRETE. IT SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND ECONOMICALLY DESIGNED TO
BE REMOVE EASILY AND REASSEMBLED WITHOUT DAMAGE TO THEMSELVES OR TO THE
CONCRETE.

CORR. G.I.ROOFING FASTENERS:

FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE SELECTION OF FORMS ARE:

NAILING

COST OF MATERIALS

RIVETING

THE CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLING COST

PANTILE A ROOFING TILE WHICH HAS THE SHAPE OF S LAID ON ITS SIDE.

THE NUMBER OF TIMES IT COULD BE USED

MISSION TILE A CLAY ROOFING TILE, APPROX. SEMI-CYLINDRICAL IN SHAPE LAID


IN COURSES WITH THE UNIT HAVING THEIR CONVEX SIDE ALTERNATELY UP AND
DOWN.

STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE TO PRESSURE AND THE TEAR & WEAR

ROMAN TILE A CHANNEL SHAPED, TAPERED, SINGLE LAP ROOPING TILE.

WOOD BOARD AND PLYWOOD FORMS


WOOD FORM IS THE MOST COMMON AND WIDELY USED FORMS IN MINOR OR
MAJOR CONSTRUCTION.

PLYWOOD AS FORM IS GENERALLY ECONOMICAL BOTH IN LABOR AND MATERIALS.

PLYWOOD HAS PLAIN EVEN SURFACE WITH UNIFORM THICKNESS.

IT OFFERS FITTED JOINTS, ELIMINATE DRESSING, PLANING OF THE SURFACE WHICH


IS NORMAL TO WOODEN BOARDS FORMS.

PRODUCE SMOOTH FINISHES OF CONCRETE THAT SOMETIMES NEED LITTLE OR NO


PLASTERING AT ALL.

THE LAMINATED CROSS-GRAINED OF PLYWOOD HAS MADE THE BOARD STRONGER


AND FREE FROM WARPING.

PLYWOOD IS LIGHT-WEIGHT, HANDY AND FAST TO WORK ON.

PERPENDICULAR RIB TYPE

TYPES OF COLUMN FORMS:


METAL FORM ARE SELDOM USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BECAUSE OF
THE VARIED DESIGNS AND SHAPES OF THE STRUCTURES. ALTHOUGH METAL FORMS ARE
EXTENSIVELY USED ON ROAD CONSTRUCTION. METAL FORMS ARE GENERALLY MADE
OUT OF G.I. SHEET, OR BLACK IRON SHEET, SUPPORTED BY FLAT AND ANGLE BARS
DESIGNED TO BE ASSEMBLED AND LOCKED BE MEANS OF CLAMP, BOLTS AND NUTS.

SQUARE

RECTANGULAR

CONSTRUCTION OF FORMS

CIRCULAR

CONCRETE WEIGHS ABOUT 2,200 TO 2,400 kg./cu.m. FORMS SHALL BE GUARDED


AGAINST BULGING AND SAGGING FAILURE THAT OCCUR DURING THE PROCESS OF
POURING. THE THICKNESS OF THE FORM AND THE SIZES OF THE FRAME AND RIBS
DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE SUPPORTED CLASSIFIED AS
SMALL, MEDIUM AND MASSIVE STRUCTURE.

BEAM FORMS CONSIST OF ONE BOTTOM FORM AND A PAIR OF SIDE FORMS.

SMALL STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF SMALL FOOTINGS, COLUMNS AND BEAM FOR


ONE OR TWO STOREY BUILDING WHEREIN 6mm. THK. PLYWOOOD IS SATIFACTORILY
USED SUPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.
MEDIUM STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING CONCRETE COLUMNS, BEAMS, AND
CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB GENERALLY OF 2 TO 3 STOREY HIGH. WHEREIN 6mm OR
12mm THK. PLYWOOD IS USED AS FORM SUPPPORTED BY 50mm X 50mm OR 50mm X
75mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.
MASSIVE STRUCTURE ARE THOSE HAVING HEAVY LOADS USES FORMS OF VARIOUS
THICKNESS THAT RANGE FROM 6mm TO 19mm THK. PLYWOOD SUPPORTED BY 50mm
X 50mm TO 50mm X 100mm WOOD FRAME AND RIBS.

TYPES OF WALL FORMS:

CONTINUOUS

FULL UNIT

LAYER UNIT

GREASING OF FORMS
THE PURPOSE OF GREASING THE FORM IS TO MAKE THE WOOD WATER PROOF,
THUS PREVENTING ABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE CONCRETE WHICH CAUSES SWELLING
AND WARPING. ITS ALSO PREVENTS ADHERENCE OF CONCRETE TO THE PORES OF THE
WOOD.

TWO TYPES OF FRAMING:

YOKE IS A HORIZONTAL FRAMEWORK AROUND THE FORMWORK FOR A COLUMN.

SCAFFOLDING WORKERS PLATFORM

LONGITUDINAL RIB TYPE

PRODUCED FOR ONE TO FOUR STOREY HIGH STRUCTURES ARE SECTIONS HAVING A
WIDTH UP TO 2.40 m. THEY ARE USED AS CURTAIN WALLS ATTACHED TO COLUMNS AND
BEAMS OR SOMETIMES AS BEARING WALLS.
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WALL PANELS ARE:

PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION


INTRODUCTION
THE INTRODUCTION OF PRECAST-CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION WAS BROUGHT
ABOUT BY BUILDING COSTS THAT HAS CONSIDERABLY INCREASED FASTER THAT MOST
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS THAT ARE AFFECTED BY THE LARGE AMOUNT OF ON-SITE
LABOR INVOLVED IN THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION.
THE DEMAND FOR SKILLED WORKERS ON ON-SITE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
IS INCREASINGLY OUTRUNNING THE SUPPLY. THE ANSWER TO THERE PROBLEMS WERE
BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF CONSTRUCITON AND SUBSTITUTION
OF SITE LABOR BY FACTORY PRODUCED PRECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE WHICH HAS
RAPIDLY DEVELOPED AND GAINED IMPORTANCE.
THE CONCRETE IS CAST IN PERMANENT FORMS OF STEEL, CONCRETE, GLASSFIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC.
THE WET CONCRETE IS VIBRATED MECHANICALLY IN THE FORMS TO ACHIEVE
MAXIMUM DENSITY AND HIGHEST SURFACE QUALITY.
CONCRETE STRENGTH IN PRECAST IS USUALLY 5000 PSI, WHILE 270,000 PSI FOR
STRENGTH OF STEEL.

1.

FLAT TYPE

2.

DOUBLE TEE TYPE

3.

RIBBED TYPE

4.

WINDOW OR MULLION TYPE

TO IMPROVE THE THERMAL INSULATION OF THE PANEL, FOAM GLASS, GLASS


FIBER OR EXPANDED PLASTIC IS INSERTED BETWEEN TWO LAYERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT
CONCRETE ADEQUATELY BONDED INTERCONNECTING THE TWO LAYERS TO ACT AS ONE
UNIT. STRESSES IN HANDLING AND ERECTION OF THE MEMBER IS MORE THAN THAT OF
THE FINISHED FILLED STRUCTURE, HENCE, CONTROL OF CRACKING IS OF GREAT
IMPORTANCE.
PRECAST COLUMN
PRECAST COLUMN SIZES ARE FROM .30 x .30m. to .60 x .60m. IN A MULTI-STOREY
CONSTRUCTION, THE COLUMNS ARE MADE CONTINUOUS UP TO FOUR STORIES WHEREIN
CORBELS ARE USED TO PROVIDE BEARING FOR THE BEAM. TEE COLUMN IS SOMETIMES
USED TO SUPPORT DIRECTLY DOUBLE TEE FLOOR MEMBERS WITHOUT THE USE OF
INTERMEDIATE MEMBERS.
PRECAST BEAMS

PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS ARE USUALLY STEAM CURED WITH THE USE
OF HIGH EARLY STRENGTH CEMENT TO ENABLE A PRECAST TO REMOVE IN FORM IN 24
HOURS.
FORMS ARE CALLED CASTING BEDS. THE CASTING BEDS AVERAGE 125 METERS
TO EXTEND 250 METERS IN LENGTH.
TYPES OF PRECAST STRUCTURE
WALL PANELS THIS TYPE OF PRECAST STRUCTURE HAS NUMEROUS DESIGNS
DEPENDING UPON THE ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS. THE COMMON SHAPES

THE SHAPE OF PRECAST BEAMS DEPENDS UPON THE MANNER OF FRAMING.


THE VARIOUS SHAPES ARE:

RECTANGULAR BEAM

INVERTED TEE BEAM

L SHAPED BEAM

AASHTO BRIDGE GIRDER AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY


AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS.

ROOF AND FLOOR MEMBERS

SOLID FLAT SLAB WIDE RANGES FROM 0.60M. TO 2.4M.

HOLLOW CORE SLAB WIDE RANGES FROM 0.60M. TO 2.4M.

DOUBLE TEE WIDE RANGES FROM 2.4 TO 3.0M.

SINGLE TEE WIDE RANGES FROM 2.4 TO 3.0M.

BOLTING, WELDING, AND GROUTING ARE ALL COMMONLY EMPLOYED IN THESE


CONNECTIONS. EXPOSED METAL CONNECTORS NOT COVERED BY TOPPING ARE
USUALLY DRY PACKED WITH STIFF GROUT AFTER BEING JOINED, TO PROTECT THEM
FROM FIRE AND CORROSION.
THE SIMPLEST JOINTS IN PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ARE THOSE
THAT RELY UPON GRAVITY BY PLACING ONE ELEMENT ON TOP OF ANOTHER, AS IS DONE
WHERE SLAB ELEMENTS REST ON A BEARING WALL OR BEAM, OR WHERE A BEAM RESTS
ON THE CORBEL OF A COLUMN. BEARING PADS ARE USUALLY INSERTED BETWEEN THE
CONCRETE MEMBERS AT BEARING POINTS TO AVOID THE CONCRETE-TO-CONCRETE
CONTACT THAT MIGHT CREATE POINTS OF HIGH STRESS. BEARING PADS ALSO ALLOW
FOR EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION IN THE MEMBERS. FOR SOLID AND HOLLOW-CORE
SLABS THESE PADS ARE STRIPS OF HIGH-DENSITY PLASTIC. UNDER ELEMENTS WITH
HIGHER POINT LOADING SUCH AS TEES AND BEAMS, PADS OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER
AREUSED.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A PECAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE

ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF A PRECAST SOLID SLAB AT 1/40 OF ITS SPAN. DEPTH
TYPICALLY RANGE FROM 90-200mm.

AN 200mm PRECAST HOLLOW-CORE SLAB CAN SPAN APPROXIMATELY 7.60M., 250mm


SLAB APPROX. 9.80M., AND A 300mm SLAB APPROX. 12.0M. SPAN.

ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE DOUBLE TEES AT 1/28 OF THEIR


SPAN. THE MOST COMMON DEPTHS OF DOUBLE TEES ARE 300,350,400,450,510,610,
AND815mm.

A PRECAST CONCRETE SINGLE TEE 928mm DEEP SPANS APPROXIMATELY 26.0M. AND
1142mm TEE FOR 32.0M. SPAN.

ESTIMATE THE DEPTH OF PRECAST CONCRETE BEAMS AND GIRDERS AT 1/16 OF


THEIR SPAN FOR LIGHT LOADINGS AND 1/12 OF THEIR SPAN FOR HEAVY LOADINGS.
THESE RATIOS APPLY TO RECTANGULAR, INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS.
THE WIDTH OF A BEAM OR GIRDER IS USUALLY ABOUT ITS DEPTH. THE
PROJECTING LEDGERS ON INVERTED TEE AND L-SHAPED BEAMS ARE USUALLY
150mm WIDE AND 300mm DEEP.

TO ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF A PRECAST CONCRETE COLUMN. ADD UP THE TOTAL


ROOF AND FLOOR AREA SUPPORTED BY THE COLUMN. A 250mm. COLUMN CAN
SUPPORT UP TO ABOUT 185 sq.m. OF AREA. A 300mm. COLUMN FOR 240 sq.m. AREA. A
400mm. COLUMN FOR 370 sq.m. AREA. A 500mm. COLUMN FOR 560 sq.m. AREA. A
600MM. COLUMN FOR 740 sq.m. AREA.

JOINING PRECAST CONCRETE ELEMENTS

PRESTRESSING OF CONCRETE
THERE ARE SEVERAL METHODS EMPLOYED IN APPLYING PRESTRESSED FORCE
TO A CONCRETE BEAM:

PRECOMPRESSING METHOD IS A PROCESS OF USING JACKS REACTING AGAINST


ABUTMENT.

SELF-CONTAINED METHOD THE PROCESS IS DONE BY TYING THE JACK BASE


TOGETHER WITH WIRES OR CABLES LOCATED ON EACH SIDE OF THE BEAM.
USUALLY THE WIRES AND CABLES ARE PRESSED THROUGH A HOLLOW CONDUIT
EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE BEAM. ONE END OF THE TENDON IS ANCHORED AND
FORCES ARE APPLIED AT THE OTHER END. AFTER ATTAINING THE DESIRED
PRESTRESS FORCE, THE TENDON IS THEN WEDGED AGAINST THE CONCRETE,
REMOVING THE JACK EQUIPMENT.

BOND FRICTION THE PRESTRESSING STRANDS ARE STRETCHED BETWEEN


MASSIVE ABUTMENT PRIOR TO CASTING OF CONCRETE IN THE BEAM FORMS.
AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH, THE JACKS ARE THEN
RELEASED TRANSFERRING THE PRESTRESSED FORCE TO THE CONCRETE BY BOND
AND FRICTION ALONG THE STRANDS.

THE SELF CONTAINED AND THE BOND AND FRICTION METHODS CAN
GENERALLY BE CLASSIFIED AS PRE-TENSIONING OR POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM. THESE
METHODS CAN BE APPLIED TO MASS PRODUCTION OF CASTING SEVERAL METERS LONG
OF STRUCTURE AND CUTTING THE INDIVIDUAL BEAM OR POST TO THE DESIRED LENGTH
OUT FROM THE LONG CASTING.

THERMAL PRESTRESSING THE STEEL IS PREHEATED BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC


POWER WHICH ARE ANCHORED AGAINST THE OPPOSITE END OF THE CONCRETE
BEAM. THE COOLING PROCESS PRODUCES PRESTRESS FORCE THROUGH
RESTRAINED CONTRACTION.

MEASUREMENT OF PRESTRESSING FORCE


PRESTRESSING FORCE COULD BE DETERMINED BY:

THE CAUSES OF PRESTRESS LOSSES ARE:


1.

SLIP AT ANCHORAGE

2.

ELASTIC SHORTENING OF CONCRETE

3.

CREEP OF CONCRETE

4.

SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE

5.

RELAXATION OF STEEL STRESS

1.

MEASURING THE TENDON ELONGATION.

2.

EITHER BY CHECKING JACK PRESSURE ON A CALIBRATED GAGE OR


LOAD CELL OR BY THE USED OF CALIBRATED DYNAMOMETER.

POST TENSIONING THE STRESSING OF UNBONDED TENDONS AFTER CONCRETE


HAS CURED.

BUILDING MATERIALS

6.
FRICTIONAL LOSS DUE TO INTENDED OR UNINTENDED CURVATURE IN THE
TENDONS.

WOOD MATERIALS

CONCRETE FOR PRESTRESSING

WOOD HAS DURABILITY AND BEAUTY. IT HAS GREAT ABILITY TO ABSORB SHOCKS
FROM SUDDEN LOAD AND LIGHT IN WEIGHT WHICH ADAPTABLE IN A COUNTLESS
VARIETY OF PURPOSES.

CONCRETE OF HIGHER COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IS USED FOR PRESTRESSED


STRUCTURES. MOST OF THE PRESTRESSED CONSTRUCTION SPECIFY A COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BETWEEN (4,000 to 6,000 psi) 280-422 kg/cm2 BECAUSE OF THE
FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES THAT IT OFFERS.

TWO MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD:

A)

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE HAS A HIGHER MODULUS


ELASTICITY. IT MINIMIZE THE REDUCTION OF PRESTRESS LOSS.

OF

B)

INCREASING THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF THE CONCRETE


MEETS THE PROBLEM OF HIGH BEARING STRESSES AT THE ENDS OF
POST AND BEAM WHERE THE PRESTRESSING FORCE IS TRANSFERRED
FROM THE TENDON TO THE ANCHORAGE DOWELS WHICH DIRECTLY
BEARS AGAINST THE CONCRETE.

C)

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE DEVELOPS STRONGER


PRESTRESSES TO PRETENSIONING CONSTRUCTION.

BOND

D)

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE GIVES HIGHER STRENGTH TO PRECAST


CONSTRUCTION WHEN CURING IS CAREFULLY CONTROLLED.

SOFTWOOD THESE ARE USED FOR GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.

HARDWOOD THESE ARE USED FOR FLOORING, STAIRS, PANELLING,


FURNITURES AND INTERIOR TRIM.

PROPERTIES OF WOOD:

HARDNESS MEASURED BY THE COMPRESSION, WHICH A PIECE


UNDERGOES WHEN A WEIGHT IS APPLIED.

FLEXIBILITY THE AMOUNT A PIECE WILL BEND BEFORE BREAKING.

STRENGTH TO THE GRAIN.

DURABILITY THE RELATIVE VALUE / LIFESPAN OF WOOD.

DEFECTS OF LUMBER:

DECAY CAUSED BY THE ATTACKED OF FUNGI.

CHECKS CRACKS OR LENGTH WISE SEPARATION ACROSS THE


ANNUAL RINGS OF GROWTH.

KNOTS IRREGULAR GROWTHS IN THE BODY WHICH INTERRUPS


SMOOTH CURVE.

PITCH POCKETS WELL REFINED OPENINGS BETWEEN ANNUAL RINGS


CONTAINING SOLID OR LIQUID PITCH.

WANE IS THE LACK OF WOOD ON THE EDGE OR CORNER OF A PIECE.

TYPES OF WARPING:

CUPPING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS


CONVEX/CONCAVE ACROSS THE BOARD.

BOWING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH THE FACE IS


CONVEX/CONCAVE LONGITUDINALLY.

TWISTING IS A DISTORTION OF THE BOARD IN WHICH ONE CORNER IS


RAISED.

THREE CATEGORIES OF LUMBER:

YARD LUMBER USED FOR ORDINARY LIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND


FINISHING WORK. COMMONLY USED FOR FLOORING, PLANK SIDING,
TRIM AND MOULDING.

SHOP LUMBER IT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN SHOPS OR IN MILLS


MAKING SASH, DOORS, AND CABINETS.

STRUCTURAL LUMBER IS INTENDED FOR USE IN HEAVY


CONSTRUCTION FOR LOAD-BEARING PURPOSES AND IS CUT INTO
TIMBERS OF LARGER SIZE.

WOOD GRAIN:

EDGE GRAIN ANNUAL RINGS RUN APPROX. AT RIGHT ANGLE TO THE


FACE.

FLAT GRAIN WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS RUN MORE OR LESS PARALLEL
TO THE SURFACE.

ANGLE GRAIN WHEN THE ANNUAL RINGS ARE AT ABOUT 45 DEG. TO


THE FACE.

SEASONING OF LUMBER:

AIR DRYING LUMBER IS STRIP-PILED AT ASLOPE ON ASOLID


FOUNDATION. THIS ALLOWS AIR TO CIRCULATE AROUND EVERY PIECE
WHILE THE SLOPING ALOOWS WATER TO RUN OFF QUICKLY.

KILN-DRYING MORE EXPENSIVE LUMBER WHICH IS REQUIRED FOR


MORE REFINED USES SO AS WOOD WILL NOT MOVE. IT MUST BE DRIED
TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF NOT MORE THAN 5 TO 10 PERCENT. THIS
IS DONE IN AN AIRTIGHT STRUCTURE SCIENTIFICALLY HEATED BY
STEAM PIPES IN WHICH THE LUMBER IS ARTIFICIALLY DRIED TO THE
CORRECT MOISTURE CONTENT.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

STRIPS PIECES LESS THAN 2 THICK AND LESS THAN 8 WIDE.

BOARDS PIECES LESS THAN 2 THICK AND AT LEAST 8 WIDE.

DIMENSION LUMBER PIECES MORE THAN 2 THICK AND LESS THAN 5


IN ANY DIMENSION.

TIMBER PIECES 4 OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.

LOG PIECES 12 OR MORE ON THE SMALLEST DIMENSION.

MANUFACTURE BOARDS:
MANUFACTURED BOARDS ARE MADE OF WOOD BUT DOES NOT
APPEAR IN THEIR NATURAL STATE. THIS TYPE OF BUILDING MATERIALS CAN BE
CLASSIFIED AS A TYPE OF LUMBER AS THEY ARE THE BY-PRODUCT IN THE

MANUFACTURE OF LUMBER. THE COMPLETE UTILIZATION OF WOOD HAS LEAD TO AN


EXPANDED FIELD OF MANUFACTURED BOARDS.

HARDWOOD PLYWOOD ARE USED FOR PANELLING AND


FINSHING WHERE USUALLY ON ONE FACE IS HARD FINISHED.

TYPES OF BOARDS:

EXTERIOR OR MARINE PLYWOOD IS MADE FOR EXTERNAL


USE.

PLYWOOD IS MADE OF AN ODD NUMBER VENEER SHEETS GLUED


TOGETHER WITH THE GRAINS RUNNING AT RIGHT ANGLE TO EACH
OTHER. IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT AND STRONG THAT SCREW OR NAIL CAN
BE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE EDGES WITHOUT DANGER OF SPLITTING.

THE DIFF. TYPES OF PLYWOOD:

HARDBOARD IS MADE FROM WOOD CHIPS WHICH ARE EXPLODED


INTO FIBERS UNDER STREAM OF HIGH PRESSURE. THE LINING IN THE
WOOD ITSELF BINDS PRESSED WOOD TOGETHER WITH NO FILLERS OR
ARTIFICIAL ADHESIVES APPLIED. PRESSED WOOD IS EQUALLY STRONG
IN ALL DIRECTIONS BUT VERY BRITTLE. ITS COLOR VARIES FROM LIGHT
TO DARK BROWN.

SOFT PLYWOOD - THE MOST COMMON FOR STRUCTURAL USE

PARTICLE BOARD IS MANUFACTURES FROM WOOD CHIPS, CURLS,


FIBERS, FLAKES, STRANDS, SHAVING, SLIVERS ETC. BOUND TOGETHER
AND PRESSED INTO SHEETS AND OTHER MOLDED SHAPED. PARTICLE
BOARD HAS EQUAL STRENGTH IN ALL DIRECTION OF A GIVEN CROSS
SECTIONAL AREA, IT IS NOT BRITTLE AND CAN RESIST WARPING.

MASONRY
MASONRY REFERS TO A MAN-MADE UNITS WHICH ARE FORMED AND
HARDENED INTO MODULAR BUILDING UNITS.

ROWLOCK IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS FACE WITH ITS END VISIBLE IN THE WALL
FACE.
STRUCTURAL BONDS FOR BRICKWORK:

RUNNING BOND CONSISTS ENTIRELY OF STRETCHERS.

COMMON BOND HAS A HEADER COURSE EVERY SIXTH COURSE

ENGLISH BOND ALTERNATES COURSES OF HEADERS AND STRETCHERS.

FLEMISH BOND ALTERNATES HEADERS AND STRETCHERS IN EACH COURSE.

BASIC BRICKWORK TERMINOLOGY:

COURSE IS A HORIZONTAL LAYER OF BRICKS OR OTHER MASONRY UNITS.

BED JOINT IS THE HORIZONTAL MORTAR IN EVERY COURSE.

HEAD JOINT IS THE VERTICAL MORTAR IN EVERY MASONRY UNIT.

STRETCHER IS A BRICK LAID WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL AND ITS
LONG DIMENSION HORIZONTAL.

JOINT TOOLING PROFILES FOR BRICKWORK:


WEATHERED JOINT

HEADER IS A BRICK LAID SO AS TO BOND TWO WYTHES TOGETHER.

WYTHE IS A VERTICAL LAYER OF MASONRY UNITS, ONE UNIT THICK.

SOLDIER IS A BRICK LAID ON ITS END WITH ITS FACE PARALLEL TO THE WALL.

CONCAVE JOINT

FLUCH JOINT
STRIPPED JOINT

VEE JOINT

RAKED JOINT

STRUCK JOINT
REINFORCED BRICK MASONRY
A REINFORCED BRICK WALL IS CREATED BY CONSTRUCTING TWO WYTHES
OF BRICK 50 100mm APART, PLACING THE REINFORCING STEEL IN THE CAVITY, AND

FILLING CAVITY WITH GROUT. GROUT IS A MIXTURE OF CEMENT, AGGREGATES, AND


WATER

WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT SAME MATERIALS AS NORMAL PORTLAND EXCEPT


IN COLOR. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS CONTROLLED TO PRODUCE A
PURE WHITE, NON-STAINING CEMENT.
IT IS USED PRIMARILY FOR
ARCHITECTURAL PURPOSES SUCH AS CURTAIN WALL AND FACING PANELS,
DECORATIVE CONCRETE STUCCO AND TILE GROUT, OR WHEREVER WHITE OR
COLORED CONCRETE OR MORTAR IS SPECIFIED.

MASONRY CEMENT OR TILE ADHESIVES HAS BEEN SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO


PRODUCE BETTER MORTAR THAN THAT MADE WITH NORMAL PORTLAND CEMENT
OR WITH A LIME-CEMENT HAS PARTICULARLY GOOD PLASTICITY AND
WORKABILITY, GOOD ADHESION AND BOND.

WATERPROOFED PORTLAND CEMENT NORMALLY PRODUCED BY ADDING A


SMALL AMOUNT OF STEARATE, USUALLY CALCIUM OR ALUMINUM TO THE CEMENT
CLINKER DURING THE FINAL GRINDING.

BRICK BOUNDS

THE METHOD OF LAYING BRICKS IN A WALL IN ORDER TO FORM SOME


DISTINCTIVE PATTERN OR DESIGN IS REFERRED TO AS THE PATTERN
BOND.
THE METHOD BY WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL UNITS IN A BRICK STRUCTURE
ARE TIED TOGETHER EITHER BY OVERLAPPING OR BY METAL TIES IS
KNOWN AS THE STRUCTURAL BOND.
THE ADHESION OF MORTAR TO BRICKS OR TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT
USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THEM IS CALLED THE MORTAR BOND.

TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE


CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS:
CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS BEARING AND NONBEARING BLOCKS. LOAD BEARING BLOCKS ARE THOSE WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES
FROM 15 CM. TO 20 CM. AND ARE USED TO CARRY LOAD ASIDE FROM ITS OWN
WEIGHT. NON-BEARING BLOCKS ON THE OTHER HAND, ARE BLOCKS WHICH ARE
INTENDED FOR WALLS, PARTITIONS, FENCES OR DIVIDERS CARRYING ITS OWN
WEIGHT WHOSE THICKNESS RANGES FROM 7.5 CM. TO 10 CM.

CONCRETE CAN BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN ARTIFICIAL STONE MADE BY


BINDING TOGETHER PARTICLES OF SOME INERT MATERIAL WITH A PASTE MADE OF
CEMENT AND WATER. THESE INERT MATERIAL ARE THE AGGREGATE. AGGREGATES
USED ARE SAND, GRAVEL CRUSHED STONE, CINDER. CRUSHED FURNACE SLAG,
BURNED CLAY, EXPANDED VERMICULITE, AND PERLITE.
SAND

- FOUND IN RIVERBEDS,
FREE OF SALT

CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS HAS THREE CELLS AND TWO ONE HALF CELLS
AT BOTH ENDS HAVING A TOTAL OF FOUR.
CONCRETE

AND MUST BE WASHED.


FINE AGGREGATE

- AND
DIAMETER STONES.

SMALLER

COARSE AGGREGATE

- BIGGER THAN DIAMETER


STONES.

CEMENTS
PORTLAND CEMENT
MADE FROM MATERIALS WHICH MUST CONTAIN IN THE PROPER PROPORTIONS OF
LIME, SILICA, ALUMINA AND IRON COMPONENTS. FOUR PARTS OF LIMESTONE TO ONE
PART CLAY ARE BASIC INGREDIENTS. THESE ARE MIXED, BURNED THEN PULVERIZED.
PORTLAND CEMENT IS SOLD EITHER IN CEMENT BAGS OF 40 & 50 KILOS WEIGHT OR
IN BULK INTO CEMENT TRUCKS.

CONCRETE MIXES
CLASS AA

- 1: 1 : 3

CONCRETE UNDER WATER,


RETAINING
WALLS

SPECIAL CEMENTS
CLASS A

- 1:2:4

BEAMS, R.C.

FOOTINGS, COLUMNS

SLABS

TESTING LABORATORY, BY MAKING THE CYLINDER WHILE STILL WET. SOME


COMPRESSIVE STRESSES ARE 2,000 psi, 2,500 psi, 3,000 psi.

CLASS B

- 1: 2 1/ 2:5-

SLAB ON FILL, NON BEARING WALLS

CLASS C

- 1: 3: 6

CONCRETE PLANT BOXES, ETC.

SOME OF THE BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT


CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES
SLUMP TEST- WHEN FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THE
SPECIFIED SLUMP IS BEING ATTAINED CONSISTENTLY. A STANDARD SLUMP CONE IS
12 INCHES HIGH (0.30) AND 8 INCHES (O.20) IN DIAMETER AT THE BOTTOM AND 4
INCHES (O.10) ON TOP WHICH IS OPEN ON BOTH ENDS.
THE CONE IS FILLED IN THREE EQUAL LAYERS, EACH BEING TAMPED OR
RODDED 25 TIMES WITH A STANDARD 5/8 BULLET NOSED ROD. WHEN THE CONE HAS
BEEN FILLED AND LEVELED OFF, IT IS LIFTED CAREFULLY AND THE AMOUNT OF SLUMP
IS MEASURED.
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION X
BEAMS AND COLUMNS

7.5 cm. (.075) 3

SLABS AND TUNNEL INVERTS

5.0 cm. (.50) 2

TOPS AND WALL, PIERS, PARAPET & CURBS

5.0 cm. (.50) 2

SIDE WALLS AND ARCH IN TUNNEL LINING

ISLAND CEMENT

CONTINENTAL CEMENT

HI- CEMENT

UNION CEMENT

RIZAL CEMENT

FILIPINAS CEMENT

PACIFIC CEMENT

FORTUNE CEMENT

REPUBLIC CEMENT

NORTHERN CEMENT

10.0 cm. (.10) 4


BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT

CANAL LINING
3
HEAVY MASS CONSTRUCTION

7.5 cm. (.075)

5.0 cm. (.50) 2

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST- COMMON QUALITY-CONTROL TEST OF CONCRETE,


BASED ON 7 AND 28 DAYS CURING PERIODS. SPECIMENS ARE USUALLY CYLINDRICAL
WITH A LENGHT EQUAL TO TWICE THE DIAMETER. STANDARD SIZE IS 12 INCH. HIGH
AND 6 INCH. DIAMETER. FILLING IS DONE THE SAME WAY AS THE SLUMP TEST BUT
TAKEN OUT FROM THE MOLD IN 24 HOURS. IT IS THEN SENT TO A COMPRESSION

PRIME WHITE CEMENT

KEENE

TRINITY

SNOWCRETE

MORTAR CEMENT, SAND & WATER.

CINDER BLOCK A LIGHT WEIGHT MASONRY UNIT MADE OF CINDER CONCRETE.

GROUT CEMENT AND WATER MIXTURE.

MORTAR FOR BLOCK LAYING IS 0.0125 m.

CONCRETE CEMENT, SAND, GRAVEL & WATER.

PLASTERING THICKNESS IS 0.016 m.

TYROLEAN FINISH ROUGH PLASTER FINISH OBTAINED BY FLINGING PLASTER


ON A WALL W/ A HAND OPERATED MACHINE.

MORTAR FILLER FOR HOLLOW CELL 0.05 X 0.075 X 0.20 = 0.00075 cu.m.

EFFLORESCENCE AN ENCRUSTATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS CAUSED BY FREE


ALKALIES LEACHED FROM MORTAR OR ADJACENT CONCRETE AS MOISTURE
MOVE THROUGH IT.

FOR 4 CELL/BLOCK = 0.00075 X 4 = 0.003 cu.m. FOR 4 CHB.

ADIABATIC CURING - THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR W/O THE GAIN OR


LOSS OF HEAT DURING THE CURING PERIOD.

WHEATHERED MOST WATERPROOFED TYPE OF MORTAR JOINTS FOR WALLS.

ADOBE BRICK LARGE ROUGHLY MOULDED SUN DRIED CLAY BRICKS OF


VARYING SIZES.

ASHLAR BRICK A BRICK WHOSE FACE HAS BEEN HACKED TO RESEMBLE


ROUGHLY HACKED STONE.

FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS


FERROUS- METAL IN WHICH IRON IS THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENT.
NONFERROUS- CONTAINING NO, OR VERY LITTLE IRON.
FERROUS METAL:
STEEL- A MALLEABLE ALLOY OF IRON AND CARBON PRODUCED BY MELTING AND
REFINING PIG IRON AND/ OR SCRAP STEEL, GRADED ACCORDING TO THE CARBON
CONTENT.
PRODUCE BY THREE BASIC RAW MATERIALS, IRON ORE, AND LIMESTONE. FIVE
PARTICLES OF ALL THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS OF STEEL, WHICH OTHERWISE WOULD BE
WASTE, ARE BLENDED AND BURNED ON A MOVING GATE TO CAUSE THE FORMATION OF
CLINKERS. THESE ARE CALLED SINTER, A HIGH- GRADE BLAST-FURNANCE CHARGE
MATERIAL.

RETARDER AN ADMIXTURE WHICH DELAY THE SETTING OF CEMENT PASTE OR


MIXTURES/ AN ADDITIVE MIXED WITH PLASTER TO CONTROL THE RATE OF
HARDENING.

STEAM CURING THE CURING OF CONCRETE OR MORTAR IN WATER VAPOR AT


AN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AT EITHER ATMOSPHERIC OR HIGH PRESSURE.

FROM THESE, RAW MATERIALS WHICH IS MELTED INTO INGOTS PLACE IN


MOLDS, A GRAT VARIETY OF PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION ARE MADE. THEY
INCLUDED:

QUOIN / COIN IN MASONRY, A HARD STONE OR BRICK USED TO REINFORCE AN


EXTERNAL CORNER OF A WALL.

ZOCALO LOW WALL AROUND A CHALET-TYPE HOUSE.

FORTIFICATION THA WALL OF INTRAMUROS.

COLD-ROLLED SHEETS ARE GALVANIZED (GIVEN A ZINC COATING). PIG IRON IS


USED TO MAKE CAST IRON WHICH IS HIGH IN COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT BUT LOW
IN TENSILE STRENGHT, AND HAS LITTLE USE FOR CONSTRUCTION. HOWEVER
SINCE IT IS CHEAP AND EASY TO CAST, IT IS USED FOR PUMPS, MOTORS,
ENGINES AND BECAUSE OF ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IT IS USED FOR PIPES
TO SOME EXTENT.

SCRATCH COAT INITIAL SCORED LAYER OF PLASTER WORK.

WROUGHT IRON IS PRODUCED WHEN PIG IRON IS MELTED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO


REMOVE NEARLY ALL OF THE CARBON AND OTHER IMPURITIES. IT IS EASILY
WORKED AND IS TOUGH AND DUCTILE. ITS MAIN USES ARE FOR WIRE AND
METAL ORNAMENTS.

STAINLESS STEELS ARE MADE WITH CHROMIUM OR A COMBINATION OF NICKEL


AND CHROMIUM USED IN BUILDINGS OF EXTERIOR WALLS PANELS, FRAMES FOR
DOORS EXPANSION JOINTS, FLASHING, COPINGS, FASCIA AND GRAVEL STOPS.

No. 8=

= 25mm.

No. 9=

1 1/8

= 30mm.

COPPER- BEARING STEEL HAS HIGH RESISTANCE TO CORROSION AND IS USED


FOR MAKING SHEET STEEL AND METAL LATH.

STEEL PRODUCTS

ROLLED STRUCTURAL SHAPES

SHEET PILING- SECTIONS ARE MADE TO INTERLOCK AND ARE AVAILABLE IN


SEVERAL SHAPE.

STEEL PIPE- SEAMLESS OR WELDED SMALL DIAMETER PIPE AND ELECTRICALLY


WELDED LARGE DIAMETER PIPE.

REINFORCING STEEL- MADE FROM NEW STEEL OR FROM DISCARDED


RAILWAY- CAR AXLES OR RAILS.
REINFORCING STEEL COMES IN PLAIN OR DEFORMED BARS, THAT IS, BARS
WHICH HAVE LUGS OR DEFORMATIONS ROLLED ON THE SURFACE TO
PROVIDE ARCHORAGE IN CONCRETE.

SIZES-START WITH NO.2 OR in. (DIVIDE A NUMBER OF BAR BY 8 TO GET THE


EQUIVALENT IN inch DIAMETER)

No. 2=

= 6 mm.

No. 3=

3/8

= 10 mm.

No. 4=

= 12mm.

No. 5=

5/8

= 16mm.

No. 6=

= 20mm.

No. 7=

7/8

= 22mm.

WELDED WIRE FABRIC- ANOTHER TYPE OF REINFORCING MATERIAL. IT


CONSISTS OF PARALLEL, LONGITUDINAL WIRES WELDED TO TRANSVERSE
WIRES AT REGULAR INTERVALS.

STEEL WIRE OVER 150,000 USES FOR WIRE INCLUDING PINS, NEEDLES,
NAILS, BOLTS, CABLES, PIANO WIRE, FENCES.

BOLTS AND NUTS (EITHER HOT FORGED OR COLD-FORMED FROM WIRE


OF THE APPROPRIATE DIAMETER). FOR BOLTS, WIRE IS FED INTO AN
AUTOMATIC BOLT-MAKING MACHINE WHICH CUTS TO LENGTH HEADS, TRIMS,
POINTS, AND IN MANY ROLLS THE THREAD.

STEEL STRAPPING MADE FROM HIGH-TENSILE FLAT WIRE IN A NUMBER


OF SIZES. USED FOR BANDING COLUMN FORMS TO KEEP THEM FROM
BULGING UNDER THE PRESSURE OF FRESHLY POURED CONCRETE. A
TIGHTERNER TIGHTENS IT AND THE TWO LAPPED ENDS IS SEALED.

OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS LIGHTWEIGHT WARREN-TYPE TRUSSES MADE


IN SEVERAL DIFFERENT STYLES.

SHEET STEEL BLACK AND GALVANIZED, CAN BE USED TO MANUFACTURE


CORRUGATED ROOFING AND SIDING AND FORMED STEEL DECKING.

STEEL STUDS LIGHTWEIGHT, REQUIRING MINIMUM STORAGE SPACE AND


DOES NOT WARP OR SHRINK. FASTENERS DO NOT POP, AND JOINTS STAY
CLOSED. MUCH FASTER TO INSTALL THAN WOOD STUD INSTALLATION.
AVAILABLE IN 1 5/8, 2 AND 3 5/8 INCHES. PLUMBING STACKS AND
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS FIT EASILY INTO A STEEL-FRAMEWALL.

PANS AND DONES MANUFACTURED FOR USE IN FORMING ONE-WAY AND


TWO-WAY RIBBED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS.

NONFERROUS METALS:

ALUMINUM ITS ORE, BAUXITE, REQUIRES 10 KILOWATT HOURS FOR EACH POUND OF
METAL ALUMINUM EXTRACTED. THE REDDISH BROWN ORE IS WASHED AND TREATED
IN A SODA SOLUTION TO YIELD A CHALKY-WHITE POWDER CALLED ALUMNA,
CONTAINING A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ALUMINUM.
ALUMINUM FOIL USED AS A VAPOR BARRIER ON WALLS AND
CEILINGS AND AS REFLECTIVE INSULATION.
COPPER A LUSTROUS REDDISH METAL, HIGHLY DUCTILE AND MALLEABLE;
HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH, IS AN EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL
CONDUCTOR, IS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF SHAPES; WIDELY USED FOR
DOWNSPOUTS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS, FLASHINGS GUTTERS, ROOFING, ETC.
COPPER ALLOYS ARE BRASSES, AND BRONZES WHICH CONTAIN
PRIMARILY ZINC AND TIN, RESPECTIVELY, AND THE ALLOYS CONTAINING NICKEL.
BRASSES ARE USED IN ARCHITECTURAL AND HARDWARE
APPLICTIONS. BRONZES ARE USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SPRINGS.
LEAD A SOFT, MALLEABLE, HEAVY METAL; HAS LOW MELTING POINT AND A
HIGH COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION. VERY EASY TO CUT AND WORK,
ENABLING IT TO BE FITTED OVER UNEVEN SURFACES. USED FOR ROOFING,
FLASHING AND SPANDREL WALL PANELS.

5.

CHANNELS

10.

ZEE

STANDARD CHANNEL
THE STANDARD CHANNEL HAS THE SHAPE OF UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE
CONSISTING OF TWO FLANGES ON ONE SIDE. IT THEREFORE REQUIRES LATERAL
SUPPORT TO PREVENT ITS TENDENCY TO BUCKLE. THE STANDARD CHANNELS ARE
GENERALLY USED AS ELEMENTS OF BUILT-UP SECTIONS FOR COLUMNS AND ARE
ALSO SUITABLE FOR FRAMING AROUND FLOOR OPENINGS, SPANDRELS, AND LINTELS
ATTRIBUTED TO THE ABSENCE OF FLANGE ON THE OTHER SIDE. THE CHANNEL
SECTION IS IDENTIFIRD AS C 15 x 20 WHICH MEANS THAT THE CHANNEL HAS A DEPTH
OF 20 cm. AND WEIGHTS 15 kg. PER METER LENGTH.
WIDE FLANGE
WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS W 12 x 24 WHICH MEANS THAT
THE FLANGE HAS A DEPTH OF 24 cm. AND IT WEIGHS 12 kg. PER METER LENGTH. ALL
WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE GENERALLY WITH PARALLEL FACE FLANGE EXCEPT
THOSE WITH 5% SLOPE INSIDE FACE PRODUCED BY BETLEHEM STEEL COMPANY.
COMPARATIVELY, WIDE FLANGE SECTIONS ARE MORE EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD I
BEAM WITH RESPECT TO BENDING RESISTANCE.
STANDARD I-BEAM

TIN A LUSTROUS WHITE, SOFT AND MALLEABLE METAL HAVING A LOW


MELTING POINT; RELATIVELY UNAFFECTED BY EXPOSURE TO AIR; USED FOR MAKING
ALLOYS AND SOLDER AND IN COATING SHEET METAL.

THE USE OF I-BEAM AS A COLUMN IS UNECONOMICAL, BECAUSE THE WHIRL


OR REVOLVING ACTION OF THE STRUCTURE ABOUT AN AXIS THROUGH THE CENTROID
PARALLEL TO THE WAB OF THE I-BEAM IS COMPARATIVELY SMALL.

STRUCTURAL SHAPES

H-BEARING PILES

THE MOST COMMON SHAPES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL USED IN BUILDING


CONSTRUCTION ARE THE AMERICAN STANDARD FORMS SUCH AS:

H-BEARING PILES ALTHOUGH SUITABLE FOR PILE DRIVING ON DEEP


EXCAVATIONS IS MUCH MORE SUITABLE THAN THE I-BEAM FOR COLUMNS.

1.

SQUARE BARS

6.

I-

ZEE SECTIONS

BEAM
2.

ROUND BARS

3.

PLATE BARS

7.

TEE

BEAM
8.

H-

COLUMN
4.
WIDE FLANGES

ANGLE BARS

9.

THE ZEE SECTION IS ANOTHER STRUCTURAL FORM IN A LETTER Z WHICH IS


NOT FREQUENTLY USED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION EXEPT ON THE FABRICATION OF
STEEL WINDOWS AND OTHER FRAMES.

WROUGHT IRON A COMMERCIALLY PURE IRON OF FIBROUS NATURE, VALUED


FOR ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY.

CAST IRON AN IRON ALLOY USUALLY INCLUDING CARBON AND SILICON WHICH
HAS HIGH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BUT LOW TENSILE STRENGTH.

WELDING IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH TWO METALS ARE SO JOINT THAT THERE
IS AN ACTUAL UNION OF THE INTERATOMIC BONDS.

EXTRUSION THE PROCESS OF PRODUCING METAL SHAPES OF A CONSTANT


CROSS SECTION BY FORCING THE HOT METAL THROUGH AN ORFICE IN A DIE BY
MEANS OF A PRESSURE RAM.

RED OXIDE PROTECTIVE COAT FOR IRON.

LAP SEAM A JOINT FORMED BY OVERLAPPING THE EDGES OF METAL SHEET OR


PLATES AND JOINING THEM BY RIVETING OR SOLDERING OR BRACING.

1)

CARBON STEEL BOLTS OR COMMON BOLTS ARE SIMILAR TO THE


ORDINARY MACHINE BOLTS THAT CAN BE PURCHASED IN
HARDWARE STORES.

2)

HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTS ARE HEAT TREATED DURING


MANUFACTURE TO DEVELOP THE NECESSARY STRENGTH. IT IS
USUALLY TIGHTENED USING PNEUMATIC OR ELECTRIC IMPACT
WRENCH.

A MAJOR PROBLEM IN HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTING OR FRICTION-TYPE


CONNECTIONS IS HOW TO VERIFY THE NECESSARY TENSION HAS BEEN ACHIEVED IN
ALL THE BOLTS IN A CONNECTION.

JOINING STEEL MEMBERS

SEVERAL WAY TO ACHIEVED PROPER TIGHTENING:

STEEL SHAPES CAN BE JOINED INTO A BUILDING FRAME WITH ANY OF THREE
FASTENING TECHNIQUES.

TURN-OF-NUT METHOD

LOAD INDICATOR WASHER

TENSION CONTROL BOLTS

RIVETS

A RIVETS IS A FASTENER CONSISTING OF A CYLINDRICAL BODY AND A


FORMED HEAD WHICH IS BROUGHT TO A WHITE HEAT, INSERTED THROUGH HOLES IN
THE MEMBERS TO BE JOINED, AND HOT-WORKED WITH A PNEUMATIC HAMMER TO
PRODUCED A SECOND HEAD OPPOSITE THE FIRSTHEAD.

PROCESS OF TIGHTENING A TENSION CONTROL BOLT:


A)

THE WRENCH HOLDS BOTH THE NUT AND THE SPLINED BODY OF THE BOLT,
AND TURNS THEM AGAINST ONE ANOTHER TO TIGHTEN THE BOLT,

PROCESS OF RIVETING:
A)

A HOT STEEL RIVET IS INSERTED IN HOLES THROUGH THE TWO


MEMBERS TO BE JOINED,

B)

WHEN THE REQUIRED TORQUE IS ACHIEVED, THE SPLINED END TWISTS OFF
IN THE WRENCH,

B)

ITS HEAD IS THEN HELD WITH HAND HAMMER WITH A CUP-SHAPED


DEPRESSION,

C)

A PLUNGER INSIDE THE WRENCH DISCHARGES THE SPLINED END INTO A


CONTAINER.

C)

WHILE A PNEUMATIC HAMMER DRIVES A RIVET SET REPEATEDLY


AGAINST THE BODY OF THE RIVET TO FORM THE SECOND HEAD,

D)

THE RIVET SHRINKS AS IT COOLS, DRAWING MEMBERS TIGHTLY


TOGETHER.

WELDING CAN JOIN THE MEMBERS OF A STEEL FRAME AS IF THEY WERE A


MONOLITHIC WHOLE. WELDED ARE STRONGER THAN THE MEMBERS THEY JOIN IN
RESISTING BOTH SHEAR AND MOMENT FORCES.

BOLTS

TYPICAL WELDS USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION:

THE BOLTS COMMONLY USED IN STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION FALL INTO


TWO GENERAL CATEGORIES:

WELDING

FILLET WELD

DOUBLE FILLET WELD

DOUBLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD

SINGLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR

V-GROOVE WELD

V-GROOVE WELD WITH BACKUP BAR

PUDDLE WELD

PARTIAL-PENETRATION SINGLE-BEVEL GROOVE WELD

THE BASIC WELD SYMBOL IS LOCATED ON EITHER SIDE OF THE REFERENCE LINE AS
FOLLOWS:

SYMBOLS ON THE TOP OF THE REFERENCE LINE REFER TO WELDS ON THE SIDE OF THE
JOINT OPPOSITE THE

ARROW

THE BASIC SYBOLS ARE:


BACK
SLOT

FILLET

PLUG

OR

SYMBOLS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE REFERENCE

GROOVE OR BUTT
SQUARE

LINE
BEVEL

FLARE V

FLARE BEVEL
REFER TO WELDS ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE
JOINT AS

THE ARROW
AS THE ARROW
THE REFERENCE LINE CARRIES
THE DESCRIPTIVE SYMBOLS

THE ARROW POINTS TO

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

THE WELD

THE BASIC SYMBOLS

FIELD WELD THIS WELD BE DONE IN THE FIELD DURING ERECTION. OTHER WELDS
ARE DONE EARLIER IN THE FABRICATORS SHOP.

WELD ALL AROUND THIS INDICATES THAT THE WELD SHOULD BE CARRIED FULLY
AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE JOINING PIECES.

BACKUP BAR AS INDICATED IN THIS EXAMPLE, A BACKUP BAR TO SUPPORT THE


FIRST PASS OF THE WELD MUST BE PLACED ON THE SIDE OF THE JOINT OPPOSITE
THE ARROW.

TEMPERED GLASS IS PRODUCED BY CUTTING ANNEALED GLASS TO


THE REQUIRED SIZES FOR USE, REHEATING IT TO APPROXIMATELY 1200
DEGREES FAHRENHEIT, COOLING BOTH ITS SURFACES RAPIDLY WITH A
BLAST OF AIR WHILE ITS CORE COOLS MUCH MORE SLOWLY. ITS FOUR TIMES
AS STRONG IN BENDING AND MORE RESISTANT TO THERMAL STRESS AND
IMPACT.
2.

HEAT-STRENGTHENED GLASS
THE HEAT STRENGTHENED PROCESS IS SIMILAR TO TEMPERING,
BUT ITS, ABOUT ONE-THIRD AS HIGH AS TEMPERED GLASS IN TERMS OF
BENDING AND STRENGTH.

SPACER SMALL METAL SPACERS ARE USED TO MAINTAIN A GAP BETWEEN THE PIECS
TO BE JOINED, PRIOR TO WELDING.

3.

ITS MADE BY SANDWICHING A TRANSPARENT VINYL INTERLAER BETWEEN


SHEETS OF GLASS AND BONDING THE THREE LAYERS TOGETHER UNDER
HEAT AND PRESSURE. WHEN ITS BREAKS, THE SOFT VINYL HOLDS THE
SHARDS OF GLASS IN PLACE RATHER THAN ALLOWING THEM TO FALL OUT
OF THE FRAME.

A SHARP BEND NEAR THE END OF THE ARROW INDICATES THAT THE ARROWHEAD IS
POINTING TOWARD THE GROOVED SIDE OF THE BEVEL OR J-GROOVED JOINT
GLASS

4.

THE MAJOR INGREDIENT OF GLASS IS SAND (SILICON DIOXIDE). A HARD


BRITTLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE, ORDINARILY TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT;
PRODUCED BY MELTING A MIXTURE OF SILICA, A FLUX AND A STABILIZER; WHILE
MOLTEN MAYBE BLOWN, DRAWN, ROLLED, PRESSED OR CAST TO A VARIETY OF
SHAPES.

5.

1.

TEMPERED GLASS

SPANDREL GLASS
SPECIAL OPAQUE GLASSES ARE PRODUCED FOR COVERING THE SPANDREL
AREA (THE BANDS OF WALL AROUND THE EDGES OF FLOORS) IN GLASS
CURTAIN. IT IS USUALLY TEMPERED OR HEAT-STRENGTHENED TO RESIST
THE THERMAL STRESSES THAT CAN CAUSED BY ACCUMULATIONS OF SOLAR
HEAT BEHIND THE SPANDREL.

THICKNESSES OF GLASS

TYPES OF CLEAR GLASS

PATTERNED OR ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS

HOT GLASS CAN BE ROLLED INTO SHEETS WITH MANY DIFFERENT SURFACE
PATTERNS FOR USE WHERE LIGHT TRANSMISSION IS DESIRED BUT VISION MUST BE
OBSCURED FOR PRIVACY.

DURING ITS MANUFACTURED, ORDINARY WINDOW GLASS IS ANNEALED,


COOLED SLOWLY UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITION, TO AVOID LOCKED-IN THERMAL
STRESSES THAT MIGHT CAUSE IT TO BEHAVE UNPREDICTABLY IN USE.

GLASS IS TYPICALLY MANUFACTURED IN A SERIES OF THICKNESSES


RANGING FROM APPROXIMATELY 2.5mm, THROUGH 3mm, IS CALLED SINGLESTRENGTH, OR 6mm TO 22mm, IS CALLED DOUBLE-STRENGTH, AND ON SPECIAL
ORDER, 25mm IS AVAILABLE.

LAMINATED GLASS

6.

WIRED GLASS
SIMPLY A ROLLED GLASS INTO WHICH WIRE MESH IS INSERTED DURING THE
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. THE WIRE GREATLY INCREASES THE
RESISTANCE TO SHATTERING THROUGH IMPACT. ITS USE FOR SAFETY
GLAZING, WHEN ITS BREAKS FROM THERMAL STRESS, THE WIRES HOLD THE
SHEET OF GLASS TOGETHER.

TINTED AND REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS

SOLAR HEAT BUILDUP CAN BE PROBLEMATIC IN THE INHABITED SPACES OF


BUILDINGS WITH LARGE AREAS OF GLASS, ESPECIALLY DURING THE WARM PART OF
THE YEAR. THIS IS USE TO REDUCE GLARE AND CUT DOWN ON SOLAR HEAT GAIN.

B.

C.
1)

A LIGHT DIFFUSING BLOCK DIFFUSES INCOMING LIGHT EVENLY


THROUGHOUT THE INTERIOR OF THE ROOM.
GENERAL PURPOSES BLOCK

TINTED GLASS
2.
TINTED GLASS IS MADE BY ADDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF SELECTED
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS TO THE MOLTEN GLASS MIXTURE TO PRODUCE THE
DESIRED HUE AND INTENSITY OF COLOR IN GRAYS, BRONZES, BLUES,
GREEN, AND GOLDS.

DECORATIVELY OR ARCHITECTURAL GLASS AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF


STYLES AND PATTERNS. THESE GLASS MASONRY UNITS PROVIDE ALMOST
UNLIMITED DESIGN VERSATILITY WHEN USED IN WINDOW, OPENINGS AND
FACADES, AS INTERIOR WALLS AND DIVIDER PANELING.

PAINT FINISHES
2)

REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS

REFLECTIVE COATED GLASS APPEAR AS MIRROR FROM THE OUTSIDE ON A


BRIGHT DAY AND AT NIGHT, WITH LIGHTS ON INSIDE THE BUILDING, THEY APPEAR AS
DARK BUT TRANSPARENT GLASS.
3)

INSULATING GLASS
A SECOND SHEET OF GLASS APPLIED TO A WINDOW WITH AN AIRSPACE
BETWEEN THE SHEETS CUTS THIS RATE OF HEAT LOSS IN HALF. TWO KINDS
OF EDGES SEALS ARE FUSED GLASS EDGES AND A METAL SPLINE AND
ORGANIC SEALANT.

THE PURPOSE OF A FINISH IS TO PROTECT, PRESERVE OR VISUALLY


ENHANCE THE SURFACE TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED. FINISHES INCLUD PLASTIC
LAMINATED SURFACE COVERINGS SUCH AS PLASTIC LAMINATED AND VINYL OF
FABRIC WALL COVERING.
PAINT GENERALLY REFERS TO OPAQUE OR CLEAR FILM-FORMING MATERIAL
THAT ACTS AS A SHIELD OR BARRIER BETWEEN THE BUILDING MATERIAL AND THOSE
ELEMENTS OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECTS OR DETERIORATE. THE
PAINT FILM MUST RESIST DETERIORATION DUE TO SUNLIGHT HEAT, TEMPERATURE
VARIATIONS, WATER OR MOISTURE VAPOR, MILDEW AND DECAY CHEMICALS AND
PHYSICAL ABRASION. PAINT MAY ALSO SERVE TO MAKE SURFACES MORE SANITARY,
IMPROVE HEATING AND LIGHTING EFFECTS, AND PROMOTE HUMAN COMFORT AND
SAFETY.

GLASS PRODUCTS
I.

GLASS BLOCKS

COMPARABLE IN MANY WAYS TO UNIT MASONRY BUT HAVE THE ADDED


FEATURE OF TRANSMITTING LIGHT. THEY ARE MADE INTO TWO SEPARATE
HALVES, WHICH ARE HEAT-SEALED TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW UNIT
WITH REASONBLY HIGH THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND SOUND INSULATION. THE
EDGE SURFACES OF THE BLOCK ARE COATED WITH A GRITTY MORTAR
BOND.
TWO TYPES:
1.

FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS DIRECT OR DIFFUSE THE DAYLIGHT WHICH PASSES


THEOUGH THEM TO IMPROVE THE ILLUMINATION OF THE BUILDING INTERIOR.

WHEN USING PAINT, THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLOR AND


SURFACE TEXTURE MUST BE CONSIDERED. CERTAIN COLORS MAY BE STIMULATING
WHILE OTHERS ARE RELAXING. WHITE AND LIGHT COLORS REFLECT SIZE OF FORM
AND SPACE. DARK COLOR CAN INHIBIT THE PERCEPTION OF FORM AND MAY BE USED
FOR CONTRAST. FLAT PAINT FINISHES SOFTEN AND DISTRIBUTE, ILLUMINATION
EVENLY. GLOSSY FINISHES REFLECT LIGHT AND CAN CAUSE GLARE, BUT THEY ALSO
PROVIDE SMOOTH, EASILY CLEANED, NON-ABSORPTIVE SURFACES.
MOST PAINTS ARE CAREFULLY FORMULATED TO MEET SPECIFIC
APPLICATION THAT USE REQUIREMENTS AND ARE READY-MIXED FOR APPLICATION
EXCEPT FOR THINNING, STIRRING, OR THE ADDITION OF AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST.
IT IS ALWAYS ADVISABLE THEREFORE TO FOLLOW THE PAINT MANUFACTURERS
RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE APPLICATION AND USE OF A PAINT OR OTHER
PROTECTIVE COATING.
PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO:

THREE STYLES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS:


MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED
A.

A LIGHT DIRECTING BLOCK DIRECTS INCOMING LIGHT UPWARD TOWARD


THE CEILING. USED ALWAYS ABOVE EYE LEVEL.

WOOD, METAL MASONRY, CONCRETE, PLASTIC, ETC.,

SURFACE FINISH TEXTURE

A PAINTS COVERAGE CAN BE ESTIMATED BY ITS PERCENTAGE OF VOLUME


SOLIDS:

ie. PAINT WITH 100% VOLUME SOLIDS:

GLOSS, SEMI-GLOSS, EGG SHELL, SATIN, FLAT,& VARNISH.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF A PAINT INCLUDE:


SURFACE PREPARATION
-

(NO THINNER)
1 GAL
1600 SF (149 m2)

@ 1 MIL DFT

800 SF ( 74 m2)

@ 2 MIL DFT

400 SF ( 37 m2)

@ 4 MIL DFT

THE FOUNDATION OF ANY PAINT SYSTEM MUST BE PROPERLY PREPARED TO


ENSURE PROPER ADHESION OF THE PAINT FILM TO ITS SURFACE.

TYPE OF PAINT
-

PAINT MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS APPLIED.

SPECIFICATIONS INCLUDE THE PAINT VEHICLE, FINISH COLOR, EXPOSURE, AND


MANUFACTURER AND/OR TRADE NAME.

COVERS

-PAINT WITH 50% VOLUME SOLIDS


(50% THINNER)

METHOD
1 GAL
-

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MATERIAL TO WHICH IT IS BEING


APPLIED. COATINGS MAY BE BRUSHED, ROLLED OR SPRAYED ON.

DRYING
-

THE TIME AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR A PAINT TO DRY MUST BE CHECKED.

FILM THICKNESS
-

THE DRY FILM THICKNESS (DFT) IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE NUMBER OF
COATS.
MULTIPLE THIN COATS ARE GENERALLY MORE EFFECTIVE THAN A SINGLE THICK
COAT.

COVERS

800 SF (74 m2)

@ 1 MIL DFT

400 SF (37 m2)

@ 2 MIL DFT

PAINT GENERALLY CONSIST OF:


PIGMENT FINELY GROUND SOLIDS THAT PROVIDE THE PAINTS COVERINGS
OR HIDING POWER OR ITS COLOR.
VEHICLE LIQUID MEDIUM TO CARRY THE PIGMENT IN SUSPENSION
DURING APPLICATION. AND CONSISTS OF BINDERS AND SOLVENTS.

BINDER SERVE TO FORM THE PAINT FILM AND CAUSE IT TO ADHERE THE
SURFACE BEING PAINTED.

BINDERS ARE LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PROTECTIVE QUALITY AND


DURABILITY OF THE PAINT FIL OR PROTECTIVE COATING.

A MINIMUM OF 2 COATS IS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 5 MIL DFT.

COVERAGE

SOLVENTS OR THINNERS ACTS DRYING AGENTS.

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SOLVENT USED, A PAINT MAY DRY OR HARDEN BY


OXIDATION, EVAPORATION, CHEMICAL ACTION, OR BY THERMOSETTING ACTION
AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES.

PAINTS MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ITS VEHICLE OR BINDER:

COLOR

DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF PAINT AND THE MANUFACTURER.

EXPOSURE

ALKYDS USED FOR EXTERIOR PAINTS.

OIL MODIFIED RESINS THAT HARDEN BY OXIDATION AND EVAPORATION.

THE MOST COMMON PAINT VEHICLE

FAST DRYING A HARDER THAN ORDINARY TIME, LOWERS THE GLOSS, AND
IMPROVES THE PAINTS WETTING PROPERTIES, DURABILITY AND ELASTICITY TO
RESIST BLISTERING.

HAVE GOOD DRYING PROPERTIES, DURABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE FOR


EXTERIOR EXPOSURES, AND GOOD COLOR RETENTION.

EXTERIOR OR INTERIOR

CHARACTERISTICS:

COATING RESISTANT TO MILDEW, MOLD, FUMES, MARINE ENVIRONMENTS ETC.,

PIGMENTED COATING
ASPHALT USED FOR WATERPROOFING AT FIREWALL AND ROOF DECKING.

LACQUER AND ENAMEL PAINTS

COATINGS WITH A VEHICLE OF BOTH PETROLEUM AND NATURAL ASPHALTS ARE


USED TO PROTECT WOOD, MASONRY, CONCRETE AND AS ROOF COATING.

HAVE GOOD WATER RESISTANCES BUT THERMOPLASTIC IN NATURE.

RUST INHIBITIVE COATINGS

ADDITION OF ALUMINUM GLAKES HELPS TO REFLECT THE SUNS RAYS.

ZINC-PIGMENTED COATINGS

ADDITION OF EPOXY RESINS MINIMIZES THE COLD FLOW AND MAXIMIZES THE
CHEMICAL-RESISTANCE OF ASPHALT.

ZINC, SILICONS, ALKYD, OR ASPHALT OR BASE COATINGS

ASPHALT OR TAR COATINGS THAT FORM NON-PEMEABLE BARRIERS AGAINST


WATER AND OXYGEN TO PROTECT SUBMERGED FERROUS METAL AND TO
WATERPROOF MASONRY SURFACES.

CLEAR COATINGS

VARNISHES, LACQUERS, SHEELAC, SEALERS

CHLORINATED RUBBER USED FOR INDUSTRIAL FLOORING.


CEMENT MORTAR COATINGS

USED IN COATINGS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO ALKALIES, ACIDS, CHEMICALS, AND


WATER

MAY BE REMOVED BY COAL TAR SOLVENTS

MIXTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT, LIME AND WATER USED TO DAMPPROOF


MASONRY MATERIALS AND PROTECT EXPOSED STEEL

PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC RUBBER COATINGS

HAS LIMITED RESISTANCE TO PROLONGED HEAT EXPOSURE

USED IN SWIMMING POOLS, WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

3.
EAGLE

EPOXY CATALYZED USED FOR DUCO FINISH.

TWO COMPONENT COATINGS CONSISTING OF A PIGMENTED PRIMER OR ENAMEL


AND AN ACTIVATOR OR CATALYST.

MIXED JUST PRIOR TO USE HAS LIMITED POT LIFE

PRODUCES BY CHEMICAL ACTION A DENSE, HARD FILM SIMILAR TO BAKED


ENAMEL.

YALE

9.

4.

CORBIN

10.

MASTER

5.

SCHLAGE

11.

ALPHA

6.

KWIKSET

12.

YETI

DOORS AN ENTRANCE WAY

HAS EXCELLENT RESISTANT TO SOLVENTS, CHEMICALS, PHYSICAL ABRASION,


TRAFFIC WEAR, A CLEANING MATERIALS

HAS GOOD ADHESION PROPERTIES, COLOR RETENTION AND STAIN RESISTANCE.

HAS GOOD DURABILITY FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE BUT MAY CHALK.

TYPES OF DOOR:

FLUSH A SMOOTH-SURFACED DOOR HAVING FACES WHICH ARE PLANE WHICH


CONCEAL ITS RAILS AND STILES OR OTHER STRUCTURE WHEN USED INSIDE, IT IS
OF HOLLOW CORE, WHEN USED FOR EXTERIOR IT IS OF SOLID CORE.

PANEL DOOR A DOOR HAVING STILES, RAILS AND SOMETIMES MUNTINS, WHICH
FORM ONE OR MORE FRAMES AROUND RECESSED THINNER PANELS.

HARDWARE
HARDWARE - METAL PRODUCTS USED IN CONSTRUCTION, SUCH AS BOLTS, HINGES,
LOCKS, TOOLS, ETC. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS:
FINISHING HARDWARE HARDWARE, SUCH AS HINGES LOCKS, CATCHES,
ETC. THAT HAS A FINISHED APPEARANCE AS WELL AS FUNCTION, ESP. THAT USED
WITH DOORS, WINDOWS, AND CABINETS, MAYBE CONSIDERED PART OF THE
DECORATIVE TREATMENT OF A ROOM OR BUILDING.
ROUGH HARDWARE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, HARDWARE MEANT TO
BE CONCEALED, SUCH AS BOLTS, NAILS, SCREWS, SPIKES, RODS, AND OTHER METAL
FITTINGS.
SOME FINISHING HARDWARE BRANDS:
1.

SARGENT

7.

RABBIT

2.

STANLEY

8.

UNIVERSAL

KINDS OF DOORS:

SWINGING DOOR

OVERHEAD SWING-UP GARAGE DOOR A RIGID OVERHEAD DOOR WHICH OPENS


AS AN ENTIRE UNIT.

OVERHEAD ROLL-UP GARAGE DOOR A DOOR WHICH, WHEN OPEN, ASSUMES A


HORIZONTAL POSITION ABOVE THE DOOR OPENING, MADE OF SEVERAL LEAVES.

ROLL-UP DOOR (SOLID OR SEE-THROUGH ALUMINUM SHUTTERS) A DOOR MADE


UP OF SMALL HORIZONTAL INTERLOCKING METAL SLATS WHICH ARE GUIDED IN A
TRACK: THE CONFIGURATION COILS ABOUT AN OVERHEAD DRUM WHICH IS
HOUSED AT THE HEAD OF THE OPENING, EITHER MANUAL OR MOTOR - DRIVEN.

ACCORDION DOOR A HINGED DOOR CONSISTING OF A SYSTEM OF PANELS


WHICH ARE HUNG FROM AN OVERHEAD TRACK. WHEN THE DOOR IS OPEN, THE
FACES OF THE PANELS CLOSE FLAT AGAINST EACH OTHER. WHEN THE DOOR IS

CLOSED, THE EDGES OF ADJACENT PANELS BUTT AGAINST (OR INTERLOCK)


EACH OTHER TO FORM A SOLID BARRIER.

FULL SURFACE HINGE - A HINGED DESIGNED FOR ATTACHMENT ON THE


SURFACE OF THE DOOR AND JAMB WITHOUT MORTISING.

BI-FOLDING DOOR - ONE OF TWO OR MORE DOORS WHICH ARE HINGED


TOGETHER SO THAT THEY CAN OPEN AND FOLD IN A CONFINED SPACE.

REVOLVING DOOR - AN EXTERIOR DOOR CONSISTING OF FOUR LEAVES (AT 900


TO EACH OTHER) WHICH PIVOT ABOUT A COMMON VERTICAL AXIS WITHIN A
CYLINDRICALLY SHAPED VESTIBULE, PREVENTS THE DIRECT PASSAGE OF AIR
THROUGH THE VESTIBULE, THEREBY ELIMINATING DRAFTS FROM OUTSIDE.

LOOSE JOINT HINGE - A DOOR HINGED HAVING TWO KNUCKLES, ONE OF


WHICH HAS VERTICAL PIN THAT FITS IN A CORRESPONDING HOLE IN THE
OTHER, BY LIFTING THE DOOR UP, OFF THE VERTICAL PIN, THE DOOR MAY BE
REMOVED WITH UNSCREWING THE HINGED.

LOOSE PIN HINGE - A HINGE HAVING A REMOVABLE PIN WHICH PERMITS ITS
TWO PARTS TO BE SEPARATED.

SLIDING DOOR - A DOOR MOUNTED ON TRACK WHICH SLIDES IN A HORIZONTAL


DIRECTION USUALLY PARALLEL TO ONE WALL.

PAUMELLE HINGED - A TYPE OF DOOR HINGE HAVING A SINGLE JOINT OF


THE PIVOT TYPE, USUALLY OF MODERN DESIGN.

BY-PASSING SLIDING DOOR - A SLIDING DOOR WHICH SLIDES TO COVER A FIXED


DOOR OF THE SAME WIDTH OR ANOTHER SLIDING DOOR.

OLIVE KNUCKLE HINGE - A PAUMELLE HINGE WITH KNUCKLES FORMING AN


OVAL SHAPE.

SLIDING POCKET DOOR - A DOOR WHICH SLIDES INSIDE A HOLLOW OF THE WALL.

DUTCH DOOR - A HINGED DOOR WHICH IS DIVIDED TO TWO. THE UPPER PART
CAN BE OPENED WHILE THE LOWER PORTION IS CLOSED.

FRENCH DOOR

2. SPRING HINGES - A HINGE CONTAINING ONE OR MORE SPRINGS, WHEN A DOOR IS


OPENED, THE HINGE RETURNS IT TO OPEN POSITION AUTOMATICALLY, MAY ACT IN
ONE DIRECTION ONLY, OR IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.

FINISHING HARDWARES:
A. TO HUNG A DOOR

DOUBLE ACTION - EXCELLENT FOR USE IN RESTAURANTS, HOSPITALS,


KITCHENS, THE DOOR OPENS BY JUST PUSHING IT WITH THE SHOULDER OR
FEET.

SINGLE ACTION

3. PIVOT HINGE - THE AXLE OR PIN ABOUT WHICH A WINDOW OR DOOR ROTATES.

HINGE- A MOVABLE JOINT USED TO ATTACH SUPPORT AND TURN A DOOR


ABOUT A PIVOT, CONSISTS OF TWO PLATES JOINED TOGETHER BY A PIN WHICH
SUPPORT THE DOOR AND CONNECT IT TO ITS FRAME, ENABLING IT TO SWING OPEN
OR CLOSED.

VERTICAL SPRING PIVOT HINGE- A SPRING HINGE FOR A DOOR WHICH


IS MORTISTED INTO THE HEEL OF THE DOOR, THE DOOR IS FASTENED
TO THE FLOOR AND DOOR HEAD WITH PIVOTS.

TYPES OF HINGES:

B.

1. BUTT HINGE - CONSISTS OF TWO RECTANGULAR METAL PLATES WHICH ARE JOINED
WITH A PIN, IN LARGE HINGE, THE PIN IS REMOVABLE, IN SMALL HINGES, IT IS FIXED.

TYPES OF BOLT AND FASTENER:

FAST PIN HINGE - A HINGE IN WHICH THE PIN IS FASTENED PERMANENTLY IN


PLACE.

TO FIX ONE SASH

CHAIN HEAD AND FOOT BOLT

DOOR OR BARREL BOLT

FLUSH BOLT


C.

CHAIN DOOR FASTENER

CYLINDER LOCK A BORED LOCK WHICH HAS A CYLINDRICAL CASE


INTO WHICH A SEPARATE LATCH CASE FITS.

TO LOCK THE DOOR

LOCKSET A COMPLETE LOCK SYSTEM INCLUDING THE BASIC LOCKING MECHANISMS


AND ALL THE ACCESSORIES, SUCH AS KNOBS ESCUTCHEONS, PLATES, ETC.

LATCH A SIMPLE FASTENING DEVISE HAVING A LATCH BOLT, BUT NOT A DEAD BOLT
CONTAINS NO PROVISIONS FOR LOCKING WITH A KEY.
NIGHT LATCH KEY OPERATED LATCH WITH SAFETY PIN.

BUTTON A SMALL REJECTING MEMBER USED TO FASTEN THE FRAME OF A


DOOR OR WINDOW.

KNOB A HANDLE, MORE OR LESS SPHERICAL USUALLY FOR OPERATING A


LOCK.

ESCUTCHEON A PROTECTIVE PLATE SURROUNDING THE KEYHOLE OF A


DOOR.

PLATES A THIN FLAT SHEET OF MATERIAL.

STRIKES A METAL PLATE OR BOX WHICH IS SET IN A DOORJAMB AND IS


EITHER PLACED OR RECESSED TO RECEIVE THE BOLT OR LATCH OF A LOCK,
FIXED ON DOOR.

LIP STRIKE THE PROJECTION FROM THE SIDE OF A TRIKE PLATE WHICH
THE BOLT OF A LOCK STRIKES FIRST, WHEN A DOOR IS CLOSED; PROJECTS
OUT FROM THE SIDE OF THE STRIKE PLATE TO PROTECT THE FRAME.

LIFT LATCH A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH WHICH FASTENS A DOOR BY MEANS OF A


PIVOTED BAR THAT ENGAGES A HOOK ON THE DOOR JAMB, A LEVER WHICH LIFTS THE
PIVOTED BAR USED TO UNFASTEN THE DOOR.
RABBETED LOCK A LOCK OR LATCH IN WHICH THE FACE IS FLUSH WITH THE
RABBET ON A RABBETED DOOR JAMB.
ROLLER LATCH A TYPE OF DOOR LATCH HAS A ROLLER UNDER SPRING TENSION
INSTEAD OF A BEVELED SPRING BOLT, THE ROLLER ENGAGES A STRIKE PLATE,
HAVING A RECESS FORMED TO RECEIVE.

SCREEN DOOR LATCH A SMALL LOCKING OR LATCHING DEVICE USED ON SCREEN


DOORS AND GENERATED BY A KNOB OR LEVER HANDLE, SOMETIMES EQUIPPED WITH
A DEAD BOLT.
HASP A FASTENING DEVICE CONSISTING OF A LOOP OR STAPLE AND A SLOTTED
HINGE PLATE NORMALLY SECURED WITH A PADLOCK.

USE A DIFFERENT LOCKSET FOR EACH ROOM:


KEY-PADLOCK A DEVICE WHICH FASTENS IN POSITION MAYBE OPERATED BY A KEY.

ENTRANCE LOCKSET WITH A KEY AND UNIVERSAL BUTTON WHICH


WHEN PUSHED STAYS PUT AND LOCKS THE DOOR.

BEDROOM LOCKSET SAME AS THE ENTRANCE LOCKSET BUT SIMPLER


IN DESIGN.

TOILET LOCKSET WITHOUT A KEY HAS A BUTTON THAT IS PUSHED TO


LOCK INSIDE.

KIND OF LOCKSET:

INTEGRAL LOCK A TYPE OF MORTISE LOCK HAVING ITS CYLINDER IN


THE KNOB.

MAGNETIC PADLOCK A KIND OF LOCK WHICH


CORRESPONDING MAGNET WHICH GOES WITH IT.

OPENS

BY

USING

THE

HASPLOCK A KIND OF HASP THAT HAS A BUILT-IN LOCKING DEVICE WHICH CAN BE
OPENED ONLY WITH A KEY.
BORED LOCK A LOCK INTENDED FOR INSTALLATION IN A CIRCULAR HOLE IN A DOOR.
CREMONE BOLT USED TO FASTEN UPPER AND LOWER DOOR.
DEAD BOLT A TYPE OF DOOR LOCK, THE BOLT, WHICH IS SQUARE IN SECTION IS
OPERATED BY THE DOOR KEY OR A TURN PIECE.

TYPES OF AUTOMATIC DOOR CLOSER:

PNEUMATIC TYPE

SEMI-CONCEALED OVERHEAD TYPE

CONCEALED TYPE

OVERHEAD LIQUID TYPE

INVISIBLE HINGES DONT SHOW FROM THE FRONT AND IS EXPENSIVE.


THEY CAN BE USED FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOOR.

FLUSH COUNTER HINGE FOR A DROP DOWN DOOR THAT CAN BE


LOWERED TO SERVE AS WORK SURFACES REQUIRE HINGES THAT LAY
FLUSH IN THE SURFACE, MORTISE THEM INTO BOTH SURFACES, THEY
DONT SHOW WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED. A DROPDOWN DOOR ALSO
REQUIRES A CHAIN OR STAY SUPPORT TO HOLD THE DOORS WEIGHT
WHEN ITS OPEN.

TYPES OF CABINET HINGED DOOR:

FLUSH

OVERLAPPING

OFFSET

CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE


KINDS OF CATCHES:

FRICTION CATCH ANY CATCH WHICH WHEN IT ENGAGES A STRIKE, IS


HELD IN THE ENGAGED POSITION BY FRICTION.

MAGNETIC CATCH A DOOR CATCH FLAT THAT USES A MAGNET TO


HOLD THE DOOR IN A CLOSED POSITION.

BULLET CATCH A FASTENER WHICH HOLDS A DOOR IN PLACE BY


MEANS OF A PROJECTING SPRING ARCTUATED STEEL HALL WHICH IS
DEPRESSED WHEN THE DOOR IS CLOSED.

TYPES OF CABINET HINGES:

BUTT HINGES

COMMON BUTT

LOOSE PIN

T-HINGE

PIANO HINGE

DECORATIVE HINGE

OFFSET HINGES USED FOR HANGING LIPPED OR OVERLAPPING


DOORS, AVAILABLE IN SEMI-CONCEALED AND SURFACE-MOUNTED
STYLES.
PIVOT HINGES MADE FOR BOTH FLUSH AND OVERLAPPING DOORS.

TYPES OF KNOBS:

SCREW-IN KNOB

BOLT-ON KNOB

FLUSH KNOB

FLUSH RING

PULL

OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES:

GRAB BAR A HAND GRIP USUALLY INSTALLED IN SHOWER, WHICH MAY


BE USED FOR STEADYING ARE SELF.

SELF BRACKET ANY OVER HANGING MEMBER PROJECTING FROM A


WALL OR OTHER BODY TO SUPPORT A WEIGHT.

METAL BRACKET USED TO SUPPORT ANY CABINET OR SHELF.

SPRING DOOR CLOSER ATTACHED ABOVE A SCREEN DOOR TO


AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE IT.

DOOR STOPPER TO PREVENT THE DOOR WITH ITS LOCKSET FROM


HARMING THE WALL OR TILES.

FLAT HEAD SCREW

OVAL HEAD SCREW

PHILIPPS HEAD

SHEET-METAL SCREW

ROUND HEAD SCREW

LAG SCREW

FLAT

COUNTER SUNK

FLUSH

WASHERS
ROUGH HARDWARES:
NAILS

COMMON WIRE NAIL WITH HEAD AND FOR STRENGTH.

FINISHING NAIL WITHOUT HEAD AND FOR BETTER APPEARANCE

MASONRY OR CONCRETE NAIL USED FOR CONCRETE, MORTAR AND BRICK


SURFACE

BOLTS
BOLTS HAVE THREADED SHAFTS THAT RECEIVE NUTS. TO USE THEM, A HOLE
IS DRILLED, PUSHING A BOLT THROUGH AND ADDING A NUT.

SIZES, 1, 1 , 2 , 2 , 3, 3 , 4, 6
BOLTS TIGHTENED WITH SCREW WHILE HOLDING THE NUT WITH A WRENCH.
OTHER COMMON HAMMER DRIVEN FASTENER
NUTS
SCOTCH NAILS
STAPLES

BRADS

FLAT SQUARE NUT

HEX NUT

SQUARE NUT

ACORN NUT

T NUT

TACKS

SCREWS
CLASSIFIED BY GAUGE (DIAMETER), LENGTH, HEAD TYPE, AND METALLIC
MAKE-UP.
TYPES OF SCREW HEAD

KNURLED NUT

WING NUT

ANCHOR BOLT A STEEL BOLT USUALLY FIXED IN ABUILDING STRUCTURE WITH


ITS THREADED PORTION PROJECTING.

PLATE BOLT A BOLT IN A BUILDING FOUNDATION WHICH SECURES THEPLATE OR


SILL.

MACHINE BOLT A THREADED BOLT HAVING A STRAIGHT SHANK AND A


CONVENTIONAL HEAD SUCH AS A SQUARE, HEXAGONAL, BUTTON OR
COUNTERSANK.

CARRIAGE BOLT A BOLT WITH NECK FOR NON-RATATING MOUNTING.

LAG SCREW COMMON HARDWARE FASTENER FOR TRUSS BRACES.

KNOB BOLT A DOOR LOCK WITH A SPRING BOLT CONTROLLED BY ONE OR BOTH
KNOBS AND DEAD BOLT CONTROLLED BY AKEY.

BACKSET THE HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM THE FACE OF A LOCK OF LATCH TO


THE CENTER OF THE KNOB OR LOCK CYLINDER.

GUSSET A PLATE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF A JOINT FOR INCREASE HOLDING


POWER.

BRAD A THIN NAIL WITH SMALL HEAD.

KERF IN A SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILING, AGROOVE CUT INTO THE EDGES


OF AN ACOUSTICAL TILES TO RECEIVE SPLINES OR SUPPORTING MEMBERS OF
THE CEILING SUSPENSION SYSTEM.

PERFORATED TAPE A TYPE OF TAPE USED IN FINISHING JOINTS BETWEEN


GYPSUM BOARD.

SAHARA USED FOR WATERPROOFING.

PARQUET INLAID WOOD FLOORING USUALLY SET IN SIMPLE GEOMETRIC


PATTERN.

VINYL TILE A FLOOR TILE COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.

BEVEL THE ANGLE WITH ONE SURFACE OF A BODY MAKES WITH ANOTHER
SURFACE WHEN THEY ARE NOT AT RIGHT ANGLE.

HUNGER BOLTS FOR HANGING FIXTURES FROM WALLS.


U-BOLTS TO ATTACH FLAT SURFACE TO ROUND POLES AND PIPES.
JOINERY BRACKETS

MENDING PLATE

T-PLATE

FLAT CORNER PLATE

L-BRACKET

AWNING AN ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTED WINDOW.

BAY WINDOW A WINDOW WHICH PROJECTS OUTSIDE THE MAIN LINE OF A


BUILDING.

HOPPER WINDOW A WINDOW SASH WHICH OPENS INWARD AND ITS HINGED AT
THE BOTTOM.

ORIEL WINDOW A PROJECTED WINDOW BEYOND BUILDING WALL CARRIED BY A


CORBEL.

BATTEN DOOR - A DOOR W/OUT STILES WHICH IS COSTRUCTED OF VERTICAL


BOARDS HELD TOGETHER BY HORIZONTAL BATTENS.

STILE VERTICAL FRAMES OF PANELLED DOOR.

TRANSOM WINDOW OVER A DOOR.

DOOR JAMB FINISHED FRAME SURROUNDING A DOOR.

CHASE A CONTINOUS RECESS BUILT INTO A WALL TO RECEIVE PIPES, DUCTS,


ETC.

GYPSUM BOARD MATERIAL USED IN DRYWALL CONSTRUCTION.

PLOUGH A GROOVE EXTENDED ALONG THE EDGE OR FACE OF THE WOOD


MEMBER BEING CUT PARALLEL TO GRAIN.

BUILDING PROTECTION

RATPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING ROOMS AGAINST THE INTRUSION


OF RATS AND OTHER SMALL DESTRUCTIVE ANIMALS FROM GNAWING THE
WOODEN PARTS OF THE HOUSE, HABITATING ON CEILINGS AND FLOORS OF
HOUSES AND BUILDINGS.

RUSTPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING THE FERROUS MATERIALS LIKE


STEEL, IRON FROM RUSTING OR CORROSION.

FLOOR PROTECTION WHEN FLOORS ARE SUBJECTED TO WEAR AND TEAR, OR


FROM CHEMICAL ABRASIONS AND HEAVY USE, A SPECIAL KIND OF MATERIAL
SHOULD BE USED TO PROTECT THE FLOORING.

DESCALERS, PAINT AND CHEMICAL STRIPPERS WHEN AN OLD HOUSE HAVING


OLE PAINT IS IN NEED OF REPAINTING, PAINT REMOVER IS APPLIED TO THE
SURFACE WHICH SOFTENS AND LIFTS THE PAINT. FOR CLEANING OF BUILDINGS
FROM STAINS, RUST, ALGAE OR EVEN CEMENT BUILD UP FROM FORMS OR
EQUIPMENT, ETC. A CHEMICAL STRIPPER OR DESCALER IS USED.

CONTROL, PROTECT AND MANAGE FOR BUILDINGS THAT NEED TOTAL


CONTROL OF THE INCOMING AND OUTGOING INDIVIDUALS FOR THE PROTECTION
OF THE BUILDING AS A WHOLE FROM ROBBERS, STEALERS, ETC. THERE ARE SO
MANY EQUIPMENTS WHICH CAN BE INSTALLED.

PREVENTIONS

WATERPROOFING A METHOD OF PROTECTING SURFACES AGAINST THE


DESTRUCTIVE EFFECTS OF WATER.

DAMP-PROOFING PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED BY WATER


REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN WATER ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO
THE EARTH. THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE THE BUILDING
CAN BE CAUSED BY PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY
CONSIDERATION OF WATER VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE.

CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY, CONCRETE THIS IS A CLEAR,


INVISIBLE SILICONE WATER REPELLENT SPECIALLY FORMULATED FOR
APPLICATION ON MASONRY AND BRICKS (STANDARD SILICONE REPELLENT) AND
FOR LIMESTONE AND CONCRETE THAT SEEPS MUCH RAINWATER (SPECIAL
FORMULATED SILICONE REPELLENT). THE SILICONE LIQUID IS APPLIED BY
BRUSH OR LOW PRESSURE SPRAY AND DOES NOT AFFECT THE COLOR OR
NATURALNESS OF THE MATERIAL.
ANAY (TERMITE) PROOFING BY SOIL POISONING IT IS IMPORTANT TO POISON
THE SOIL AGAINST ANAY (WHITE ANTS) IN ORDER TO STOP THE ANAY FROM
INFESTING THE MAINPOSTS, WALLS AND FLOORING.
WOOD PRESERVATIVE (POWDER POST TERMITES) A CHEMICAL LIQUID PAINTED
AND APPLIED TO LUMBER TO PRESERVE IT FOR YEARS. IT PROTECTS WOOD
AGAINST POWDER POST BEATLES (BUKBOK) POWDER POET TERMITE (UNOS),
DECAY CAUSING FUNGI, SUCH AS SAP STAIN AND SRYROT.
FIREPROOFING A CLEAR LIQUID APPLIED EASILY ON WOOD, PLYWOOD, LUMBER
AND OTHER BOARD THAT RETAINS THE NATURAL BEAUTY, GIVES ADDED
STRENGTH AND PROTECTS MATERIALS AGAINST FIRE, WEATHER, DECAY,
INSECTS AND WARPING. SINCE THE LIQUID PENETRATED INTO THE WOOD, WHEN
THERE IS FIRE. IT REACTS BY DISPERSING THE FLAME, PREVENTING
PROGRESSIVE BURNING.

THIS IS APPLIED ON THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS:

ROOF DECKS

CONCRETE TERRACES AND BALCONIES

SHEATHING FOR WOOD SHINGLE AND TILE ROOFING

WATER TANKS

CONCRETE ROOF GUTTERS

PLANT BOXES INSIDE

KITCHEN FLOOR

TOILETS

CANOPIES

BASEMENT FLOOR AND WALLS

ELEVATOR PITS

SWIMMING POOL

MACHINE ROOMS, AIR CON & PUMP ROOMS

LOSES STRENGTH SLOWLY WHILE AGING.

REFRIGERATION & COLD STORAGE ROOMS

EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO BURNOUT IN HOT CLIMATE.

RAT RESISTANT.

THREE TYPES OF WATERPROOFING:

INTEGRAL TYPE MEDIUM IN POWDER FORM IS ADDED


AND MIXED WITH THE AGGREGATES OF CONCRETE. IN THIS CASE, ONE
PACK OF USUALLY .908 KILOS IS ADDED TO ONE BAG OF KILOS CEMENT.
SOME OF THE KNOWN BRANDS ARE SAHARA AND SAKURA.
MEMBRANE TYPE RECOMMENDED FOR USE WHERE
DIRECT RAIN, OR STANDING WATER ARE EMINENT, THERE ARE ABOUT 14
USES. THE MATERIALS USED DEPENDING ON THE MANUFACTURER IS
EITHER ASPHALT PAPER LAID WITH HOT ASPHALT, IMPREGNATED
ASBESTOS FELT, SOMETIMES THICK POLYETHYLENE SHEETS IS ALSO
USED. OTHER MATERIALS ARE PERFORMED SELF SEALING ASPHALT.
FLUID APPLIED A FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC COATING
BASED ON HAVY SOLIDS ELASTOMER COMPOUND FORMULATED TO
WATERPROOF AND PRESERVE THE SUBSTRATE, LIKE CONCRETE,
WOOD, BRICKS AND STEEL. THE WATERPROOFING IS MONOLOTHIC,
SEAMLESS, FLEXIBLE AND ELASTIC OVER A WIDE TEMPERATURE
RANGE, WITHSTANDS EXTREME THERMAL MOVEMENT, SETTLING AND
CRACKING.
IT RESISTS PUNCTURE AND TEARING ABRASIVE
OVERLAYMENTS. THIS ELASTOMERIC FLUID CAN BE APPLIED BY
ROLLER, BRUSH, SPRAY OR SQUEEGEE.

ROOFING FELTS THE BASE FELTS USED IN BUILT-UP ROOFING ARE AVAILABLE IN
TWO BASIC TYPE ASBESTOS FELTS AND ORGANIC OR RAG FELTS. THEY LOOK
ALIKE, SUPERFICIALLY, BUT THEY DIFFER WIDELY IN SERVICE.
ASBESTOS:

ASBESTOS FELTS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF ASBESTOS FIBER, A


NON-ROTTING, NON-WICKING INORGANIC MINERAL FIBER.

IDENTICAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES TO


FINISHING FELTS.

MINIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE OR WETTING OR DRYING


WHICH MEANS MINIMUM DISTORTION.

ORGANIC:

ORGANIC FELTS COMPOSED OF FIBROUS ORGANIC MATERIALS.


SUBJECT TO DETERIORATION BY OXIDATION AND TO WICKING.

DIFFERENT EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PROPERTIES FROM


FINISHING PLIES.

MAXIMUM STRETCH AND SHRINKAGE ON WETTING AND DRYING WHICH


MEANS MAXIMUM DISTORTION.

LOSES STRENGTH RAPIDLY WHILE AGING.

POOR RESISTANCE TO BURNOUT IN HOT CLIMATE.

POOR RESISTANCE TO ROT.

VAPOR INSULATION (DAMPROOFING)


THE DAMPNESS THAT SOMETIMES OCCURS INSIDE BUILDINGS CAN BE CAUSED BY
PENETRATION OF MOISTURE FROM THE OUTSIDE OR BY CONDENSATION OF WATER
VAPOR GENERATED ON THE INSIDE. PROTECTION FROM THE OUTSIDE IS PROVIDED
BY WATER REPELLENT MATERIALS WHICH TURN ASIDE AND FORCE IT TO RETURN TO
THE EARTH DONE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BUILDING. MOISTURE VAPOR ON THE OTHER
HAND CAN PERMEATE MOST ORDINARY BUILDING MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD, PAPER,
LATH PLASTER, UNTREATED BRICK, ETC. THE MOISTURE VAPOR WILL CONDENSE

WATER WHEN ITS TEMPERATURE IS REDUCED BY CONTACT WITH A COOL SURFACE


OR COOL AIR. HENCE, HIGH HUMIDITY IN A BUILDING MAY RESULT IN CONDENSATION
OF WATER NOT ONLY ON THE INSIDE OF WALLS AND WINDOWS BUT ALSO ON THE
OUTSIDE OR WITHIN THE EXTERIOR WALLS, CEILING OR ROOF. MOISTURE VAPOR IS
PRODUCED BY COOKING OCCUPANTS, LAUNDERING, EARTH CRAWL SPACES,
BASEMENT FLOORS, HUMIDIFIES, ETC.
VAPOR BARRIERS (DAMPROOFING MATERIALS)
THESE ARE MATERIALS WHICH EFFECTIVELY RETARD OR STOP THE FLOW OF WATER
VAPOR AND NORMALLY ARE PRODUCED IN SHEETS OR THIN LAYERS. VAPOR
BARRIERS SHOULD BE INSTALLED ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE INSULATION. THEY
SHOULD BE CONTINUOUS SURFACES OF ASPHALT OR WAX COATED PAPER,
ALUMINUM, OR OTHER METAL FOIL SHEETS OR POLYETHYLENE FILM. THEY CAN BE
ATTACHED TO THE INSULATION AS PART OF THE MANUFACTURED PRODUCT OR
INSTALLED SEPARATELY IN OR ON THE WARM SIDE OF THE WALL, FLOOR, OR
CEILING. THEY MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND ALLOW NO OPENINGS THROUGH WHICH
VAPOR MAY PASS. ALTHOUGH ASPHALT PAPER IS A GOOD MOISTURE BARRIER, IT IS
NOT A VAPOR BARRIER, AND SHOULD BE USED ON THE OUTSIDE OF A BUILDING FOR
THAT PURPOSE.

THERMAL INSULATION
IN COLD WEATHER, WE ARE INTERESTED IN TRANSFERRING HEAT FROM FURNACES,
RADIATORS, HEATING PANELS, INTO VARIOUS ROOMS OF OUR BUILDINGS. AT THE
SAME TIME WE ARE INTERESTED IN PREVENTING THAT HEAT FROM BEING
TRANSFERRED FROM THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING TO THE OUTSIDE.
DURING THE SUMMER, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HOT
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURES TO THE WORKING AND LIVING SPACE WITHIN OUR
BUILDINGS.
ALL OF THESE ARE DONE BY THE JUDICIOUS USE OF MATERIALS WHICH IS BEST
PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF HEAT, THIS WE CALL THERMAL INSULATION.
KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION

LOOSE FILL THIS BULKY AND DIVIDED INTO:

FIBROUS TYPE

GRANULAR INSULATION

FIBROUS LOOSE FILL

GRANULE

MATERIALS USED AS VAPOR BARRIERS:

POLYETHYLENE FILM THIS IS CHEMICALLY INERT PLASTIC,


UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS, ALKALIS AND CAUSTICS, PRODUCED IN ROLLS
OF 3 TO 20 FT. WIDE. COMMON THICKNESSES ARE 2,3,4 AND 6 MIL (1MIL
= .001 IN.) THIS FILM IS USEFUL NOT ONLY AS VAPOR BARRIER FOR
WALLS, CEILINGS AND FLOORS BUT ALSO AS A BARRIER TO PREVENT
THE PASSAGE OF MOISTURE FROM THE EARTH UPWARD THROUGH A
CONCRETE SLAB LAIN ON THE GROUND. POLYETHYLENE FILM CAN BE
APPLIED VERTICALLY IN 36 IN. WIDE STRIPS TO STUDDING ON 16 IN.
CENTERS WITH A FULL OVERLAP ON ALTERNATE STUDS. FILMS ARE
STAPLED TO STUDS. OVERLAPS AND EXTENSIONS TO FLOORS AND
WALLINGS SHALL BE 6 IN.

BLANKET INSULATION- IS MADE FROM SOME FIBROUS MATERIAL SUCH AS


MINERAL WOOL, WOOD FIBER, COTTON FIBER, OR ANIMAL HAIR.

BATTS

ALUMINUM FOIL USED AS VAPOR BARRIER AS A SINGLE SHEET, OR


AS A THIN LAYER OF FOIL LAMINATED TO A HEAVY BACKING OF ASPHALTIMPREGNATED KRAFT PAPER. THIS IS ALSO DONE WITH TWO LAYERS OF
FOIL LAMINATED WITH ASPHALT CEMENT.

STRUCTURAL INSULATION BOARD

STRAWBOARD

KRAFT PAPER COATED WITH ASPHALT OR WAX. SOMETIMES TWO


LAYERS OF PAPER ARE CEMENTED WITH A CONTINOUS LAYER OF
ASPHALT. ANOTHER MATERIALS USED FOR DAMP-PROOFING OF
CONCRETE WALLS IS WEATHERKOTE BITUMINOUS EMULSION, BY
SHELL.

CORKBOARD

BLOCK OR RIGID SLAB INSULATION THIS TYPE OF INSULATION IS SO CALLED


BLOCK OR RIGID BECAUSE THE UNITS ARE RELATIVELY STIFF AND INELASTIC.

FOAMED PLASTIC INSULATION

CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION

FOAMED CONCRETE

CELLULAR HARD RUBBER

SHREDDED WOOD OR WOOD FIBER

RIGID SLAB INSULATION

RIGID INSULATION- WHICH ARE IMPERVOUS TO MOISTURE


PENETRATION RESULTING FROM CONTINUOUS CONTACT WITH
THE EARTH AND MOISTURE ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL AS
PERIMETER INSULATION.

REFLECTIVE INSULATION

ALUMINUM FOIL

COPPER- FOIL INSULATIONS

REFLECTIVE INSULATION

SHEET FOIL

AGGREGATE USING GYPSUM AS A BINDER. MACHINES ARE USED FOR BLOWING


THESE INSULATIONS INTO PLACE; AS A RESULT THE SHAPE OR IRREGULARITY OF
THE SURFACE BEING INSULATED IS OF LITTLE CONSEQUENCE.

ASBESTOS FIBER INSULATION

CORRUGATED INSULATION

SOIL TESTING
LARGER THAN A SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE, IT IS NECESSARY TO DETERMINE THE SOIL AND
WATER CONDITION BENEATH THE SITE.
METHOD OF SOIL TESTING:
1.

DIGGING TEST PITS ARE USEFUL WHEN FOUNDATION IS NOT EXPECTED TO


EXTEND DEEPER THAT ABOUT 8 FEET WHICH IS THE MAXIMUM PRACTICAL
REACH OF SMALL EXCAVATION MACHINE.

2.

TEST BORING BORING WITH STANDARD PENETRATION TESTS CAN GIVE AN


INDICATION OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL BY THE NUMBER OF
BLOWS OF A STANDARD DRIVING HAMMER REQUIRED TO ADVANCE A
SAMPLING TUBE INTO THE SOIL BY A FIXED AMOUNT.

TYPES OF SOILS:

FOAMED-IN PLACE INSULATION THIS IS POLYURETHANE PRODUCT MADE BY


COMBINING A POLYISOCYANATE AND A POLYESTER RESIN. THIS TYPE OF
INSULATION CAN BE APPLIED EITHER BY POURING OR BY SPRAYING. THE BASIC
INGREDIENTS FOR BOTH ARE DRAWN FROM THEIR CONTAINERS, MEASURED,
AND MIXED BY MACHINE.

APPLICATION BY POURING

APPLICATION BY SPRAYING

SPRAYED-ON-INSULATIONS MATERIALS USED ARE POLYURETHANE FOAM


ASBESTOS FIBER MIXED WITH INORGANIC BINDERS, VERMICULITE AGGREGATE
WITH A BINDER SUCH AS PORTLAND CEMENT OR GYPSUM AND PERLITE

ROCK IS A CONTINUOUS MASS OF SOLID MINERAL MATERIALS, SUCH AS GRANITE


OR LIMESTONE, THAT CAN ONLY BE REMOVED BY DRILLING AND BLASTING.

SOIL IS A GENERAL TERM REFERRING TO EARTH MATERIAL.

BOULDER IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL IS TOO LARGE TO LIFT BY HAND.

COBBLE IF THE PARTICLE OF SOIL TAKES THE WHOLE HAND TO LIFT.

GRAVEL IF THE PARTICLE CAN BE LIFTED EASILY WITH THUMB AND


FOREFINGER.

SAND IF THE PARTICLE SEEN BUT ARE TOO SMALL TO BE PICKED UP.

FINE GRAINED SOIL IF THE PARTICLES ARE TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN.

SILT

BOS PILES

CLAY

RAIL PILES

PILE DRIVING
MATERIAL USED IN PILE FOUNDATION ARE:
1.

TIMBER

2.

CONCRETE

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TERMS

ENGLISH
3.

CONCRETE PILES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO TWO TYPES:

Adobe
Anchor
Fill-------------------

--------------------Escombro

Liyabe

Earth

Aligned ----------------------------Alero,Barakilan,

Kaliniya

Eave ------------------------

Alignment -------------------------Elektrista

Asintada

Electrician -----------------

Alternate or staggered -----------Inhenyero

Uno Sinotra

Anchor ---------------------------------------Tabike

Liyabe

Engineer -------------------

CAST-IN-PLACE

2.

VERNACULAR

STEEL

TIMBER CANNOT RESIST HIGH STRESSES DUE TO HARD DRIVING THAT IS REQUIRED TO
PENETRATE HIHLY RESISTANT LAYER OF SOIL. THE TIP OF THE TIMBER PILE WHICH
COULD BE EASILY DAMAGED IS PROTECTED BY THE USE OF STEEL SHOES, ON THE
OTHERHAND THE BUTT IS ALSO PROVIDED WITH AN AMPLE PROTECTION BY THE USE OF
CUSHION BLOCK.

1.

ENGLISH
VERNACULAR

CASED IS CAST INSIDE A METAL SHELL FORM WHICH ARE LEFT IN THE
GROUND.
UNCASED ELIMINATE THE METAL CASING.

PRECAST PILES ARE REINFORCED TO RESIST HIGH STRESS CAUSED BY THE


HAMMER IN DRIVING.

METAL PILE IS AN EXCELLENT AMTERIAL FOR PILE BECAUSE OF ITS STRENGTH


CHARACTERISTICS TO WITHSTAND HARD DRIVING AND RAPID PENETRATION INTO THE
GROUND, RELATIVELY WITH SMALL MATERIAL DISPLACEMENTS.
DIFFERENT METAL PILES:

H-BEARING PILES

Architect ----------------------------

Arkitekto

Astragal ----------------------------Senepa

Batidura

Balusters ---------------------------Piye

Balustre,Barandilla

Beam
-------------------------------------------------------Tambak
Banisters ---------------------------Tapal, Dagdag

Exterior

Siding

Faucet ----------------------

Gripo

Fascia Board --------------

Feet ------------------------

Biga

Barandil

Fill

Filler -----------------------

Barrel Bolt -------------------------Soleras

Trankilya

Floor Joist -----------------

Ceiling
Board
--------------------------------------Canal

Baseboard -------------------------Batidura

Rodapis

Fillet -----------------------

Ceiling Joist ---------------------Alulod, canal

Bath tub ---------------------------Sahig, Suelo

Baniera

Flooring -------------------

Cement --------------------------Gabay

Bolt
-------------------------------------------------Guililan
Bottom Chord --------------------Alahado
Brace ------------------------------Pundasyon
Brick ------------------------------Kapatas,

Pierno

Tirante, Estunyo

Pie de Gallo

Landrillo

Floor

sill

Flush ----------------------

Cabinet Hinge -------------------Aguas


Carpenter ------------------------Guililan
Carpentry ------------------------Sepo
Cast Iron -------------------------Graba
Ceiling ---------------------------Haspe

Espolon

Hand rail -----------------

Cement Brick -------------------Sombrero

Ladrilyo

Head ----------------------

Cement Tiles --------------------Bisagra

Baldosa

Hinge ---------------------

Baral de Kadena

Foreman ------------------

Collar ----------------------------Trabe-Anzo

Sinturon

Column --------------------------Pulgada

Kolumna,Haligue

Concrete -------------------------Hamba

Konkreto

Concrete Slab -------------------Suleras

Larga Masa

Gable Roof --------------

Pundido

Kisame

Horizontal Stud --------

Inch -----------------------

Jamb ----------------------

Joist -----------------------

Dos
Biga

Kingpost

Alulod

Laborer

Girder --------------------Conductor
-----------------------------------------Piyon

Karpinteria

Hip roof ------------------

Framework ---------------

Concrete
Beam
---------------------------------Pendolum
Karpintero

Gutter ---------------------

Semento

Chain bolt -----------------------Kuatro Aguas

Media Agua

Kostil Yahe

Foundation or Footings-

aestr
oDe
Obra
Canopy ---------------------------Balangkas

Groobe

Girts or Girder ----------Contractor -----------------------Mesa Pahingahan

Kontratista

Corr. G.I. sheets ----------------Lababo

Yiero Canalado

Landing ------------------

Gravel ---------------------

Good Grain --------------Galbanisado

Lavatory -----------------

Closed Stringer -----------------------------

Escalera

Laying of CHB orAdobe Stone

Nail Setter -----------------------Larga Masa

Punsol

Slab (rough) --------------

Asinta
Crushed Stone -------------------

Eskombro

Lean to roof -------------

Diagonal Brace -----------------Lebel

Sinturon

Door ----------------------------------------Peirno Pasante

Pinto

Door Fillet -----------------------Kantero

Batidora

Sombrero (Pintuan)

Door Jamb -----------------------Lastilyas

Hamba Pintuan

Punsol

Mitre or Miter -------------------Negro

Canto Mesa

Mixture of Sand & Gravel ------

Lastilyas

Mortar
------------------------------------------------Plantsa

Masonry -----------------

Masonry Fill ------------

Meter ---------------------

Septic Tank -------------

Paupo

Kostura

Moulding -------------------------Tabika

Moldura

Nailers ----------------------------Prigadero

Pamakuan

Pako

Bolt

Mason -------------------

Shape --------------------

Mortar Joists ---------------------Dutsha

Nail --------------------------------------------Krokis

Level ---------------------

Machine

Door Head -----------------------Kanteria

Drawbore Pin or Drawpin -----Metro

Sibe

Poso

Korte

Newel
Post
----------------------

----------------------Bahada

Tukod

Slope

Nut --------------------------------Hinang

Tuerka

Solder

Nicolite Bar ----------------------Estaniyo

Estanyo

Solder Bar ----------------

Oakum
Biento

Estopa

Spacing

Hardinera

Split Knob ----------------

Bolada

Stairs ----------------------

-----------------------------

Open Stringer --------------------Poleya


Over Hand or Projector ---------Hagdanan
Painter
---------------------------------------------------- Staka
Panel -------------------------------Hardinera

---------------------

-------------------

Pintor

Bandeha

Stake

Stringer (open) -----------

Panellee Door ---------------------Madre, Madrina

De Bandeha

Stringer --------------------

Pattern -----------------------------Palitada

Plantilya

Stucco ---------------------

Pea Gravel ------------------------Pilarete

Grabita

Stud (vertical)-------------

Pendulum (King Post) -----------Pabalagbag

Pendulon

Stud (horizontal) ---------

Pickwork --------------------------work)----- Suban, Subuhan

Piketa

Sheet

Shower -------------------

Sidings -------------------

Sink -----------------------

Sketch

Plan

Temper

(metal

Piglead -----------------------------Roskas

Tingga, Estopa

Plain G.I. sheet -------------------Latero

Yiero Liso Galbanisado

Plain G.I. Strap -------------------Lateria


Plank Board -----------------------Tahilan
Plaster ------------------------------Espeho

Lingueta

Quarter Round ---------------------Rehas

Mediacana

Tinsmith -------------------

Rabbet ------------------------------Sombrero

Vaciada

Window Grille -----------

Window Head ------------

Tinsmithing --------------Bintana

Senepa

Top Chord ----------------

Palitada

Plastered Course -------------------

Plug
----------------------------------------------------Pergola

Thread ---------------------

Transom

Kilo,

------------------

Kusturada
Tread
---------------------Baytang, Perdano
Tapon

Trellise

Rafters ------------------------------------------ Hamba Bintana


Reinforcing Bar -------------------Ridgeroll ---------------------------Planchuela
Riser --------------------------------Poleya

Kilo

Window

Cabilla, Bakal Window Sill -------------Caballete

Senepa, Takip

Jamb

Pasamano

W.I. Strap -----------------

Wiring Knob -------------

Silipan
Plumb
Bob
-----------------------

-------------------------Truss, Kilo

Plumber ----------------------------Varnisado
Plumb Line -------------------------------------- Pilarete
Post ---------------------------------Asolehos

Hulog

Truss
Rivets ------------------------------Haspe

Tubero

Wood Grain --------------

Varnished -----------------

Hulog

Poste, Haligue

Rimatse

Vertical

Roof -------------------------------Tabla

Atip, Bubong

Wood Plank --------------

Sand -------------------------------Plantsuela

Buhangin

Wrought Iron Strap ------

Stud

Wainscoating Tiles -------

Projection --------------------------Pitsa, Tsapa

Bolada

Washer ---------------------

Purlins ------------------------------Inidoro

Reostra

Water Closet --------------

Putty --------------------------------Bintana

Masilya

Window

-------------------

Scaffolding ------------------------

Andamiyo, Plancha

Scratch Coat -----------------------

Rebokada

Screw -------------------------------

Turnilyo