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SI4000 SUMMER 2004

UAV Brief
UAV Development and History at
Northrop Grumman Corporation
Ryan Aeronautical Center

Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.1
As of (date)

UAV Family Tree


Historically, no single, universally accepted definition has
adequately categorize the Unmanned Air Vehicle.
Vehicle
Ballistic
Guided

Unguided
Bullet
Shell

Powered

Smart
Bomb

Free Fall ICBM


Bomb

Simple
Rocket

Unmanned
Expendable

Manned
Recoverable

Remote
Control

Automatic
Control

Remote
Control

Automatic
Control

Guided
Missile

Cruise
Missile

RPV

Drone

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Unguided

Guided

Expendable

Recoverable

Kamikaze

Conventional
Aircraft

Current
Definition
of a UAV

Unmanned Air Vehicle Origins


Necessity, the mother of invention produced flying bomb concepts during
the First World War. The armistice halted experiments on all but targets.

1917: French artillery officer, Rene`Lorin


proposed flying bombs using
gyroscopic and barometric
stabilization and control.

1918: Germany halts development of


guided weapons.

1918: Charles Kettering (USA) flies Liberty


Eagle Kettering Bug and Army Air
Corps orders 75 copies.

1920: Elmer Sperry perfects the gyroscope


and the first enabling technology
flight control feasible

makes

1932: RAE Fairey Queen crashes,


technology is still in its infancy.

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Fairey Queen IIIF Mark IIIB, 1932

USA - Targets Become Successful


1935 - Reginald Denny develops the RP-1 and launches the Radio Plane
Company, later to become the Northrop Ventura Division.

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V-1 Debuts in 1943


Advanced technologies of the Forties provided control, guidance and targeting.

Azimuth Control by
gyroscope governed
by magnetic compass

Speed was determined


by engine performance
at max. power

Aneroid barometer
altitude control

Propeller driven airlog governed range

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Launch Systems
A wide variety of launch systems have been developed for UAV applications

Pneumatic Catapult

Air Launch

JATO/RATO Launch

Runway Launch

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UAV Recovery Techniques


Recovery schemes are determined by application and UAV size, the trend is
toward autoland capability
Parachute

ABIAS
Mid Air Retrieval System (MARS)

Net

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Conventional

SI4000 SUMMER 2004


UAV Brief
Ryan Aeronautical
UAV History

Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.8
As of (date)

Ryan XAAM-A-1 Firebird


Firebird ushers in the missile age at Ryan in 1949

Speed was determined


by engine performance
at max. power
7.5 without booster

Aneroid barometer
altitude control

Early radar guidance was a forerunner to Sparrow missiles

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BQM-34 Firebee Subsonic Aerial Target


High Performance, Jet-powered UAV designed to simulate
hostile aircraft or missile threats

Primary Missions

Air defense weapons development, test &


evaluation
Air defense weapons training

Secondary Missions

Aerial reconnaissance
Experimental aerial platform

System Capabilities

Ground launch
Air launch from C-130
Recovery by parachute on land or at sea
8-12 flights per vehicle

Flight Control and Navigation

Remotely piloted from airborne or ground


control station
Preprogrammable Microprocessor Flight
Control System ( MFCS) for autonomous flight

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BQ-34 Firebee
evolved from
the Ryan KD-A

BQM-34E Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target


Turbojet Powered UAV designed to simulate high speed
hostile aircraft and anti-ship missiles

Primary Missions
Air defense training
Aerial combat training
Weapons systems development

Secondary Missions
Test vehicle for advanced
aerodynamic technology research
(NASA)

System Capabilities
Ground Launch
Air launch from C-130
Recovery by parachute on land or at
sea
8-12 flights per vehicle

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Firebee II with external fuel tank in


subsonic flight

AQM-91A Compass Arrow


Twenty plus vehicles built in the late 60s, still holds the
unmanned turbine powered altitude record, 80,000 ft.

First large UAV specifically designed to survive by stealth.


Compass Arrow operated at altitudes in excess of 80,000 ft. while
traveling at subsonic speeds.

Incorporated several low observable features.


Significant reduction in the RCS features of
the aircraft as seen from the ground.

Vertical tails and fuselage sides canted toward


centerline to eliminate the specular reflections
from the side aspect at or below the horizontal
plane.

The engine inlet, located on top of the

fuselage was lined with RAM, to conceal it


from angles below the horizontal plane.

Exhaust nozzle was cooled to reduce IR

signature, and like the inlet, was placed so as


to be hidden by other airframe features at
many aspects of observation. RAM was
applied to the leading edges of the wing and
to some portions of the fuselage.

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AQM-81A/N Firebolt
Rocket-powered target missile
designed to replicate high
altitude and high speed
threats.

Primary Mission
Provide a realistic threat simulation of
advanced enemy threats that fly in the upper
reaches of earths airspace for
Air defense training
Aerial combat training
Weapons systems development

Reusable Hybrid Rocket Powered Target


Missile

Air Launch
Recovery by MARS over land or sea
20 Flights per vehicle

Flight Control and Navigation


Pre-programmable Mission Logic Control Unit
(MLCU)
Remotely piloted from Ground Control Station

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YQM-98A Compass Cope


Two units built and flight tested in 1976, held the unmanned turbine engine
endurance record of 28 hr. 11 min. until surpassed by Global Hawk on March
21, 2001

Primary Mission
High altitude endurance reconnaissance
and surveillance

Minimum 24 hours of endurance


750 lbs. payload capability
Triple redundant autoland system
Dual redundant avionics system
Quadruple redundant Command &
Control System

First major Use of GOTS/COTS


hardware

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Model 410 Long Endurance UAV


Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance system for civilian or
military customers

Primary Mission
Provide a long-range or longendurance aerial platform for:
Military reconnaissance
Electronic communications
relay
Electronic warfare
countermeasure
Law enforcement, drug
interdiction
Border surveillance
Disaster area observation
Natural resources
monitoring

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Model 410 Long Endurance UAV (continued)


Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance system for civilian or
military customers

System Components
Long Endurance Aerial Vehicle

Composite construction
Modular design
Two-man assembly / disassembly
Short, unimproved runway capability

Ground Control Station


Self contained, transportable, fully
integrated
Autonomous flight control & mission
programming
Remote manual flight & sensor control
Real-time datalink
Image data processing

Onboard Flight Control & Navigation


Central Flight Control Computer (CFCC)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Auto takeoff and landing

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Payload
300 pound capacity
24 cubic foot volume
Stabilized retractable sensor platform

Model 324 Medium Range


Mobile and transportable advanced technology unmanned aerial
reconnaissance system

Primary Mission
Conduct autonomous tactical aerial
reconnaissance and surveillance

System Components
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Composite airframe
Ground launch from mobile
transport trailer
Recovery by parachute with air-bag
attenuation system

Onboard Flight Control & Navigation


Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)
Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Global Positioning System (GPS)

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Model 324 Medium Range (continued)


Mobile, and transportable advanced technology unmanned aerial
reconnaissance system

System Components (cont)


Mobile Launch & Recovery Vehicle (LRV)

8 wheel all-terrain tractor


6 wheel trailer transport/launcher
Self-contained command 7 control shelter
Autonomous flight control & mission
programming
Remote manual flight control
Command tracking & telemetry system

Payload
CAI/Recon Optical KS-153A camera
Loral IRLS D-500 Infrared line scanner

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SI4000 SUMMER 2004


UAV Brief
Ryan Aeronautical
Modern UAV Design & Technology

Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.19
As of (date)

Model 350 Medium Range UAV


Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial reconnaissance system

Mission
Provide near real-time optical and/or
infrared images of heavily defended areas
Target detection
Target identification
Battle damage assessment

System Components
Onboard Flight Control & Navigation
Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)
Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Global Positioning System (GPS)

Payload
Advanced Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance
System (ATARS)

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Model 350 Medium Range UAV


Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial reconnaissance system

System Components
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Ground launch
Air launch ( from F/A-18 and F-16R)
Soft landing recovery by parachute or by
Mid-Air Recovery System (MARS)

Local Control & Monitoring Station (LCMS)


Self-contained, transportable
Autonomous flight control & mission
programming
Remote manual flight control
Command, tracking, telemetry & image
data link systems
Image data processing system

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Global Hawk HAE UAV


High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial Reconnaissance System

Mission
Provide continuous day /
night, high altitude, all
weather surveillance and
reconnaissance in direct
support of allied ground and
air forces across the
spectrum of conflict
Increase the reach of existing
and future surveillance
systems
Extraordinary range and
endurance
Fewer number of systems
required to maintain global
ISR coverage

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Global Hawk HAE UAV


The Global Hawk is an Integrated System

Speed
(n.miles/hour)

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Global Hawk System Overview


INMARSAT C2

COMMUNICATIONS
UHF-Band:

C2 LOS
C2 SATCOM

UHFSATCOM
Ku SATCOM

INMARSAT or Equivalent
C2 and Sensor
SATCOM
X-Band CDL: C2 and Sensor
LOS
ATC Voice
Ku-Band:

MISSION
CONTROL
ELEMENT
(C2 &
SENSOR)

C2 &
SENSOR
C2 &
SENSOR

C2

CDL
SENSOR

CDL C2 &
SENSOR

C2

C2

C2 LOS

LAUNCH AND
RECOVERY
ELEMENT
(C2 ONLY)

SENSOR

ATC VOICE
TACTICAL USERS
(SENSOR ONLY)

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Global Hawk Vehicle Size


U-2

Length:
63.1 feet
Wingspan:
104.8 feet
Height:
16.7 feet (at tail)
Max Takeoff Wt:
40,000 lb.
Maximum Speed:
410 kts. TAS
Operational Ceiling:
over 70,000 feet
Max Unrefueled Range: over 3,000 NM

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B-737

Length:
97 feet
Wingspan:
94 feet
Max Takeoff Wt:
130,000 lb.
573 kts. TAS
Loiter Speed:
Operational Ceiling:
40,000 feet
Max Unrefueled Range: 2,700 NM

Global Hawk

Length:
44.4 feet
Wingspan:
116 feet
Height:
15.2 feet (at tail)
Max.Takeoff Wt:
25,600 lb.
343 kts. TAS
Loiter Speed:
Operational Ceiling:
65,000 feet
Max Unrefueled Range:over 12,000 NM

Global Hawk Integrated Sensor Suite

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SI4000 SUMMER 2004


UAV Brief
Ryan Aeronautical
Future UAV Technology

Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.27
As of (date)

Telepresence
Telepresence, also called virtual presences, is participation in an environment
from a remote location

A subset of virtual reality, telepresence uses

external mechanics to view the environment,

Lethal UAV weapons delivery systems of the


1970s put the shooter out of harms way.

Ryan developed systems to launch a variety of

guided standoff weapons from BGM-34C UAVs.

Virtual Reality software today contains the


following features:

Object database - descriptions of virtual objects or


environments
Attribute database - color, texture, orientation

Sensor driver- monitors tracking devices to


know actual position
display driver- reality engine updates object
for display
Simulation manager - coordinates entire
system maintaing proper perspective between
objects

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Virtual Reality Web sites


Commercial VR packages are available from many houses on the web.

World Tool Kit

Sense8

www.sense8.com

VR Development Systems

VREAM

www.vream.com

Walk Through

Virtus

www.virtus.com

Virtual Reality Studio

Danmark Software

WWW.domark.com

Cyberspace Development Kit

Autodesk

www.autodesk.com

Recent check of the links, Red are no longer pertinent or active.

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Fuzzy Logic / Neural Nets


The development of an adaptive control system to enhance engine
performance is on the horizon

Fuzzy logic algorithms and hardware have


enjoyed a recent development frenzy

The technology is ready for transition to UAV


class engine controllers when the need is
great enough

Current F/A-18 Fuzzy logic engine control


work is funded and ongoing

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Voice Directed UAV


Speech recognition could replace some navigation logic allowing mixed use of
UAVs and manned aircraft

Neural Network computing methods could be

applied to artificial speech recognition and UAV


command language

This will increase asset interoperability for a


force commander or commercial air traffic
controller

Minimizes ground control station assets

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Damage Detection / Failure Prediction


UAV Mission Failure rate can improve airframe monitoring and failure
prediction.

In high threat areas, damage may occur due to


hostile action.

With proper sensors, a UAV could decide to

return to base if damage or failures were detected


prior to catastrophic failure.

Smart structure technologies will detect damage,


predict useful life, continue operation at optimal
flight conditions.

The UAV will react by reducing speed, flying

minimum G profile or dumping fuel and returning


to base

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SI4000 SUMMER 2004


UAV Brief
UAVs Where Weve Been and Where
Were Going

Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.33
As of (date)

Customers

USAF
USA
USN
USCG
RCAF
JDF
GOI
GOE

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NATO
DEA
DNA
DOT
CIA
FBI
NSA
INS

Sandia
Los Alamos
LLL
NASA
DARPA
DARO
MDA

Performance

Altitude

7 Ft to 100,000 Ft

Velocity

60 Kts to Mach 4

Endurance

7 Minutes to 40 hours

Range

25 NMi to 14,000 Nmi

Take-Off Gross Weight 200 Lb to 34,500 Lb


Payload Weight

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25 Lb to 3,000 Lb

Missions

IMINT
SIGINT
GPS Pseudolite
Air Sampling
Strike
EW/ESM

Decoy
BPI/BPLI
Target
Cargo / Logistics
ACN
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Aerodynamics

Conventional Airfoil
Rogallo Wing
Laminar Flow
SuperCritical
Ailerons, Elevators, Rudders,
Ruddervators, Spoilers, Speed
Brakes, Flaps, Elevons
BLC

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Twin Verticals
V - Tails
Canards
V/STOL
Non Atmospheric
Hypersonic

Airframe

Metallic

Aluminum
Steel
Titanium
Magnesium

Composite
Fiberglass
Graphite

Molded
Sheet Molded
Compound

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Low Observables

Radar
Acoustic
Visual
IR

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Propulsion

Reciprocating ( Aircraft)
2 Cylinder 2 Cycle
Turbo Prop
Turbo Jet
Turbo Fan
Ramjet
Pulse Jet
Rocket
Electric Motors

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Payload Sensors

Cameras
Still
Motion
Panoramic

Electro-Optical
FLIR
IRLS
SAR
ISAR
IFSAR

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Chaff
Active EW Jammers
COMINT
ELINT
ESM
Ordnance
Leaflets/Propaganda

Navigation

Dead Reckoning
Doppler
LORAN / Omega
INS
GPS/DGPS
INMARSAT

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Flight Controls

Analog
Digital
Hybrid
Duplex
Triplex
Electrostatic

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AHRS (Gyros)
Inertial
Formation Flight
Autonomous Flight
Active Real-Time
Re-Planning
Re-Tasking

Secondary Power

Batteries
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
Solar
Generator

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Actuation System

Hydraulic
Pnuematic
Electro-Mechanical
Linear/Rotary
Push/Pull
Cables/Pulleys

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UAVs - Current Development


and Emerging Uses

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The Networked Vision of the Future

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UAVs Are A Major Part of the Vision

Warfighters Challenge ~ Future Combat

Regional & Global Asymmetric Warfare


Proliferation of Ballistic Missile/Cruise Missile Threats
Proliferation of WMD Capabilities /Systems ~ and the Will To Use Them

Uncertainty In Situational Awareness/Decisions

Non-Traditional Roles & Missions ~ With Force Structure Pressures

Acquisition of Advanced Technology Force Structures


Technologies, Applications, Systems & Insertion Sequencing
Force Mix, Postures, Basing, CONOPS & Employment Concepts
Sustaining Capability in the Transition/Transformation
Establishing & Sustaining Affordability - No Immunity To Budget Constraints

Understanding
File
Name.48 & Integrating UAVs Is A Significant Part of the Challenge

Some of the Emerging Concepts & Requirements


That UAVs Can Meet

Military
BM/C4ISR
BPLI - Theater Ballistic Missile Defense
These Lists Are
Cruise Missile Defense - BM/C4ISR & Intercept
By No Means
Battlespace ~ Infosphere Comms & Reach-Back
Comprehensive
Kinetic & Non-Kinetic Combat Operations
PSYOPs & SOF Operations
SBIRS Low Adjunct & Tactical Surrogate
Satellite / Sensor Test Bed
Civil Authority & Commercial Applications
Space Sensing
Communications
Space Surveillance
Law Enforcement
Space Tracking
Drug Interdiction
Space Comms/Data Relay
Disaster Preparedness & Management
Military Science
Global Meteorological (NOAA)
Military R&D
Forest Fire Surveillance
Augmentation of GPS
Environmental Monitoring, Management & Enforcement
Agricultural Resource Surveillance & Management
Natural Resource Surveillance & Management
Scientific Research

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Questions?

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