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Other Health Impairment/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

What is OHI? According to IDEA, it states that:
Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a
heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the
educational environment, that
(i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead
poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and
(ii) Adversely affects a childs educational performance. [300.8(c)(9)]
What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, also known as ADHD, is the most
common OHI. It is a neurodevelopment disorder. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and
often carries into adulthood. Those affected by ADHD may have trouble paying attention,
hyperactivity, or regulating impulsive behaviors.
IDEA does not define ADHD. According to the American Psychiatric Association, ADHD is
described as a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactive impulsivity that is more
frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of

What are the causes of ADHD? The causes and risk factor(s) for ADHD is unknown. However,
current research believes that genetics may play an important role. According to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), In addition to genetics, scientists are studying other
possible causes and risk factors including:
Brain injury
Environmental exposures (e.g., lead)
Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy
Premature delivery
Low birth weight
Also, through images, study show that children with ADHD have less activity in areas of the
brain that control attention.
Treatment for ADHD? ADHD cannot be cured, however, it can be treated. ADHD treatment is
multi-faceted. Treatments for ADHD may include medication, behavior therapy, school
accommodations and interventions. Often, medication and therapy are combined.

Prevalence Rates of ADHD?

Approximately 11% of children 4-17 years of age (6.4 million) have been diagnosed with ADHD
as of 2011.
The percentage of children with an ADHD diagnosis continues to increase, from 7.8% in 2003 to
9.5% in 2007 and to 11.0% in 2011.
Boys (13.2%) were more likely than girls (5.6%) to have ever been diagnosed with ADHD.
ADHD is most prevalent in children ages 11 to 14 years old, 1 in 9.

Warning Signs of ADHD at School?

Easily distracted by irrelevant classroom activities, sights or sounds
Making careless mistakes
Failing to finish tasks
Misplacing items
Being forgetful in daily activities
Difficulty in following instructions
Difficulty in organization
Difficulty in keeping attention
Fidgeting with hands or feet
Squirming while seated
Talking excessively jumping from one topic to another
Having difficulty engaging quietly in leisure activities

Blurting answers before questions are completed
Having difficulty awaiting turn
Interrupting or intruding upon others


Essential Must Know Facts About ADHD:

Diagnosing ADHD is a very complex process.
ADHD is not benign.
Medicine and drugs can help ADHD students in their academic careers
Labeled with ADHD and its issues
Diet and ADHD

Research/Evidence Based Instructional Strategies

1. Psychosocial Treatment for ADHD (Evidence Based)
Problems faced by children with ADHD have abnormal symptoms of inattentiveness,
hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Children with ADHD struggle functioning everyday in many
areas including academic performance and behavior at school, relationships with peers and
siblings and relationships with their parents.
Psychosocial treatments help triumph over their educational disability and are useful for a childs
What are typical forms of behavior modification?

Parent Training

School Intervention

Child Interventions

2. Psychological Treatment for Children with ADHD (Evidence Based)

Psychotherapy help people with ADHD to like and accept themselves despite their disorder. The
reason to this purpose is not address the symptoms to the patient. In psychotherapy, patients
interact with the therapist about about their feelings or anything that is troubling the patient,
explore self-defeating patterns of behavior, and learn other ways to handle their emotions. The
therapist socializes and tries to help them understand how they can change or better cope with
their disorder.
3. Direct Instruction Management of ADHD (Evidence Based)
Research shows that there is ways which can help ADHD students to stay on task, as well as
learn more efficiently when engaged in teacher-directed compared to independent seat work
instruction. This also increases the students note taking strategies, which helps improve
comprehension and on task behavior
4. Scheduling Strategies for ADHD (Research Based)
Evidence show on-task behavior for students with ADHD worsens over the course of the day
because it adds stress and many students who tend to not follow. Academic material should be
provided in the morning. More active nonacademic activities should be scheduled during the
5. Cognitive Rehabilitation Exercise Intervention (Evidence Based)
Cognitive rehabilitation (brain training) can improve attention and concentration as well as other
intellectual and self-control functions. Cognitive exercise intervention are often used to help
these people to improve their ability to concentrate and pay attention. The repeated use of simple
attentional training exercises can help children to train their brains, also to concentrate and pay
attention for longer periods of time.

Useful Tools for the Classroom

Fidget Tools are great tools that enhances childrens focus in academic settings. These tools have
been approved by teachers in many places in western countries. Fidgets are small objects with a
sensory appeal thus helping students concentrate in the classroom. Examples of fidget tools can
be, but are not limited to, sand-filled balloons, fidgeting finger springs, and studded sensory ball.
Fidgets are:
Unobtrusive (Fidgets should fit in the fist)
Tactile (Non-visual)
Tools (Not a toy)
Children with educational disorders such as ADHD suffer with hyperactivity or regulating
impulsive behaviors. Not being able to cope with these symptoms can impede the children to
expand their learning capacities. Essential known facts and Instructional strategies on ADHD are
ways educators and people with educational disorders can be informed to overcome educational