Anda di halaman 1dari 522

The

83.

Sentence

84.
55. Period

Fault

56. Comma

85. Revision

Sentences

58. Misuse

of

Ideas

87.

Rambling Sentences
Choppy Sentences
Incompleteness

63. Word

88.
89.
90.

Order

91.

64.

SplitConstructions

92.

65.

DanglingModifiers
and
Mixed
structions
ConIllogical

66.

Using the Library


Choosingthe Topic

TakingNotes
Preparingthe Outline
Writingthe Paper
Making Footnotes
Making a Bibliography
The Precis and
the

67.

Paper

Dependent
86.

59. Related

62.

Proofreading

The Research

Clauses

61.

and

Fault

57. Fused

60.

Beginningsand Endings
ManuscriptForm

Paraphrase

Comparisons

68. Parallel Structure


69. Point of View
70. Coordination

71.

Emphasis

72.

Variety

and

93. The

Precis

94. The

Paraphrase

Writing

for

nation
Subordi-

95. Business
96.

73. Achievement

Tests

SpecialPurposes
Letters

Report Writing

97. Social Letters

The

Paragraph
Listeningand Thinking

74.

Topic Sentence

75. Substance
76. Methods
77. Order

of
of

of Ideas

78. Transitional
79.

Paragraph
Development
a

98.

and
99.

Devices

of Writers
Backgrounds

100.

Thinkers

TestingYour

Logic

PropagandaTechnique

Proportionand Length

80. Mechanics

The Whole

of the

Paragraph

Appendix

Theme
101.

81. Choice
82. Outlines

of

Topic

102.

Taking Tests
Sentence
Analysis
and

Diagraming

McGraw-Hill

HANDBOOK
OF

ENGLISH

VIRGINIA
Head

of

SHAFFER

English Department,

High

Park

School,

Baltimore,

Coordinator

College

of

The

of

Forest

land;
Mary-

Writing,

Johns

Coy
Mc-

Hopkins

University

HARRY

SHAW

Formerly
Composition,

WEBSTER

St.

Louis

DIVISION,

New

York

McGRAW-HILL

San

Francisco

Workshops

Director,

Dallas

New

York

University

Second

Edition

BOOK

COMPANY

Toronto

London

in

COPYRIGHT

We

wish

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
and
these authors,pubhshers,

to thank

of

for permissionto
copyright
materials:
copyrighted

The

excerptsfrom

following
excerpts from

Sportsmanlike
Driving.
sion
Reprinted
by permis-

of the American
from

the

use

other holders

Association. ^

Automobile

The

William

Beebe. Reprinted
by
of Duell, Sloan and Pearce, Inc. ^ The excerpt from

High Jimgle,
by

excerpt

permission
Sister

My

Eileen,copyright
1938, by Ruth
of Harcourt, Brace
Ltd. i^

The

and

McKenney. Reprinted
by permission
and
Inc.
HartCompany,
Rupert

excerpt from

AnythingCan Happen, by
and Helen Papashvily.
by permissionof Harper
Reprinted
i^
The excerpt from This I Remember, by Eleanor
rs.
Reprintedby permissionof Harper " Brothers and
and Company."^* The excerpt from We
Took to the
n
Rich. Copyright1942, by Louise
y Louise Dickinson
^n Rich. Reprintedby permissionof J. B. Lippincott
pany

Wing, i"" The excerpt from

Willis K.

and

Man,

by ClydeKluckhohn.

Hill

Book

Book

Rumor,

of Rinehart "
in

for

" 1949 by the McGrawCopyright


Company, Inc. Reprintedby permission of the

McGraw-Hill

of Dame

Mirror

by

Dav^d

Inc. '^" The

Company,

College,"
by

Robert U.

Evening Post articleby


Remakes

Inc. ^^ The

excerpt from

Affairs
by permission
Jacobsen.
Reprinted

Company,

excerpt from "How

from the
Jameson.Reprinted

to

Stay

Saturday

permissionof the author. ^' The

excerpt

World, by James Stokley.


Reprinted
by permissionof Ives Washburn, Inc.

from

Science

Certain

Our

been copyrighted
parts of this book have previously

Rewriting (1955) by Harry Shaw


of CollegeComposition (1957) by
with the
and
S.
Harry Shaw and are reprinted
George
Wykoff
York.
kind permissionof Harper " Brothers,New
under the titles Writing and
and The Harper Handbook

McGraw-Hill

HANDBOOK

OF

ENGLISH

(c) 1960 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All RightsReserved.


Copyright
Copyright1952 by Harry Shaw and VirginiaShaffer. All Rights
Reserved.
or

Printed

in the

parts thereof,may

not

United

be

States of America.

reproducedin

any

This

form

permission of the publishers.


IX

of CongressCatalogCard
Library

Number:

59-10723

book,

without

CONTENTS

Preface
Guide

10.

vii
to

Exercises

11.

DiagnosticTests
Subjectand Verb

12.

Pronoun

13.

Reference

14.

Case

15.

Parts
Principal

16.

Tense

and

Usage
Agreement
Antecedent
Agreement
in

of Pronouns

of Pronouns

64
70
84
91
97

of Verbs

of Verbs

112
122

17. Mood

129

18.

134

19.
20.

Adjectiveand Adverb Usage


Prepositionand Conjunction Usage
Achievement
Tests in Usage

143
146

iCapitalization I
21.

Use

of

CapitalLetters

152
iii

CONTENTS

Punctuation!
22.

Test on Commas,
Semicolons,
Diagnostic
Colons, Apostrophes,
QuotationMarks

161

23. The

Comma

164

24. The

Semicolon

192

25. The

Colon

197

Apostrophe:Possessives
QuotationMarks

26. The
27.

Tests

28. Achievement
29. The
30.

on

and

Plurals

Punctuation

Points

Exclamation

32. The

Hyphen

33.

Parentheses

34.

Italics

and

QuestionMarks

and
and

Syllabification
Brackets

of the

Word!

Dictionary

Spelling
VocabularyGrowth

41. Provincialisms

Colloquiahsms

45.
46.

231
242

244
259
268
268
269

43. Idioms
44.

222

227

Numbers

38. Pronunciation

42.

220

226

IThe

40.

217

224

35. Abbreviations

39.

212

218

Dash

37. Use

208

216

Period

31. The

36.

201

Vulgarisms
Improprieties
Slang

273

273
274

47. Triteness

275

48.

278

Jargon
Words
Specific
Writing

49. Concrete
50. "Fine"

and

280
282

51. Wordiness

285

Euphony

289

52.

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

83.
84.
85.

JTheResearch
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.

396

Beginningsand Endingsof Themes


ManuscriptForm
and Proofreading
Revision

Using the Library


Choosing the Topic of a
Taking Notes
Preparingthe Outline
Writingthe Paper
Making Footnotes
Making a BibHography

[The Precis

and

Paper

396
397

|
398

Research

407

Paper

410
414
415
417
421

the

Paraphrase

93. The

Precis

422

94. The

Paraphrase

424

[Writingfor Special Purposes


95. Business
96.

425

Letters

439

Report Writing

446

97. Social Letters

and
[Listening
98.
99.
100.

Backgroundsof Writers and


TestingYour Logic
Propaganda Techniques

Thinking
Thinkers

453
456
462

[Appendix[
101.
102.

Index
vi

Taking Tests
Sentence
Analysisand

469

Diagraming

480
491

PREFACE
The
is

McGraw-Hill

designed

describes

with

and

and

writers

stating

the

thinking

facts
book

and

intelligentreading
are

and

analyzed

student's

ability to
and

writing

own

This

contains

believe
format

of

of

of

essential
studies

well.

as

with

the

placement
his

tests

to

the

of

of

clear

and

to

faulty thinking
the

develop

to

such

his

in

errors

form
and

him

brings together

of sentence

analysis and
student

in

in

one

provides
needs

place
the
to

Expanded
and

and

ence
refer-

his
the

which
review

he
of

all of the

other
dent
stu-

and

entrance

explanations
master

new

nence
promi-

acquaints

college

comprehensive

diagraming

the

ways

dictionary, and

English

tests

of

the

lish
Eng-

authors

increased

instruction

in

content

shows
A

for

taking

the

numbers.
of

work

on

and

gives

of

book.

the

of

use

materials

section

which

section

the

student's

performance.

sentences

people

Handbook

color

usage,

writing provide

report

addition

In

expression

avoid

usefulness

second

levels

on

sion
expres-

importance

features

new

rules, principles, and

to

careful

educated

that

McGraw-Hill

the

employing

sections

the

enhance

will

others.

the

and

It

speaking.
number

of

provided

are

recognize

edition

new

kinds

some

listening.Types

exercises

to

appropriateness.

effective

to

needs

by

language

both

skills he

than

emphasizes

essential

an

as

about

Edition,

actually used

why

effective

more

this

know,

shows

the
and

it is

as

Second

English,

build

student

English

considered

are

of

clarity,ease,

American

speakers

must

the

help

to

himself

express

to

Handbook

prove
im-

can

sentence

principles
and

tice
prac-

them.
vii

PREFACE

book

This

makes

usage, and

grammar,

and
illustrated,
enables

completelyfunctional approach to

mechanics.

Rules

clearly stated,

are

immediatelyapplied.Abundant
the student

familiarize

to

drill

himself

with

terial
ma-

portant
im-

and helpshim to see how


principles
they apply to
his own
writing.
The natural-sounding
in the McGrawpracticesentences
Hill Handbook
the task of both
of English greatly
simplify

teacher

and

student.

to embody
solely
seven

thousand

Often

these

on

safe

lifeof

an

student

sentences

broadens

grammar.
The authors make
levels of instruction.

arrangedin
and

sentences

appear

sentences

They

error.

themes

from

analyzedfor
the

form

written

not

were

drawn

are

in

appear

travel,or
driving,
so
literary
figure,

and

is

These

this purpose.

of

paragraph
from

incident
illuminating

an

that the student adds

his cultvu-al outlook

to

the

his knowledge
studies his

he

as

than

more

for different
effort to pro\'ide
special
The drill that follows each major principle
sections. The firstbeginswith easy
two
a

moves

on

to

the kind

of

that

sentences

The
writing.
These
greater maturity.

in careful student

second

mally
nor-

section

of
providessentences
may be used
have
with students who
for superiorstudents or for review
mastered
the simplersentences.
Thus, the teacher who
do so.
wishes to use
homogeneous grouping can readily
In recognitionof the fact that language changes,the

authors

of the McGraw-Hill

Edition, have

scrutinized

Handbook

every

illustrative
explanation,
its appropriateensure
ness

to
example,and practicesentence
modern
in a handbook
reflecting
While making clear that the standards

with
to

the needs

remind

standards.
standards

of those who

use

the

student

at

This

book

of written

that

English,Second

of

American

of

Enghsh change

it,the authors
any

describes

fullyand
Englishtoday.
VIRGINIA

viii

are

careful

there

given time

HARRY

usage.

are

the
accurately

SHAFFER

SHAW

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

For

assistance

indebted

are

to

former
Park
former

teacher

advice

her

superior

assistants

the

from
Ellis

are

Newton

have

Park

Hopkins

No.

Hodes,
49

offered

Supervisor

of School

section

the

the

"The

School
who

materials

Mrs.

Theme"

people
and

and

at

McCoy

have

made

in

this

the

timore,
Bal-

valuable
needs

of

Director

Library,

in

more,
Balti-

library.Suggestions
and

Bloom,

Anna

Research

"The
The

revision.
to

in

trative
locating illuspeople.
young

the

and

the

Free

Libraries
of

use

Round,

incorporated in

University,

using

on

Simeon

all these

High

Pratt

help in
popular with

books

in

Enoch

invaluable

on

been

grateful to

Forest

while

Mr.

the

at

gave

Wiese,

examined

Paper"

and

son
Patter-

Thea

Mrs.

School

at

manuscript

People's Work

Bernice

Mr.

children

nelly,
Con-

the

at

to suit the
adjustment of the material
Philip Edwards,
varying ability.Mrs.

paragraphs
Miss

the

of

parts

of

Young

and

of

and

Baltimore,

authors

EHzabeth

Miss

people.

English Department

in

the

manuscript,

the

on

students

of

of the

School

High

the

preparing

number

Head

read

of

in

students

College

of The

authors
at

the

Johns

helpful suggestions

book.

IX

EXERCISES

TO

GUIDE
Asterisks

indicate

Grammar

41-42;

clauses,
of

recognition

of, 3;

of

and

USAGE

'^achievement

135-136,

single subject,

pronouns,

lay, 121-122;
145;

pronoun,

like

as,

reference

of, 126-128;

118-120;

review,

of, 49-50;

tests,

145; prepositions
of, 94-97;

128-129;

past

and

sit

subjunctive,

subject,

64-69;

of

lie and

conjunctions,

set,

and

tense

and

104-105;

and

and
tecedent,
an-

verb

compound

diagnostic

17.

and

80-84;

99-102,

pronouns,

verbs,

and,

pronoun

review,
and

^variety

adjectives

146-151;

verb

choppy,

122;

'^

tense,

participle,

past

132-133.

*capitoZzzafion,157-159.

CAPITALIZATION"

flbbreDiaiions,

PUNCTUATION"

review,

76-77;

34-35;

sentences,

of, 14; verbals

in,

tion
recogni-

adverbial,

kinds

verb

108-112;

sequence

in, 212-215;

and

personal

and

of, 36-37;

^agreement,

141-143;

72-73,

""case, of

relative

tests

of, 7; plurals,

case

31-32;

noun,

principal parts

subject

87-90;

of

adverbial,

capitahzing, 2;

of

recognition

nition
recog-

of, 44-45;

of

nouns,

kinds

on

tests.

kinds

on

recognition

simple, 51-52;

verbs,

adverbs,

test

objective

test

recognition

in, 51-52;

78-79;

and

nominative

combining

"

achievement

of, 25; adverbs,

43-44;

noun,

adjective, 33-34;

function

51-52;

achievement

^achievement

3; phrases,
of

adjective, 39-40;

recognition

feminine

and

exercises

adjectives, recognition

"

of, 26;

key

"^apostrophe, 205-207;

176-177;

colon,

and

review

227;

^achievement

capital
with

letter

and

semicolon,

tests
comma

198-

GUIDE

TO

EXERCISES

188and limiting
expressions,
appositives
ductory
189; before coordinate conjunction,165-168; after introelement, 170-172; with nonrestrictive
expressions,
dress,
of ad183-184; with parenthetical
expressionsand terms

201;

with

comma,

178-180; review, 186, 187, 190-92;

in series, 174-176;

dash, 219; diagnostic


tests, 161-164; end, 220; hyphen,222;
and
brackets,
225; numbers, 228-229; parentheses
italics,
223-224; quotationmarks, 211-212; semicolon, 194-196,

WORD

rhyme, 290-291; choice


of, 276-277; *review of choice, 287, 302-4306;simple,284words, 281, 282; dictionary,
243^247; "fine"
285; specific
writing,284-285; idiom, 271-272; prgon, 279-280; pronunciatio
256245-248; adding suffixes,
243-244; spelling,
of
258; of plurals,
lists,
248-251; vocabulary,
254; spelling
business words, 261-262; of foreignwords, 263; growth,
260-261; matching exercises, 265-267; of medical
terms,
"

diction, alliteration and

264; of musical terms, 264; of scientific terms, 264; words


that are similar,246, 247; ^wordiness, and wordy,286-289.

SENTENCE

achievement

"

363;

electivesentences, 360diagraming,489^90; comparison,340-

and
analysis

342; clauses,errors

in the

test

use

on

of, 315; emphasis,354-355;


*

330constructions, 338-339; modifier, dangling,


illogical
332, 333, 334-336; 'misplaced,
324-327; 'parallel
structure,
344-348; sentences, balanced, 355; choppy, 319; effective,
352; fused, 312; incomplete,
309, 321-322; loose and periodic,
354; review
"run-on," fused), 312-314;
(incomplete,

"run-on," 311; unity in, 317, 318, 319; varietyin, 358-360;


in construction, in verb tense, 349-350; split
constructions,
shifts
329; word

order, 324-327.

PARAGRAPH

^coherence, through order of ideas, 375incoherent


377; throughtransitional expressions,
380-381; letters,
377; topicsentence, 367, 373-374; "^ unity in, 368.
"

xi

GUIDE

WHOLE

use

of
use
*^^^^"^!/.

PAPER"

of Readers'

Guide, 406;

limiting
topic,409;
PRECIS

AND

EXERCISES

392-395.
*^^^^'^^^"

THEME"

RESEARCH

TO

THE

use

card

401;
catalogue,

of reference

books, 402;

412, 414.
taking,

note

F^cfs

PARAPHRASE"

and

phrase,
para-

423-424.

WRITING

FOR

SPECIAL

VURVOSES"
and-butter,450; formal invitations and

betters,*bread-

447; friendly,
replies,
452; 'informal invitations and replies,
450; order, 438-439;
439; sympathy,450; *thank-you,
*requestfor adjustment,
450; report writing,445.
""

THINKING"
LISTENING
AND
of speakersor writers, 454-455;

listening,
background
propaganda techniques,

about advertisements,464;
464; thinking,
name-calling,
466.
logicin, 459^61, 466-467; in readingstatistics,

464;

TESTS

"

achievement

achievement

in

in

effective

punctuation,212-215;

360-363;

sentences,
achievement

in

age,
us-

ogies,
146-151; CollegeEntrance, 476-479; completinganal474-476; kinds of clauses,44-45; kinds of phrases,

36-37; punctuationdiagnostic,
161-164; usage
470-473.
64-69; vocabulary,

xu

diagnostic,

Grammar

Grammar

is

put

men

not

life into

new

different

slow";

but

these

formal

writing.

help

this part

in

given

the

student

the
different
that

types
kinds

speech.

It

another,

are

to

write

of

words

be

the

in

reviewed.
of the

variations

are

favorite

could

see

any
to

in

appear

when

they

Because
effectively.
in

remember

to

the

part of

same

sentence,
How

many

word

verb
is

in

used

it is.

the
a

bay. (Verb)
small
sailingvessel.

(Adjective)

follow, the essential

If there

forms

has

been

commonly

principlesof grammar
some
tendency to permit
accepted as correct, these

presented.

grammatical
you,

third.

"Drive

or

function

as

versation,
con-

explanations

important

used

for

sport. (Noun)

glossary of grammatical
If

me,"

only

more

one

part of speech

that

pages

is

in

noun

sailingacross
we

it

informal

and

here

always

We

off

speak

levels

course,

valuable

defined

not

adjective

were

and

sentences,

my

variations

61.

book

Sailingis

are

of the

is

what

Far

In

definitions

of

may

an

determines

The

word

given

of

not,

use.

for

is

"It's

using

are

would

forms

of

English

as

grows

different

has

it

casual

people today

many

Grammar

it, and
the

In

occasions.

and

thing. It changes

static

turn

to

the

terms

terms

used

appears
in

this

on

book

pages
are

52familiar
un-

glossary.
1

"

CI^IS

NOUNS

1. NOUNS

la.
A

Definition.
is the

noun

of

name

person,

Thomas
officer,

man,

or
place,
thing.

park,street, desk, team,


Jefferson,

courage

lb. Kinds
A

of

common

nouns.

is the

noun

of any

name

It
or
places,
things.

persons,
letter.

is not

of

one

written

class of

with

capital

horse, child,garden,alley,
tub, book, engineer
A
or

proper

is the

noun

with

It is written
thing.
General

from

abstract
any

of

particular
person, place,
letter. (See Section 21g.)
capital
a

Park, Linden

Grant, President Lincoln, Patterson

Avenue,
An

name

Soil Conservation
is the

noun

Service

of

name

idea

an

or

quality
apart

object.

honesty,
intelligence,
grace
A

collective

noun

names

class,crowd, army,
Note:
common

Abstract

nouns

or

objects.

fleet,family
and

collective

nouns

are

usually

nouns.

EXERCISE

the proper nouns


Identify
them with a capital
letter on

of persons

group

1
in the
a

write

separatesheet of paper.

company
high school

maryland

secretary

english

north

listand
following

southern
school

l^ir^g

high

Ic-d
NOUNS

tuesday

general electric

automobile

junior

company
house of repre-

lincoln

park

doctor

sentatives

1c. Number.
If a noun
singularor plural.
in number.
it is singular
or
thing,
person, place,
Field
than one, it is plural
in number.
more
is plural.
fields
Nouns

be

may

Then
each

If it
is

means

singular;

EXERCISE

Study Section 39d.


correct
pluralform of

one

names

sheet of paper write


words:
of the following
on

the

tomato

lady
sister-in-law

phenomenon
James
Id. Gender.
Nouns

(woman,
be

have four

)
girl

masculine
genders:

and

neuter

either masculine

or

(man, boy),feminine
a noun
) When
may

(desk, road
feminine,it has
.

common

gender

(person,
playmate,
companion).
EXERCISE

Write

of each

on

your
of these

paper
nouns:

the feminine

form

(or equivalent)

" "^B
1e.

NOUNS

Case.
have

tliree cases:

objective,
possessive.
Nouns
in the nominative
have the same
and objective
cases
form:
The
boy (nominative),boy (objective).
possessive
case
requiresan apostrophe(boys') or an apostropheand 5
(See Section 26.)
(boy's).
Nouns

If. Uses
The
are

of

nominative,

in the nominative

nouns

of

important uses

most

case.

in the nominative

nouns

case

the

following:
Subjectof a verb. (See

1.

S.

The

3.)

Section

V.

mid-ocean.

caught the shipin

storm

s.

V.

Suddenly the winds

roared

in

s.

V.

the deck

Across

swept huge

S.

The

great blast of fury.

waves.
s.

V.

rushed

passengers

to

their cabins

the

when

waves

V.

rolled

the

over

2. Predicate

It follows the verb


some

other

s.

used

noun

Terms)
be (am,

to

in

the

predicate(see

point back

to

ject.
the sub-

been, be, were

is,are, was,

p.n.

V.

are

the

peoplewho

have

led the

struggle

liberty.
s.

Those

hoy to play halfback.

Anwricans

for

or

p.n.

Jerryis the
The

called

verb (become, seem).


linking

V.

s.

predicatecomplement,
subjectivecomplement. (See

also

noun,

predicate nominative,
Section
14b.)
A predicatenoun
is
Glossaryof Grammatical
or

deck.

V.

girlswere

p.n.

the

winners

of the

basketball

ment.
tourna-

19

NOUNS

s.

The

V.

man

on

the witness

in direct address.

3. Noun

Bruce, will you


4. Noun

in

ride

absolute

an

Appositivewith
Section 14j.)

(See
expression.
camped

of

Uses

The

(For

We

(See

case.

the corral.

objectivecase.
of

in the

nouns

case
objective

Section
see
explanation,
adverbial objective.)

14. See

also

verb.

objectof a
the game.

won

72e. )

Section

further

Section 4d for
1. Direct

me?

the trail.

near

from

me

important uses

most

follow.

in the

nouns

in the nominative

noun

Melody,my horse, saw


1g.

with

of honesty.

person

the canyon

Night havingfallen,we
5.

23f

Section

(See

to

p.n.

seemed

stand

is the direct

(Game

objectof

the verb

won.)

Jean gave

of the verb
party. (Partyis the direct object

gave. )
2. Indirect

objectof

verb

(objectof

to

or

for

stood
under-

Shall I

give Ted

objectof
3.

sweater

at

Christmas?

the verb. Sweater

{Ted

direct
is the in-

is the direct

object.)

Objectof a preposition.
Mother

broughtsome
City is

4.

Appositivewith
Section 14j.)
We

met

Mr.

from

Atlantic

lantic
City. {Atthe object
of the prepositionfrom.)
a

souvenirs

noun

in

the

objectivecase.

Townley,the sheriff.

(See

1h

NOUNS

objective.
(See
predicate

Objectivecomplement,or
Section 14i. )
5.

elected Walter

We

I consider her

6.

to

(See
Objectof an infinitive.
His desire to

The

pleasethe
anchored

shipwas

to

9.

Objectof a gerund.(See

fuel.

save

The
We

1h.

ranch

Street.

Main

car.

3g and

Sections

(noun
objective

14h.

easy

used

as

14h.

job.

adverb).

sold last year.


stayedhome all day.

of

Uses

There

3g and

Sections

Catchinga mustang is not an


is good exercise.
tennis
Playing
10. Adverbial

14h. )

great.

was

his hat. Rusty galloped


down

the
Emilyis the girl
driving

with her.

3g and

Sections

voters

(See
Objectof a participle.
Waving

14g.)

go to the movies.
the chairman to take a walk

John

Sallyasked

8.

Section

(See
Subjectof an infinitive.
I wanted

7.

president.
good player.

in the

nouns

two

are

was

possessivecase.

importantuses

of

nouns

in the

possessive

case:

1. Before

noun,

to

show

that might be
relationship
The

other close
ownershipor some
expressed
by of or for the use of.

child's ball,his mother,

days journey,members

lounge
2. Before
Have

gerund.(See

you heard

Sections

about Ruth's

3g and

26h.

winning the contest?

"

NOUNS

EXERCISE

Arrange the
Put

in

nouns

these

those in the nominative

in

case

in another
case
objective
write the reason
why you have
objective.
in the

columns.

in two

sentences

column

and

Beside

each

one

column.

listed it

those
noun,

nominative

as

or

Example:
NOMINATIVE

OBJECTIVE

leopard

subject

objectof preposition

zoo

ers
Recentlya leopardescapedfrom a zoo in Ohio. Some hunthad caughtthe animal on Christmas and shippedit to the
United States for display
in a new
where the animals were
zoo

confined

not

wide
not

but

in cages

surrounded
territory
because

escape

the

allowed

were

by deep
moats

were

to

The

moats.
too

at

roam

will

animals

broad

for

even

over

could
the

leopardto leap.Or so thoughtthe keepersof the zoo. But this


leopardwas a wily beast. He apparently
figuredthe distance
and with a greatbound jumped across
From
the moat.
carefully
end of the country to another, the newspapers
carried big
one
headlines that told of the chase. Armed
groups soughthim in
the park near
the zoo
At
and in the surrounding
neighborhood.
firstthe superintendent
of the zoo wanted the beast to be caught
alive,but after a few hours, the danger seemed so great that
hunters were
told to shoot the animal at sight.
the
Because
keepersconsidered the leopardto be a very dangerousbeast,
they warned the peoplenearby to keep their children inside
and

to

For

two

look for any evidence that would


daysthe whole country read the

headlines announced
with food.

that the

would

news

the capture.
Then the
avidly.
to

try to trap the animal

peoplehad begun to consider the


and the police
to be very ineffectual. Then
zoo
huge pieces of
druggedmeat were placedon the groundnear a cage in which
the leopard's
held, and the next morning the hungry
mate
was
animal was
found hardlyable to stand up because the drug was
so

By

strong.He

this time

zoo

lead

was

some

seized,and the country relaxed.


7

2a-b

PRONOUNS

2. PRONOUNS
2a.

Definition.

A pronoun

2b.

is

word

used in

placeof

noun,

of pronouns.

Kinds

relative,
personal,
demonstrative,interrogative,
intensive, indefinite,
reflexive,
and reciprocal.
1. A personal
is a direct substitute for a noun.
pronoun
Like a noun,
and case.
It also has
it has number, gender,
in pronouns
by a change of form
person. Person is shown
to indicate the person speaking(first
person),the person
spokento (second person ) or a person or thingother than
the speakerand the one
spokento (thirdperson).See the
table of forms of personal
following
pronouns:
There

are

several kinds of pronouns:

Singular

Grammatical

the fact
arise from
problemsfrequently
that, unlike nouns,
relative,and interrogative
personal,
have distinct case
forms. These
problems are
pronouns
discussed in Section

14.

relative pronoun
antecedent
the noun
2. A

"

relates
to

which

or

connects

it refers. The

clause
most

to

its

often

PRONOUNS

used

relative pronouns
whichever, and

ever,
that. Who-

who, which, and

are

whatever

less

are

employed
frequently

compound forms; whosoever, whichsoever, and


have almost entirely
whatsoever
use.
gone out of current
with
the only relative pronouns
Who
and whoever
are
completecase forms. Relative pronouns do not show changes
number.
See the following
in form for person, gender,
or
table of

The

choice

of

antecedent; the

is used

animals),and
used

to

refer
The

case

relative pronoun
is determined
by its
deterand whoever
form for who
is mined

way

Section

which

whoever:

and

the pronoun
is used in the relative clause.
is used to refer only to persons;
14.) Who

by the
(See

for who

forms

case

to

refer

and
things(inanimate objects

to

persons considered as a group; that may


either persons or things.

to
to

flierwho

served

in World

II is

War

now

be

airline

an

oflBcial.
Radar

equipment which
be installed

must

3. A

has

The

crew

The

hat that I

The

man

pronouns

are

but

no

the

won

saw

used

for small

ships

carefully.
race

named

was

gender

is

or

classes.

of fashion.

Taylor.

and

The

case.

out

now

Mortimer

pointsout

pronoun

from

excused

was

boughtlast summer

that I

demonstrative

number

4. An

which

be

is to

identifies. It

demonstrative

this,that,these,those.

This is the way


That is my new

to

These

books; those

are

your

kick

spiral.

television

interrogative
pronoun

set.
on

the desk

are

mine.

(who, whom, whose, which,

what, occasionally
whoever, whichever, whatever) intro9

PRONOUNS

duces

question.The

who

shall demand

Which
What

is the route

that

who

interrogative
noun
proare

same.

pardon be granted?

should take from

we

the

Hammond?

do you have in mind?


do you recognize?

Whom
5. A

for the

the relative pronoun

and

Who

forms

case

reflexive
pronoun

of the sentence.

is used

for reference

to

ject
the sub-

composed of one of the personal


self,
himself,herplusselfor selves: myself,yourself,
pronouns
themselves. These pronouns
ourselves,
itself,
yourselves,
also called compound personalpronouns.
In formal
are
speechor writing,these pronouns are not used as subjects.
It is

and

myselfwent on a hike.
assistant burned
himself.
Right: His laboratory
Right:They appointedthemselves as cheer leaders.

Wrong: Helen, Sue,

6. An

pronouns

Right:The

Right:We
7.

than

is used for emphasis.Intensive


pronoun
reflexive pronouns
form.
have the same

intensive

and
nurse

herselfwas

students ourselves

at
are

fault.

whollyresponsible.

Indefinite
pronouns are somewhat
other pronouns. Among the more

less exact

in

meaning

used indefinite
frequently
another,any, anyone, anything,
are
everybody,
pronouns
few, many, nobody, none, one,
everyone, everything,
each. The pronoun
and its compound
several,some,
one
forms, and compound forms built on the element -bodyform
the possessivecase
in the same
as
nouns
(anyone's,
way
involve
everybody's).Indefinite pronouns
grammatical
problemswhich are discussed in Section lid.
8. A reciprocal
indicates an interchange
of action
pronoun
in the
suggestedby the verb. This interchange
may be seen
the only two
followingsentences
involving
reciprocal
nouns
proin English:

10

The

two

The

members

teams

complimentedeach
of the squad shouted

other.
at

one

another.

ASSERTING

3. ASSERTING

3a-b

VERBALS

AND

VERBS

WORDS:

VERBS

WORDS:

VERBALS

AND

Definition.

3a.

A verb expresses action

state

or

of

being,

kicked the ball with all his

Morgan

strength.

readyat eighto'clock.

Be

became

Howard

and

statesman

wrote

number

of

books.

of verbs.

3b. Kinds
Verbs

are

classified as

transitive verb

linking.

transitive,intransitive,or

accompaniedby
regularly

is

direct

object.
V.

o.

The

engineersthrew

The

ate
refugees

the river.

bridgeacross

o.

V.

bits of bread

found

V.

old

An

o.

seized

woman

the road.

on

squawkinggoose

and

ran

into

the house.
An

intransitive verb
Automobiles

Peopleran
verbs

Many

requiresno

from

Paris

wildlyin

can

crept alongthe roads.

every

be used

object.
direction.

in either

transitive

or

an

transiti
in-

sense.

We
We

the

won

won

read the

with great care.


(Transitive)
read until late at night.
(Intransitive)
news

the firstset.

(Transitive)
(Intransitive)
easily.

verb
or
copulative,
linking,
to the predicate
noun.
subject

Washingtonwas
My

our

shows

the

of
relationship

firstpresident.

favorite color is green.


11

^^

ASSERTING

WORDS:

VERBS

AND

VERBALS

Auxiliaryverbs.

3c.

or
verbs, such
Auxiliary,
helping,

would, should,do, did, shall,will,and

have, are
shades
voice

often used

of

with

other verbs

as

must,

of be and

particular
(see Section 3f) or

to

express

meaning usuallyof time


(see Section 3d). Such combinations
"

can,

may,
all forms

called verb

are

phrases.
I have

known

This theme

Sd.

three times.

rewritten

was

(Voice)

Voice.
verbs

Transitive
or

the firstgrade.(Time)

Jerrysince

further classified as

are

to

voice

"

active

passive.
A

verb

is in the active

voice

when

its

performs
subject

the action.
built

largehouse in the country.


The
engineers Jiave developednew
types
refrigerators.
The Marshall Plan helpsthe reconstruction

We

is in the

verb

the action.
are, was,

passivevoice
that

Notice

were,

form

some

been, be)

is used

when

its

of

Europe.

subjectreceives

of the verb
with

of electrical

another

be

(am, is,

verb in the

passivevoice.
A

largehouse

The

doors

were

built in the country.


bolted from the inside.

was

3e.- Mood.

The
the
A

mood

speakerthinks
verb

in

questionof
The
What
12

of

the

verb shows

the mood

or

time

in which

of the action.
indicative mood

states

fact.
farmer

manner

plantedhis
is it?

crop

early.

fact

or

asks

verb

Clean

verb

your books

contrary
Section

in

command.

to

page 10.

indicates a condition
mood
subjunctive
wish. The subjunctive
is discussed in
a
or

the

fact

to

expresses

room.

your

Open

VERBALS

imperativemood

the

in

AND

VERBS

WORDS:

ASSERTING

17c-g.
If you
I wish

in

were

Europe, you
in the South

were

iind life very different.

would
where

it is

alwayswarm.

3f. Tense"
Tense

of the action

state

or

expressed

verb.

by a

Every
a

indicates the time

verb

has three

basis for the

made

in usage

form

these

tenses

formation
because
or

how

which

principal
parts
of

peopledo
to

use

Many

tenses.
not

them.

are

mistakes

understand

(See

used

Sections

how

as
are

to

15 and

16.)
The

principal
parts of
participle.''^

If the

second

and

-d,-ed, or -t,the verb

verb,and
irregular
the irregular
verbs in
an

verb

are

the present, past, past

principal
parts of a verb
verb. Otherwise
is called a regular
third

its

the

parts should be memorized.

add
it is

Notice

precedinglist.

is sometimes
also
fourth principalpart, the present participle,
the
made
is
to
by
adding
participle
-ing
present
present
form of a verb: talk,talking.The four principalparts are given

given. The
tense

in this order:

talk,talked,talked,talking.
13

ASSERTING

WORDS:

the

Then
tense.

write

(For

principal
parts of each
sentences
using each of
a

discussion of

tenses

AND

VERBALS

EXERCISE

Write

VERBS

of the

verbs.
following

these verbs in the past


and their use, see Section

16.)

verbs and verbals


the difference between
Understanding
will help you to avoid one
of the most
serious
in
errors
or
fragment.A verb is used as
writing,the half sentence
the simplepredicate
of a sentence; with the subject,
the verb
be used
A verbal cannot
a
completestatement.
may make
of a sentence.
as a simple
(See Section 55. )
predicate
kicked the ball.

(Verb)
Kickingthe ball (Verbal)
To kick the ball (Verbal)
He

There

are

three types of verbals:

and
participles,
gerunds,

infinitives.
(For helpin using verbals,see
and j,and 65. )

Sections

14k, 16i

which has the function of both


is a word
participle
verb and adjective.
The present participle
always ends in
is the third
The past participle
singing).
-ing {speaking,
consists
principal
part of the verb. The perfectparticiple
of having or having been plus the past participle
(having
spoken,havingbeen driven).
1. A

14

WORDS:

ASSERTING

VERBS

AND

VERBALS

the past participles


in the

Notice

listof principal
following

parts:
PAST

Notice
some

walk

walked

walked

smile

smiled

smiled

drive

drove

driven

draw

drew

drawn

see

saw

seen

sing

sang

sung

bring

brought

brought

end in -ed and


of the past participles
others changethe vowel (sung);and stillothers

that

in -n;

PARTICIPLE

some

can
changetheir form completely(brought) The participle
take an object
and be modified by an adverb. When
it does,
the group of words
taken together
is called a participial
phrase.(See Section 6b. )
.

The

ball kicked
used

as

by
an

the

playerwent
adjective)

The

into the stand.

crowd

the team could be heard


cheering
in
used as an
(1: participle
adjective
phrase;2: objectof participle)
1

We

followed

ciple
(Parti-

mile away.

participial

the crowd,

(1: participle
cheeringlustily.
in a participial
used as an adjective
phrase;2: adverb
modifyingparticiple)

Gerunds
form
have the same
gerund is a verbal noun.
but are
used as nouns
as
present or perfectparticiples,
instead of adjectives.
take an objectand be
A gerund may
modified by an adverb or an adjective.
2. A

the
Discovering

plansof the enemy was the job of the


service.
(1: gerund;2: objectof gerund)
intelligence
15

ASSERTING

WORDS:

VERBS

AND

VERBALS

is no
Working intelligently

easy task.

verb
(1: gerund;2: ad-

modifier)
2

Our

is the
infinitiue

3. An

dislikes loud

singing. (1: gerund;

adjectivemodifier)

2:

by

teacher

music

usuallypreceded

of the verb

form

to.

walk

to

to

observe

be used

infinitive may
adverb.
An

as

is to
My greatestpleasure

have

We
as

Bruce

adverb

or
adjective,

used as noun)
(Infinitive
used
(Infinitive
Billings.

from

as

adverb)

the infinitive.

pack?

help

objectand
phraseor clause.

take

adverbial

an

an

you.

me

infinitive may

an

be modified

by

an

reach

To

travel.

to is omitted

go with

me

or

an

noun,

four

the word

Will you

The

enjoyed

days to spend in
adjective)
used
was
(Infinitive
gladto have come.

Sometimes
Let

have

to

the mountain

we

and

twenty miles. (1:

finitive;
in-

objectof infinitive)

2:

George

walked

I tried to walk

2: adverb
faster.(1: infinitive;

modifier)
1

The
2:

began to driftalong the slope.(1: infinitive;


adverbial phrasemodifyinginfinitive)

snow

I intend

stay here until you

2:
(1: infinitive;
adverbial clause modifyinginfinitive)

16

to

arrive.

WORDS:

ASSERTING

"9

VERBALS

AND

VERBS

EXERCISE

the

followingparagraph,list in
verbs that are used as simplepredicates;
in
list all verbals. The listing
has been made
From

all

column

one

another

column,

for the firsttwo

sentences.

Verbal

Verbs
had

to

go

liked
had named

the Englishpoet, had


Shelley,
out

he

the

Mediterranean

named

Ariel. But

on

had

sailor,some

Sea

because

of his friends worried

the boat

friends, he

some

warning of

slippedover
set

he

was

the

sea
waves.

for his home

out

liked

He

lightsailboat

in

about

however, loved the beauty of the


in which

tragicdeath.
very

to

go
which

unskillful

as

Shelley,
constantly.
fashion
and the graceful
One
day,after visiting
him

Lerici

in

in

spite of

protect Shelley,his friend


the
to
a
good sailor,wanted
Trelawny,who was
accompany
writer
in a larger
boat named
Bolivar; but he had not obtained
a

port clearance

Wishing

storm.

papers,

to

the port authorities kept him from


hurry;so he set out, leavingTrelawny

and

leaving.
Shelleywas in a
fuming at the shore. The sailors on Trelawny's boat, gready
concerned
about Shelley,
watched
the black clouds gathering.
When
the storm
broke, Trelawny,worried about his friend,
finally
of him. Meantime,
tried to get news
wife waited
at
Shelley's
that Shelleycould not have been so foolish
Lerici,feeling
sure
to set out in the storm.
she decided to go to Leghorn to
as
Finally
what had happened to him. Reachingthe city,
she begged for
see
and was
told that Shelley
had indeed set out justbefore the
news
Panic-stricken,Mary made

storm.

of her

getting news

husband

in
inquiries

difiicult. At

was

Trelawny learned
shore

at

that parts of a wreck


Viareggio.They stilldid not

days later
was

the

body
onlythirty
years

of

Shelleywas

old when

every

had

washed

up

last she

and

up on the
hope,but several

been

give up

direction,but

on

cast

the shore. He

he died.

17

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4ci-b

MODIFYING

4. MODIFYING

words:

ADJECTIVES

WORDS:

AND

ADVERBS

ADJECTIVES

AND

ADVERBS

Definition

4a,

adfective.

modifies
adjective

An
4b.

of

of

Uses

noun

or

pronoun.

adjectives.

makes more
or
an
nearly
limiting,
adjective
By describing
tell
the meaning of the word it modifies. Adjectives
exact
what kind of,how many, ivhich one. Adjectives
of two
are
generalkinds:
1.

a red convertible,an
Descriptive:

easy

job,a

broken

window
2.

the first
Limiting:
day,his former roommate,

Note:

noun

considered

or

case
possessive
may be
it limits the meaning of another

in the

pronoun

since
adjective

an

fivetimes

noun.

articlesa, an, and the are adjectives.


A is used before
word
sound; an, before a
beginningwith a consonant

The
a

that it is
with a vowel sound. Remember
beginning
the sound, not the spelling,
that determines which article
should be used. A word
beginningwith silent h actually
word

starts with

sound

consonant

with y

vowel.

with

or

and
vowel

The

sound

of y before a vowel is a
calls for a, whether
the word begins
havingthe sound of y, such as longu.

a hero, a European,a
apple,an hour, an opportunity,

an

university
is called a predicate
or
adjective
adjective
predicate
complement when it is related to the subjectby a linking
verb (be,feel,become, taste, seem,
appear, look, sound,
for example
)

An

24

The

water

The

com

feltwarm.
is green.

MODIFYING

WORDS:

AND

ADJECTIVES

ADVERBS

EXERCISE

In
as

an

noun

in this paragraph.
In
adjective
that each adjective
modifies.

Across

watch

that

sea

the Venezuelan

littledistance, and

coastline with

fresh odor
from

sweat

of the

back

sea

reached

occupants

the money

moment

into

the side of

into
slipping

were

that the passengers

had

The
the

few

air

the

thrown

smell

moments

clear

still.

was

heavy

of

dozen

their brown-

ship,and

our

the

in

their tails,flew

sea.

mingled with
a

could

we

purpleAndes
on

the

column, listthe

emerald,

the

the stevedores' bodies. In

small boats had


skinned

stood

dived

another

turquoise,now

now

was

background.Flyingfish
The

verbals)used
(including

column, list each word

one

water

to

find

for them.

down

4c. Definition of adverb.


An

adverb modifies

verb, an

in
or
by describing,
limiting,
nearlyexact.
meaning more

4cl. Uses

of adverbs.

adverb

An

tells how,

(Adverbs that
or

tell why

to

what

are

(When)
paraderecently.
did enjoy the music
playedby
certainly

We

(To what
Here

The

extent.

of

phrases

6 and

7.)

saw

We

we

when, where, why,

usuallyin the form


singlewords. See Sections

clauses rather than

If

another adverb
or
adjective,
other way making the
some

we

soldiers from

taxi drove

teU how

modifyinganother

extent

saw

the bands.

slowlydown

slowlythe

taxi

(Where)

countries.
many
the street. (How)

drove, we

have

an

adverb

adverb.

Iquite1
The

taxi drove

-"

very

I slowlydown

the street.

too

25

4cl
MODIFYING

WORDS:

ADJECTIVES

The

following
examples show
adjectives

adverbs

AND

used

ADVERBS

modify

to

When

the

day

was

modifies the
He

almost

was

over,

very tired.

guide was

our

tired. )
adjective
sick with fatigue.
{Almost

(Very

modifies the

sick. )
adjective
is used

a noun
Occasionally

is called the adverbial

noun

After the game

Neither

of either robs

Overuse

Both

and
adjectives
and

vi\

is weak

and

and

adverbs

can

adverbs

are

verbals) used
a

second
Have

is heavilv

discussed

stories

are

told

Among
love for
work

about

them

his

his

story.For

force.

Vxriting
cific
spe-

larded
the

in Sections

the

that each

Mariner?

with

them
jectives
of ad-

use

IS and

author

adverb

Many

of the

63.

poem,

modifies.

very interesting,
ridge.
ColeSamuel

some

stopped to talk to liim. Lamb,


awav;
job on time, moved

grabbedthe button

profusely..

particularly
good tales of the poet's
today Coleridgemet Lamb walkingrapidly

are

One
talking.

and

reach

an

Tlie Ancient

read

column, list the word


you

of

(including
your paper, list each word
adverb in the following
paragraph.In

on

as

use

and

make

help to

flabby.Particular problems in

column

one

used

of conciseness

EXERCISE

In

be

should

sentences

writingthat

id. but

(The

home.

adverbs

nor
adjectives

adverb.

an

objective.)

went

we

as

of liislistener's coat
a

few

minutes

Lamb

who
but

was

hurrying tO'

Coleridgequickly

ing
insisted upon finishbut
waited
patiently,

and

apparentlypreparing for a long talk. Presently


Lamb
took a knife from
his pocket and carefullv cut ofi: the
button that Coleridgewas
ing
holding.That evening Lamb, returnfrom work, saw
Coleridgestillholdingthe button and still
talking
vigorously.

Coleridgewas

26

WORDS:

JOINING

5.

PREPOSITIONS,

JOINING

CONJUNCTIONS

Definition of

5a.

is
preposition

of

sentence.

5b.

noun

is

preposition.
a

word
linking

or

pronoun
followed
It is usually

List of

Here

PREPOSITIONS

WORDS:

AND

to

used

to

other

some

by

an

show

the relationship
word

in

the

object.

prepositions.

list of

5ci-b

CONJUNCTIONS

prepositions:

common

if
confused
is sometimes
meaning of a sentence
with
in combination
prepositionsare not used correctly
other words. (See Section 43.)
The

is used

Between

Among

is used

I must

The
Note:
more

money

two

when

two

are

was

are

than

more

choose between

In casual

than

when

considered.
two

are

dancingand

divided

among

speech,between

considered.

tennis.

six heirs.

is sometimes

used

when

considered.
27

Sc-d
Beside

next

means

Besides

are

5c. Definition of
A

is
conjunction

groups of words
Sd.

Kinds

of

to.

popularboy in school sits beside me in French.


and math?
besides English
you studying

most

What

CONJUNCTIONS

in addition to.

means

The

PREPOSITIONS,

WORDS:

JOINING

in

conjunction.
word
linking

used

words

to connect

or

sentence.

conjunctions.

Coordinating
conjunctions
joinwords or groups of words
of equalrank; for example,and, but, for,or, nor.
Certain coordinating
used in pairsare called
conjunctions
correlative conjunctions.
used of these are
Most frequently
either
.

neither

or;

nor;

both

and; whether

or.

Subordinatingconjunctionsjoin dependent clauses to


main
clauses;for example,if,as, since, because, although,
while,so that,when. (See Section 7. )
Note:

Certain

adverbs

are

used

as

They

connectives.

are

called

over,
conjunctiveadverbs. Examples are however, morenevertheless,
therefore.
(See Glossaryof Grammatical

Terms

and

Section

24b.)

must
good writing,conjunctions
order that they may
show
the

In
in

ideas. Often

be chosen
exact

careless ^^^:iter will

with

care

tween
berelationship
use

and

where

the

of clauses needs to be more


accurately
relationship
expressed,
probablyby use of subordination. Notice how the
emphasisand meaning differ in these sentences:
The

search

and

for the chemical

further

formula

has been

will make
investigation

rewarding,

the rewards

even

formula

been

greater.

Althoughthe
28

search

for the chemical

has

V9d

PHRASES

further investigation
will
rewarding,

greater.

even

Common

in the

errors

use

of

discussed

are
conjunctions

19a-c, 23a-c, and 70.

in Sections

The

the rewards

make

conjunctionis

the seventh

speech,that you have studied


of speech altogether.
The seven

of

kind

word,

far. There

or

part of

eightparts
parts of speechthat you
have studied are nouns,
adverbs,
pronouns, verbs, adjectives,
and conjunctions.
The eighthpart of speechis
prepositions,
the interjection,
word with
which is simplyan exclamatory
littlerelation
of the

Oh,

the

to

must

an

of the sentence.

you

portant
It is the least im-

go? (Oh is an interjection.)


to an
good fortune came
abruptend. (Alas

)
interjection.

6.

6a.

are

eightparts of speech.

Here, alas,our
is

rest

so

PHRASES

Definition.

phraseis a group of related words


and predicate
and which
a subject
part of speech.It is importantto know
because
their positionin a sentence
meaning. (See Section 63b.)
A

There

has been

much

which

does

functions
how

to

as
use

not

single
phrases

often determines

discussion of the

new

tain
con-

the

slum-clearing

projectin school.
The

positionof

indicate that
the

sentence

In

phrasein school makes this sentence


took place in school. Actually,
slum-clearing

should

the

read:

school there has been

much

discussion of the slum-

clearing
project.

to

the use
of phrases
also helpsone
Understanding
(See Section 23. )
punctuate correctly.

to

learn

29

6b
6b.

PHRASES

Kinds

Phrases
an

of

phrases.

often contain

a participle,
a gerund,
preposition,
uerfo. (See Section 3g.)
or
a
infinitive,

Prepositional
phrases:

to

the dance,

boys, of

by

my

club, between

the tickets,at the end

the

of the

road

ball,
Participial
phrases: running a mile quickly,
playingbaskethis head, overcome
scratching
by
Gerund

phrases:

gas, exhausted after the journey


kicking
the animals, selling
tickets,
visiting
the

ball,playingtennis, preparing a

report

Infinitive
phrases:

Verb

phrases:

to

play the

to

walk

game

mile,

well, to sing a song,


to

shout

loudly

have

written, would

see

the

have

circus,

dived,

to

am

beginning
that

phrasemay contain another phrase.In the


prepositional
phrase at the end of the road, the objectof
the prepositionat is modified
by another prepositional
phrase.Also, in the participial
phrase exhausted by the
is modified by a prepositional
journey,the participle
phrase.
Notice, too, that phrases containingpresent participles
and those containinggerundslook alike. The use
of such a
determines
whether
it is a participial
phrasein a sentence
or
a
gerund phrase.(See Section 3g.)
jective
adPhrases
(exceptverb phrases)are used as nouns,
adverbs.
OT
phrases are generally
Prepositional
used as adjectives
as
or
adverbs; participial
tives;
adjecphrases,
infinitive phrases,
as
as
nouns,
nouns;
gerund phrases,
sirable
adverbs. In some
or
adjectives,
types of writing,it is deinto a phrase;in other types it is
to expand a word
better to contract
the phrase into a word. A knowledge of
structure.
phraseshelpsto give varietyto sentence
Notice

30

PHRASES

phrases:

Noun

To

automobiles

manufacture

(Infinitive
phrase as

was

great undertaking.

subject)

a
Cranking the old 1910 model was
riskybusiness.
(Gerund phraseas subject)
tried to develop mass
production.
Many manufacturers
(Infinitive
phraseas objectof tried)

The

next

step

to

was

invent

self-starter
for the

nominative.
(Infinitive
phraseas predicate

that

the

infinitive

phrase

bile.
automo-

Notice

prepositional
phraseis
prepositional

contains

phrase,for the automobile. This


used as an adjective
and modifies self-starter.
)
The plan to developa self-starter
tremendous
caused
pansion
exin the industry.
(Infinitive
phrase as appositive)
EXERCISE

phrasesthat you find in


the following
Beside each phrase,
write the kind
sentences.
of phrase(infinitive
tence
or
gerund) and its function in the sen(subject,
objectof verb, and so on )
On

your

paper,

write

the

noun

Example :
I.

1.
2.
3.

5. I

7.
8.
9.

gerund phrase subject


"

Hearingsoft music makes me sleepy.


a
Planting
gardenis good fun.
his lessons.
He hates studying

4. We

6.

soft music:

Hearing

decided

want

to

to

pay

his way.

playa harp.

Making a wise decision is not an easy task.


Collecting
pleasantexperiences.
stamps gave Morris many
I alwaysenjoyedfeeding
the animals at the circus.
Leaving her familyin a foreign
country worried Alice a great
deal.

10.

decision
Shirley's

to

David

marry

upset her

family very

much.
II.

Harold's

greatest ambition

was

to

make

the football

team.

31

PHRASES

12.

build

To

had

business

prosperous

his aim

been

since

childhood.
Australia.

13.

My

uncle

14.

The

custom

15.

Jerry's
plan to
ily.

16.

Later, the Japanese started

17.

Running

18.

The

19.

The

20.

He

21.

She

soon

22.

His

hobby, restoringold furniture,later

wants

to

here is

to

start

go to bed early.
the whole
chicken farm surprised

largefarm

big problem now


guests began to
wanted

to

to

go

taughthim
is to

their

make

to

to

to

motion

own

tures.
pic-

cally.
accept life philosophi-

provideadequate parkingspace.
their presents.

open

jointhe club, but gettingin

learned

fam-

keep house,

to

was

knit, and

very
to

sew.

became

difficult.

profitable

business.
23.

Arthur's chief desire

24.

Some

25.

Going

nations
to

try

to

was

successful farmer.

aggression.
prevent psychological

to

in Boston

concerts

be

Howard

gave

new

interest

in

music.

Adjectivephrases:
Adjectivephrases,like adjectives,
modify

The

bodies

of early automobiles

(Prepositional
phraseused
Women

as

wearing long dusters

nouns

or

nouns.
pro-

high and open.


ject)
modifyingsubadjective
were

and

goggles sometimes
drove the cars.
(Participial
phrase used as adjective
modifyingsubject)
had few opportunitiesthen to buy a car.
We
(Infinitive
phrase used as adjective
modifyingobjectof verb)
One
saw
an
day we
earlymodel stalled on the road.
(Participial
phraseused as adjectivemodifying object
of verb. Notice
that the participial
phraseincludes a
prepositional
phrase,on the road. The prepositional
phrase is used

32

as

an

adverb

and

modifies

stalled.)

6b

PHRASES

EXERCISE

On

your

lowing
phrasesin the foladjective
Classifyeach phrase and tell what it
list separately
phrasesused
prepositional
phrases.

sentences.

as

not

parts of other

Example:
I. Singinga
1. A

modifies

participial
phrase

gay song:

"

peasant

peasant singinga gay song trudgedpast us.

2. "Adonais"
3. Sue

is

5. There
6. The

tribute

boughta

4. Ichabod

saw

of John Keats.
the memory
dress to wear
to the party.

new

to

coming toward
strange object

ample time

was

snowshoe

white

him.

finish the work.

to

rabbit has very

largefeet

covered

with

soft

fur.

7. I should like
8. Exhausted
9.

the

write

paper,

modifies. Do

10

positionin the saxophonesection of the band.

the

day'slabor, he sleptsoundly.
Southern
High, we hoped to win

by

beaten

Having

the

city

championship.
10. There

was

knock

the door, and

on

of

man

huge proportions

entered.
II.

You

break the lock

must

needed

for the

play.

The

12.

magazine made
community.

13.

Caird, endorsed

15. A

wearing

man

entered
16.

Rex

of

the

saw

long,loose

and

overcoat

carryinga

cane

room.

the

start

with

the

Royals,pitchedhis

Royal Players,
sponsoredand

the government.
number
of students

civil service

improve the morals of the

the

Hunter, making his

by

effort to

parties.

firstgame today.
17. The theater houses

18. We

an

machine
and sponsoredby
political
his pictureeverywhere.
new
legislative
body has produceda shift

by

liberal groups, saw


14. The election of a
in the balance

get the materials

the cabinet and

on

takingthe

examination

ported
supfor

job.
33

"b

PHRASES

of the controversial

19. Discussion

of aldermen

committee

20.

issue
public-housing

today.

Peopletryingto get new

automobile

licenses formed

line in front of the office of the Automobile

Adverbial

excited

long

Commissioner.

phrases:

Adverbial

and
phrasesmodify verbs, adjectives,

adverbs.

fell on our sidewalk. (Prepositional


Yesterdaya woman
phrasemodifyingverb fell)
She fell hard enough to sprain her ankle. (Infinitive
phrasemodifyingadverb enough)
She was
(Infinitive
tive
phrasemodifyingadjeceasy to lift.
easy)

and

Restrictive

If

phrases:

nonrestrictive

the
explainor identify
word
it refers,the phraseis called restrictive. If
to which
the phrase is not absolutely
necessary, it is called nonrestrictive. Nonrestrictive
phrasesare always set oflE by
a

phraseis

from

commas

The

essential in order

the remainder

of the

citizens'committee

The

particular
way

the

committee

nonrestrictive

demand

because

nonrestrictive

to

it is

what
telling

examplesof punctuationfor

23h

the

for further

restrictive

and

modifiers.

sheet of paper, write

sentences.
following

34

gains.

gan
stature, begaining in political
reforms within the city government.

EXERCISE
a

because

the committee

the writer's purpose


in
began to demand. See Section

discussion and

On

which

adjective
phraseis

essential

not

in

phraseis restrictive

citizens' committee,
to

Here

sentence.

stature.
gains in political

In this examplethe adverbial


it tells the

to

11

the adverbial

phrasesin

each phraseand
Classify

tell what

the
it

^^

PHRASES

modifies. Do

list separately
prepositional
phrasesused

not

parts of other

as

phrases.

Example:
in

prepositional
phrase modifies flew
phrase modifies flew
jetplane:prepositional

South America:

I. To
a

"

"

flew to South

1. He

America

in

of the darkness

2.

out
Suddenly,

3.

During my
George left home to seek
I passed my driver's test

4.

5.

jetplane.

came

I took

spring vacation

octopus.

an
a

tripwith five friends.

his fortune.
and

aided my

father

by delivering

orders.
6.

7.

Lately,I have
Mr. Upton was
when

8. The

behind

In

II. The

13.

mass

formation,while the guerrillas,

trees, fired at them.

Mrs.

wedding,the

Barton

bridal company

natives

Remsen.

throughthe

hibiscus blossoms

wear

churches

in their hair and

one

the house

to teach

we

outside.
in driver education

introduced
courses
recently
how to drive.
boys and girls

In these

days,it is very importantto

because

traffic is

learn

techniques
driving

complicated
by speed,
take
risks
who
to show
Teen-age youths
friends

are

in many

five o'clock this afternoon

At

19.

WashingtonBoulevard.
caused
It was
by a boy
His

the direct

cases

18.

20.

colored

by the secretary.
can
protect the plantsfrom the cold.
planteda hedge highenough to keep

15. Schools have

some

sleepon

and

bands.

arm

By using screens,
the world

17.

tertained
en-

to be handled
report is too complicated

14. Around

16.

was

hot afternoons.

on

leaves in their
12. The

in

Ecuador, dogswander

the floor

neighbor

occurred.

of the

eve

by
10.

soldiers advanced

the

in order.

budgetto keep my money


walkingdown the street with

the accident

concealed
9. On

used

friends how
car

was

fast his

smashed

seriously
by the
injured

to

there

of nineteen

off before
of

cause
was

who

an

an

could go.
pieces,and several

accident.

accident

wanted

their

to

near

show

car

people were

collision,

35

PHRASES

Achievement

6c.

test

phrases.

on

your paper write all the phrasesexcept verb phrases


the following
Beside each phrase,
write the
sentences.

On

from

kind of

phraseand its function in the sentence.


verbal phrases
used
or
separately
prepositional
other phrases.

Do

not

list

parts of

as

Example:
I.

Knittingsocks

1.

socks
Knitting
her

2.

for the Red

Cross:

for the Red

Cross

gerund phrase subject


"

consumed

great deal of

time.

Dischargedfrom the
back to college.
have

3. Airmen

found

army,
the

the young

man

eagleflying9,750

decided

to

feet above

go
the

earth.
4. Plastics

5.

becoming very popularin factories producing


household objects.
Men
workingon the projectwill be research workers of wide
are

experience.
6. The

first step in the

is to
investigation

isolate the cold virus.

has tried to improve conditions,but


company
been blind to obvious problems.

7. The

it has

the editorial
law for three years and then joined
practiced
staff of a large
newspaper.
The man's main
is to write stories about ordinary
objective
people.
learn to respect the law.
must
cars
Young peopledriving
he was
exhausted from fighting,
sent
to California
Finally,

8. He

9.

10.

II.

for

rest.

candy business here, Ted Saunders


started two
in a nearbytown.
stores
whose
The company
job was
employed a group of men

12. Besides

13.

running

look for flaws in the garments finished by weavers.


admit
would
14. At that time, no
school in America
to

15. On

to

woman

studymedicine.
the second

three hundred
36

has

floor of the

people.

is
building

an

auditorium

seating

7a-b

CLAUSES

house, decorated

16. The

with

flagsand bunting,was

ready

for the carnival.


17. Attracted

by the

noise, Sue lefther

and hurried into the

room

street.

18.

Annuallyan
Day

Foundation

United
19. The

mother

American
to

set

is chosen

examplefor

an

by

the Mothers'

other mothers

in the

States.

has bamboo
houses alongirregular
streets,
village
in a haze of
of oil everywhere,
derricks enveloped

native

the smell

throb of engines.
smoke, and the never-ceasing
20.

Aiming

at

medium-income

houses
prefabricated
21.

22. Plarmed

24.

single
pattern,the houses

builders work

these
Selling

hard

houses

production.
are
providedwith

Speciallessons

in

to

ship,
salesmanrequireshigh-powered
ardization.
to standtry to meet all objections

often

but the salesmen

25.

mass

garages.
the
house
under a roof in
get
the task is not alwayspossingle
day,but accomplishing
sible.

The
a

on

$10,000.

problemin

plan

and
varietythroughwings,porches,

some

23.

to cost

build these houses is

To

group, the manufacturers

are
techniques
selling

given to

all

ployees
em-

of the company.

7. CLAUSES
7a.
A

Definition.
clause is

group of words

(See Section
predicate.
7b.
An

Kinds

23 for

which

has both

punctuationof

of clauses.

clause
independent{main, principal)
statement
sense

and
subject
clauses.)

makes

plete
com-

and

sonable
may stand alone; that is,it makes reaif the remainder
o" the sentence
is omitted.

I listened to

Although I
listened

to

radio program.
should have
been
a

studyinglast night,I

radio program.

37

CLAUSES

there

Sometimes

clause in

be

may

than

more

one

independent

sentence.

John studied,but I listened

to a

radio program.

stand alone.
dependent,or subordinate, clause cannot
the rest of the sentence
It depends upon
to complete its
gins
meaning; it is subordinate. A dependent clause usuallybewith a relative pronoun
(such as who, which, that) or
a
subordinating
conjunction (such as if,as, since, because,
while, when, where, until).
although,
A

Dependent

clauses:

althoughit is raining
when

saw

him

if I learn to drive

who

would

go with

us

adverbs,
Dependent clauses may be used as adjectives,
of these parts of
or
nouns.
According to its use as one
clause,
speech,a dependent clause is called an adjective
an

adverbial

clause,or

clause.

noun

Adjectiveclauses are usuallyintroduced by a relative


conjunction
(who, which, that) or by a subordinating
pronoun
(when, where, why). Sometimes, however, the
1.

relative pronoun
is omitted.
that could introduce
pronoun
A
called

clause introduced

relative clause.

The

(See

convertible which

omitted, the relative

When

the clause is said

by

Section

you

to

relative pronoun
23h.

wanted

be

derstood.
un-

is also

has been

sold.

jective
(Ad-

clause

modifyingconvertible)
told him the reason
why I was not coming. (Adjective
clause modifying
reason)

The

He

man

whom

you

recommended

an

excellent

clause modifyingman)
job.(Adjective
is a boy I never
admired. (Adjective
clause modifying

boy;relative pronoun
38

has done

whom

omitted)

CLAUSES

12

EXERCISE

clauses
list the adjective
sentences
following
and tell what
word
clause modifies. Some
each adjective
clauses.
contain
sentences
no
adjective
may
the

From

1. The

automobile

radio which

I ordered

on

Saturdayhas

not

arrived.

housewives, who
soap operas are
take a great interest in serial stories.
3. The fire started in the hotel coffee shop,which
closed.
was
of the listeners

2. Most

4. Flames

the
5.

discovered

were

the elevator shaft in

coming from

of the hotel.

rear

Today I interviewed
a lawyer.

6. He

to

back

justcame

from

who

woman

young

wishes

become

to

he spent his Easter

Indiana, where

holiday.
7.

became

Henry

stationed
8. Of

nearbycamp.
good times that

at

all the

the

soldiers who

were

hay ride

our

acquainted with

barn dance

and

9. In front of the

I had

stage

was

the

duringvacation,

enjoyed

most.

pit where

men

stood

to

see

the

play.
10.

The

modem

of human
11.

12.

13.

They

must

There

find

house

in which

was

relative invited

found
This

Pride and

of which

data

they can

which

live

on

she

had

greatly

income.

group of outlaws
the peoplein the community.

15. A

16.

pictureof almost every aspect

Jane Austen wrote novels of manners,


Prejudiceis the most famous.
Mrs. Henry McClintock
discussed the
presentedat the last meeting.
reduced

14.

novel presents a
fife.

who

endangeredthe

lives of

boy to his home, where the youth


books.
many enjoyable
has been a periodin which conversation
has received
the

fittleattention.
17. The

road

to the

is

part of

main

highway and

leads

eventually

sea.

39

CLAUSES

time when

18. The

she

to

was

leave

and
quickly,

came

she took

boat for the country that she had never


seen.
19. The motion
with littletime
pictureadvances rapidly,
a

filledwith

not

20.

mystery and intrigue.


speakerurged parents to encourage

The

skillful with
instead of
The

21.

Dr.

Downs

24.

The

show

who

i'san

man

broad

2. Adverbial

of

Chinese

of the

he is alert
where

all

to

pay
the older members.
needs

slam

to

every
his

on

drivinglessons

our

highwayfilledwith

clauses may

February 14.

drivingconditions.

took

we

committee
jail

familymust

every courtesy to
expert driver seldom

country road

become

Tijne

members

younger

The

is

satisfied craftsman

the work
on
reportedbriefly
was
appointedby the mayor on

brakes, because
25.

child who

second-rate white-collar worker.

respectand
A

become

to

familythat inherited a house with sinister


and
all people conof a spellwhich
haunted
nected
with the place.

which
23.

his hands

story tellsof

memories

22.

that is

has

cars.

relationships.

express nine

(when, before,while, since):


When

boy drives

car,

he

learn certain

must

the road. (Clause modifies verb

learn.)

while
carefully
pedestrians

will watch

He

must

rules of

he is

driving.

(Clause modifies verb will watch.)


Place

(where, wherever ):
After
to

the
finding

book

where

1 had

the house. (Clause modifies the

hurried

back

gerundfinding.)
fishing.

to go ivherever we
am
can
findgood
willing
(Clause modifies the infinitiveto go.)

Manner

(as,
He

as

kicked

if):
the

appleas ifit were

the verb kicked.

Condition

hall. (Clause modifies

{if,so, unless, providedthat):

If ijou have

the blouse

in

blue, I will buy

modifies the verb ivillbuy.)

40

leftit,I

it.

(Clause

CLAUSES

(because, as,

Cause

The

since

):
engine had broken
with troops. (Clause modifies the

late because

train, three hours

down,

crowded

was

the

late.)
adjective

order

Purpose (in

worked

We

that

that,so
hard

all

day

):
that the

so

would

house

be

pretty for the party. (Clause modifies verb worked.)


Result

(that, so that,so
The

pileof

to

start

We

were

driftwood

so

modifies

that

):

mounted,

that

so

soon

were

we

able

fire.(Clause modifies verb

blazingbeach

mounted.

)
stale crackers.

hungrythat we ate the


adjective
hungry.)

much

Degree or comparison (than, as


justas):
John climbed

farther than you

did.

as

as,

(Clause

...

as,

verb
(Clause modifies ad-

farther.)
Concess^ion

(though,although):

ceived
Althoughthe Socialists lost seats in the election,theyreceived.
a
largepopularvote. (Clause modifies verb re-

)
EXERCISE

the adverbial

Write

and
sentences

1. As

may

contain

theyreached

2. Before

he

clauses found
each

tell what

started

13

no

tences
followingsen-

adverbial

clause modifies. Some

adverbial

clauses.

shady spot in
on

in the

the

the road, the

camping

trip,he

stopped.
bought a new
cars

sleeping
bag.
3. We
4. When

reached

justas the

camp
school was

immediately
got

dismissed
a

jobin

an

sun

was

for the

setting.
summer

vacation, I

ofiice.

5. If you do not want


any of the colors mentioned,
be gladto take your order for another shade.

we

shall

41

CLAUSES

day while

7.

takingundersea picturesoflFthe coast


of Lower
CaUfomia, he encountered a huge porpoise.
I do not like him.
Althoughhe has alwaysbeen pleasant,

8.

During

6. One

wheat
9. I
10.

was

the last few

days, it

has

rained

so

that the

hard

has been ruined.

never

had

If you

wish

or

he

bicycleuntil

the money

I earned

additional information

buy

to

character

concerning my

get in touch with Mr. Horace


may
has been so successful that he has been

ability,
you

11. The

mayor

one.

Brown.

elected

six times.

worked

12. We

for

hours

ten

that the

in order

job might be

completed.
13.

14.

graduatedfrom high school, he entered


of Maryland.
University
Althoughhe did not score, he made the best play of
After he

was

the

the

game.
15.

Speakingwith quiet confidence, the


to

country
16.

In the

periodfrom
because

Europe
17. When
not

18.

We

1200

to

rest

of the world.

1600, famines

in

common

were

difficultto transportfood.
failed,people died because

it was

the

crops
food
from other countries.
get
have wasted
our
as
resources

if

they could

thought the supply

we

limitless.

were

19.

cooperate with the

urged his

statesman

If we

are

careful in the future,we

not

may

again be without

materials necessary for comfortable living.


20. In order that we
of our
may
preserve some
government has set aside national parksand
21.

However,

22.

Men

are

these efforts

are

small, so

eager for money

more

than

wildlife,the
bird

that very

theyare

refuges.

little is

for

complished.
ac-

protection

of the country.
23.

Since

be
24.

we

make

we

are

money
lesson.
42

the

rest

have been

we

country has been

think also of

25. When

help feed

careful than

more

The

must

so

of the world,
in the

mechanized

we

should

past.

that Americans

possible
petroleumshortage.
to waste
no
our
longerwilling
shall have learned
we
quickly,

resources
an

must

to

important

CLAUSES

A noun
performthe functions of nouns.
clause is usually
introduced
by that,what, who, which,
where, when, how, why. It is used as:

clauses

3. Noun

Who

Subject:
Objectof verb:

does
guilty

is

hope that
college.
Objectof preposition: We judgea
I

reached

He

Appositive:

wise

not

concern

me.

will be able

you

by

man

what

to

go to

he does.

the conclusion

that it

was

positi
stay out of Newberry.(See Ap-

to

in

Glossaryof

Grammatical

Terms.)
Predicate

One

noun:

serious

the
Occasionally

relative pronoun
conjunctionthat is omitted.

I told

him

I would

(7 would

go.

no

(See Section If,item 2.)

running water.
Caution:

that there is

problemis

the subordinating

or

go is the

dependent

clause. )
I told him

that I would

go.

EXERCISE
On

your

in the

all the

write

paper

Some

clauses that you find


tell how
each noun
clause

noun

and

sentences
following

is used.

14

sentences

may

contain

1. I

promise that

I wiU

2. I

hope that

go to the party.
he could get to North

4. I do not

know

clauses.

noun

helpyou.

can

asked how

3. He

no

what

Avenue.

I should tellEdith about the

5. One

party.

result of my work in literature is that I have


better taste in reading.

6.

Experimentsshow
for

7.

that music

job.
Success
depends,in

8. The
to

will decrease the time

required

inheritfrom

we

developed

measure,

upon

we

what

characteristics

parents.

fact that it looks like rain has

leave

9. That

our

no

effect

on

my

decision

today.
shall win

the pennant this year is

clusion.
foregonecon-

43

CLAUSES

10. The

article says that

11. Who

will inherit the money


does not interest me.
fact that he had learned scoutingsaved his life in the

12. The

youth should

be

taughtto

be responsible.

jungle.
13. We

judgedby what

are

say.
President's advisers feel that

14. The

strike situations
15.

Why

16.

He

20.

In

from

that an
message
is that international

the

he

placewhere

urgent call had

boy brought the


conclusion
affairs is

He

highlydesirable.
him is certainly
a
mystery.

lives.

18. The

19.

cooling-off
periodin

is

you like
born justa short distance
was

now

17. A

we

cheaperthan

said he would

1798,

another

scientist named

nal
for interresponsibility

war.

the party.
Malthus warned

try to get

come.

to

the world

that

the
21.
22.

would outgrow the food supply.


population
Nobody paid any attention to what he said.
Everybodythoughtthat the abundant supplyof food

would

lastforever.
23.

Now

again receive warnings that

we

food

our

supplyis

not

adequate.
24. What

we

do

can

to

save

our

is

remaining resources

portant
im-

an

problem.
25. That

we

clear

to

are

wasting

your

test

paper,

sentences.

1. He

is

by

farming methods

bad

is

everybody.

7c. Achievement
On

land

our

dependentclause in the
adverb.
or
noun,
adjective,

write

each

Label

it

of the

one

douses.

on

most

that 1 have

skillful locksmiths

lowing
fol-

ever

seen.

2.

They

moved

years.
book

3. The

to

4. The

5.

44

to

farm

would
become

businessmen

in

Iowa, where

be of great interest
a

to

they spent
a

person

fifteen

who

tends
in-

journalist.

knew

what

was

coming.

Althoughshe looked like a brightchild, she


in learning
to read.
diflBculty

found

great

CLAUSES

truth of the matter

6. The

is that he is very lazy.


all morning so that I might go to the circus

hard

7. I worked

in the afternoon.

spent the weekend

8. We

of those

at one

charminginns

where

George Washingtonslept.
9. When

heavy load

simplylies down
10.

She

had

to

often had
11.

that it was
12.

13.

cook

the result

How

and

get up

to

is

was

put

the llama's

on

refuses

to

back, the animal

move.

very earlyin the morning because she


for as many
as
people.
eighteen
achieved is less important than the fact

achieved.

broughtinto beingthe efficient,


immaculate
that we
take for grantedtoday.
nurse
would not
The conditions that one
found in earlyhospitals
be tolerated for a minute
in these days.
Trainingschools

14. When

she

for

nurses

nineteen, she decided

was

to

go

to

Europe,where

she
15.

plannedto studymedicine.
Althoughshe looked delicate
of the stuff which

16. A

new

stick

and

shrinks from

material which is
plastic
pleasesthe patientsvery
to

17. Another

frail,she

not

was

made

task.
disagreeable
ings
dressused in surgical
now
a

much

it does

because

not

the wound.

changewhich

has taken

placein

me

is that I

enjoy

classicalmusic.
18.

Althoughthe

field of

are
opportunities

19.

20.

21.

costume

expectedto

designis crowded,
develop.

new

many

that we
could have a fine time if we
were
thinking
both acceptedat the same
college.
that
In the eighteenth
common
so
century, smallpoxwas
scarcely
anyone escapedfrom the malady.
I hope that Sallywill be surprised,
is
because her mother
workingvery hard to make the party a success.
I

was

22.

He

23.

before going to law school.


college
Grain found that she had married
Phyllis

reached

the conclusion

that it would

be wise

not

to

go

to

onlya spoiled

husband, but all his relatives.


24.

This

25.

Many peoplewho

is

one

of the

most

have

excitingstories

I have

frequentautomobile

ever

read.

accidents

are

childish.
emotionally

45

^"CI^B^

SENTENCES

SENTENCES

8.

"

Definition.

8a.
A

is

sentence

group

of words

expressinga complete

thought.
have

The subjectis
predicate.
the name
the verb
of the person or thing about which
makes
The predicate
is what
is said of the
statement.
a
pendent
contain
verb which
it must
a
subject;
completesan indeverb. ReSuch a verb is called a finite
member:
statement.
and gerundsare not finite
infinitives,
participles,
It must

subjectand

verbs.
8b.

Kinds

of sentences.

structure

be

classified

accordingto grammatical
simple,compound, complex, or compound-

Sentences

may

as

complex.
One

of the

writers
greatest problems of inexperienced

the type of sentence


which suits the idea
to use
learning
to be presented.
They must try, also,not to use the same
kind of sentence
too often. (See Section
72.)
A simplesentence
completethought.The
expresses one
simplesentence
subjector a compound
may have a single
verb or a compound verb;but all of the subjects
a single
subject,
must
performthe action in all of the verbs.
is

Ralph;
Ralphplaysin the school orchestra. (One subject,
one
verb, plays)
Ralph and Sallyplayin the school orchestra and sing in
the gleeclub. (Compound subject,
compound
Ralph, Sally;
verb, play,
sing)
Phrases
may

have

do
many

They

affect the kind

not

phrasesand

sold their

of

stillbe

sentence

simplesentence.

wedding presents in

travel to

sentence.

order

to

get enovigh

they; one
Europe. (One subject,
verb, sold; simplesentence)
money

46

to

SENTENCES

contains
two
or
more
independent
compound sentence
combined
clauses. It is really
two
by an
simplesentences
appropriateconnectinglink. This connectinglink may be
a coordinating
conjunction {and, but, for,or nor) preceded
also be a conjunctive adverb
It may
(however,
by a comma.
wise)
thus, then, so, yet, othernevertheless,therefore,
moreover,
preceded by a semicolon. Or the connecting link

may

be

omitted

and

semicolon

is useful

sentence

when

used. The

be

may

wish

you

to

pound
com-

two

express

thoughtsof equalvalue.
Harold
a

graduateof

bv hut and
I

for
college

to

went

Smith.

onlv

(Two

blank
application

however,

am

not

completethoughtsjoined

prettv; her

sure

sister is

thoughtsseparatedbv

from

of

going

however

university;

state

our

there. (Two

plete
com-

semicolon)
very homely. (Two complete
semicolon)

thoughtsjoinedby
is

his sister is

comma)

signed an

Sue

year, but

and

contains
one
complex sentence
independentclause and
one
or
more
dependentclauses.
The
is the dependent or
sign of the complex sentence
subordinate
clause. (See Section 7b.) A complex sentence
of the two ideas to be expressed
is used when
one
depends
the
other
to completeits meaning.
on

(dependent)
When

she

was

little girl,
she

(independent)
much
interested

was

very

in horses.

(dependent)

(independent)
A

broken

sign

hung

on

the

gate, which

(independent)

(dependent)
When

he

was

ready to

partlyopen.

was

make

the

trip,he

had

to

wait

on

(dependent)

Lono; Island because

there

was

bad

weather.

47

SENTENCES

Careless

writers

subordinate

clause

as

the mistake

make

sometimes

of

using a

sentence.

violin is broken.

Althoughmy

the bell rang.

When

these are
not
Clearly,
complete ideas. They are a part
of a complex sentence.
has characteristics of
The
compound-complex sentence
It has two
both the compound and the complex sentence.
has, and
independentclauses, as the compound sentence
at least one
dependentclause,as the complex sentence has.
(dependent)
When

the

legislature
passed a

complained;but
the money

for

(independent)
sales tax, many
people

(independent)
the Governor
agreedto

use

much

of

improved schools.

Knowing how to use these three kinds of sentences


help you to give variety,interest,and good form to

will
your

writing.
Sentences

are

also classified

purpose.
A declarative sentence
The
An

four

fact

asks

teach crime?

imperativesentence

expresses

come

as

soon

makes

an

assertion.

question.

detective movies

Please

or

engines.

sentence
interrogative

Do

An

planehas

states

and

accordingto meaning

as

an

entreaty or

mand.
com-

possible.

Forward, march.
An

exclamatorysentence
Oh, ifhe

48

were

expresses strong feeling.

onlyherel

*"

SENTENCES

15

EXERCISE

of the

sentences
following
is simple,
compound,complex,or compound-complex
and give the reason
for your decision. For example,sentence
1 is complex because
it contains
one
independent
clause and one
dependentclause.

On

1. He

tell whether

paper

your

belongsto

each

club which

is

composedof

famous

in

men

sports.
2. After

hearinghis

first concert, the child wanted

study

to

music.

this pointone

3. From

Plains
4. The

on

7.

8.

fortymiles

across

of the Great

clear

day.
used as a
fortified structure
was
a
strongly
the king or
confinement
for those who
displeased
a

court.

and he has
chemistry,
constructed his own
even
laboratory.
By the end of the year, the building
job was begun;but it
did not progress rapidly.
The American
man
soldier escapedwith the assistance of a Gerof money.
he promiseda largesum
youth,to whom
The author is very fond of moralizing
this
and displays

5. For

6.

look

Bastille

placeof
his

can

six years

his

hobby

has

been

interest in the book.

9. I have

to

10. Your
not

11. The

12.

party sounds
be able

to

come.

tickets

are

to

be

can

very bad
sulk and

torn

temper, and after

an

argument I

clined
in-

am

be sarcastic.
like great fun, but I'm afraid that I shall
be

printedwith

that

section
perforated

off.

The

old part of the city,


which dates back
the modem
Ages,was built on the top of a hill;

to

the Middle

cityoccupies

the lower

13.

14.

slopesand part of the plain.


The dance, accompaniedby native drums, was
stamping steps in rhythmicpatterns.
We
drove up the mountain, shuddering
at each

series of

narrow

turn

of the road.

15.

Everyone said
a

hotel,but

we

that it would
didn't have

be hard

to

get reservations

at

any trouble.

49

SENTENCES

16.

Walking into

his father's office,he

intention

to sea.

17. The

to

go

National

the

the

she
graduation,

they wanted
not

that he

20.

The

to

in

22.

frenzyof

The

cousin

did tell me

of the

end

portant
im-

an

on

greatest

history.

after time, the person

the

there.

work, my

the Ambassador

of Pericles symbolized

Florida;

to

is in business

of his

nature

expectedto accompany
mission.
diplomatic

periodin Athenian

familywent

about his activities;


but he

much

sav

death

21. Time

against
planneda fight

brother, who

isit her

her

and

of the confidential

19. Because

could

has

his

cold.

common

18. After

Institute of Health

calmlyannounced

who

discovers

wide

the door
leaving
vigor enough to make an

excitement,

people had

fire rushes

off

open.

attempt

free

to

themselves.
23.

He

but immediately

was

peas

for

him;

reporter.
25. The
highlight of the dav's

speedboatsand cruisers,for
worth

one

hundred

so

he

the

rest

2. When

was

canned

green

his

club

job as

for

races

seven

club will ofter

the

phies
tro-

to

15.
prepare

to

back

move

to

sundown.
in

find the meadows

resort

decree,

16

men

brother landed

my
to

3. The

at

zone

law

dollars each.

his

captain ordered

up

will be

which

the directions in Exercise

1. The

gave

events

EXERCISE

Follow

with

journalism.
chicken patties
and

diet of

much

too

Dame

Notre

into

went

luncheon-club

24. The

from

graduated

was

crowded

with

he

Newfoundland,
filled with

ished
aston-

was

cups.
butter-

daisies and

and
people,

the band

ceaseless accompaniment to the noise.


4. The native children approachedthe Americans

kept up

and

held

out

their hands.

5. When

Joan

she looked
on

50

decided

forward

to
to

her aunt
accompany
a
good time; but she

the reallysuperbtime

to
was

that she did have

Ocean
not

City,
ing
count-

SENTENCES

book

6. The

if the author

client

with the famous

9. He

is

criticize in

into the

mild

the

manner

to

room

await

interview

an

lawyer.
network

of

in trouble
continually

and

recommend

suggestionof satire,as

epidemics
recognizethe danger of potential

People who

8.

subtle

period.
ushered

was

tryingto

were

stuffinessof the
7. The

with

is written

world

publichealth
has

stations.

spent

now

largepart

of his inheritance.

Althoughhis compositionwas
contest, this only served to

10.

attributed

everyone

and

the

for
rejected

popular;for
trigues,
inpetty jealousies,

Ravel

make

the Prix de Rome

rejectionto

more

politics.
17

EXERCISE

Use

your knowledge of clauses and kinds of sentences


On
to revise the following
paragraph.
your paper, rewrite
the paragraph.
Remember
that short,choppy,simplesentences
do
sentences

not

make

but
style;
interesting

are

combined

an

to

make

when

compound

or

simple
complex

ideas
be careful not to put too many
sentences, you must
The ideas which appear in one
be
sentence
must
together.
closelyrelated,and the conjunctionsused to join them
must

show

and

61.)

what

the

of

Conservation

our

States. Some

their land.

They

same

Wise

farmers

crops

restore

They
do

not

The

are

do

They
them.
insects

know

how

importantproblem for

an

timberland

and

59, 60,

Sections

to

use

waste

owners

wisely.Farmers

it

crops year after year. The soil loses its richness.


help their land. They plantspecial
crops. These

nitrogento the soil.Range lands are another problem.


often damaged by overgrazing.
Then the animals

get enough to
away. A
hard
are
DDT

farmers

not

eat.

overgrazedland

blown

is

resources

the United

plantthe

is. (See
relationship

third
to

The

is eroded

might

by

problem is

control. DDT
kill valuable

buy

must

owner

the

wind.

insects.

could

The

They

be used

insects.

commercial

Some

feed

is
topsoil

the crops.
of
to kill some
eat

of the valuable

fruit trees.
pollinate

51

^^

OF

GLOSSARY

EXERCISE

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS

18
_^

Follow

the directions in Exercise

drive well. Your

to

He
A

is

instructors

baby.He

wants

to

thinks is

person who

and

teachingboys

Many high schools today are


safe drivers. The

17.
to
girls

be

be an adult emotionally
say a person must
littlebrother shows oflFfor company.
be

hasn't learned

He

seen.

growing up.

He

acts

on

think.

to

does

He

reason.

automobile
A show-off in an
feelings.
takes
is a baby emotionally.
He
exceeds the speed limit. He
drives an
His
old car.
He
ten
car.
peoplein a five-passenger
has bad brakes. He
dashes past other cars
car
on
impatiently
their right.
He is like your littlebrother. He is showingoff for
crowd.
His showing off is more
a
dangerousthan that of your
littlebrother. He may kill people.
Little brother merelyannoys
people.Some boys are eighteen
years old. They are stillbabies
to drive cars.
emotionally.
They should not be permitted
not

act

result of his

GLOSSARY

9.
In

as

used.

discussion of grammar
and writing,
many
there are
which
Sometimes
several terms
If you

meaning.

same

the

have

trouble

with

terms

have

term,

are

the

consult

following
pages.

ABSOLUTE

of

TERMS

GRAMMATICAL

OF

An

EXPRESSION.
noun

or

pronoun
modifies no

it modifies

whole

the

sentence

absolute
and

expressionis composed

singleword
as

absolute

An
participle.

whole

rather,

in the sentence;
or

adds

pression
ex-

details

to

the

statement.

The
Two

tire

being flat,we

hours

decided

having elapsed,we

to

pump

again

it up.
set

out

on

our

journey.
The

littleboat

hugged

the shore, its sails

flappingin

the wind.
ACTIVE

VOICE.

performsthe
52

verb is in the active


action.

voice

when

its

subject

GRAMMATICAL

OF

GLOSSARY

A word

ADJECTIVE.

be either

extent.

noun

that modifies

pronoun. It may
Section 4b for examples.)

or

verb,

other
anor
adjective,
adverb. It tells how, when, where, why, or to what
(See Section 4d. )

The

ALLITERATION.

the

that modifies

or
descriptive
hmiting.(See

word

ADVERB.

^JF

TERMS

in prose

It is

beginningwith
a
good device to use
tising.
used chiefly
in adver-

usuallynot

writing.At present it

an

words

of Several

usc

sound.

same

is

Money with Munder

Make

Sales Service

Simplified
Tasty,Tempting, Tantalizing
The

ANTECEDENT.
a

(noun

or

pronoun) to

which

refers.

pronoun

substantive

APPOsiTivE.

substautivc

added

to

another

substantive

the
it or explain
it. The appositive
identify
signifies
thingas the substantive it explainsand is said to
with it.
apposition
One

More

to

same

be in

port.
rubber, this country had to imimportant product,
(Rubber is in appositionwith product.)
hardy than wheat are these grains rye, oats, and
"

barley.(Rye,oats,

and

barleyare

in

with
apposition

)
grains.
An

appositiveagrees
to

dashes

which

unless

My

friend
Andrew

so

two

Andrew
is

and

it refers and

it is

that the

in number

is set

closelyrelated
words

built

seem

to

with

oflFby
to

the

noun

the substantive

commas

the other

part of the

sailboat.

related
closely

case

or

stantive
sub-

same

pression.
ex-

(The appositive
to

which

it

fers.)
re-

53

^f

GLOSSARY^

Vferb used

AtTSffLiAi^v

and

of tense

matiori

"help"Another

to

forms.

voice

ought,shall,will

must,

'OIIA.MMATIGAL

OF

Be,

in the'^fbr-i^

verb

d", Hdbepfrvay,

can,

( J^iq-'^s

examples.

are

TERMS

.shhvoa
a visitV:;^orrii"xli b-iO"//A
gone-'awayfor
ifiZ?please
:il:J :^I .cis/bfi
lorijo
turn
out the light.
should have been working with the stevedores on

ir-Heiifls

""fiL

You

isi"r

We

the dock.

The

or
change of form that a noun
undergoes
pronoun
in a sentence.
to indicate its relationship
to other words
There are three cases
in English nominative, possessive,
and
objective.

CASE.

"

CLAUSE.

( See

cate.

of words

group

Section

which

7. )

^uDiectjarida predi-

-J

.,

has

,^

-j.

The

the

change in

form

of

or
adjective
adverb to indicate greater or smaller degreesof quantity,
The three degreesof comparison are
or
manner.
quality,
(See Section ISf.;).
positive,
comparative,and superlative.

COMPARISON.

"""---'

^''^
small'^"---- -'"srtialler-'

oiitfessi

ill 90

wisely
qiiickly

The

bn:. 1^55

"

smalle^P ''' V^^^^'-^

'

--b

li svii:: i^^^

si?

grmlj

jCtcjB
mo^t-'#isfeTy^--2

wisely

more

least

Jess quickly

comparative degree

between

"''

an

quickly

sho\V

is used; to

jel^ionships

ideas, '-^i /: li
or
persons, objects,
ban
d'iiw fiu'J:;-;ov:qr:
ai 3i,g
,?4no ,s\iS).\!'sVi!id
\saVs::5i
two

is taller than

Fred

This box

-cii^i
-.

Ine
.among
"":'=
-/.s

':

^':',\

,.

'-:/:

This

than

or

b:[f; looiiiHi.;

deeree
jSJfjiOl

is the

sewing

the other

lu

used

is

more:

"

ofiAlIan

is less attractive

superlative
three

I.

'"-'^''
to

orfjrv,r!
one.

sviji2oqc"Ba^,
relationships

snow

Vle)r.:oi008

fa/feitDneinhis
kit is the most

?,I

jl

family;odi
attractive

229h"ia

ZSflgfiD

Iciii ovbniSjS

of the sixiasvajfeble.

the
A wftp(^:;C)r
expressiqiTj^^^d
jt^Qig^flmplete
cpi^ii^^^^MENT,A prediindicated:.
-oidj^a,!
cate
by ahother word or expressiiiai./

complement

may

be

substantive

ori

an

adjective

OF

GLOSSARY

GRAMMATICAL

TERMS

verb. It
completesthe meaning of the copulative
also called the subjective
noun
complement,or predicate
or
adjective.
that

Crawford

Mr.

is

(Substantiveused

salesman.

complement)
used
Jane is very gay. (Adjective

is

cate
predi-

as

complement)
predicate

as

that completes
or
complement is a noun
adjective
objective
the meaning by telling
somethingabout the direct
It is also called predicate
object.
objective.
An

They called the dog Jerry.(Noun)


We
dyed the dress blue. (Adjective)
COMPLEX

SENTENCE.

clause and
COMPOUND

one

or

dependentclauses.

more

SENTENCE.

independent

containingone

Sentence

containingtwo

Sentence

more

or

independentclauses.
COMPOUND-COMPLEX

least

tw^o

show

pages 18

list or

table

containingat

Sentence

and

clauses
independent

CONJUGATION.
to

SENTENCE.

dependentclause.

one

givingall the

forms

mood, tense, number, person, and


to

23.
A

CONJUNCTION.

of

voice.

verb

(See

linkingword

groups of words

used

words

connect

to

or

Coordinating
conjunctions
ing
joinwords or groups of words of equalrank; subordinatconjunctions
joindependentclauses to main clauses.
(See Section 5d. )
CONJUNCTIVE
serves

Some

as

ADVERB.
a

in

sentence.

An

link between

ad Verb

used

as

It

connective.

independentclauses

or

sentences.

theless,
neverconjunctiveadverbs are however, moreover,
wise.
thus,then, so, yet,othertherefore,
consequently,

55

Hst

DECLENSION.

substantive
When

ADDRESS.

that

names

John, where
When

ELLIPSIS.

are

time

for

the person

to

you?
rolHngthe

The

omission

of

word

of
grammaticalcompleteness
omitted
the

is

one

spokento.

court, Fred, we'll stiU have

or
a

words

clause

or

the

necessary

to

sentence.

In the

parenthesesmight be
speakingand writing;without such words
called elliptical.
are
the

below,

sentences

of tennis.

sets

two

in direct address

pronoun

finish

we

of

(I,my, me)

Or

noun

refers

or

different forms

case,

declined.

is said to be

givingthe

TERMS

number, person, and gender.


substantive are thus shown, the word

indicate

to

changesin

DIRECT

table

Or

GRAMMATICAL

OF

GLOSSARY

in

sentences

words

in

patriotscarried guns, others (carried)


swords, stillothers (carried)clubs and sticks.
While
downstream, we grounded on
(we were) drifting
of

Some

sand bar.

He

the

eighteenyears

was

of age; his brother, (was) twelve

of age).
(years

an

idea. It and
7^

are

VERB.

four

vcrb

word

tvalked

I Jmve

Verbals
GENDER.

There

are

The
are

to

to
chiefly

used

introduce

expletives.

as

saw.

we
men

used

commonly

are

love freedom.

hundred

that is

peoplepresent.

capableof making

independentassertion.
He

56

that

truism

There
FINITE

there

Alice whom

was

It is

and

is
expletive

An

EXPLETIVE.

Finite verbs

express

complete
tense.

school.

the job.
finished
not

finite verbs.

classification of substantives
four

accordingto

genders:masculine, feminine, neuter,

sex.

and

GRAMMATICAL

OF

GLOSSARY

TERMS

(eithermasculine

common

feminine): boy, girl,it,

or

Nearly all traces of grammaticalgenderhave


from modern
Englishnouns.
disappeared
individual.

present

form
gerund has the same
(See Section 3g.)
perfectparticiple.

verbal

GERUND.

or

the

Speedingis

The

GRAM^L\R.

noun.

most

common

which

science

as

of automobile

cause

deals with

words

and

the

cidents.
ac-

their

other. Rhetoric deals with the art


to each
relationships
of expressive
speech and writing,with the laws of clear,
with the features
effective writing;
is concerned
grammar
of a languageand with speechand writingaccording
to
standards

various

(idiomaticusage).The

IDIOM

of
IMPERSONAL

of the pronoun

usc

it in

raining.
The

INFINITIVE.

form

(to go,
A

INFLECTION.

to

change in

the other

Heavens!

You

Verb
The

VERB.

requirea

the form

of

words
you
have

Verb

in

man

usuallypreceded

word.
lated
regrammatically

not

sentence.

meant.

broken

uscd

the

object.(See
glossary.)
trembled

as

vase.

in such

direct

in this

poor

that is

cxclamatoryword

Oh, that's what

INTRANSITIVE

of the verb

see).

to

An

INTERJECTION.

not

The

Section

acteristic
expressionchar43.)

like this:

It is

to

of

manner

language.(See

CONSTRUCTION.

sentence

by

of usage.

he

way that it does


tive
Section 3b and Transia

spoke.
57

^^

INVERTED

The

ORDER.

the

Inverted
subject.

and

in

order

that

sentences

implying a negative idea.


that
What

do

Seldom

VERB.

(or
between

and

other

in

tences
sen-

modifiers.

fine voice.

bands.
guerrilla

the

came

his

seem,

smell

express

ing
link-

are

relation

the

nephew.

inexpensive.

or

form

that

verb

in which

manner

three moods

undergoesto

is made.

statement

show

indicative,imperative,
English:

in

subjunctive.

Section

information

word

show

Section

that

idea, or

The

NUMBER.

about
its

restrict

change

whether

the word

one

something
quality.
"

in the
or

modified

meaning. (See

names
a

clausc that furnishes

phrascor

MODIFIER.

thing,an

word.

limits another

or

4.)

change or
A

that describes

word

additional

more

form

of

than

one

Plural:

men,

but does
23h.

Section

person,

substantive
are

place,a

or

verb

indicated. (See

39d.)

man,
Singular:

5S

as

was

of mind

NONRESTRiCTivE

to

hills

change of

are

(See

NOUN.

precedes
in questions
expressingor
used

It is sometimes

such

such

man

seems

state

MODIFIER.

not

word

appear,
copulative)verbs, which

The

There

the

Vcrbs

That

the

tence
sen-

subjectand complement.

The

MOOD.

with

other adverbial

I heard

from

think?

you

have

Down

LINKING

with

start

always used

is

start

in

part of the verb

or

TERMS

of the words

arrangement

that the whole

so

GRAMMATICAL

OF

GLOSSARY

boy,lady,knife,he, is
boys,ladies,knives, they,are

followinga preposition,or the


the thingor person
clause indicating

substantive

The

OBJECT.

word, phrase,or
ajffected
He

by

the

verbal.

or

room.

carpenters built

house.

would

said that he

He

verb

transitive

is in

The

^F

TERMS

GRAMMATICAL

OF

GLOSSARY

go.

compound objectconsists of two or


used as objectof a verb, a verbal, or

The

built the house

Duanes

and

substantives

more
a

preposition.

the barn.

(Compound

objectof verb)
The

PARALLELISM.

of

equal value. (See

PARENTHETICAL
a

of the

use

is not

of the
and

23e

PARTICIPLE.

33.

cxprcssiouthat interrupts

Any

for the

necessary
in

sentence

for ideas

68.)

Section

MATERIAL.

thought and

structural form

same

which

it

pleteness
grammaticalcom-

(See

occurs.

tions
Sec-

word

which

has

the function

of both

verb

The present participle


adjective.
always ends in -ing
is the third prin(speaking,going).The past participle
cipal
verb.
The perfectparticiple
consists of
part of the
having or having been plus the past participle
{having
spoken,havingbeen driven).(See Section 3g.)
and

PASSIVE

VOICE.

PERSON.

The

(See

in this

Voice

qualityof

glossary.)

substantive

or

verb

that shows

speaker(firstperson ) the person


spoken to (second person),or another person or thing
spokenabout (thirdperson).Nouns do not show person
by changesin form. Finite verbs undergo a few changes
whether

it relates to the

in form

to

show

agreement

with

their

in
subjects

person.

read, you read, he reads


59

^^

OF

GLOSSARY

group
subjectand

TERMS

does

which

of related words

PHRASE.

GRAMMATICAL

not

contain

and which
functions as a single
predicate
part of speech.Phrases are classified accordingto use as
and adverbial phrases,
and according
to
noun,
adjective,
form as prepositional,
and
participial,
gerund,infinitive,
verb phrases.
a

The

PREDICATE,

part of

which

sentence

makes

an

assertion

about the

is the verb (or verb


A simplepredicate
subject.
consists of the verb
phrase)alone; a completepredicate
with
other completingword
or
modifier, object,
any

which

have.

it may

nearlytwo hundred yards.


drove the ball vaadij
{Drove is the simplepredicate;
hundred
two
)
yardsis the completepredicate
Tyler drove

Mr.

noun

or

pronoun
5a-b.
Section
(See

PRINCIPAL

ball

of a
showing the relationship

word
linking

PREPOSITION.

the

to

word

in

three

parts of

be

and

(See
expressed.
word

PRONOUN.

RESTRICTIVE

(tense,mood,
Sections 3f and 15. )

of verbs

uses

sentence.

tive,
(presentinfini-

verb

) from
past tense, and past participle
forms

the

The

PARTS.

other

some

used

in

phrascor

MODIFIER.

placeof

which
tone,

(See

noun.

clause

all other

voice) can

Section

2. )

that restricts

or

changes the meaning of the word modified. Restricti\e


fied
modimodifiers limit the meaning of the word
adjective
to one
or
thing;theyanswer
paiticular
person, place,
the question"which?"
(See Section i23h.)
A

SENTENCE.

group

meaning. (See
SUBJECT
or

OF

of words

8.)

Section

SENTENCE.

thingabout

which

an

is this substantive

substautivc
assertion

alone. A

simplesubjecttogetherwith
60

expressingcompletenessof
the person
ject
A simplesub-

naming

is made.

coDtpletesubjectis

its modifiers. A

compound

OF

GLOSSARY

GRAMMATICAL

of

subjectconsists
of the

^^

TERMS

two

or

substantives used

more

jects
sub-

as

verb.

same

The

green

house

is for sale.

The

green

house

is for sale.

The

green

house

and

two

(Simple)
(Complete)
of land

acres

are

for sale.

(Compound)
inclusive

An

SUBSTANTIVE.

for

term

and

noun

all

noun-

and noun
noun
Pronouns, gerunds,
equivalents.
phrases,
clauses are noun-equivalents.
italicized exThe following
pressions
used

are

The

dog

They

are

From

New

Did

tomorrow.

Orleans
know

words

that he

here

was

grammaticalrelations

between

in sentences.

The

TENSE.

long distance.
today?

Chicagois

to

Construction; the

SYNTAX.

old.

three years

was

coming

you

substantives:

as

of the action

time

by
TRANSITIVE

the verb.
A

VERB.

(See

Verb

of the state

or

Section

that

3f
.

of

pressed
being ex-

requiresa

direct

objectto

completeits meaning.
The

My
VERB.

playerhit
brother

word
3a-f

VERB

adverb.

assignment.(See

expressingaction
A

shall have

VERBAL.

studied the

state

or

of

Section

3b.)

tion
being.(See Sec-

PHRASE.

the ball.

Verb

with
together

taken, will have

verb

verb

phraseand
form

used

been

verbal.
as

shall take,
auxiliary:
taken. Distinguish
tween
be(See Section 3c. )

an

noun,

an

or
adjective,

an

(See Section 3g.)

The

changein the form of a verb to indicate whether


the subject
is the performerof the action
(activevoice)
is acted upon
or
voice),
(passive

VOICE.

61

Usage
Since

languageis
to

choose

of communication,

means

the words

formal

languagemakes

hand, the

you going with?" is


research paper, the
formal. Hence,
sent

."

were.

causes

an

or

to

with

for

discuss

Language

not

with

matters

about

but
be
whom

men

the

The

words

job
the
are

in

more

the

Governor

only carries thought,but

reaction.

friends,"Who

read: "The

stiff,

the other

acceptablein many groups,


appropriatelanguage would
would

and

On
unfriendly.

conversation

sentence

emotional

the grammar
in which

present. Sometimes

Englishin an interview
impressionthat you are not serious

may give the


work. In an informal

Puritans

to

of casual

use

that

the

seem

you

tant
impor-

grammaticalforms
reader exactly
the idea

and

will carry to
your listener or
emotional
that you wish
tone

it is

that you

it also

choose,

ion
the fashsay, even
affect the hearer
are
put together
your thoughts
reader. For this reason,
it is importantfor you to know
that is employedin what

several levels of
one

language and

for each

occasion.

be
Of

you

able

to

course,

choose
as

you

the propriat
apseek the

illiterate
rightexpressions,
you will avoid those which are
or
vulgar.
In addition to being modified
by the broad distinction
between
rules conformal and informal language,many
cerning
fied
modiword
are
usage and grammaticalstructure
guage
by considerations of time, place,and situation. Lanis constantly
of your reading,
In some
developing.
62

pCUff

USAGE

which
you will find expressions
another periodbut which are now
and
Forest

Celia in

of

correct

were

outmoded.

As
Shakespeare's

Arden, Celia says, "I

cannot

You

go

Like
no

clear in

and
When

lind
Rosa-

the

It enter

further."

Today

words
negativewould not be used. Sometimes
appropriatein a certain section of the country may carry
little meaning or
sound
ridiculous elsewhere.
Although
"tote a poke" is quite meaningfulin parts of the South,
this double

few

Yorkers

New

or

San

Franciscans

all.Finally,
every

understand

the

pression
ex-

of

studydevelopsits own
which may mean
littleto peoplewho have not
vocabulary
for example,may
studied in the field.Technical expressions,
in
be understood
only by a limited audience experienced
It is important,then, if you want
industry.
your language
which are
and clear,that you use
to be correct
expressions
in current, national,
and reputable
use.
When
or
a
grammaticalform, be
you choose a word
careful about your source
of information. It is not enough
the expressionused by public
to say that you have heard
it in a reputable
or seen
speakers
magazine.Advertisements,
magazines, broadcasts,or speechesmay use
newspapers,
Several examplesin print,
incorrect forms of language.
eral
sevpronunciat
misuses
by famous speakersor writers, several misat

in

word,

area

national radio broadcast

do

not

make

grammaticalstructure, or a pronunciationgenerally
acceptable.
i,hd teuBbotd^f^pSD^iional
AlthoughgoWf idicli(Ma"ife^
about the labels to be appliedto certain expresdisagree
sions,
if
best
still
wish
learn
to
guides you
they are
your
the standard Englishof today.Your handbook
shows you
the formal structure
ing
writnecessary for serious or dignified
and speakingand indicates a colloquial
informal
or
variation
when
there is an acceptedone.
A reliable,
up-todate dictionary
records and labels words
and expressions.
Remember
that the mere
does not
entry in a dictionary
reputableuse. Your
guarantee that a word is in current

63

I^^^l

DIAGNOSTIC

dictionary
helpsyou
by the absence

of

presence

in informal

but

word

the

word

has

like

no

strictive
re-

regardedas appropriate formal


labeled "colloquial"
is generally
acceptable
not formal
speechand writing.
be

label, it may
word

USAGE

"restrictive label"

archaic,obsolete, illiterate,
slang.If
A
English.

IN

of
judge the acceptabihty

to

or

TESTS

of informal
than of
is made
use
Although much more
formal English,
when
educated
there are
occasions
people
^^'ho have responsible
positionsmust write business reports,
articles for company
of club meetings,and
minutes
journals,
articles for publication.
To such people,a knowledge
even
of formal
Englishis imperative.The drill in this section
includes experiencewith both formal and informal English
because in dailyliving
there is a need for both.
Do

you

say:

"I didn't

sleepgood last night."


Terry and

"Jennymet
"One
"I
All

was

these

studythe

sentences

10

pages

to

that will

Here

is

chance

On

error.

and
whole
a

few

the

reason

what

is correct, write

64

from

Take

the

make

check

IN

the

game."

diagnostic

mistakes.

Then

errors.

your
USAGE

11-14).
habits. All

your usage

the

test appeared in
diagnostic

of the sentences
write

the number

write

the

contain

Do

at

of each

correction

for each correction.

unless it is

sentence

words

to

your paper,
the number,

Beside

home

to correct

I (Sections

of students. Most
one

you

helpyou

for you

in the

sentences

came

tore."

TESTS

Diagnostic Test

10a.

where

see

are

incorrect.

are

DIAGNOSTIC

10.

the

of the pages in my book


I
almost froze when

in Section

tests

I at the station."

not

or

positions
com-

least
tence.
sen-

tions
correc-

rewrite

the

for
impossible

the correction

should

C beside its number.

in
you to show
be. If the sentence

When

your paper

has

DIAGNOSTIC

TESTS

checked

been

IN

and

which

know

you

trouble,turn

you

lOa

USAGE

the sections

to

are
principles
giving
that will explainyour

problem.
Examples:
1.

of the students have

Every one

2. At

boughttheir class rings.


the famous

placewhich we visited were


the parrot farm, and
Village,

one

Indian

Seminole

monkey jungle.

the

Correction:
1. has

1.

his

verb

and
subject
and

pronoun

agreement
agreement

antecedent

2. C
1. The

2.

mailinglists contains

whom

we

Every

man,

3. Lack

child

and

woman,

modern

doctors in many
bed of the river

customers

lost.

were

nurses
equipment discourages

hospitals.

placesand deep
would
at others,which
make swimming dangerous.
It'shard to keep in touch with girls
who you know
at camp

4. The

5.

of all the

names

think will be interested in the sale.

of materials and

and

the

but who
6. A

you do
businessman

not

7. When

see

complaintis

mistakes
8. The

made

in

phenomena is

not

some

oflFend anyone,

to

ticularly
par-

justified.

little about

people know

at

all winter.

be careful

must

if their

shallow

was

there's
gardening,

many

planting.
observed

in almost

every

country

in the

world.
9. I asked Father to let Johnand I go to New
York.
10. The tunnels,Holland and Lincoln, extends under
River
11. Roads

are

accidents
12. Before

one

and

connects

Manhattan

with

New

the Hudson

Jersey.

beingconstantly
improvedso that the chances of
due to a faulty
few.
highway are comparatively
makes up their mind, they should consider all

the factors involved.


13. I shall be very gladto
alwayssuch fun.
14. While
was

the line

was

wonderingwho

come

to

your party because

beingarrangedfor
I'd walk

the

theyare

I
processional,

with.

65

DIAGNOSTIC

15. I think it
16.

her who

was

don't you

Why

and go to Maine
17. Each of us are

and

broke

Marcia

with

TESTS

IN

USAGE

locker.

my

Dad

meet

and

York

I in New

us?

expectedto

for the materials

pay

that

we

broke.
18. A discussion between

neither of
19. Either

us

one

of

of the

Every

21.

With

22.

years
The chief

one

executives

our

for

Englishtweeds

20.

results because

no

taxed

were

going to London

the

are

their

heavilyon

cousins, who

two

my

topic of discussion

is

fall stock.

our

businesses

profits.
grandmotherlives
my
older than myself.

excess

I will have

to compromise.
willing

buyeror

our

obtain

to

are

you and

are

four

problemscaused by

the
23.

overcrowdingof the colleges.


I noticed was
was
Jerry,whom
quite good-looking,
coming
toward

24.

us.

If I had
to

not

have

approvedof

Bob

going

Europe.

25. On

the bed

for the
26.

been her, I should

After

is the skirt and

the dress which

is to

be

packed

trip.
the Board
deliberation,

some

the business

which
completely,

of Directors

seemed

to

reorganized

Ralph and

good idea.
27. Please fillin the enclosed

28.

blank
application

It says in this book that it will increase


of the salesmen.
the English

30.

Either

31.

The

by

or

you

Shriver and

Mr.

The

are

of an
inability

Measles
when

66

we

you

were

see

new

in my

sales if you

same

cause

them

to

would

often serious.

Me

problemsof

riage
mar-

put off marriage until they

going

was

improve

of the club.
president
office was
employed

he in my absence.
individual to face the

which
tonight,

are

be the

to

sure

middle-aged.
thoughtthat Father

the movies
34.

are

who
stenographer

sometimes

33.

return

by Monday, June 10.


cause
Employment problemsis helpedby modern machinerybepeoplewho buy them need somebody to work them.

29.

32.

and

to

have
and

let

Sallyand I go to
pleasedus very much.
my

brother

children,and theynearlykilled

had
us.

them

DIAGNOSTIC

TESTS

3Nr;USA.GE

35il Imjthe backfield atjleastxolaie


p"j^b

iineaihav'er"^xperJIeii

and

the
speed thati.dS;risiessai"y
tot-ieaiTyrlthg-ipigddntod
goallineio:*-jr-il]hloi sa;; (r3fi'// isd :loo:IeevBd biuo'j I .?

S6"sM.ost' Amerieanff^read'^^tlie
newsp"p"irs,findritgisjthqreife
excellent

SJ.lThe

stewards

bosses which
38. The

of

means

of
he

number

fit niui
mo
propagandaarb
spreading
labof unions caal ;write"a 'iie|)erfe
agalfM ffia
feels is not following
jthe^^"irtraoti.
JieJ

aBre
ol-peojdeiivhoisi4ccfeediinlth^vHHea3t

-(ol bns^ bluodz sVV .9.


small.:-";"""^hd 9u8 ""loloob '^!rll
.'(isbviery
89.'.The following
with thei'Hr^wingsJ
de5criptid)i^.togethjei
p"fe^
for
the
q"
sent a master
air
akpoStxi;
plan
development
40. The direction ofothd run\feayS
ccfc
diaVeebeen dfecidiedfafbeir'a)
siderationcif the/prevailiiig;
fuQ. 1 norlW
.21
winds, fio/ hose
41. The gardenerwhotoil hoped waoffladrfithe TOH:lciJwaS sfek
today.
.19\ 'Jiag v/sxi isrl siov/ i'aaBfinsIsH .hi
,SI
42. I'm 5ure
it;wasn!fehifnBv^ficm^ jtm.'sa.m'a.hGieDA^sm"DlA
43. Mrs. Bingham is [the'biilyi
of the iWojneHilwho Ihate
one
;

reached
44.

their:'
si
as
quotsa.oiq

:rio'//

oj

'jUb

I rkiv/ I .T [

eb\^'

and/Iyth-ersffiiwiH^alwaysfbe
aofriendl)ei^liri
:that jwboeveii) yoiaiJchBrojfedssa
4^ :;l3ieD
CEfflapany.vthirik^s
ifepiid.?2j;orlsilj 00 Ihooph
sentative will do a good job.
46.;'TJhisis the boy whom
migl^t^"wefl
youi said-syjpn'ihougM
ev^rd yarlj eisSo Imedil jaora edi
in the job..sr"53m
^ovs
47. ^Freedom' "f Jthe f"-e"si
anidlofiffsabrieidssemb^ifdiQif
that equalopportunity
for theifexpressionief
all
mean
sarily
z:d .fj--]
Sib :opimonSjare.^ayailabl"ccJ
v;i ,:-i-i:.'Vziilgniflain!''!
.fiS
Between

48. Please

you

give these books

to

whoever

calls for them.ofbjii

Y3EXQhavK'befen:IhEE"

;thanjHefoaiid)"^^
longer:
iiernaolBaedi jiiguBj
8nc;:2"I3?; d
s.'iT'.'CeHtipeiArti
49.

"

-'""

50. Are
SB

kmTmS"

'

lO

snO

.i-2

of those

peoplewho listens to a spsaci^i-adic


sdj Jog fjo"(jBflJbBig bbw
I .2S
siua
^Ijgiis
"l5Jrj(jgcajriD"Mecy

10b.

you

one

.bib ijoy

_qo
Dmgnost^j^.7^f^^|^^(|e^}]^^g^":-lJ

balbnBii
.iBgsI

difficult,
teen-agerswould

be

more

better

preparg^BlPo^'^i^^

'

3.

danger.
if I
Really,

were

you, I'd get

out

jj ^^gfi qj ^9^10
of here in a hurry.
od

67

lOb

DIAGNOSTIC

of the

4. Most

in the

actors

seasoned

have

paying much

6. Not

7. When

the

to

boy attemptedto

left his wallet


8. I suppose
9. We
should
10.

stars.

where

at,

were

we

all talk foolish when

we

we

Cityat eightin

excited.

are

has

send for the doctor; Sue

at

the

felt badlyall

noon.

has broke

the window.

12. When
13. Booth

Dick.
you, I thoughtyou were
alwaysdoes his work neater than Sarah.

14. Helen

hasn't

I firstseen

Moving

17. I wish
18. This

Delaware,

to

batch

of

22.

work

yet.

built

largestone house.
street for thirty
years.
as
as
rapid you do.
a

taste

as

well

as

the last.

the titlesearched, he would

have

lost his

the house.

Magazine by takingadvantageof

Home

your

the most

we

same

to

suit

new

candy doesn't
had

not

depositon

21.

this

able

was

19. If he had

her

wore

on
living

am

Get

day.

arrived

morning, we

quick;Mary

20.

that he

his fare,he found

pay

11. Come

16. I

missed

we

home.

at

Leaving Oklahoma
in Tulsa

15.

they

she told that story.

her when

attention

but

in the road.

turn

our

shook

USAGE

IX

unknown,

picturewere

performedhke they were


5. I could

TESTS

liberal offers

they have

of

one

made.

ever

Graduatingfrom high school in 1938, he took a job as


apprenticein a machine shop.
his work, he put his book away and turned on
Finishing

an

the

radio.
23.

The

24.

One

of been

gayer if you had been there.


of the firstlessons taughtthe salesmen is how to write

party would

legible.
25.

sure

gladthat

was

you did.
26. The J.V.team
27.

There

is

be

must

you

got the engine started

as

quickas

doingpretty good this year.


new

trial because

this

one

has

not

been

handled
28. After
to

29.

an

hour, Toby jumped up and began

bark.

The
order

68

legal.
layingasleepfor

radio
to

was

so

hear it.

low

that

we

had

to

set

rightbeside

it in

DIAGNOSTIC

30.

John has
six

eat

31.

That

32.

I cannot

33.

IN

TESTS

lOb

USAGE

last nighthe
appetite;

tremendous

of

ears

have

must

corn.

dark face

powder makes

you

look like you have

studywithout you turn off the radio.


strikes
man
Suddenly,this here dark-complexioned

dice.
jaun-

the

boy

in the face.

34.

The

to Mrs. Pentz
explained
manager
her two letters.

35. Since my tsvelfth birthday


I
ten dollars a month.
36.

the end

At

38.

home,

cities of

should

You

the

of

1 intended

42.

43.

Beginningto

After all the

escape.

all the songs

sang

that

learned

we

able

was

sick to

I could have

47.

The

the teacher

when

sent

Iiim

with
fishing

my

brothers.

singsa solo.
five months

ago,

finally

we

from

her vacation, I asked

Edith

what

Rico.

liked

to

have

48.

To

it was

swore

cobra is the

gone

to

the

play,but

most

Hal I

seen

deadliest snake

in the

sure

was

di-ugstore.

in the world.

compete with the raihoads, airlines have

The

the

move.

46.

rates

visit

to

jobtoday.

she returned

I should have

gone

build the house

she did in Puerto

too

that I

face
Jake's

saw

that Robert

move

When

wished

Europe.

have

to

completedthe

49.

plannedan

of

average

principal.

41.

45.

we

I have

times

Many

to

44.

an

save

camp.

famous
40.

to

were

the way

On
at

39.

wrote
already

thoughtout careful,he breaks out of prison


and flees to the jungle.
He discovered that she was
a
city,who
girlfrom his own
ment.
elopedyears before with a guardsman in her father's regidetails

37.

of the year he

able

was

that he

lowered

their

considerable.
television

commentator

said that the

shiphad

sank at

9:45.

50.

Byron
have

swum

swam

the

it,as

to
Hellespont
the legendsaid

prove that Leander


he had.

could

69

SUBjElcrp ANl"
11.
1 la.^ A

AND

SUBJECT
Verb

must

4gi^f:i;M|:N;T^

v^RB
its

wifn

agree

AGREEMENT

VERB

sub|ecf in persoriraricr

'"'"',

number.
,

.,

(See

Section

,-

however,

may,

"

.^

assert

condition

verbs l^ie'^nldieieMa^seirt -a^^^e^^

state; The
Because

3.) It

t,

action

words

stand

out

in
clearly

or

state.

sentence, it is

of a sentence by
begin the gfamifiaticaraiialj^sik
look for the
verb. Then
findingtl^ie
person or thingabout
easy

to

which
have

verb
Ij^e,

the

makes

When

statement.

you

A subject
is alwayseither
subject.

find it,yoii

noun,

Oil group, of vWQ?!^%.1^4ifs g jio^%iOr;^iPT^iWun.y,h

a, word
aII

,""

.'jr.
",rn

In the

the ivQjt)sacB
subj"i(ft)tand;
precedingosenteriGe,5tfee

the subject
eomesjafter
sentences
easy to find,but in some
the verb or is separated
from
the verb by other words.
the verb agree with the subject,
you try to make
be sure
that you have'ffle'realsubject.
Then dedde whether
it is singular
Errors in verb forms iire frequently
or pluraJ,
Before

made
in

the

in the
thu-d

of the present

use

smgular

person

end

teijse". In -this tense,


in

rs:

verbs

in

verbs

the ihird

tain
usuallyend.in,-S*.-(Ifyou are uncerand nwm^er, con,sult Sections Ic and
2b. ) Remember
that used as subjects,
I aii(^.we
^e the forms
for the firstperson; yoti, fpir
shp,^i,
.thesegon^,
person;? /i^i
and they,for the third person.
oJ ;:oi? oo7
.ovocn

person pluraldo not


about the person

The

firstdance

the poor.
The verb
The

boys

(Boys

helpsus

(The

noun

Daskets'fdr
pay for X;^instmas
chance is third'person
kingulaf.

to

also third person singular.) '^'^'


invite the pledgesto the first fobtb^lP'^ame.
'

helpsis

is third

person

Thfe"v8i:h'^mvit^^il
aM"
plural.

third person plural.)


I invite a difi^erentgirl
for each
The
singular.

70

verb invite

.c^.ri

dance.

'^?W

fff"fperson

)
p^'bffsfii^iilar.

is also first

AND

VERB

Don't

means

SUBJECT

AGREEMENT

with plural
correctly
and with I and you as singular
Be careful
subjects
subjects.
not
to use
it with a third person singular
subjectlike he,
the chair,the flower,
doesn't.
use
Henry.With such subjects
Note:

do

It is used

not.

don't

He

playtennis.
Right:He doesn't play tennis.
The car doesn't need washing.
friends
to make
Jack doesn't seem

Wrong:

lib.

There

and

here

After there and


then the

Wrong:

here

find
usually

we

easily.

subjects.

not

are

very

firstand

the verb

subject.
There

is dances

Fridaynightat

the

community

every

Fridaynightat

the

community

boys on
boys on

the football

team.

the football

team.

every

center.

Right:There

dances

are

center.

Wrong:

There

Right:There
Wrong:

Here

Right:Here
11c.

does

the

comes

the

come

is the tickets for the dance.

the tickets for the dance.

are

prepositionalphrase

A
not

affect the

Phrases such

number

of the

as

men,

that follows

the

subject

of the verb.
in the various

groups,

to

my
importantwords

The
phrases.
prepositional
in a prepositional
phrase are a preposition(to,for,from,
with, by, in, between, of, near
some
common
are
ones)
and a noun
which is the objectof the preposior
tion.
pronoun
Do
make
the verb agree with the objectof a
not
preposition.
sisters

are

Wrong:

called

Personnel

managers

from

the Stark

Company

interviews

class every year. (The word


pany
Comis the objectof the prepositionfrom. Managers

boys in
is the

our

senior

subject.)

Right:Personnel managers
boys in our Senior

from

the Stark

Company

interview

class every year.


71

11c
One

of the

Right:One

of the

Wrong:

The

Wrong:

of the

AGREEMENT

each

boys presideat
at
boys presides

owners

VERB

AND

SUBJECT

meeting.
each meeting.

jokeswith

store

campus

all the

students.

Right:The

of the campus

owners

EXERCISE

The

your
you
verb
the

contain

paper

in the sentence

and
no

verb

of the
the

write

contains

sentence

subjectand

the number

write

working.Then

are

the

errors,

lla-c.

dents.
stu-

subjectof
form

Many

agreement. On
with

sentence

correct

and put C after it. Some

sentence
two

in

errors

all the

illustrate Sections

sentences
following

of them

jokewith

store

each

which

incorrect

of the verb. If

write

the number

of the

sentences

of the
may

have

errors.

1. Since

there is

over

65 million

vehicles in the country,

motor

the
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

one.
problemof parkingspace is a tremendous
has
of our
show that our
A review
new
catalogues
manager
improvedthe stock.
reassessed.
Recentlythe houses on our street were
Smog and smoke
damage to merchandise and buildings
of five billion dollars a year.
reaches a figure
Near the community center
is three large
departmentstores.
The lack of police
sult
protectionat dangerousintersections re-

in accidents.

of the boxes

7. One
8.

of books

are

between
Misunderstandings

missing.

students

and

playerswere

of the fighting;.

cause

of

9. One

our

problemswith nightfootball

are

do not go to our
of the spectatorswho
school.
10. Eleventh-hour
attempts by a local businessman
team

in the

daysone
Suddenlyout of
dog.

13. If

72

the behavior

to

keep the

cityhas failed.

11. In these
12.

the

Irving don't

of every five married women


work.
the woods comes
hunters with a powtwo
erful
out

drive

he
carefully,

will be

arrested.

14.

VERB

AND

SUBJECT

have

Movies

result,is

much

easier

the center

15. From
runs

the eyes.
of the cityto the three

how

shows

that

he

17. Sue
18. The

workingconditions
pleasant

up

speedingin

should

of world

events

dailyhappeningsin
Large

go

to

the movies

tonight.

in modern

offices helpsto

our

important to
city.

very

own

is awarded

of money

sums

are

to

lid.

Singularpronouns

These

of the

some

as

is the

contestants

each, everyone, everybody,


singular:
anybody,someone,
somebody,no one, nobody,one,
either,neither.
one, another,anything,
Each

"f the

Right:Each

of the

Wrong;

requiresingularverbs.

are

pronouns

anyone,

Wrong: Everyone
the

in

boys play some


boys playssome
the United

game

well.

game

well.

States

Neither

of the Senators

show

Right:Neither

of the Senators

shows

Wrong:

The

Note:

were

concerned

about

was

concerned

about

problem of slavery.

Right:Everyone in the United States


the problem of slavery.

Like

us,

television shows.

on

or

automobile

an

attractive.
stenography

19. News

many

towns
neighboring

is.

grown
don't think we

20.

as

on

friends think

of my

make

television and,

than

largerscreen

magnificent
expressway.

16. One

lICl

AGREEMENT

pronoun

none

may

any
any

uncertainty.
uncertainty.

be used

with either

lar
singu-

pluralverb, accordingto the sense of the sentence.


and any, it requiresa singular
verb when
it resome
fers
to a quantityand
a
pluralverb when it refers to a
a

number.
Is there any milk? No, there is
Are there any eggs?No, there

In informal

or

none.
are

none.

colloquial
speech,the pluralverb

used with everyone

or

each if these words

are

is often

followed

by
73

PP^W

m9

AND

SUBJECT

AGREEMENT

VERB

but caretheir meaning plural,


to make
ful
phrasethat seems
and writers follow the rule of agreement and
speakers
verb with everyone or each.
a
use
singular
a

that everyone

Notice

is written

as

word.

one

"each
(two words ) means
every one
It is usually
followed by an of phrase:

Everyone is expectedto come.


to bringa
Every one of us is required
Words

lie.

well as,

as

the enemy,

as

u""i5 lost
'knapsack,

11f. A

collective

ori

use

fOj

verb.

of the

verb

The

team

for victory.
fights

Our

class

sings very well.

The

on
familydisagree

is

singular verb.

group

are

ered,
consid-

plural.

pluralin

nouns

were

usuallytakes

noun

the

For

addition

'5' f
trip. '*! "^^^^B'^^i^

the

If,however, the individuals

11g.

book.

sufiFering.
rods, tackle,and
equipment, including
fishing

whole

My

well

pression
ex-

separateone."

joinedto a subjectby with, in


and includingdo not affect the

as
allies,

Our

The

the

form

questionof
but

my

dates.

singularin meaning,

singularverb.
Measles

is sometimes

Mathematics

is

serious.

difiicultsubject.

Note:
1.

Althoughauthorities

number

of

considered

of these

some

to

differ in their

opinionsabout

the

the

followingare usually
economics, news, poliphysics,
tics,
singular:

be

nouns,

ethics,mumps.

Subjectspluralin form, which describe a quantityor


verb when
the subjectis regarded
number, require a singular
2.

as

74

unit.

Ten

miles is too

Two

from

far

to

walk.

five leaves three.

AND

SUBJECT

title of

3. A

or
position,

The

11h.
be

VERB

AGREEMENT

musiSalacaaibook, play,film,painting,

other

such

Frogs is

Fractions

work

is

singular.

and

words

such

all,none,

as

Three-fourths

of the roof is

Three-fourths

of the members

were
girls

All the food

111. When

"many"
number,

was

eager

it is
number

of

number

is

The

number

is implied,

amount

or

considered.

painted.
are

have

number

plural;when
singular.

to

will

some

here.
beach

party.

gone.

the word
it is

qhjj

playby Aristophanes.

singularif bulk or a total number


and pluralif individuals are

All the

ji

is used

it refers to

in the
an

sense

of

arithmetical

peopleare waitingoutside.
printedon every ticket.
of peoplewho
have subscribed

is

ingly
surpris-

small.

Note:
it is
means

When

the word

number

precededby the article a,


When
it is precededby the, it usually
usuallyplural.
unit and is singular.
a
is

Some
pluralsof foreign nouns.
retain the pluralforms of the foreignlanguage
nouns
from which they have been taken. Though they may
look like singularnouns,
they are pluraland require
pluralverbs. (See Section 39d, item 9.)

11j. Be

careful of the

Plural

Singular
phenomenon
genus

genera

synopsis

synopses
alumni

alumnus

Synopsesof
The

alumni

phenomena

two
were

stories

were

in favor of

submitted.
the
building

stadium.

75

1 He
Note:

used
correctly
singular.

Data

it

use

AND

SUBJECT

as

is

11k. A

verb

The

does

not

thingto

main

as

see

with

of the

and

verb

each
If the
that
1.
2.

and

sentence

on

contain

your

the necessary

in

errors

subject
of

the number

paper

correction

corrections.

or

oppositethe

is correct, write

sentence

gardens.

sentences
following

agreement. Write

now

predicatenoun.

is the beautiful

EXERCISE

Most

AGREEMENT

though many
plural,

agree

VERB

number

of

sentence.

Every
Mumps

of the

one

have

the

playerson

caused

have

team

great deal of absence

good grades.
at

the

Liberty

HeightsSchool.
3. The

4.
5.

peoplepresent for the lecture by Professor


than we
Toynbee was far larger
expected.
Two-thirds of the group want
a
party rightaway.
A number
of states has motion-picture
censorship.
number

decision

6. No

United
7. Each
to

be

can

made

unless

Nations

of the hunters

in

each

the

SecurityCouncil

of the five members

permittedby

are

the state

of the

approve.
game laws

shoot four ducks.

8. Neither

of the

planspresented
by
practical.

seem

9. Don't

10.

of

you

think that economics

we
subject

study?

Every

that the hero

time

the committee

are

comes

on

harder

the

than

members

anv

other

stage,the audience

sits breathless.

11. Each

of

our

12. Two-thirds
we

of

our

employeda

13. Neither

monthlystatement.
has been changed since
traflfic
regulations

customers

of these

receive

traffic director.

new

pointshave anythingto

do with

the

either of Mozart's parents musically


gifted?
of the girls
in our
class comes
to school with

14. Were
15. Some

lem.
prob-

their

hair in curlers.
16.

Every
most

76

one

of the

economical

plansseem
one.

but
practical,

we

preferthe

AGREEMENT

VERB

AND

SUBJECT

17. If you

that either of the

decide

ready to sign the

are

18. The

than
larger

are

this year

received

sold.

been

boys in

class intend

our

subjectjoined by

compound

been

have

before.

ever

19. All of the sugar has


20. Three-fourths of the

Hi.

contract.

of orders that

number

we
acceptable,

plansare

to

lege.
col-

enter

and

requires a

most

difficultsubjects.

pluralverb.
Mathematics

the

chemistryare

radio have

and

Television
On

and

landingfield stand

my

revolutionized
and

B-36

social habits.

small

helicopter

Note:
1. When

the

form
subjects

two

Bread

peanut butter

and

and

comrade

2. If two

or

more

the verb

by every,

Every boy
If two

m.

neither
.

friend

and

girlin

favorite snack.

with

was

me.

the auditorium

he appears

subjectsare
.

is my

are
subjects
by and
joined
is singular.

cip?Iwhen
n

sin

is used.

gularverb
My

a
singlethought,

the

nor,

preceded

applaudsthe piin-

the stage.

on

joinedby
verb

and

agrees

or,

either

with

or,

...

the

subject

it.

nearer

Neither the student

nor
president

his friends

want

to

see

Jackelected.
Either

new

athletic fields or

providedin
Either theyor
11n.

If

the
I

am

swimming pool is

to

be

spring.
at

fault.

and the other


subjectis used affirmatively
negatively,the verb agrees with the subjectthat is
used affirmatively.
one

He,

not

I,is responsible.
77

AND

SUBJECT
EXERCISE

Many

of the
verb

your paper, write the number


are
working.Then write the
and

the

of the

Some

sentence

subjectof

after the number

write

of the

which

on

each

of the sentence.

sentences

have

may

you
verb

incorrect
is

sentence

two

correct
in-

On

correct.

are

of that verb. If the

form

correct

have

followmg exercise

of the sentences

forms. Some

AGREEMENT

in the

sentences

VERB

Read

rect,
cor-

fully.
care-

errors.

Example:
1. Careful
,

with

the

best

materials

2.

make

1.

.^,

productthe finest
1.

combined

workmanship

workmanship

our

the market.

on

and tendingto the baby leaves my sister


Cooking,cleaning,
littletime for reading.
late
My cousin alwayssaid that my mother's hot rollsand chococake

3. Neither

for
4. An

the best food

was

the Governor

he had

tasted.

ever

available

his press secretarywere

nor

comment.

well

adolescent, as

his parents, have

as

ideas

about

growing up.
5.

and
Speeding,overcrowding,
automobile

6.

reckless

drivingcauses

many

accidents.
and

Nearly every great artist,musician,

writer

has

personal

idiosyncrasies.
7.

My

neither

my

10.
11.

brother

nor

the

familycar

with

which

I agrees.

offers
president's
plan nor the negotiators'
the
are
accepted,the government may have to take over
plant.
Parents worry about earlymarriages because neither a boy
at eighteen.
nor
a
girlare mature
Either nose
drops or an inhaler helpsto relieve a cold.
the
in this neighborhood,
Homes
includingthose justacross

8. If neither

9.

ideas about

parents have
the

is assessed
i3rJig^i-"et,

tfe.t'Wlt
is

national

at fifteen

thousand

whose
figure

dollars.

every

word

and

action

cany

weight.
13.

78

The

efficientmanner

in which

you

handle

dailyroutine

and

*
VERB

AND

SUBJECT

showingthat you
you are capable.

that

14. The

gave
express company
the glider
and its mattress
was

in the sales

made

the excellent
shows

"'^

AGREEMENT

campaign

receiptacknowledgingthat

condition.
perfect

received in

people say that television appearances of election


has caused a
and
the threat of communism
personalities
largeturnout of voters.
of perthe success
At the time of your visit to our
factory,
formance
of the productwas
tests and the durability
pointed

15. Some

16.

out.

and

17. Love
is

18.

well

as

attention

as

not

relative pronoun

solve this

case.

{who, which, that)

may

emotionalism, are

needed

to

the word

singularor pluraldepending upon


the pronoun

onlyway
or
pluralis
precedesit and

tellwhether

to

which

to

relative pronoun
is
the part of the sentence

examine

to

decide

which

word

refers to. This word


pronoun
the pronoun. If the antecedent
and
singular,
Our

be

refers.

The

be

needs,
special

to

important to old people.

Facts,

11o.

comfort,

has

is

is the

of the

must

which

is the

(Which

of the relative clause. It refers

of

will
pronoun
be singular.

bowlinggroups

schedule.

the

antecedent

the
singular,

the verb that goes with it

that

sentence

is called the

only one
to the
keptrigidly

team

the

in

lar
singu-

and

to one

ject
sub-

fore
is there-

)
singular.
Monieka

is

of the six mission

one

by

our

church.

(That

relative clause. It refers

Jerryis the
a

only one

of the

consistently
good score.

forms

the
in

and

(Who refers

ported
sup-

is

plural.)

has maintained
to

one.)

followingsentences
you
both independentclauses

your paper, write the number

are

subjectof the

who
golfers

EXERCISE

In

is the

stations

to

that

stations

will find
and

of the

errors

in verb

relative clauses. On

sentence

on

which

you
79

11
~

"

working.Then

are

AND

SUBJECT

and

the

write

the corrected form

ville

the circus

by

AGREEMENT

each incorrect

verb

of the verb.

of the animals

number

Example: A

subjectof

VERB

that is

is used

in the

broughtto Dickeyparade throughthe

town.

1. that

1. The

are

number

"

hurricane

recent

are

has ruined

floods which

caused

our

stock.
these

2. Note

3.

pieces,which

buy for the money.


Since publishing
our
in

circular

our

4. The

which

think

we

made

two

improves

its

changes
ance.
perform-

dependableparts and reliable workmanshipthat


our
product outstandinggoes into our latest

same

has

have

we
catalogue,

saw

representsthe best

certain

are

we

made

model.
5.

Jack is
and

6. As

of the few

one

the honor

boys who

the papers, we
of problemswhich

number

7. If every

of

one

made

both the

team

roll.

read

we

have

who

us

are

that the
help thinking
confronts us today is tremendous.
cannot

citizen

vote,

we

are

to

sure

have

better government.
8. Recentlyone
of the major-league
teams
with

one

of

9. Two

selected
10.

city for

long time

athletes

our

to be

who

wished

to

been

stars

have

the all-American

on

make
all

have
a

is the

change.

season

members

who

of each sentence.
your paper the number
verb and
it write
the subjectof each incorrect
on

form

correct

correction.
write

SO

of that verb.
If

no

Explainwhy

correction

beside the

sentence

was

have

EXERCISE

Write

been

team.

onlyone of the committee


provedreally
responsible.
Henry

which

you

is necessary

number.

have
in

the

made

side
Be-

the
the

sentence,

the

2. Near
3. There

the
4.

5.
6.

her sister

and

1. Helen

AGREEMENT

VERB

AND

SUBJECT

parking lot

is two

three

or

school late every day.


several largedepartmentstores.
to

comes
was

for each

boys trying out

positionon

team.

of the injurycaused
Recentlythere has been investigations
to the brain by boxing.
to the school paper,
Everyone in my classes are subscribing
made
at the
The changesin the designof the house was

suggestionof the builder.


7. That

don't make

8. Each

of

difference.

any
toasters

our

tested
carefully

are

before

being

shipped.
9. The
10. The

of the

interior

earlytheaters

that

revenue

is collected

not

were

the

at

attractive.

very

support the

games

teams.

11.

Neither

12.

The

the

his wife

nor
professor

of the three officialswere

decision

home.

at

were

before

announced

noon.

13.

During the last few years there has been


over

14. The
15.

The

life.
placeof sports in college

the

cake's

too

brown
sold

were

arguments

many

well

as

puppy,
to

it don't agree

sweet;

as

with

the black and

all.

at

me

the white

yesterday.
life and people makes

ones,

tourists

some

16.

Mary'skeen interest in
a
delightful
experience.

17.

Each

of the class

have
representatives

her

parties

pledged support

to

the student
18.

president.
ideas of how
a
Coleridge's
societyshould
perfect
was
very impractical.

19.

Either

20.

The

Each

22.

The

going

are

to

suffer

as

the

from

"f the

aged
man-

result of this.

with aU the boys on


captain,together

introduced
21.

Jane or

be

the team,

were

platform.
actors

amateur

fright.
developmentof

children

beginningto

were

depend

in

feel stage

largemeasure

on

familytraining.
23.

The

24.

Neither

mother,
the

as

well

man

nor

as

the children,have

his

lawyers

are

been

ready

to

quarantined.
agree

to

that

proposal.
81

AND

SUBJECT

EXERCISE

Follow

results obtained
has been

very

3. If

-^

5.

experiments with penicillin

by our recent
gratifying.

2. First the sisters of the bride


and

then

appears;

with

of these

faulty,
pleasediscuss

plansseem

of the oflBcers of the


or
one
representatives
going to Europe to settle the question.

5. Gulliver's Travels have

of the company,
in addition
president
officers,
were
present at the meeting.
the office of the
swivel

8. There's

several

the

is any

write

at

us

The

Everyone

many
years.
several of the

largemahogany desk,
chairs.
straight
a

ask

to

want

you.
approaches,each

celebrations

of the

for the dance.

complaintsabout

him

in the

of the

One

to

the

merchandise, please

once.

to

on

money
13.

small

letter,togetherwith

forwarded
12.

few

questionsthat

prepares

If there

was
president
a

of the

time

natives

11.

chair, and

pany
com-

popularreadingfor

been

6. The

9. As

the issue

our

is

10.

aunt

me.

4. Either

follows her

uncle.
one

7. In

AGREEMENT

the directions in Exercise

1. The

VERB

materials, was
advertising

the

yesterday.
school

have

opportunity to

an

make

some

the side.
who

men

has made

great progress

ing
in the build-

of

14.

15.

16.

houses is Foster Gunnison.


prefabricated
and garages provide
His developmentof porches,
fireplaces,
house.
variation of the standard
prefabricated
The publicthoughtthat Leeuwenhoek
and other scientists
who
believed his theorywas
crazy.
for a while; his mother and father
George must leave college
needs

him

17.

There

was

18.

anywhere in
Many peoplefind
with

19.

82

the farm.

on

no

running
the city,

owning

This country,

water

and

that the comfort

home

makes

with
together

the

sanitaryarrangements

no

and
cost

Canada

securitywhich

reasonable.

seem

and

comes

some

of the

Latin-

VERfi

StJBJECt AND

Ei^

'MaterMi"*^^^
asrl eibsy
.bsaq/ils

pleteprosperity.
20^

The

01

2Make

Cl^^PSIV

T-IUOI^OHI

f the
feav-fe
Gourit^f ies/J

FAmericah

-mx

ADREEISf

-afid^of imrsfQlitic^VirssAUi
bur^pehtiGS
attempt ait!tariff reforib VerysdiffictfltJf.fe^s
of

structure

any

"

bsniBlaiijfn

/ifJy-ioac
sIgma b isbnij
directionsJ9^S^gjpi"e}
5e g9bBffri9cfdm
sdT

.Vi

m.'=

as,

sense,

well

country sells to other


abroad.
..it buys from
2.

as

tell

economics:

countries

be

must
"

oi
us

ahbc

-jiid

that

wjiat

balanced

by

ra.

what
n,

-.

nr
axil .yi
Din^a
^;jQ::;:;^rr_.ououbmu.
of the chief clerk includes a,uthonzatjbn of over-

;.

pThe duties

; :.,: , ^v'

handlingthe.^afer^,
the prih"
on
largepanpTs,explains^
how
it shows
ciplesof advertising;
good design,coloring,
and lettering
the customer.
attracts
We
thM'aU
thef 0ecdsslli^
are. .peiise3!ldr"sray
efi[iiipment,
has
been
including
clampstdTpaQJ^Jtl^l^feyvjsjteT, shipped

time, arrangements for pay, drafts,and

3. The

4.

''

"noi'ixnDqoisjup scb

_,

(mn^.:\_-i_

liviD
.91

.':"'.

ic,Ih3Howthe

ibW
?,-'_Bb

lo-iinGa baSinlJ

lo
zsoi'n^^^jLpjj^-f.:.
j^Ij
^j^'j^rji

s'lr;

fl. rCommon

lo lad

mounted
m-aferial,

to you.

8^- fi^fpiip^siiie]3ifpi!p#pg^byil"^lieFiw"*^siqvl
^"(fil
the stories.

,l"br8"g
"fS@f1"q fefi^ ^i^dffiyfi

work
Fielding's

Q. In

8"'-9lat show

the

we

touches
luO
gnijiiv/

often find littlehumorous

Ms thinkin^/rov/
'^ubtlfet^i^f

fe In the laboratory,
the te'chnioian is able to performvarious^
combined
with the proper clinical ex+3
/tests
which, when
ed Ion
bn"ainination,results in arquickand aecufa^teidriagr^osjss
"

the aJ)proach,
and the form of the salps-x|^fg
^[fXhe language,
is different for the yajious^
q^I
types,of sales expected.
..^^j.^^^
9. Mrs.
oj

Hammond

fdren,:were

sent

word

that she, together


with her chil-

lake:for another ;w"ekol;0


istayingatVjtJie

lQ"A;ipaintingofothe artist,'as wel/asoone

of jBorda

and

his

waHra^
church.
-fnrjpriestrbrbihef,xhangsjjon'th"^
11. So far as finding
the peoplewho
slides
had been lost inJ the landwere
concerned, we had given up hope.
f2"qfe339i"t=
there Was bahstMclid^
a

dam

13. From

and

hydroelectric
plant.

the bottom

of the Susquehanna

.aaco

River

come

ai

deposits

ed"f
"X"*"l"f*1|fe^"J"mi^s."lf"yAfKi-ac"^^K
ibiQw

ni

bns

btq
^lolugrjis

xbodon

bno

"HT

^^^odyisv^ "iX^*i4
^8

12a-b

AND

PRONOUN

14. The

full effect of the program


of years has elapsed.

15. We

live in

16.

Drive

Civil War

days.

rubber

dates back

the

Eckels

be

not

almost

armed

until

seen

ber
num-

that fronts

hundred

services

years

on

to

are

maintained

factor
safety

Defense.

blades of the fan

to

AGREEMENT

houses
three-story

Secretaryof
single

but adds

20.

will

Unified conti'ol of the three

17. The

19.

and

Moreland

under

18.

of those

one

ANTECEDENT

onlyact

not

as

quiet operation.

peoplewho was approached


the idea of buyinga prefabricated
house.
on
The rapidproduction
construction
methods
and the mass
used in building
the prefabricated
house keepsthe pricelow.
Mr.

Of

all the

have

done

12.

was

of the many

one

Rutherford

present,Mrs.

women

is the

one

who

the best work.

PRONOUN

ANTECEDENT

AND
AGREEMENT

12a.

pronoun

gender, number,

should
and

its antecedent

with

agree

in

person.

writingwould be very dull if we repeatednouns


instead
a
we
use
again and again.Consequently,
pronoun
of repeating
will
the noun.
But the meaning of the pronoun
Our

not

be

clear unless it has the

gender,number,

same

for which it stands. This


person as the noun
the antecedent. (See Sections 1 and 2.)
Orion

is

an

material.
important synthetic

be better than

nylon.{It refers

Both orlon and


third person.

Pronouns
in

do

not

it

are

to

is called

It is said

to

ent.
orlon,the anteced-

ber,
numgender,singular

neuter

necessarily
agree

with their antecedents

case.

12b.

The

words

each, either,neither,somebody,

body, everybody,
84

noun

and

and

nobody

are

artysingular,and in

PRONOUN

ANTECEDENT

AND

formal

Englisha

words

should

of these
to any one
referring
singularihe, his,him, she, her, it).

pronoun

be

colloquial
Englishthe
somewhat.
Peoplewho

In

informal

and

but

12kC"*CI

AGREEMENT

rule stated above


wish

casual sometimes
should

this form

their

not

appear

to

refer

to

in formal

body;
every-

writing.

Colloquial:
Everybodytook their heavy coat to camp.
Formal: Everybody took his heavy coat to camp.
Each of the boxers was
accompaniedby their
Colloquial:
Formal:

12c.

of the boxers

Each

collective

used

noun

singular pronoun
and

if the group
if it is
pluralpronoun

individual

as

antecedent

an

ager.
man-

ager.
man-

takes

thought of as
thought of in terms
is

unit

of its

members.

The

audience

The

audience

Note:

his

accompaniedby

was

laxed
re-

sound

languageto

their

use

has been

Once

you

generous with its applause.


in their seats.
shiEted restlessly
was

decide

whether

collective

is to be

noun

it as
stick to your decision. If you use
or
plural,
singular
the subjectwith a singular
that all proverb, make sure
nouns
and if you use
it with
to it are
singular;
referring
a
pluralverb, make sure that all pronouns are plural.

Wrong:

The

Right:The
Right:The
12d.

noun

antecedent
All

an
a

indefinite pronoun
used
in the third person.
pronoun

as

an

indefinite pronouns are in the third person


they are used in direct address or in apposition

and

except when
from

or

takes

nouns

with

their diflBculties.
familywas discussing
its difficulties.
familywas discussing
their difficulties.
familywere
discussing

these

pronoun
two

uses,

of the first or
all

nouns

require a third-person
pronoun.

second

and
A

person. Aside
indefinite pronouns

phrase such

as

of

us,

"5

12C^^^lB
of

If a

Right:If
Wrong:

man

wants

man

wants

Neither

Right:Neither

to
to

achieve

success,

achieve

success,

its antecedent
^

you
he

must

work

for it.

must

work

for it.

of you has finished your lunch.


of you has finished his lunch.

12e.

When

mon

gender, the

unless

AGREEMENT

the pronoun
and
affect the person of the pronoun.

not

Wrong:

ANTECEDENT

AND

between

coming

ijou

does

PRONOUN

the antecedent

is

masculine

it is clear that

should

pronoun

the

of

singular noun

refers to

noun

be

com"

used

girlor

"voman.

Right:Each
of

member

of the dramatic

playfor

Right:Each

the annual

member

production.
girls'
gleeclub was

of the

her favorite Christmas

12f. A

pronoun

loves

He

or

or

asked

to

name

carol.

with

agrees

joinedby

club indicated his choice

the

of two

cedents
ante-

is connected

with

nearer

nor.

or
everything
everybodywho

his work.
In this cool room,

neither the

the

gardenianor

roses

will

lose their freshness.

12g. Who

refers to persons,

tfiat refers

to

The

man

The

book

or

persons
who

refers to

things,and

things.

the story is your doctor.


contains
some
you lent me
very

told

which

which

me

exciting

stories.

The

flierthat took her

woman

triphas been awarded


12h.

What

should

not

planeon

round-the-world

medal.

be used to refer to

an

expressed

antecedent.

Wrong:

The

book

arrived

Right:The
86

you

sent

me

as

graduation
present

yesterday.

book

Right:I heard

what

that you sent


what you said.

me

arrived

yesterday.

PRONOUN

ANTECEDENT

AND

AGREEMENT

EXERCISE

of the

Most

which

pronouns

in

sentences

do

the

followingexercise

contain

agree with their antecedents.

not

Write

Then
write the
of each sentence.
your paper the number
form of any pronoun
that is wrong
correct
or
colloquial.
In some
verb will also need to be changed.
instances
a
on

of the pronoun
sary),
(and verb, if necesin parentheses,
of the pronoun
write the antecedent
have corrected. If a sentence
is correct, write C beside

Beside

you
the
1.

the

number.

sentence

be in their

placeat 8:45.
everyone passedin their paper?
mind
human
has not caughtup with the speed of

Every

2. Has
3. The

student

must

their

inventions.

own

4.

form

correct

Everybody who

goes to

our

will

camp

enjoy their

summer

vacation.

5. We

offer

when
6.

money-back guarantee

buys this new


paint.
in
our
Everyone
familyhas their

7. A

business executive

customers

are

10. When

make

football

chores.

from

employees

their

class has their way,

the

rulingwill

be

kinds of

peoplewho make pleasant


guests.
their
changes
they may
system abruptly,

many
company

to

cease

household

littlekindness.

year'ssenior
changed.

9. There

own

gets better work

8. If next

The

our

he

if they use

11.

of

to each

money.
team

has

won

game

every

playedthis
they've

year.
12.

Can

any
can't.

13.

Each

14.

If
a

of

15. The

reallyindependent?The

the nurses' home

is trusted

and

allowed

had
to

our

answer

is

they

personal
problems.

stay out

late,you

have

of

responsibility.
Shakespeare's
day
today.

theater in

they are
16. A

in

us

boy

sense

be

state

student

they have

understands
a

chance

to

the

was

not

so

elaborate

as

national

government better if
participatein student government.
87

PRONOUN

17.

18.

19.

20.

When

gets bored

person

Not

the schools.

of my

one

will

neighborshas

cause
be-

television programs

watchingsome

tell justwhat

can

you
22.

for

AGREEMENT

neat
job,you should wear
clothes and avoid gaudy jewelry.
A
the backgroundof every
person should consider carefully
speaker they hear.
than
The
diesel engine weighs much
the gasoline
more
engine, and therefore they are not used in automobiles.
cation
The
pohce department gives their support to driver edu-

interviewed

girlis

in

21.

ANTECEDENT

AND

happen

made

next.

in

improvements

any

their home.
23.

24.

25.

impudent boy

An

sometimes

sets

brothers and sisters,and they want


younger
When
I have
no
time, every
absolutely

Follow
1. The

the directions

the back

During the next


will subjectus to

3. In the

4. If

their

to

6. The

8. The
to

88

get settled
of the

good

company

every

of books

the back

window.

will

us

own

meet

piled

situations

that

business

no

if he

even

is unknown.

and

me,

their

dramatize

everyone

was

ing
try-

their barracks.

in

favors

as

small

engraved on
of your

man

chance

voted

and

appealingwords

club

had

man

scientific aflFairs.

boys besides

By voting for the


has

of

successful

girlsreceived

emblem

each

into

find

songs, he will be
5. There
were
many

the

unfamiliar

noses

singers can

their

boxes

grounds had

that it blocked

year

in

him.

8.

pressures.
earlydays,peoplethoughtthat

poke

to

7.

mother

their

Exercise

in

school

leavingthe

car

high in

so

2.

imitate

to

for them.
neighborhoodasks me to baby-sit
In our
two-party political
system, each party has
platformon which their candidates run.

EXERCISE

for

example

an

to

to

pay

keys of

silver with

the

it.

choice, the average

can
Ameri-

improve his government.


a

bonus

of
employee,regardless

of

their

one

hundred

salary.

dollars

PRONOUN

9. If

11.

in the

The

great

sand

with

indicate
13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

plays,by the time


life they are good for nothing.
rolled on, continually
washing the
and

never

saltyspray.
turns

on

them

turn

student

Any

prime of
waves

he

Sometimes

AGREEMENT

all the time

ocean

its

to
forgets

12.

works

person

they are
10.

ANTECEDENT

AND

who

beside

the

porch lightor

the hall

lightand

ofiF.

is interested

their

what

name

sign this sheet and

should

they wish

courses

to

take.

also confor the job,one


must
sider
qualifications
conditions under
which
to work.
you are willing
To continue
education under the scholarship
plan,one must
have made
satisfactory
gradesin all his courses.
Bacon
introduced
scientific approach to learning
a
new
which
would
help everyone if they used it.
cinating
Many songs that were
popularin Grandpa'sday have fasrhythms that make it stillappealingtoday.
Although I think that partiesand dances are all rightto a
addition

In

certain

to

I believe

extent,

it is harmful

it is carried

when

to

excess.

18.

19.

When

in the
through our state, particularly
industrial section, you see
mostlyugly factorytowns.
where
Anyone, no matter
they live,what school they go
their religion
at the recreabe, is welcome
tion
to, or what
may
a

person

rides

center.

20.

ntmiber

of

producerswill piouslypass

their interest

in free

EXERCISE

The
verb
Write
write

also
no

and

on

contain

of why
explanation

correction

is

own

product.

errors

in

subjectand

and antecedent
agreement.
pronoun
Then
the number
of each sentence.

your paper
the necessary corrections
an

its

claiming
prohard

10

sentences
follov^^ing

agreement

then work

enterpriseand

keep high tariffprotectionfor

to

resolutions

necessary,

of verbs and

you

have

write

made

pronouns. Write
the changes.If

beside

the

sentence

number.
1. Have

either of the

boys finished

their homework?

S9

AND

PRONOUN

2. Each

of the

machines
pohtical

their chosen
3. Each

ANTECEDENT

AGREEMENT

office

into

trying to put

are

candidates.

of the

boys have aheady done

what

told

theywere

to

do.
4. When

child

returns

he is interested
5.

Only

who

one

at

is the

once

has

of the

school, one

to

slept

which

sports.

such

on

thingsin

bed

how

know

hard

they

are.

either of you written


your minutes?
7. Everyone is enthusiastic over
the coming election and
6. Have

their candidate.

workingto promote
8. The

attendance
it is

as

9. As

11.

time

went

of

one

before

May

All members

of the

else interested
anyone
invited to leave their name
with

in business

writing.

The

of the

maker

the

15. Each
on

17.

of the

of the

are

men

matter

so

employeesis

the

secretary.

given a

course

says that the

house
prefabricated
don't

the

the

long

late,he

ance
appearsell.
they

as

must

report

at

once

supervisor.
of us, at

the

Only
to

one

urged to attend
in takingpart in

are

and

appointment each

to

16.

club

drama

After their

If any

great

so

never

1,

of the houses
14.

was

every

of the

Every

play are

13.

the games

at
spirit

villageand city was


obligedto
its privileges
to the state.
students are
requiredto pay their dues

on,

some

meeting;
12.

and

now.

surrender
10.

are

one

time

or

ourselves
another, have expressed

subject.

after the

improvement

they able

protest were

Neither

trouble

nor

to

expense

got their members

association

block the
were

zoning law.
spared in giving each
new

of the
18.

boys the education they wanted.


Not onlyhas the value of real estate
gone up, but the
of labor and materials have risen tremendously.

19.

Each

teacher
with

20.

Studies of the
had
wives

90

some

will report factors which


in their
in the classroom.
successful work

problemseems

work

because

to

show

experience before
she knows

the value

that

women

marriage
of money.

cost

terferes
opinion in-

who
makes

have

better

OF

REFERENCE

REFERENCE

13.

The

13a.

to which

the

thoughtof

refers should

pronoun

reader. He
which

the pronoun
misunderstand
what
clear

cannot

be able

must

to

is meant

of his pronoun
in his mind.
be expectedto be a mind

the word to
on
put his finger
to refer. Otherwise, he may

he has read.

the reader

to

is clear to the writer

sentence

he has the antecedent

reader, however,

2 and

clear.

Sometimes

The

PRONOUNS

OF

antecedent

be made

because

I^SCl^C

PRONOUNS

is of

Writingwhich is not perfectly


littlevalue. (See Sections

12. )

13b. The antecedent

of

should

pronoun

be expressed,

merely implied.

not

Mrs.

Seton

told

the other

me

cottage at the seashore. He

day

doesn't

thinks the salt aii* will do him

Who

is this he?

No

is in the mind

husband

clears up the

Vague:

is

mentioned.

The

speaker.
Changinghe
difficulty.

no

Improved:Because law
lawyer.
Vague:

go, but she

to

of the

I intend to be

(There

want

lawyerbecause

it is

to

tecedent
an-

her

work.
interesting

for

it.)
work, I intend
interesting

antecedent
is

good.

has been

man

that she has taken

I like to travel in Switzerland.

to

be

They are alwayspleasant

to visitors.

Improved:I like to travel in Switzerland.


to visitors.
pleasant
13c.

Avoid

the indefinite

In
Indefinite:

Better:

this

Better:

have

Delaware

of it and

it
magazine article,

This articleshows

Indefinite:
They

use

that

good roads
has

The

war

Swiss

are

always

they.

shows

that

war

rible.
is hor-

is horrible.

in Delaware.

good roads.
91

13cl-ff

REFERENCE

Vague: They

used

It is sometimes

idea. In these

clear

It

It is necessary,

imperativeare
13ci. Do

an

is necessary.

who

the "House

made

it is true, it is

Divided"

certain, it is

impersonal if

use

send

can

in the

We

speech.

it
likely,

the pronoun

and

today,or
refrigerator
a

the

send

few

the

for
factory

can

for

few

days if it is

instead of

is

If in

Informal: The
Formal:

The

keep

can

it

necessary.
we

keep it

can

days.

it
English,
singleantecedent.

we

refrigerator
today,or

In informal

Note:

introduce

sentence.
We

Better:

wealthynation.
wealthynation.

correct.

not

same

Vague:

PRONOUNS

tomorrow.

Lincoln

was

to
impersonally

antecedent

no

cases

It will be

the

Argentinais
Argentinais

It is said that

Better:

Note:

say that

OF

boys were
boys were

refers

sometimes

but

to

an

theytried not to
but they tried not

nervous,
nervous,

idea

show
to

it.

show

their uneasiness.
13e.

In formal

people

in

writing avoid
general.

the

use

of you

to

mean

such as "You
informal speech,
or
colloquial
expressions
how importantmoney
is" or "Dancing makes
can
see
you
the
Formal
use
are
graceful"
permissible.
Englishrequires
In

of

one

or

in these statements.

anyone

Anyone can see


Dancing makes
13f.
that

In
to

formal
refer

Informal: The

to

important money

whole

company
which

is.

graceful.

one

the

avoid
v\^riting

comfortable.
92

how

use

of

which, this,

clause.

has had
makes

our

entire

working

in

tioned,
buildingair-condihot

weather

very

REFERENCE

PRONOUNS

OF

rearrangedthe

have

Informal: We

it easier

In

these

of which.

to

sentences

Such

1. Ahead

whole

be

which,

its antecedent.

Formal:

The

three

ways.

fact,a

tion,
situa-

improved in

has had our


company
makes
fact which
a

act,

an

use

The
procedure.

will be

antecedent

is the

statement

can

of the word
a

will make

thingsquickly.

sentences

habit, or

find

file,which

entiie

precedingwhich

noun

tioned,
buildingair-condi-

entire

working

weather

hot

in

comfortable.
Formal:

the
rearranged

have

We

will make

it easier

Improved: Because

our

work

can

Improved: Our

it

the

which.

word

buildinghas been aii-conditioned,we


comfort duringhot weather.

arrangement

new

makes
3. Recast

in

thingsquickly.

omittingthe

the sentence,

2. Recast

find

to

file,a procedurewhich

entire

for
possible

us

material

find

to

the

in

file

thingsquickly.
for the

antecedent

providean

to

sentence

of the

pronoun.

Improved: The
makes

installed

hot weather

system which

new

which
air-conditioning,

very comfortable.
rearrangedthe entire file accordingto

working in
have

Improved:We

has

company

will make

it easier

find

to

things

quickly.
Note:

If the

meaning

awkward
construction

13g.
nouns

of the

stilted if it

were

the

would

sentence

come
be-

corrected,the informal

be used.

may

Avoid

Vague:

or

is clear and

ambiguous reference
same
gender.

Howard

told Arthur
he could

sentence

latter or

is not

mean

either

to

that he had

been

either Howard

clear. It could be

former, or by giving the


Arthur said.)

of

two

elected.
or

cause
(Be-

Arthur, the

improved by using
exact

words

which

93

f ^^1^

EEFERENCE

Improved:Howard
Improved:Howard

that the latter had

told Arthur
said

Arthur, "You

to

Ambiguous reference

the floor.

on

from

volumes

the

on

or

the

removed

the books

placedthe

and

placedthe
floor. (Constructionchanged.)
the

of

Improved:He

Avoid

placedthem

{Volumes used

floor.

tion
construc-

as

synonym

books.)

for

13h.

by using a

boxes?)

the boxes

from

elected.
elected."

been

have

the boxes and

(The books

the books

took

Improved:He

been

by changingthe

or

took the books

He

PRONOUNS

corrected

also be

can

for the antecedent


synonym
of the sentence.

Vague:

OF

use

and

in

same

of

place

boxes

on

the

personal

to

us.

pronoun.

Wrong:

Please fillout

Right:Please

the blank

fillout

and

return

the blank and

The

sentences
following
to a stated
clearly

refer

the number

of each

the pronoun

which

your

the
1. In
2.

If

correction.

our

When

3. Mark

has been

unable

to

teacher

tries to correct

most

94

do

on

each

not

your
number

paper

Then

write

clear antecedent.
is necessary,

write

write

side
be-

in

to

feature modern

art.

the football game.


do his homework.
May he have
was

goingto

given control of the studyhall,it would


more

time.

chargeof
your

organizationwas
it.

theyplanto

completesame?

were

give the teachers

need

no

Frank, he

George met

4. If the students

6. Our

Beside

publicmuseum

the weekend

5. The

pronouns
antecedent. Write

number.

sentence

new

which

contain

correction

no

us.

11

sentence.

has

it to

return

EXERCISE

same

the corrective

gymnasium

work

posture.
established

to

helppeoplewhen

they

REFERENCE

PRONOUNS

OF

7. I think that when


hke

is arrested,it
agitator

an

makes

him

look

martyr.

8. Edith

told Sarah

that she

be elected

to

sure

was

president

of the class.
9. When

I visited

Denver, I

the kind of climate

theyhave

saw

I like.
10.

The

old stable

down

torn

was

and

theater built in

new

place,which improvedthe appearance of the neighborhood


tremendously.
colonel
The
for telling
humorous
is famous
stories,and he
he reads.
gets it by rememberingeverything

its

11.

12.

13.

Sam's

father

was

his

shop.

My

uncle Charles

and he read many


bookseller,

sent

us

books which

some

books

in

enjoyedvery

we

much.
14.

If the

won't work,

toaster

can't have

we

it for lunch.

15. The

16.

lamp is very durable, which accounts


in breakage.
The building
which
is poorly
designed,

for the

causes

loss
slight

space

to

be

wasted.
17.

In this book
made

never

had

18. We

hot baths

Dijon a

It has not

been

in this town,

20.

The

21.

When

at

the hotel, which

twenty years

and

it

great generalwho
for

enough

was

me

contains

now

the firsthouse

since

her mother

than

more

how

they could

not

old she

do

was

built

ants.
10,000 inhabit-

was.

immigrants arrived,the ground in the

broken, and

not

landmark.

littlegirl
asked
the

Jacksonwas

tactical mistake.

make

to

19.

it says that

West

the few

it with

was

tools

available.
22.

Please fillin the blanks


to

23.

us

so

When

We
to

to
are

make

25. Unless
it

we

can

Jack asked

what
24.

that

over

the enclosed

on

Mr.

for

and

without

beginservingyou
Henderson

form

it

return

delay.

job,he didn't know

say.

trying to
it

more

rid the

streets
city's

of rubbish

in

order

attractive.

payment is made
to our
attorneys.

in

ten

days'time,

we

must

turn

95

REFERENCE

EXERCISE

OF

PRONOUNS

12
^

Follow
1. He

was

3.

Sign the
My work

4. The

in

and

return

that in

June

5. Our

make

his

policyis

it also to nonmembers

service

when

it is worth

in God
strongly
frequently.

cause
be-

believed
God

it mentions

give

to

at once.

us

year is very hard, but


I shall graduate.
have

must

his poems

to

same

the senior

poet Markham
in

to

too.

card

know

it to

11.

businessman, and all his life he tried

like it

son

2.

the directions in Exercise

but
first,

members

to

it is

give

to

possible.
the

don't need
them,
your
eyes examined;
oculist will tell
you.
7. When
Mrs. Ennis told the story to my mother, she was
of what had happened.
sure
if you

6. Have

8. Richard's

not

has lived many


years in Tahiti,has learned
speak the language,and likes them because they are so

to

uncle

colorful.
9.

her notebook

Sandy examined

took
with bitterness,

paper, and tore it to pieces.


10. When
you walk throughthe halls,you
with
in

11.

you
old school.

our

In

whom

mystery

some

encouraged to
12.

The

We

continue

why these programs


groundsaround the

have
13.

stories

to
are

walk

miles from

talk,which

to

want

on

choose

can

not

was

criminals
television,

their crimes, which


should

be

not

stadium

are

her

out

the person

possible
be

to

seem

is another

son
rea-

presented.
very

small, and

they

where

theypark.
conductinga trafficsafetycampaign

to

make

it safe

for school children.


14.

Diggs
but

15.

If you
at

16.

17.

we

and

Haworth

cannot
are

goods shippedby June

10,

the merchandise,

return

same

once.

bought a
plannedto do
comes

so

employeesseem
96

the

it.

dissatisfied with

We

Ed

do

want

new

house, which

was

somethingwe

had

for years.

earlyevery morning that it makes the other


lazywhen they arrive at nine o'clock.

14a-c

PRONOUNS

OF

CASE

staflFoflBcer'sassociates

18. The

industrious,but

honest, and

20.

it does

not

alwayswork

that way.

out

19.

cated,
be well edu-

supposedto

are

Competing

a
selling
largevolume of
volume
of sales
largepotential

gas companies
which
indicates a
gasoline,

are

for

build in this section.

service

our

In

if

station

suburbs, civic

some

14.

There

PRONOUNS

OF

for

cases

and

nouns

and objective.
Because
possessive,
their form
rules

show

to

given here

14a.

The

the nominative

are

verb

forms

nominative

or

2.)

subjectof

The

tive,
pronouns: nominado not change
nouns

the
case,
objective
for pronouns.
(Review
importantchiefly

1 and

Sections

alwaysbeen high,

it.

CASE

three

are

has

consciousness

the sections show

and

we

is in the nominative

he, she, it,we,

/, you,

are

case.

you,

they.
Sarah and
When

14b.

joineda

comes,

he and

Ned

We

boys can

The

pronoun

{am, is,are,

subjectis

was,

in the

nominative.
The
It
Do

Note:

I have

was

do

better

club
I

at

school.

going

are

job without

the

boat.

girls.

followingany part of the verb be


been, be) and referringto the
were,
nominative
it is called a predicase,
cate
(See Section

officersof the class are

If.)

Carol,Alfred,and

I.

he.

you think it could


radio last night?

have

been

she who

Colloquial
Englishpermits"It'sme"

but these forms


14c. The

build

to

should

objectof
objectivecase:
me,
Section 1g.)

not

verb
you,

in formal

appear
or

or

sang

"It

was

the

on

us,"

writing.

prepositionis

him, her, it, us, them.

in the

(See

97

14cl-e

CASE

the
particularly

Watch

members

Both
object.
Mother
are

the verb

had

invited

and

me

of
objects

are

of

compound

case.

same

(Hilda and

the station.

me

met.)
her and

to

me

party. (Her

invited.)

the verb

always been a real


of the preposition
objects

there has

him

Jack and

Between

at

me

of
objects
Fulton

Mrs.

be in the

must

Hilda and

met

member

second

PRONOUNS

OF

him

(Jack and
friendship.

are

between.)
the

AU

(Fred and her

her.

and

the senior dance

plansfor

are

made

were

the

of
objects

by

Fred

preposition

by.)
Note:

Common

are
prepositions

to,

for, from, with, by,

between, near, beside,like,and but w^hen

(See

5a-b.

Section

The

The

indirect

indirect
Uncle

to

sent

the direct

me

him.

the party but

objectis

is
object

Fred

except.

means

Everybody came
14d.

it

the
a

the

objectivecase.

of
object

to

bracelet from

me
object;

is the

(Excepthim)

or

for understood.

India.

objectof

to

(Braceletis
understood.)

piece of that cake. (Me is the objectof for


understood;piece is the direct object.)

Save

me

14e.

The compound

used

as

myself,herself,himself,
itself,
themselves, yourself,yourselves,ourselves are
intensive

Dave,
Colloquial:
Formal:

Dave,

or

pronouns

reflexive pronouns.

Marian, and

myselfwent

Marian, and

I went

The party was


Colloquial:
Formal:

The

party

was

on

on
a

picnic.

for Dave, Marian, and


for Dave,

picnic.

Marian, and

myself.
me.

Right:I'll make the sandwiches myself.(Intensive,for


)
emphasis
Herselfrefers
Right:The cat washed herself. (Reflexive.
to

98

cat.)

CASE

There

Note:
to

be

14f.

l^ft"

PRONOUNS

OF

used
In

are

words

no

clause is one
words

or

introduced

from

understood

are

other parts of the

Supplying the missing part

sentence.

decide

with

the

of the

case

words

by ffian or as,
nominative
or
objectiveaccording
the complete clause. An
elliptical
word
or
more
missing;the omitted

clause
elliptical

an

theirselves. The

themselves.

himselfand

are

will be
the pronoun
of
to the structure

word

or
hisself

will

help you

that will be

pronoun

to

used

in

the clause.
brother is taller than 7.

My

clause /

{Than introduces the elliptical

I is therefore the

am.

the verb

understood.)

am

Dick

is

of is

just as good
understood.)

an

about

actor

as

Nobody cares
of
subject

does understood.)

I shall send

him

more

understood.
This

Them

is

she.

rather than her.

{She

{Her

is

is

he.

than

success

your

subject
{He

objectof

is

send

television program
amused
{Me is objectof amused

me.

Caution:

of
subject

pronoun

and

much

you

than

more

understood.)

must

be used

not

as

an

adjective.
Them

prizefighters
put on a good show
Right:Those prizefighters
put on a good show
Right:I enjoyedthe good show put on by them

Wrong:

EXERCISE

This

exercise
as

verbs
each
Write

or

errors

also

in the

of

use

and

beside the

personal
pronouns
and objectsof
the number

beside it write the necessary


explanationof why you have

an

If

night.
last night.
last night.

13

nominatives,
subjects,
predicate
Write
on
prepositions.
yom- paper

sentence

correction.

contains

last

no

correction

sentence

is necessary

in

of

corrections.

made

each

sentence, write

number.
99

1I4f

case

1. Eileen
2.

her

and

both

are

did you run


when
and her husband

Why

3. Her

pronouns

of

class oflRcers.
called
principal

the

I?

duringthe

China

prisonersin

were

and

Frank

war.

4. I

she and

saw

5. On

October

her mother

30,

6.

My

father used

her

sister.

7. Maud

married

and myselfare
coupleof girls

give a Halloween
to

from
groceries

send

who

man

10.

the pep

at

Dickens

was

as

poor
much

boy,his

entire

him

12.

Did

your

13.

The

guide who

excellent

familyexcept he

15. Whenever

she and

to

her.

as
as

and

me.

I, will do
when

put

was

in

mock

he

was

debtors'

prison.

and

us?

as

employed by my brother
showing us the city.

was

job of
Everybody but
the coach

store

because

rang the bell.


class have the same
test

It

14.

his

who

11.

was

to

assembly.
for social reforms

wrote

going

party.

8. I think you will enjoy the book as


9. Ten football players,
Dave
including

ballet

last week.

York

in New

Ted

him

I had

and

and

left the locker

I did

an

when

room

arrived.

somethinggoes

in

wrong

our

house, it'sme

who

get the blame.


16.

brother

Althoughmy
parents seldom

17.

Howard,

Ben,

Canyon
18.

19.

Fred's

this

my

planninga trip to

are

What

are

21.

It must
were

If I

at

me,

my

sister.

promised to give he
the tripfor a graduation
present.
than them, I never
AlthoughI studymore

20.

100

me

or

parents have

that him

23.

punisheither he
and

careless than

more

the

Grand

summer.

marks

22.

is much

and

Nick

you going
have been him

to

and

his brother

seem

to

get the

get.

give Sallyand her for Christmas?


who

told you

that Mark

and

me

the dance.

her, I should

Jack and he to the party


after the way
last week.
they treated we girls
and
Give
Harold
I an
opportunity to explainwhat happened,
and
I am
that you will excuse
sure
we
boys for
being late.
were

not

invite

CASE

24.

1^|"

PRONOUNS

OF

because

I can't

trouble

not

the accident

explainjust what the


with Judithand she when

25. There

has

because

been

never

better student

the directions in Exercise

heard

the courage
3. Sue, Phyllis,
and

and

me

me.

home

were

alone, we

it was
finally

who

me

investigate.
waiting for Zelda
myselfwere

to

anybody is late,it'salwaysher.
not
forgetthat the other side

as

than

13.

for several minutes, but

had

5. Do

and

you

strange noise.

trembled

2. We

4. If

Rosalie

evening when

1. One

was

14

EXERCISE

Follow

occurred.

competition between

any

a
clearly

are

you

was

wants

to

come.

as

much

win

to

us.

and me
went
year Dad
friend of his invited he and

6. Last

7. You

imagine what

cannot

have

8. We

great admiration

to

I for

fun him

month, and

tripto the Everglades.


and I had on
that trip.

for she and

singing often brought my

9. Our

Florida for

her mother.

brother

and

I before

the

student
10.

assembly.
between
striking
similarity
our
gettingalongwell.

The
ensures

Thank

11.

you
weekend.

12.

Larryand
decided

13.

for the marvelous

her

to

wait

wedding.
and
Two
girls

going

were

until Ted

another

to

my

time

you

gave

get married
and

boy and

me

in

could

me

and

roommate

new

plan to

Jim

and

me

I last

June,but they

plan a
go

to

double

the freshman

dance.
14.

15.

16.

Since

father has

alwaystraveled a great deal, my mother


had
of bringing
responsibility
up my brother and I.
The glee club is the main
interest
of my
and
roommate
I, but my brother won't join we
boys in singing.
I think it was
he who
planned the reorganizationof the
my
the

business.
17. On

Sunday

I for

my

parents

came

to

camp

and

took Allen and

country picnic.
101

f ^^^a^g
18. There

19.

mail for Pete

no

and

I because

OF

PRONOUNS

we

had

failed

Susan.

to

with Dad and


to go fishing
My littlebrother alwayswants
I, but we
give he and Jerrya quarter and send them for
ice

20.

was

write

to

CASE

cream.

If I

him, I'd appoint a

were

14g. The subjectof

an

infinitiveis in the

infinitive is the form

in front of it
"

to
study,

to

I wanted
group

him

to

of words

write,

verb used
without

The

is the

Gordon

The

is the

for her.
dance.
and

sing a duet. (A

me

infinitivealthoughit is used

an

and

me

are

of
subjects

the infinitive

sing.)

objectof an
objectivecase.

is in the

whole

(The
president.
objectof wanted; him

father let Jimmy and him

My

usuallyhas to
sing.(See Section 3g.)

for class

run

after let is

to.
to

14h.

to

teacher let Gordon

music

case.
obiective

of the verb that

of to run.)
subject
Doris expected
to wait
me
Jackasked me to go to the
The

meet

like them.

customers

The

to
representative

new

librarian

infinitiveto

wash

infinitive or

wants

to

us.

see

our

car.

of any

(Us

other verbal

is the

objectof

the

see.)

Findingyou here is a surprise.(You is the objectof the


)
gerundfinding.
the
I hurried across
Having recognizedhim instantly,
street.
(Him is the objectof the participle
liaving
)
recognized.

complement of the infinitive fo be is in the


pressed.
objectivecase when the subjectof the infinitive is ex14i. The

This

construction

requiresan
102

may

case
objective

cause

after

some
a

trouble

verb.
linking

because
It may

it

help

CASE

1^"|^|C

PRONOUNS

OF

will occur
after to be
case
objective
must
(1) The sentence
only when two conditions prevail:
of
the infinitiveform of the verb to be; (2) the subject
use
that infinitive must
Notice the difference in
be expressed.
these examples:
to remember

that the

but
(Here, to he is the infinitive,
the pronoun
is in the
As a result,
it has no
subject.
nominative
case.)
he. (Here, the form were
I thoughtyou were
is not an
infinitive.
)
I took you to be him. (In this sentence, you is the subject
I should

like

to

be he.

of the infinitiveto be. The


in

the

of an infinitive is
subject
the objective
must
case

Then

case.
objective

follow. )
Aunt

The

construction

14j. An
word

is

with which

The

it is in

used

and

one

in the

be avoided.

can

same

case

Terms.)

Albert,Roland, and
for the ofiice. (Albert,Roland, me,
are
us

all

us

"

and

be in the

must

of

possessivecase
before

the

as

apposition.(See Appositive in

Grammatical

with

be

be

wants
principal

run

The

me.

awkward

an

appositive must

Glossary of

14k.

to be

Jane took Lucy

noun

gerund. (See

or

Section

same

me

to

"

in

position
ap-

case.)

pronoun

should

3g.)

I do not
"

is the
football. (Playing
approve of his playing
gerund.It is the objectof the prepositionof.)

My

teachers

were

(Winningis the
His

Note:

The

Be

sure

of my

winning

the

prize.

gerund.)
is the gerund.)
improved.(Singing

singingcould be
sure

latter is

possessivecase
We

not

between gerundand participle.


distinguish
used as an
and does not have a
adjective
precedingit.
to

him

standingon the
participle
modifyinghim.)
saw

corner.

is
(Standing

103

14p

case

of

sentence

Also

write

an

If

correction.

Write

correction

no

C beside the sentence


1.

2.

3.

in the

errors

of the three

use

cases

of
your paper the number
and beside it write the necessary corrections.
each
of why you have made
explanation

personalpronouns.

each

pronouns

15

EXERCISE

This exercise contains

of

on

is necessary

in

sentence, write

number.

Yesterdaymy sister took picturesof my familyand myself.


The guard would
not
permit Alfred and he to enter the
building.
The Sherwoods
want
Judy and I to go with them to Atlantic
City.

4. The

manager
for the job.

5.

and

Nancy

want

me

Short

Miss

gave

thank

to

and

you

completedirections

for

weekend

wonderful

the shore.

at

6. I asked

Dad

let

to

Josephand

I go

Salt Lake

to

Cityfor

visit.

7.

Howard

YesterdayMrs.

invited Sue

and

I to

come

to

Mr.

Harris

party.
8. I

not

am

9. What

is the

of

use

they had

10. Because

would

of him

sure

going to college.
Latin?
studying
not
completedtheir work,

me

leave for the game.


11. Do you remember
house?
me
telling
you about our new
of him finding
12. If I were
a
sure
job in Detroit, I'd sell the
not

permit Allen and he

house now,
13. Our drama

when

I have

coach

wants

Hazel

to

good offer.
and

I to be in the Christmas

assembly.
14. For

some

15. At Christmas
16.

It

the company
hard for Beatrice and me

was

17. Let

I took Stuart to be him.

reason

time

Irving and

I work

myselfhave done
18.

Arrangementshad
the

19. We

conference,but

similar

been made
a

experimentsin
for Mr.

Green

our

returns

to

show

laboratory.

and I

order prevented
me
special

all expectedthe election

be he.

104

some

on

gave Ed and she a bonus.


to believe Dick's story.
the experiment because him and
to

attend

going.
the winner

to

CASE

hope the

20.

21.

The

22.

141

PRONOUNS

OF

will be he.

winner

Starr, Davidson

to take

Please

reserve

and

the manager

wishes

Company

in business letter writing.

course

for Mr.

Carson

and

send

Roger

the seventh

on

room

floor.
23.

The

24.

but there is no
Pittsburgh,
permanendy.
Althoughwe had worked
not

firm is

wish

25. How

going to

the

did

court

indication of

hard for

and

give Steve

to

and

in

employerdid
salary.
our

helpedthe

that had

it to be he

prove

plantin

beingtransferred

us

year,

increase

an

the

I to

enemy?
141. Who

is in the nominative

subjectof

verb

or

is used

and

case

the

tion
(See Sec-

predicatenominative.

as

as

14b.)
Who

whom

and

used

are

relative clauses and


follow

the
exactly
The

as

rules

same

sportsmen who

relative pronouns

as

that introduce

interrogative
pronouns. They

personal
pronouns.

as

sailed the boat

the

over

rapidswere

of the verb sailed.)


subject
who
has just built a ranch-type
Our
house,
neighbor,
{Who is the
spent years in planningthe structure.
of the verb has built.)
subject

(Who

Californians.

The

arises with

the choice of who

subordinate
firstand
will
to

illustrate a

sentences

two

next

is the

clause

verb

helpi
you

whom.

the

see

The

in natural order

Arranging the

next.
to

not

are

or

problemthat
"

words

often
in the

that is,subject

clause in natural order

of the
relationship

relative pronoun

the clause.
It is difiBcult to

see

from

here

who

the

people are.
peopleare
tive.)
nominapredicate

(Relativeclause in natural order reads: the


who.

We

are

Then

not

order:

it is clear that who

sure

the

who

next

the

is

will be. (Natural


president
will be who. Who
is the
president
next

nominative.)
predicate
105

"^""""

CASE

Natural

14m.
the

arranged

order.

Question: Who
of

PRONOUNS

will be clearer if theyare

sentences
Interrogative

in natural

OF

order:

shall I say called?


I shall say who
called.

{Who

is

subject

called.)
Whom

is in the

objectof
object.

Current

who

usage
and

verb

or

and
objectivecase
a
preposition and

studies
whom

indicate

that the

breakingdown.

is used
as

as

rect
indi-

an

distinction between

In formal

English
in cases
where
a
prepositionor verb immediately
case
tained.
precedes the pronoun, the objective
(whom) is reIn informal conversational
English,when the pronoun
precedesthe verb or prepositionof which it is the
object,who is accepted;but in writing anythingbut the
most
should observe the rule
informal, chattypaper, one
for the objective
case.
is

and

person with
considers him

Right:Every
works

with

Informal conversation:

My
I

mother

am

{Who

going with.
the object
of the preposireally
tion
and

going
is

in

immediatelyprecedingit.)
alwayswants to know where

with, but
who

Sanford

Mr.

very conscientious
of the prepis the object
osition

{Whom

person.

whom

this

the

who

I'm

informal

case.

Notice

Englishaccepts
that who

of which
preposition

cedes
pre-

it is the

)
object.
Informal conversation:

Who

do you wish
the objectof the

to

speak to? {Who

to,
preposition

but

is
formal
in-

Englishaccepts who in this case.


that who
Notice
precedesthe preposition
of which
it is the object.
Formal:

The

bank
in

106

handles
the

same

every

overdrawn

manner,

no

count
ac-

matter

CASE

14n

PRONOUNS

OF

whom

it

objectof

is

concerns.

Formal:

(Whom

concerns.

Clerks

instructed

are

handle

to

ously
courte-

all requests for information,regardless


of whom

from.

theyare

relative clause is the

of. Whom

is

(The whole

objectof the preposition


the objectof from.)

subjector objectof an
and as a complement of the infinitive to
its subjectis expressed.(See Section 14i.)
is used

Whom

14n.

when

Whom

are

you

the

as

send

going to

(Natural order:
whom

is the

objectof

as

You

to
delegate

going

are

the infinitive to

the

be

the world
considers to
people whom
thinkers are
reallyappealingto emotion,

(Natural order: The world considers whom


Whom

did

you

did think him


Note:

In

is the

think

be?

to

not
to

he.)

(Natural order:

You

)
complement.

containingrelative pronouns,

sentences

be

the infinitive to

is the

Whom

good
logic.
good

follow

trouble:

onlywith the subordinate clause.


Omit
semiparenthetical
expressionssuch as I think,do you
consider, we
regard,you know if the thoughtof the clause
remains
completewithout them.
Arrange the subordinate clause with subjectfirst and then

1. Be

3.

him

to be whom?

these directions if you have

2.

subjectof

whom;

send.)

Some

thinkers;whom

be

tion?
conven-

send

to

finitiv
in-

sure

to

work

verb.
4. If you

are

stillin doubt, substitute he

In
pronoun.
used. If him

Example: He
1. The
J

is

general,where

subordinate
.

admires.

correct,

seems

man-"

clause

he

makes

him

for the relative

sense,

who

the relative pronoun

use

"1

am

is: "^
1 whom
,

or

be

whom.

everybodyadmires.

sure

can

am

sure

evervhodu
3

""

107

"I^fC^

case

the

2. Omit

parenthetical
expressionI
-l

natural

order

the

Everybodyadmires
Everybodyadmires

him.

3. In

Twho

5. Conclusion:

(Whom

is the

have

maining:
re-

clause

everybody

reads:

admires

is

The

whom.
a

whom

man

am

sure

everybodyadmires.

objectof admires.)
and

and

who

as

He

Whoever

l4o.

We

^
j

whom
(^
4.

sure.

pronouns

everybodyadmires.

"

am

of

follow

whomever

the

rules

same

whom.

medal

given to whoever has the highest


grade
of
the
whole
clause
ever
whois
English.(The object to

in

will be

has the

is the

highestgrade.Whoever

subjectof

has.)
Send

the

to

office whomever

main

morning. (Whomever
He

tells the

(Whomever

old

same

is the

is the

employ
objectof employ.)

story

to

you

whomever

he

this

meets.

objectof meets.)

EXERCISE

16

Beside
of each sentence.
your paper, write the number
it should
as
it,write the correct form of the relative pronoun
On

appear in formal
this form. If any
write
English,
1. Please

selected
informal

beside your correction.

send

English.Explainwhy you have


would
be acceptable
sentence
as

us

the

of three firms who

names

you

have

counts
ac-

with.
2. This is the

boy who

we

met

3. I have

yet decided

who

not

the game.
I shall vote for.
at

4. Of all the charactei-s in

5. When

I reached

ask for.

108

Dickens, who do you like best?


who I had been told
the office,
I forgot

to

CASE

14

PRONOUNS

OF

6. Who

do you think we
guide who we

7. The

Lincoln

on

hired

camping trip?

our

Washington showed

in

the

us

Memorial.

could

8. We

took

9. I tried to

not

decide who

get

in touch

William

10.

Has

11.

Whom

could

12.

Please

let

had

the class elected

whom

know

play.

the carpenter who

with

told you who


it have been?

me

the best

made

should

be

she has

not

mended.
recom-

you

president?

as

notified in

of

case

accident.
13.

The

14.

Who

15. Do
16.

has

woman

who

the

two

who

17. Because

the

peopledid
The

border

19. Who

the

the conference

was

historian who

with.
alwaysdisagreed
committee
selects as speakeris

indifference
20.

Who

did you

21.

Who

do

22.

to

mittee
com-

our

matter

of

plete
com-

me.

it was?

sav

week?

playnext

we

that I

sure

am

by.

the
being changed constantly,
the land belongedto.

was

who

know

not

speakerat
has

housed

theyare

over?
quarreled
for all students, no
responsible

women

organizationwill be

Your

for five years.

seen

applyto?

did you
you know

matter

18.

child who

get along with whoever

can

you

put

in

charge.
23.

If the card

was

unsigned,how

could

you

tell who

it

was

from?
24.

Of all the

25. Mr.

whom
peoplein history,
has

Henderson

1.

directions in Exercise

Today people often


before theygo to bed

2. Before
out

who

3. Please

the invention

theyhad
make

know
on

who

mentioned

never

EXERCISE

Follow

would

to be?
you prefer
he works for.

17

16.
who

the

winning

candidate

is

election

of the
elected

night.
the voters
didn't find
telegraph,
until days or even
weeks
later.

list of all those whom

you

think will

tribute.
con-

109

14

CASE

4. This is the

whom

man

I believe has

OF

PRONOUNS

promisedto speakat

our

assembly.
5. Our

wants

son

to

who
girl

marry

think is

we

not

worthy

the

highest

of him.
shall sell our

6. We

antiquesto whomever

will pay

price.
7. The

Gorgon

turned to

8. I will call this


I know
9. Mrs.

10.

she looked at.

whoever

stone

the attention of

problemto

our

Senator, whom

well.
Corcoran

is

whom

capablewoman,

very

doinga good job.


We
had a long argument

who

over

ask to the

would

we

think is

we

party.
11. I can't

imagine who

do such
12. Who
13.

thing.

for?
you say this packagewas
notice was
sent to all of our
customers

have

14. When

good credit rating.


opened the door, he was

he

the visitor
15. In

to helpyou
willing

did

The
to

think will be

you

to

who

sure

we

he

found

expected

be.
has

the author

Beatrix

not

whom

reader feels is alive and

created

character

whom

the

real.

the company
accepts will be sent to Brazil.
17. Let me
know who you think you could use on the team.
18. Ted is so proud of his television set that he wants
to show
16.

Whoever

to

whoever

19. The

20.

book

is

novels and poetry.


who I mention
No matter

There
know

22.

My
not

23.

is

roommate,

him

Please let me

know, has

both

alwayspretends

conversation, Stan

well.

pleasurein arguingwith
on

written

emotion

whom

to win

I feel

his

sure

whom

person

you

point.

will be very

has
exciting,

know

when

you will arrive and who

you would

to invite.

In many

25. Who

in

you

yet returned from Europe.

cannot

110

no

counts

like me
24.

the house.

by Hardy, whom,

to know

21.

to

comes

it

countries

marry
did you

who

peoplehave so
theyplease.

think him

to

be?

few

that they
privileges

CASE

OF

14

PRONOUNS

EXERCISE

18

the directions in Exercise

Follow

did you say will ride your horse in the race?


the growth of
toad have the power to cause
can
a

1. Whom
2. How
wart

whomever

on

5. We

with

Major

Holdon, whom

Eric

is with the 95th Division.

I understand

carried word

found

touches it?

3. I should like to communicate

4. We

16.

of the

meeting

all the ranchers who

to

we

home.

at

can

coaches

secure

for whomever

needs

help with

his

work.
6. The

firm

sales when
7.

worried

was

Mr.

Latin, but

Frances

near

refused
girls

us

whom

should

chargeof

be in

and him

Benton

down

Bettysat

about

to

resigned.
with her
and I and struggled
help her because she doesn't

listen in class.
8. I don't know
her go
9. I have

to

who

to invite to

the luncheon

known

next

across

and

were

very

in their

severe

included.

of all the

immigrants whom

the

to

ocean

Helen

week.

teachers who

some

handlingof students,I
10. Think

the card club when

get

you know
free education such

have
as

traveled

you and

me

have.
11. Mr.

Sutton

Ames

is

an

honorable

he has any business with.


12. There was
doubt in the minds
no

man

respected
by

all those

who

of the

peopleabout

whom

should be elected.
13. Can
14. We

the man
who I
as
one
you recommend
challengedthe students of Newton

thoughtwe
15. Are

sure

you

16. Whom

could beat
it

do you

was

can

trust?

High, who

we

easily.

him

who

consider

to

downtown?
you saw
be the best writer in the senior

class?
17. The

bus driver

18.

Choose

19.

Our

20.

Two

whoever

firm will

not

great women

Florence

very rude to my mother and I.


tired of the whole question.
you want; I am
let we
employeeshave a coflFeebreak.

was

who

the world

and
Nightingale

Marie

will

alwaysremember

are

Curie.

Ill

15
21.

22.

PRINCIPAL

peoplewho

fame

Marie

was

Curie

had
23.

said Marie

Einstein

Curie

has
one

not

of

She

married

won

the Nobel
she

OF

VERBS

onlyone of all celebrated


corrupted.
for who learning
group of Polish girls
was

the

great appeal.
Pierre
Curie, whom

PARTS

everybody knows

prize with her.


about to be married, a friend who

24.

When

25.

very fond of offered to give Marie a wedding dress.


The young
scientist asked
the friend who
had made
the
oflFerto give her a dress that could be used later in the

was

where
laboratory

15.

her and

PRINCIPAL

Every verb

her husband

PARTS

she

later

was

worked.

OF

VERBS

has three

principal
parts:the present,the past,
and
the past participle.*
If you know
these parts of any
verb, you can form all of its tenses. (See Section 3f.) The
of many
English verbs are
past and the past participle
formed
by adding -d, -ed, or -t to the present.These are
called regular,
or
weak, verbs.

There

are,

pattern.These

however, other verbs, which

do

not

follow this

or
irregular,
strong,verbs, and they
form the past tense
and
in several ways.
past participle
establish a rule for these
to
Although it is impossible
changes,groups of these words do often fall into a special
pattern. One group has a vowel change in the past tense,
and in some
well.
in the past participle
cases
as

Often

are

called

the present participle,


form made
a
considered
is
of the
form,
one
present
swimming.
swam,
swum,
tense

112

by adding -ing to the


principal parts: swim,

PAETS

PRINCIPAL

OF

PRESENT

Some

add

-n

15

VERBS

PAST

verbs in this group, in addition


to the past participle.
PAST

Another
tense

PAST

and

PAST

PARTICIPLE

to

the vowel

PARTICIPLE

grow
break

grew
broke

broken

fly

flew

flown

freeze

froze

frozen

drive

drove

driven

write

wrote

written

eat

ate

eaten

ride

rode

ridden

fall

fell

fallen

grown

changesits form completelyin


past participle.
group

PAST

change,

PAST

tlie past

PARTICIPLE

113

US

PRINCIPAL

A few verbs

changethe
PKESENT

few

PARTS

last consonant,
PAST

PAST

but

made

made

have

had

had

build

built

built

the

form

same

not

VERBS

the vowel.

PARTICIPLE

make

others have

OF

for all three

principal

parts.
PRESENT

If you
your
Note:

are

PARTICIPLE

burst

burst

hurt

hurt

hurt

set

set

set

spread

spread

spread

cast

cast

cast

uncertain

about

the

correct

verb form, consult

dictionary.
A

word

PRINCIPAL

114

PAST

burst

is not
dictionary

PRESENT

PAST

slang,ohs., dial.,or archaic in the


appropriatefor formal speakingor writing.

labeled

PARTS

OF

SOME

VERBS

TROUBLESOME

PAST

PARTICIPLE

PRINCIPAL

PARTS

OF

VERBS

15

meanings)
115

15

116

PRINCIPAL

PARTS

OF

VERBS

15a.

Do

The

VERBS

misuse

not

the past tense

and

the past participle.

pound
principal
part,makes a comonly when it is accompaniedby

the third
past participle,
of the verb

tense
some

OF

PARTS

PRINCIPAL

part of have

The
is used

be.

or

principal
part,of
auxiliary.

past form, or the second


vdthout

Wrong: I
Right:I

an

saw

fireman

done

Right:The

fireman

did

Seen

and

done

with the aid of

Wrong: I have
Right:I have
Wrong:

Herbert
the

verb

the flames reach the top of the building.


the flames reach the top of the building.

seen

The

Wrong:

are

some

somethingvery

something
very

brave.

and form
past participles

part of the verb have

saw

several cock

seen

several cock

or

tenses

only

be.

fights.
fights.

praisedbecause
yearbook.
was

brave.

he had

did

good job on
117

15iw

PRINCIPAL

Right:Herbert was praisedbecause


the yearbook.
on
careful

Be

I could of gone

Wrong:

Right:I
Right:I
15b.

could have

Do

good job

last week.

the circus

to

gone

the circus,

to

confuse

not

done

VERBS

the circus.

to

could've gone

he had

OF

of for have.

to write

not

PARTS

verb
irregular

an

with

regular

verb.
It is easy to make

the mistake

of

adding-ed

regular
certain ir-

to

verbs.

Wrong:

drawed

He

drew

Right:He
Wrong:

Last

Right:Last

bucket

bucket

of

of

nightthe wind
nightthe wind

from

water

Mowed
hlew

of the

hour.
miles an
thirty
miles an hour.
thirty
at

at

EXERCISE

Most

the well.

from

water

the well.

19
in the

of the

contain errors
sentences
following
Write on
past tense and the past participle.

the number

of each

necessary. If
write C beside the
1. We

went

correction

no

your paper

the correction

is necessary

in

or
a

tions
correc-

sentence,

number.

sentence

the

to

and

sentence

use

to
hospital

Mary,

see

who

had

broke

her

arm.

2.

I swum
Yesterday

3. I

4. She

5. I

has

6. I should
7. The

tore

go down
of told
you

letter was

8. I had

its widest

point.

him

seen

at

thinglike that in my life.


the whole sleeve out of her dress.

done

never

the lake

across

wrote

alreadybit

the

street

the whole
on

into

justa few

minutes

ago.

story.

thin v/hite paper.


the applewhen
I

seen

that it

was

rotten.

9. The
10. You
11.

Sue
to

118

boys had
should
had

never

pieces.

drunk

of gave
wore

all the milk that

was

in the icebox.

him

enough money.
the dress before, and

now

it

was

tore

PRINCIPAL

PARTS

12. The

old

OF

15

VERBS

taken

woman

huge

basket

and

set

for the

out

store.

13. If you have broke the test tube, you must


pay for it.
find him.
14. I have hid him in the closet so that Jerrycannot

15. We

rung

16. We

are

and

rung, but nobody came


worried about Anna
because

to

the door.

she hasn't

ate

thing

all day.
balloon

17. His

the floor,bursted

layon

and

tore.

18. "How

far have you drove in this car?" asked the policeman.


19. We
that Angelohad not stole the money.
were
sure
20. When
the letter,
pleaseshow it to me.
you have wrote
21.

Jack was

22.

When

23.

Have

24.

You

badly beat by

I heard

you
must

25. He

done

of him

of knew

boy

again,he had

rode in

ever

another

an

in the

become

airplane?

that the chair would

the work

so

neighborhood.
a
cian.
great physi-

that
carefully

break.
corrections

no

were

needed.
EXERCISE

Follow

directions in Exercise 19.

1. Our

team

2. His
3.

beat

was

suit had

badlylast Saturday.

shrank until it

citizens
Enterprising

and
4. We

of

20

made

drove

out

was

almost unwearable.

have built new

homes,

tore

down

trees,

beautiful residential section.


Essex

to

Inn

for the reunion

and

seen

lot

old classmates.

our

5. When

my

mother

seen

my

wet

hair,she knew

I had

went

swimming.
clothes had been soaked in the rain, I wrang
my
out and
hanged them up to dry.

6. Because

them
7. When

I had had

few directions,
the
I begun driving

if I had

drove it for years.


school serves
8. A small shop near
as

tractor

ever

the best milk shakes I have

drank.

had poor preparation


last year, for we
reportsor done any outside reading.

9. We

10. When

you come
chose for our new

to

see

show
us, v\^e'll

you

seldom

gave book

the lot

we

have

home.
119

PABTS

PRINCIPAL

When

11.

the

bursted, the child

his mother

to

run

balloon

12. If I had

for

VERBS

and
frightened

was

protection.

last summer,

worked

OF

I could

of

went

to

this

camp

summer.

13. When

the

garden,I saw that


probablybroke his leg.

and

tree

Several

14.

into the

ran

the

times

Bettywas

sign said

onlythree

come

swTing the bat and hit the ball


18. The book could not have been wrote
17. He

thoughone

even

19. When
saw

They

20.

The

lead

Learn

to

use

by

Lie and

we

had

not

been

lie and
correctly

PAST

sit

author,
reputable

of it.
spokehighly
the street, I thoughtI

theywould

had

never

mean

PAST

"rest"

or

have

lay,sit and
set

are

as

do

not

set.

follows:

PARTICIPLE

"recline."

They

take

object.
I have

lyingon the beach all day.


YesterdayI layon the beach for onlya short
been

Mother
I had

lies down

every afternoon for an hour.


justlain down when the telephone
rang.

Please sit here.


How

120

long have

you

sat

stole

careful.

principal
parts of lie,lay,sit,and

PRESENT

the fence.

over

the woods, where

into

us

on

hundred.

thin.

so

person

equipment if

our

15c.

critic has

past Charlie

miles,but the

drove about five hundred

had

we

but

her voice.

out

had

thoughtwe

road

pieces by my

two

done

never

the whistle drownded


16. We

bit into

was

fell from

anythingto punishhim.
in the water,
at something
pointingexcitedly

playfuldog,but
15.

leash

Bill had

there?

time.

an

Lay

and

set mean

Mr.

Burke

the

set

For
object.

They take objects.


"place."
laid the

some

the desk before

on

the window

meanings

in which

sun,

and

moon,

settinghen

stars

is

hen that has been

sentence

and

incorrect

form

beside

has been

make.

beside the

sentence

number.
for

bill is

tax

new

If

the

an

eggs.

correct

the number
verb

form

of

of each

form, if

of
explanation

an

an

every

is correct, write

sentence

afternoon

an

placedon

correct

used. Write

that you

laid down

the

it write

correction

2. If the

take

not

21

sentences, choose
following
lie or lay.
On your paper write

the verb

1. She

it does

firm.

EXERCISE

the

sill.

set.

it becomes

when

sets
Jelly

In

me.

instance:

The

notes

painton

of

can

Set has

Note:

VERBS

OF

PARTS

PRINCIPAL

nap.

passed,it will

laythe

the poorest people.


3. Mrs. Johnsonlaid the baby in its crib for

heaviest burden

on

manufacturer

4. A

afford

cannot

to

nap.
let his machines

lay idle

for

long.
I passedthe house, Mr.
for a gardenwall.
How
longhave you laid there

5. When

Walters

6.

in the sun?

7. The
8. I

three silver dollars


have

never

the time

laid the foundation

9. He

theaters
The

11.

I had

layingthe

bricks

layingon the counter.


to lay down
duringthe day.
for his career
by workingin summer
were

duringvacation.

trash has laid in the

10.

was

just laid down

alleyfor

for

week.

littlerest

when

the

Tony

stilllayasleep

telephone

rang.
12.

It

was

under
13.

time

the

to
tree

start

for the station,but

in the

foreignshiphas

yard.

laid

on

its side in

the harbor

for

two

weeks.

121

16a
14. This field was
15. On

layingfallow
the

weekends

when

sit and

22

followingsentences,
in the way

set

Exercise

here last year.

was

but duringthe
brightwith sails,
at anchor.
quietly

EXERCISE

the

VERBS

was

cove

the boats laid

week

In

OF

TENSE

correct

that you

in the

errors

the

corrected

of

use

in

sentences

21.

1. If I set here much


2. I wanted

I'llgo crazy.
longer,
of plants
this morning.
a row

to sit out

3. Set the basket

on

4. Those

women

will set

5. I

afraid the

was

the table and


the

on

here.

come

porchall day.

wouldn't
jelly

I hadn't

because

set

used

enough sugar.
6. Let's sit where

the theater to set

to

had

sun

the

into

side, he
12. Did

14. I had

been

justset

Unless

chair with

on

the

shows
the

tired of

so

down

to

porchand

16.
Tense

after the
the

water

boy.
flowing

cave.

never

sat

the house.

to

his

drawingsby

his

collapsed.
in straight
rows?
set the plants

you

13. I have

15. He

set

settingin his wheel

11. While

broughtboxes

on.

longbefore we got back


the ground and went
I sat my bundle
on
to
Jervisused to set for hours listening

8. The

10.

the harbor.

Shakespeare's
day,the peoplesometimes

7. In

9.

see

can

we

sew

when

rocked

TENSE

the time

settingin

Albert

for

place.

one

two

arrived.
hours.

VERBS

OF

of the action

by
expressed

used, the reader


carefully
will not understand
what happened first or how
action continued. (See Section 3f )
tenses

are

or

verb.

listener

long the

16a.

The

present tense

is used

to

show

now.

He
I

122

hits the ball.

see

Sallycoming

across

the campus.

action

pening
hap-

TENSE

This

16b-c

VERBS

OF

tense

is also

be true,

to
likely

true, or

In As

at

continues
is read

at

for

that

statements

are

all times.

Like it,Shakespeare
presents the questionof
first sight.
(Permanentlytrue; the question

You

love

used
frequently

presentedwhenever

be

to

As

Like

You

It

seen.)

or

to find that people in Europe no


disappointed
their national costumes, but dress justlike
longerwear

was

Americans.

used to
Althoughthe present tense is occasionally
make
dramatic something
that happened in the past, the
of this
of the material is often cheapenedby the use
tone
device. Never
he says to
tell a story by saying,"Then
Caution:

me.

Then

I said.

." Use, "He

said

to

me.

Then

."
.

16b.

I say.

The

shows

tense

past

that

action

completed

was

in the past.
We

the game.

won

careful when

Be

you tell a story not

to

shift from

past to

present.
1

When

Judy

appeared,she

dressed

was

in

dress

cut

very low. We

filmyblue

all thoughtshe looked beauti6

ful. In

few

minutes

the doorbell

(Verbs 1, 2, 3,
Stanley.
in the present.)
are
Note:

and

For the

use

of

can,

may,

are

ringsand

in

in

the past; 5 and

of
might,see Glossary

Often Misused, page


Expressions

comes

Words

295.

present perfect(fiave seen, has done) is used


for action that began in the past and has continued.
16c. The

Bob

has written

The

ice has been

to

us

too

every week for several years.


thin for skating.
123

16cl-e

OF

TENSE

VERBS

the present perfecttense, not the simple


in the past and
present tense, to indicate time starting
to the present.
continuing
Caution:

Use

French for several years, but he


studying
speaka word of the language.
French for several years,
Right:He has been studying
cannot
speaka word of the language.
He

Wrong:

16d.

The

is

past perfect{bad written, had

action that occurred

that

action

fast.
In

but

he

cates
finished) indi-

in the past before

other

some

in the past.

happened

All the roads

cannot

blocked

were

because

the

snow

(It had fallenbefore the roads

the
Apriltheyrepaired

streets

which

had

fallen
blocked.)

were

ing
had cracked dur-

the storm.
Notice

the three different tenses

in
required

the

following

sentence:

(pasttense) to Helen to tellher


been (past
but I have
perfect)
very ill,
nothingfrom her.
perfect)

I wrote

16e.

with
is

To express
a
/ and we
and

usuallyused
Be

I should

heard

(present

shall
use
simple future (expectation)
will with aiS other subjects.
{Should

like

shall,and

would

careful;the fireworks will burn

I shall be

that Edith had

July.
gladto come

like will.)
your hand.

in

twenty
be very

for

an

interview

at

your

convenience.

To

mand,
determination, promise,comexpress strong feeling,
will vs^ith1 and we,
the part of the speaker,
use
on

and shall with all other


He

shall

not

go

to

subjects.
the party unless he has finished his

work.
I will not
I will

124

see

go to that school;I don't like it.


that the book reaches you tomorrow.

I^^W

VERBS

TENSE

OF

Note:

In informal

future

in the
subjects

16f. Should

to

or

I should

all

with

with

used
frequently

to
subjects

express

read

is

all

tense.

is used

duty

or

Englishwill

"""

tion
express obligaif clause.
in an

condition

than I do.

more

could go to Bermuda.
the contest, we
If he shoidd win the contest, he would have a good

If I should win

reer
ca-

ahead.

16g.

would

Use

all

with

subjectsto

habitual

express

action.
would

He

When
a

16h.
an

The

future
or

is used

perfecttense

condition

I shall have

The

learned

will have

present
express

ride

to

melted

will have

snow

to

at

indicate

to

been

that

completed by

in the future.

time

16i. Use

coffee

littlesidewalk cafe.

action

some

in

were

we

gardensday after day.


Paris, we would alwayshave

the

to

go

by

that you

the time

before

we

come.

start.

infmitive unless you


time before the main

wish

the infinitive

verb.

(not to have seen) you about the exam.


to tellher. (Not to have told)
I should have preferred

I intended

to see

fakes
action which
16j. A present participle
expresses
time as the action expressed in the
place at the same
main
action

verb.

The

which

perfectparticipleusually expresses
began before the action in the main

verb.
school
Starting
Illogical:
did not

Having
Logical:

start

at

at

he
eight,

the

same

started school

at

finished

time

at

he
eight,

(Perfectparticiple)
Moving to Charleston,we found
Illogical:
Logical:Having moved to Charleston,we

at

(He
eighteen.

which

he

finished

the

at

eighteen.
delightful.

town

found

finished.)

the

town

lightful
de-

125

16

TENSE

OF

VERBS

23

EXERCISE

the

In

followingsentences,
by writingthe correction

tense

beside

the

contains

sentence

any

the

and

for the

reason

verb
rection
cor-

on

write

error,

in

errors

your paper. If
beside the sentence

number

sentence
no

correct

number.
1.

My

rushed

son

few

grabshis

ing
coat, and goes dash-

the hall.

down

2. A

into the room,

then
elapsed;
it disappeared.

minutes

the

suddenlyas

as

storm

peared,
ap-

3. It has been
4. I

here.
are
very cold since we
waiting for this dance for three weeks.

am

5. When
with
6.

entered

we

found

cabin, we

our

some

thief made

oflE

supplies.

our

Terry lives in

Mexico

New

is there for

He

now.

two
nearly

years.
7. I expected
to have

for the holidays.


gone to Richmond
the material which
SaturdayI discussed with Mr. Kelpert

8. On

he

to
presented

1954

9. From

the committee
he

until now,

Friday.

on

director of the

was

James Newell

Hospital.
10. After

12.

13.

14.

find the

pairof

ice skates you

had found
15. If anyone
the writer would
diary,
16. When

Alex

came

longer
Peoplein white

was

but

no

no

18. When
nurse,

126

happinessdid

of the spirit.
but in things
things,
went
to the National Art Gallery.
we
Leavingthe Capitol,
Lady Castlewood thoughtthat her husband's coldness was
due to the fact that she lost her beauty.
If they realized how ridiculous it was
to believe in superstitions,
themselves
could
worries.
save
people
many
When
I reached home
I
was
surprised
yesterday,
greatly
to

17.

that real

lie in material

not

11.

decided

discussion,we

some

so

sound

the
and

what

out

have

sent

me.

Samuel

been

Pepys

said in his

beheaded.

of age, the Cossack


societyof free
free as it once
had been.
seemed

to

be

everywherein

the

people

hospital,

is heard.

respirometerstarted,the surgeon
she hands

him

the instruments.

nods

to

the

TENSE

19.

OF

16

VERBS

Being built

years ago, the hotel

hundred

sidered
confinally

was

unsafe.
20.

21.

I fed the lost

dog as I fed my country dogs ten years ago,


and he came
alongall right.
but she draggedthe
I preferred
to have told her nothing,
information

22.

the

Since

from

me.

daysof Adam,

pastimes is the

of the

one

by

criticism

old

most

of human

common

the habits of the

peopleof

young.
23.

out
Starting

24.

Today is

foot,Sue reached

on

Sarah's

Tampa

I intended
birthday.
EXERCISE

at

dusk.

send

to

her

card.

24

will with
use
English
usage, many peoplenow
to indicate future time. If you wish to practice
subjects

In current
all

formal

usage, refer

departfrom
tvill.On

to

formal

Section

16e.

Englishusage

any corrections
necessary. If the
C beside the number.
Doris

see

below

sentences

in the

of shall and

use

of the

the number

your paper, write

1. I think I shall

Many

and

sentence

is correct, write

sentence

tomorrow.

2. If you are not careful,you shall burn your


3. John will be present tomorrow
if I have to

fingers.
drag him to

the

meeting.
4. I

determined

am

be very

5. I would

that he will

not

for
grateful

any

the game.
which
assistance

go

to

you

can

give me.
6. I

am

committee

shall present

sensible bill

the Senate.

to

7. I

that my

sure

promise that
will be

8. We

I shall write

pleasedto

you every day.


discuss the planswhenever
to

you

are

ready.
9. I will be very
the Governor.
10. Before

old
11. I

we

happy to

move,

we

make

will have

an

appointment for you with


sale of all the stock in

our

store.

assure

you

we

your visit in

our

shall do
hotel

in
everything

memorable

our

power

to

make

one.

127

16
12.

TENSE

If there

specialservice that
be happy to arrange

is any

I will
pleasant,

13.

think that you would


in the hotel where
you work.

14.

We

I would

15. As

soon

with
16.

as
your order as soon
the shoes are repaired,
we

as

will make

VERBS

stay

your

for it.

find it very

will send

OF

pleasantto

live

possible.
shall send

them

to

you

at

any

the bill.
will be

We

have

glad to

very

consult with

you

us

time.

17.

18.

would

We

like

shipyour order at once,


has handled
shippingroom

to wait

until

If you

will write

our

will

We

need

you

we

of

copy

can

an

open

will have

we

previous orders.

address

the enclosed

on

booklet.

our

information

some

standingbefore

and

name

your

card, I shall send


19.

but

to

concerning your

credit

for you.

account

afraid that I will fail in French.

20.

21.

We

22.

Since

am

would
I

am

be very grateful
for your prompt payment.
familiar with the apparatus used in a dentist's

ofiGce,I should

not

have

to

be

taughthow

to

it.

use

will be

23.

We

24.

I would

on
our
pleasedto placeyour name
mailinglist.
like to apply for the job advertised
in yesterday's

News.
25.

I shall consider
to send

26.

that
27.

will

we

would

personalfavor

samplesof

you

hope that

We

it

our

will hear from

we

give you

like

if you
merchandise.

our

you

and

best services

on

will

wish

permit me

to

assure

you

all occasions.

28.

you; so why not pay us a visit?


If you cannot
get tickets for the first balcony,get them
the orchestra;and I shall pay you when
I see you.

in

29.

If

this afternoon, I will receive


the game
placebeside my major letter.

to

30.

I shall

We

we

to

see

win

stick
definitely

the fall I will be

able

to

tennis

to

enter

and
this summer,
the club tournament.

EXERCISE

The
of
128

two

paragraphcontains
following
things:(1) a shift in verb

star

maybe

in

25
errors

tense;

that

(2)

are
an

result

illogical

17ci"

MOOD

Section 16a-d. Then


Review
to the basic tense.
relationship
the paragraph,
rewrite
keepinga basic tense and making all
When
verbs show
to that tense.
a
relationship
logical
you
begin to write, decide whether the story is to be presented

with the past tense or the present tense


used in the exercise should show
tenses

the basic

as
a

All

one.

to that
relationship

basic tense.
When
time

the

at

from

Washington last

visited

we

zoo,

time

which

time

to

her

giftsto

as

along,suddenlywe

see

and

arm

bear

that appears
fires.As a cub he
The

U.

and

had

S.

woods.

many

Presidents.

various

bear

wearing

rightup

He

hat.

was

to

to

urge us
wearing a hat when

was

sent

walk

we

sister

is

so

guardgrabbed
that this is the

all the posters warning us against forest


rescued from a forest fire in New
Mexico.

on

him

As

My

to

ForestryService thoughthe

used

marvelous

animals
interesting

the cage. The


pushed her aside. Then he tells us

that she rushes

excited

contained

had

we

year,

would

be

good symbol

careful about

be
we

him

saw

fires in the

because

he has

justhad his picturetaken.

17.

The

mood

the

verb

indicates

the

in

manner

is made.

statement

17a.

of

MOOD

Every verb has three moods


(See
imperative,and the subjunctive.

Use

the indicative mood

to

state

which

the indicative,

"

Section

fact

or

to

3e.

ask

question of fact.
Who

started the rumor?

(Questionof fact)

Alfred

told the story first.(Statement of fact)


whole story is false. (Statement of fact)

The

17b.
or

Use

the imperative mood

request (go, open,


Shut

Open

to

express

command

sfiuf,sing).

the door.
a

window.

129

Mm

^^^^

1 7c.

Learn

MOOD

recognize the subjunctiveforms.

to

PRESENT

SUBJUNCTIVE

(if) I be
(if) you be
(if) he be

be
(if) we
(if) you be
(if) they be

PAST

SUBJUNCTIVE

(if) I were
(if) you were

(if)he

were
(if) we
(if) you were
(if) they were

were

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT

(if) I come
(if) you come
(if) he come
There

Note:

onlythree

are

(if) we come
(if) you come
(if) they come

and the indicative mood:


mood
subjunctive
has no
present subjunctive
person singular

be

is used

the verb

(1)

the third

-s

all persons in the


is used with all persons
(3 ) were

he;

the

ending;(2)
of
present subjunctive

with

to

between

differences in form

in the

past

of the verb to he.


subjunctive
does not
in current
Although the subjunctive
appear
that
there are some
constructions
Englishvery frequently,
stillrequireit,especially
in formal English.

IZd.

the

Use

I wish

the

Use

If I

were

we

to

express

wish.

to

express

condition

good driver.

were

tall.

subjunctivewere

fact.

to

contrary

If

were

wishes he

He

17e.

subjunctivey^ere

were

you, I'd refuse


at

home,

to

let her

could

we

use

my
consult our

car.

unabridged

for the derivation of the word.


dictionary

(I am
in the
130

not

you. We

are

not

precedingexamplesare

at

home.

Hence

the

contrary to fact.)

statements

li^

MOOD

""""B

is used also to suggest a condition


subjunctive
contrary to fact.
though not completely
improbable,

The

Note:

that is

Suppose he
Caution:

Not

to

were

tell the whole

clause

every

that

story!

beginswith if requiresa

subjunctive.
stillasleep.
he is probably
night,
(The speakerthinks he probablywas out late.)
If she was
there,I didn't see her. (The speakeris willing
there even
to accept the fact that she was
though he
If he

did

17f. Use
to

not

after
subjunctivewere
doubt or uncertainty.

talks

He

Do

not

if he

as

group.
She looked

not

her.)

see

the

express

Note:

late last

out

was

the

thoughshe

as

the

use

were

though,

as

If

as

in the

onlyintelligent
person

exhausted.
completely

were

after though when


subjunctive

it is

precededby as.
dioughhe

Even

is

deaf, he doesn't have

to

shout.

17g. Use the subjunctivein that clauses expressing


necessity,mild command, or a parliamentarymotion.
I

that the committee

move

he

It is essential that he appear

The
I

17h.

In

appointedby the president.


at

the

meeting.

insisted that he tell the whole

committee

suggest that the topicbe considered

parallelconstructions, do

not

at

our

story.
next

ing.
meet-

shift the mood

of verbs.

Wrong:

If I

were

in

your

positionand

was

offered

trip to

were

offered

tripto

Europe, I'd certainly


go.

Right:If

were

in your

positionand

Europe, I'd certainly


go.
131

17

IvIOOD

EXERCISE

Correct

the

beside

the

1. If I
2.

correction

no

3. If her mother

the

the

in

for the
sentence,

that

tion.
correc-

write

he

spaniel.
in his old

back

was

go with

the

to

job.
to

us

the

picnic.

Institute,I could
Polytechnic

from Jane.
you, I'd stay away
do the job more
quicklyif I was

6. I could

number

sentence

get

need.

algebraI
was

sentences.
following

reason

well,Ellen would

was

transferred

was

5. If I

train

he wished

times

in the

number.

Sandy,I'd

Many

4. If I

is necessary

sentence

was

of verbs

paper, write beside


of the verb and the

your
form

correct

If

in the mood

errors

On

26

radio.
my neighbor's
that he is reinstated at

not

noyed
anconstantly

by
7. I
8.

move

My
woman

9. She
10.

The
a

neighbor,who
of thirty.
looked

requiresthat every operator of

law

If I

12.

The

13.

He

the

was

lawyerinsists
acted

if he

as

If your work
15. The company

vehicle has

motor

was

done

was

wishes

16. If Mother's

for the

be

changesmade.

some

that he

signsthe papers.
of the university.
president

carefully,
you
that

but the materials

once,

would

there
principal,

14.

health

were

are

it

would

able

was

not

get a promotion.
fillthe order

to

at

available.

better,we

could

make

plans

some

summer.

wrote

his

justas
autobiography

somebody

else.

18.

If he

why
disappointed,

19.

I demand

20.

I often wish

21.

If

22.

Every

132

was

death.

to
frightened

was

if she

as

driver's license.

11.

17. He

dresses
eighty-five,

is

if she

as

once.

was

that he
I

time

able

was

onlythis was
see

givesme

was

writing about

didn't he tell me?


written

sing as Todd

apology.
can.

Thursday,I could pay


for Europe I
shipsailing

next
a

to

if he

you what
wish I was

owe.
on

it.

"^

MOOD

23.

Even

24.

though I
that

move

committee

studying.
appointedto studythe problem.

exhausted, I kept on

was

is

27

EXERCISE

Follow

the directions in Exercise

1. If Howard

was

the medical

26.
would

student, he
college

be

acceptedby

school.

2. The

requests that he pays his bill at once.


company
3. Though he works hard, he does not get promoted.
4. I

am

that Catherine

sure

tell us
5. If I

if she
not

was

married.

is not

was.
so

I should

nervous,

6. Mr.

asks that action

Sommers

be

can

7. The

man's
have

to

is

delayeduntil

face

was

red that he looked

so

Elinor

taller than

was

If the President

given

were

negotiate,you would
the

is such

at

news

once.

she is.
free hand

and

was

sent

to

him

to

action.

some

why

company,

todaythat

was

so

13.

If

our

committee

warm

the

were

than

more

as

going

was

don't you

invite

party?

It

As

see

good

12.

14.

if he

as

apoplexy.

9. I wish

If he

mation
infor-

more

obtained.

8. Eloise insists that her sister is told the

11.

speakingbefore

mind

not

audience.

an

10.

would

mother

Her

if Corsica

though it were

out

If I

17.

If he

was

18.

If he

was

19.

If the machine

was

sure

to

the

complish
ac-

sea.

sorry for Ed, he showed


sorry for Ed, he would

shippedon

no

send

must

fail,I think I should have been

was

should

the Mediterranean, it seemed

over

15. If the country is interested in wise laws, it


of wisdom
to its lawmaking body.
16.

summer.

do.

risingfrom

was

as

serious-minded, we

more
we

peoplelooked

I felt

evidence

men

told.
of his

helpthe boy in
Tuesday,I should

feeling.

some

have

way.
been

notified.
20.

If the situation
are

seem

bit

remember
improbable,

stranger thingsin life than

that there

in novels.

133

" ^V

18.
Most

what

in the

errors

because

AND

ADJECTIVE

result not

AND

ADJECTIVE

of

use

ignorance,but

of

ADVERB

ADVERB

USAGE

adverbs

and
adjectives

of carelessness.

They

people developbad speech habits


careless friends
they hear among

Remember

that whenever

somethingis done, you


The

President

Scientists have

want

you
need an

the

are

made

are

result of

as

coworkers.

or

that tells how

word

USAGE

adverb.

in the crisis.
ivisely
in their
worked
tirelessly

acted

search for

new

drugs.
We

walk

must

rapidlyif

we

are

to

reach

the station

in

time.

18a.

adjectivemodifies

An

noun

or

pronoun.

free ticket.

A careless

speaker.

Tired but

cheerful,we

reached

tired and
(The adjectives

the top of the mountain.


cheerfulmodifythe pronoun

we.)
18b.

adverb

An

modifies

verb, an

or
adjective,

other
an-

adverb.

(Modifiesinfinitive)
speakfreely.
He
(Modifiesverb)
spokecarelessly.
Sue has a very free manner.
free)
(Modifies adjective
Morton
(Modifiesadverb carelessly)
spoke too carelessly.
We

18c.

Do

want

not

you

use

an

to

adjectiveto modify

verb

or

other
an-

adjective.
Wrong: I sure am gladto see
Right:I surelyam glad to
fat.
Wrong: He's some
He's very fat.
Riglit:
Wrong: Tell the children

Right:Tell
Wrong:

The

Right:The
134

you.
see

you.

playquiet.
the children to play quietly.
he
poor fellow looked real happy when
poor fellow looked very happy when
to

saw

he

us.
saw

us.

Note:

ADVERB

AND

ADJECTIVE

USAGE

all words

Not

holy,for example,are

ending in lyare
adjectives.
28

EXERCISE

In the

sentences,
following
and

adverbs.

paper. Then

write

If

correction.

the

correct

correction

no

correct

the

Write

Lovely and

adverbs.

in the

errors

number

sentence

and

word

is necessary,

jectives
of ad-

use
on

the

reason

write

your

for the
beside the

number.

sentence

peopletake life too serious.


but we
Everythingwent off perfect,

1. Some
2.

rides

3. He
4. A

5.

Why

6. We
7. The
8. We

women

watch

very close.

his grammar

were

dressed

afraid that Tom

doesn't
9. I think
10.

must

don't you speakplain?


tried to bringthe planein and

are

Doesn't

it land

smoothly.
he

play very good.


she singslovely.
Carol skate beautiful?
29

the directions in Exercise

1. Who

have

poor and unattractive.


the team
because
won't make

EXERCISE

Follow

worried.

were

horse real wild.

student

sure

do you

suppose

told my

28.

father I

was

doingterrible in

physics?
when

2. Even

3. The

Sidneyspoke extemporaneous,

Shimerdas

4. When

5.
6.

9.

was

teresting
very in-

lived very poor in a littlehut on the prairie.


to the prairie,
theythoughtit would be

theycame
heaven; but theychanged their minds complete.
Any criticisms that you give will be treated confidential.
board the facts straightWhy don't you givethe assessment
forward?

7. The

8.

he

hard, but I think


supposedto be extremely
you will do good in it.
Jane playedthe part of the blind woman
very realistic.
If I don't replyto a letter quickenough,I forget
what to
course

is

write.

135

I^^^l
didn't do

10. We
11. The

AND

ADJECTIVE

poor

good in football this season.


near
starving.
peoplein India were
in

writingwas

to

show

how

poor peoplein England lived.


13. A nomber
of us are working real hard

assembly a
15. On

17.
18.

to

wretched

make

the

the pep

success.

playthe piano good.


Simday nightEthel and I did our
do

sure

and

Country Club,

16.

USAGE

so

12. Dickens's purpose

14. You

ADVERB

it turned

at

act

the Woodholme

real

good.
Since I worked
for my money,
I thoughtI could spend it
wise
not
I pleased;
but my mother
as
or
thoughtdifferent.
will be shippedas quickas possible.
Your merchandise
of clumsy built
At the edge of the fairgrounds
a
row
was
out

stalls.
brother

has

19.

My

20.

Do

come

are

bitinggood.

to

successful
extraordinary

been

see

next

us

when

summer

My

22.

After her

the bass and

on

success

1 Sd.

earlypioneers,learned to live
their simplehome
comfortable as anybody could.
as
She hasn't very good manners.
She eats noisy.
Mrs.
Kropotkinacted very rude toward her neighbor.
After verbs such

as

in

smell, taste, feel,sound, look,

(used intransitively),
use
an
adjective
if the
describes the subjectand an adverb

become

appear,

if the word

word

trout

the stage, she treated her old friends

very indifferently.
23. The Burdens, who
were

25.

advertis-

feet hurt terrible in these shoes.

21.

24.

in

the action

describes
He

looked

cold

in the

standingin

verb.
the

snow.

scribes
(Adjectivede-

he.)
He

looked
how

coldlyat

he looked.

I feel awkward

me

and

left the

room.

(Adverb tells

peoplelook at me. (Adjective)


I felt awkwardlyin pocketafter pocket.
(Adverb)
The cake tastes good. (Adjective)
He tasted the mixture cautiously.
(Adverb)
The flower smells sweet.
(Adjective)
136

when

USAGE

ADVERB

AND

ADJECTIVE

Badly is often

Note:

misused

after

feel.

Right:I feel bad. (Sick or wicked)


badly.
Right:Arthur spells
adverbs: cheap,
or
adjectives
slow, loud.
hard, fair,first,
fast,deep, wrong, well, tight,
of these also have forms
in ly:slowly,
Some
loudly.The
Do not
adverbs in formal English.
as
lyforms are preferred
Well is
and second are preferable.
first
secondly;
say firstly,
when
the oppositeof sick. It is an
it means
an
adjective
adverb when it tellshow somethingis done. Never use good
to tellhow
somethingis done.
words

Some

Right:You
18e.

Be

may

acted

be either

well in the
in the

accurate

play.
of

use

(See also Section

comparatives and

perlatives.
su-

67.)

change their forms to show


a
greater or smaller degree of the qualitythey indicate.
of
This change is called comparison.There are three degrees
comparative,and superlative.
comparison:positive,
and
adjectives

Most

POSITIVE

DEGREE

cool

(adv.)

comparisonsthat

less and
can

be

least

DEGREE

COMPARATIVE

(adj.)

soon

In

adverbs

are

used

DEGREE

SUPERLATIVE

cooler

coolest

sooner

soonest

indicate less of
with

the words
quality,
all adjectives
and adverbs that
a

compared.

This

construction, however,

can

be

avoided

if it

seems

awkward.
Formal:
Better:

She is less weak


She is

not

so

than she

weak.

was

yesterday.

Or,

She is stronger.

137

ADJECTIVE

and adverbs
adjectives
comparative degreeby adding-er
by adding -est.
Most

of
Adjectives

of

one

and

the

AND

ADVERB

USAGE

form the
syllable
superlative
degree

parative
syllables
usuallyadd -er for the comand -est for the superlative.
Sometimes, however,
such adjectives
have two
forms for both comparative and
superlative.

two

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

heavy
lovely
handsome

Adverbs

heavier

heaviest

lovelier

loveliest

handsome

more

deadly

handsome

most

or

or

handsomer

handsomest

deadly

more

that end

SUPERLATIVE

deadly

most

or

or

deadlier

deadliest

in

than two
of more
ly and adjectives
the comparative and superlative
by

syllables
usuallyform
and most.
more
prefixing
POSITIVE

carefully
quickly
steadily
beautiful

138

carefully
quickly
steadily

most

most

carefully
quickly
steadily

more

beautiful

most

beautiful

more

competent

most

competent

more
more
more

(adj.)

competent
Some

SUPERLATIVE

COMPARATIVE

(adj.)

and
adjectives

adverbs

are

most

compared irregularly.

good (adj.)
bad (adj.)
badly(adv.)

better

best

worse

worst

worse

worst

well

better

best

(adv.)

1. The
actions

than

ADVERB

AND

ADJECTIVE

USAGE

comparativeis used

bought two new


becoming?

Which
The

dresses. Which

or
objects

when

more

brilliantstudent

think is

do you

of your eyes has better vision?


sorrel horse galloped
faster than the

is the most

He

or

compared.

are

two

persons
is used
compared; the superlative

are

two

when

more

bay.

in the class.

the superlative
is often used when
English,
onlytwo thingsare compared.
that is,
double
2. Avoid
comparativesand superlatives;
In informal

do not

use

has been

more

added
He

is

Right:He

is

Wrong:

3. Choose

the
an

most

or

to

form

before
the

word

to which

comparativeor

-er

the

or

-est

superlative.

happierthan his brother.


happierthan his brother.
more

the

Do
not
fuse
concomparative form carefully.
with the comparativeof
comparativeof an adjective

adverb.
He

learns

Right:He

learns

Wrong:

thingseasier than Gertrude does.


than Gertrude does.
thingsmore
easily

like round, square, unique,and equal


adjectives
of comparisonbecause their meaning
are
logically
incapable
is absolute. An objectis either round
not round. It cannot
or
be rounder. However, because
these words
logically
lost their superlative
force, they are
have, in a measure,
often compared in informal English,
and even
good writers
adverbs like quiteor completely
before them.
use
5. Avoid
the subjectcompared if the subject
including
is part of a group
with which
it is being compared. Use
few

4. A

other

or

else in such

Butte
Illogical
Better

Butte

Illogical
My
Better

My

cases.

largerthan
than
is larger

is

cityin Montana.
any other city in Montana.
any

brother is taller than


brother

is taller than

anyone
anyone

in

our

family.
our
family.

else in

139

H""^B^
18f. These
be

used

and

to

This kind of

Better:

These

not

This here

Right:This
The

kinds

here

use

of

use

in formal

Undesirable:
Better:

standard

18g.

that.

this or
adjectives

after this kind

this

or

sirable
de-

is not

sort

English.

This kind

of

kind

me.
day alwaysdepresses
me.
day depresses
a

of people is acceptedby

informal

writers

some

English.

of the

fewer
adjectives

and

less.

nouns
quantityand is used M^ith singular
refers to numless food, less sugar).Fewer
ber

to

(lessmoney,
animals

not

guilty.
guilty.

of

refers

and

should

is

an

Be carefd

Less

there after the

This kind

These

Note:

man

or

and

are

USAGE

dogs are fine for hunting.


dog is fine for hunting.
of dogs are fine for hunting.

or

is

man

ADVERB

of

kind

Better:

Wrong:

as

those

pluralforms
modify singular nouns.

These
Illogical:

Do

AND

ADJECTIVE

is used

with

formal

English due

{fewer people,fewer

pluralnouns

)
.

18h.

In

modifying a
The

modifies

news

have

to

been

business

hard work
140

are

due

is often

reports,radio

strike in the

Informal: The

adjective

an

health

was

due

to

health.)
to

poor

(Due
thinking.

woes.)

expressiondue

Informal:We

good

(Due modifies

of the world

woes

in
especially

that her

said

woman

careful exercise.

The

as

noun.

old

The

is used

of

unable

used

talks,and
to

ship your

factory.
has expanded due
our

as

salesmen.

to

preposition,

business letters.
order

the

due

energy

to

and

careful not

18i. Be
The

Try
writing.
without

to

choose

to

the

adjectivesor

overuse

adverbs

and
adjectives

of

overuse

1^9

USAGE

ADVERB

AND

ADJECTIVE

helpof

too

1.

2. In

a
Sicily
message
by telephone.

3. This here

pictureis

ings
mean-

28.

this summer.
lot of money
be delivered quickerby foot than

has

sure

your

30

the directions in Exercise

My dog Smoky

will weaken

modifiers.

many

EXERCISE

Follow

adverbs.

will express your

verbs which

cost

can

not

me

clear.

very

steady;so we gave him the job.


looked steadythroughthe window
at the

looked

4. He

5. Esther

ered
snow-cov-

fields.
6. I

have

sure

felt bad

7. In the Romantic

all

day;I

didn't

the poets
freer than in the Classical Period.

8. Gertrude
9. An

Period

works

faster than

avoid all sources

his

do

engineer must

sleepgood last night.

were

able

11.

big problemstodayis whether


educating
young peoplesatisfactory.

of

12. There
work

be

Antonia
more

and

14. The

less absentees

16. I

her class.

if the

the schools

students

in the fields with

worked
more

took

are

their

the

she became

men,

rougher.

personnel
manager
than
neater
typed more

15. Our

to

serious.

more

13. When

patientthan anybody in

our

would

order

in the finished structure.

Rachel
One

more

shop.

planningthoroughin

of weakness

more

write

beautician in the

any

10.

is

to

hired Gloria because

her letter was

mine.

successful.
campaign has been extraordinary
entertained wonderful
the experiat your home, and
ences

sales

was

in my
stillvividly
mind.
draws better than any boy in the

are

17.

Jimmy

18.

Mother

tasted the dessert careful

to

see

art

class.

whether

it

was

too

sweet.

19.

She

added

didn't taste

some

sugar because

she found

that the

frosting

sweetiyenough.
141

AND

ADJECTIVE
20.

I have

alwaysv^^anted
sent

one

21.

you
Matilda

me

does

sure

looked

real

uneasy;

USAGE

player,and the
me
happy.
somethingwas
worrying

good

make

I'm

ADVERB

sure

record

her.
22.

Ted

looked

around

as

uneasy

if he

thoughthe

being

was

watched.
owl

23.

An

24.

These

much

sees

of

kind

nightthan a hawk does.


alwaysready to criticize

clearer

at

peopleare

others

severe.

which

25. I don't know

enjoy most, opera

EXERCISE

Follow
1. The
2.

My

ballet.

31

the directions in Exercise


surgeon
cousin's

or

28.

performedthe operationas skillfulas he could.


manners
improved considerable during his stay

in camp.

3. He
4. The

to anyone
spoke very condescending
favorite book of George Eliot
most

5. The

of

success

who

not

to

to

be

nation

is

was

thirty.

the Bible.
zens
citi-

dependentupon

intelligent.

vote

wish

6. We

democratic

under

educate

attached

voters

our

to

secure

independentand
bosses.
political
to

the

think

7. I think this paper is arrangedmuch


than yours.
neater
8. The store has ordered these two
types of materials. Which
do
9.

10.

you

consider

Every year

there

for

peopleover

By

now,

and

fifty.

given you

Stephen has

12.

I'm

13.

less opportunities
in the business world

are

the Florida

I suppose

11.

durable?

most

been

sun

has tanned

you

ful
wonder-

real

healthyappearance.
successful
extraordinary

with

his

neering
engi-

experiments.
was

was

14. The
are

not

near

so

tired

broughtup

was

yesterday.

strict that I

never

had

date until I

twenty.
of our
state are
cantaloupes
not
alwaysgradedcareful.

15. I didn't realize how

city,because
142

so

as

was

much

my

real young

uniform

mother
at

good fruit,but they


hated

the time.

moving

to

the

invitation sounds

16. Your

badlyall day and

very

labor

18.

violin sounds

My

of the

19. One

but
pleasantly,

ship
the relationall questionsinvolving

capital.

and

different from

The

milk

21.

The

cook

22.

pepper.
The Italian lecturer

tastes

sour

she

was

customers.

because

20.

yours.

reprimandedbecause

was
salespeople

actingimpertinentto

has felt

Mother

leave her.

I cannot

17. I feel very strong about


between

I^^Cl

USAGE

CONJUNCTION

AND

PREPOSITION

tasted the

it

left

was

of the

then

careful and

soup

out

added

than
spokeEnglishplainer

erator.
refrigmore

of my

some

friends do.
23.

departmentof
postersused by the advertising

The

not

are

24.

understand

can

you.
25. When

near

attractive

so

as

that the decision

our

petitors
com-

ours.

must

appear

sudden

to

my paper route, I alwayskepta careful watch


for the McDermotts'
dog, which had a habit of attacking
I had

strangersunexpected.

19.

PREPOSITION

AND

CONJUNCTION

USAGE

The

most

common

errors

in the

made
in two
are
conjunctions
ways:
with
1. By confusing
a preposition
The

choice

unless,is

between

like and

as,

of

use

and
prepositions

in usage.
conjunction

between

or

without

and

example.
2. By choosing the wrong
prepositionto accompany
certain
words. Use different
than, for
from, not different
example.
an

19a.

In written

verb,

not

as

Englishuse like
conjunction.

as

prepositionor

Although like is frequentlyused as a conjunctionin


casual English,
the best speakers
and writers still
colloquial,
to use
as
or
as
ifwhen a clause follows,
prefer
143

19b-c
The
Colloquial:

ground like he

The

Sarah's friends
Colloquial:
Formal:

she

Our
Colloquial:

as

wings.

were

interested

in books

and

travel

were

interested in books

and

travel

Kay

is that she treats

us

Miss

Kay

is that she treats

us

children.

were

to
objection

main

if we

Miss

to
objection

main

Our

had

was.

like we
Formal:

wings.

was.

Sarah's friends
as

had

groundas if he

like she

USAGE

opened his parachuteand dropped to

aviator

the

CONJUNCTION

opened his parachuteand dropped to

aviator

the
Formal:

AND

PREPOSITION

children.

were

Right:Jane looks like her father. (Preposition)


Right:You are behavinglike a baby.(Preposition)
As is

when
preposition

however, the difference

Right
Right
Right
Right

it

in

means

meaning:

He

acts

like

He

acts

as

He

acts

like the chairman

He

acts

as

Like should

madman.

in the

the madman

be used in

play.

of the club.

the chairman

not

"in the role of." Notice,

of the club.

alwaysfelt like Roger would


Right:I alwaysfelt that Roger would

Wrong:

T9b.

Right:The
Right:The
Right:We
Right:We
for

19c.

Use

unless

as

be successful.

without
conjunction,

crops will die without rain.


have
crops will die unless we
will
will

not
not

rent
rent

that.
conjunction

be successful.

Use

the

placeof

the

rain

as

osition.
prep-

soon.

apartment without

redecoration.

the apartment unless you

redecorate

us.

the

appropriate preposition with

certain

words.
A

will
good dictionary

be used with
144

many

words.

show

the

to
prepositions
43.)

correct

(See Section

AND

PREPOSITION

In casual

Note:
at

the end of

l^F

USAGE

CONJUNCTION

all

it is
English,

rightto

sentence, but it should

not

use

be

preposition

a
an

unnecessary

preposition.
Wrong:

Where

Right:Where
Right:What

are

you

going to?

are

you

going?

are

you

writingwith?
32

EXERCISE

each

From

the

pairof

number.
1. He

write

on

also your

Write
cannot

it

in
in parentheses
expressions

or

the

choose

sentences,
following
and

correct

word

paper beside the


for each choice.

your
reason

pitchwell (without,unless)he

warms

or

pression
ex-

sentence

up

oughly.
thor-

as) I told you to do?


you have my suit cleaned (like,
didn't feel (like,that) this citywas
largeenough to

2. Did
3. We

handle
4. The

5.

words

the convention.

but they acted


reallyonly neighbors,
as
(like,
if) theywere
part of our family.
We
treated (like,
were
as) kingsduringour visit.
Sewells

were

6. The

never
answers
unless)he firstknows
(without,
poor man
what
his wife is going to say,
7. The team
but it doesn't yet look (like,
is shapingup nicely,
as

if) it will be

team.
championship

8. The

doctor says that the


he has an operation.

9. The

awnings will be

pullthem
10. Your

up

at
to

answer

patientwill die (unless,without)

torn

pieces (without,unless) you

to

once.

the

problemlooks (like,as if) it

should be

correct.

11.

and (as, like)most


Joelwas eighteen,
for excitement.
was
looking

12. The

scenery in Puerto
I had ever
seen.

13. He

feels

14. We

rode

Rico

waves

his age, he

diflFerent(than,from) anything

was

(like,that) the world


the firstfive

boys of

is

againsthim.

(like,as

if) we

were

on

rollercoaster.
15.

My

Canadian

friends

at

camp

were

very much

(like,
as) me.
145

"

20.

ACHIEVEMENT

TESTS

ACHIEVEMENT

your paper the number


the number, write the correction
Write

and

for each

reason

sentence

only when

sentence

contains

errors,

Examples:
1. Every one
2. Hazel

no

completerevision

Bernice

near

necessary
the whole

Write

If

is necessary.

beside its number.

v^rite C

and

Beside

sentence.

corrections

or

correction.

of the students have

lives

USAGE

USAGE

IN

of each

on

give the

IN

Test I (Sections IT -14).

Achievement

20a.

TESTS

their

own

lockers.

I.

Correction:
1. has

his
2.

1.

locker

own

2.

of my

1. One

often
2. The

and

pronoun

me

favorite

violinistwho

agreement
antecedent
agreement

near
objectof preposition

is Alfred

actors

performswith

verb

and
subject

Lunt, whom

know

you

his wife.

I should

select

as

my

favorite

was

child

prodigy.
3. Since the
medical

of many

cause

men

is

diseases

keptbusy in

are

unknown,

number

of

research.

but everybodythinks
ways to solve a problem,
that their way is the rightone.
announced
5. The company
that every employeecould obtain

4. There's many

their bonus
6. To

by stopping at the cashier's desk.


we
straight,
help the depositor
keep their account

you
7. The

statement

onlyway

animals

have

the end

at

in which

been

of each

that the party will be


8. I am
sure
enjoy themselves.
9.
10.

cattle and

domestic

by quarantine.
a

success

and

everyone

will

spenda few dayswith Mother and I?


The business,including
the shop,the goods on hand, and
all the fixtures,
thousand dollars.
sold for fifty
were

Why

don't you

11. I don't know


12. You
I at

146

month.

disease among

stoppedare

send

are
once.

to

come

who

he could be.

expectedto

send

the papers

to

Mr.

Henderson

and

TESTS

ACHIEVEMENT

USAGE

of
to give the secretarythe names
requested
guests who theyintend to bringto the dinner meeting.
fore
with buses and thereis replacing
transit company
cars

13. Members
any
14. The

IN

are

vehicles to keep in
more
many
it when
15. This is my old coat. I alwayswear
unless we
the man
16. We
cannot
are
accuse
have

who

you saw
Bastille

17. The

gardenhas

Dan

24.

chance

man

the contest.

win

to

to

the oflBce,
where

he told the

story to the principal.

every trick.
the
Sherwood
is studying

appoint as

director.

Every one

of

us

and

told that

were

materials that
25. Her

lution
Revo-

districtis

our

teen-ager's
opinion,like their problems,are
for granted.
When
Mother
playsbridgewith Mrs. Summers,
Mr.

him

was

suffering.

about
23.

it

which oughtto
rearranged,
completely

with his brother

went

whole

22.

and

been

their

elected from

who we
congressman
of absolute integrity.

give Jane

21.

symbolof

was

sure

in the French

important part

The

19. The

20.

it

it rains.

room.

playedan

because
18.

the

enter

repair.

questionof
we

often taken

she argues

who

should

we

tory
pay for the labora-

must

broke.

we

Anthonyleft the prairieand

went

to

the

town

to

live.
26.

Mother

27.

The

let Carol and

the sale

placedon

price of these stunning trays are

price that
our

A-1

I go to the circus.

we

offer

to

customers

who

we

credit list.

beautiful scenery with its snow-cappedmountains, green


pastures,and blue lakes remind him of Switzerland.

28.

The

29.

The
were

30.

to

advertised
nationally

double
have

decided

The

peoplewho
onlyfifty.

number

of

electron,as

well

as

attended

the

the proton,

were

meetingsregularly
shown

to

carry

electrical charges.
31.

32.

of voting is ignoredby many


privilege
people,and
there is in many
bodies corrupt
legislative
consequently
there by the bosses.
sent
politicians
there seems
If between you and I no compromise is possible,
littlechance of us doingany business.
The

147

"

33.

The

ACHIEVEMENT

prizewill be given to whoever

TESTS

the

makes

IN

USAGE

number
largest

of sales.
34.

Enclosed

of

some

printedour

is

35.

Fred

36.

Of

does

address

new

not

business

our

followed

Please

do

refer

to

and

Emma

new

whom

only one
exactly.

us,

our

ager.
man-

him.

is the

the directions

not

of

name

I to go with

and

Henry

want

which

replyenvelopeson
the

and

all the contestants, Bert

have
37.

is

I,

think

we

stage-struck

as

juveniles.
38.

am

that

sure

of the

one

who

men

is

is the

present

guilty

person.
39.

George'sfather,whom
Frank
and I to play.

40.

It wasn't

until last

and

and

41.

Jack

led

once

evening that everyone

myselfbreathed

When

the ballots have

to the

who
principal,

the Youth

I understand

been

band, taught

knew

their parts

freelyagain.
counted, pleasesend

will forward

report

the secretary of

to

same

Commission.

told to

give the message

whomever

in the office.

42.

43.

It is economical

44.

Cataloguingand arranging our specimens for the exhibit


has kept my brother and I busy duringthe whole summer.

45.

Mr.

was

Harrison

for the
46. After
like

47.

the

48.

new

with
49.

If each

of the

The

are

to

be

selected

of the stacks

serpents twined
of the

in order
in

to

determine

the

whether

are
library

likely

efficiency.

to

shall have

results of the

condition.

Corps
around

of the

members

report, indicates

148

or

begin to feel at last


tion.
reallybelongsto the organiza-

people who

arrangement

we
carefully,

50.

largebottle.

this business, I

in

insigniaof the Medical


two

was

position,

new

contribute

The

in

thinks that either you

three months
one

purchaseit

inspectionhas been made

An

to

to

to

an

of

winged stafiE

it.

do

committee

their work

excellent report.

as
inspection,

that the

consists

covered

of
buildings

the

by the attached
factory
plantis in satis-

ACHIEVEMENT

20b.

TESTS

Achievement

Follow
1.

and

Every cat

3. The

Test

II (Sections

quarantined.

were

Sarah

has

5. This

been

not

would

be

the Crimean
dreadful

were

7. The

she

well; so

don't

doctors

out

if

dreadful

out, the

broke

War

wasn't

breeze

blowing.

of
techniques

nursing

of date.

valiant,but

worked

the assistance

theyneeded

very bad.
8. Joan says she has felt badlyall day.
9. I could of gone if I had knew
that you
nurses

10.

I'm afraid his foot is froze.

11.

The

gadgetswhich
simpler.

12. If I

we

helpedput

life

and

more

more

job.

new

up

going,

were

makes

invent

we

him, I'd try a

was

After

the tents,

carried

we

for the

water

animals.

circus
I

like

downtown

go

to,

heat

6. When

14.

we

had.

she used

13.

I.

Test

could beat any of the men.


better than any party
was

necessary, Jim
Goldie's house

at

11-19).

for Achievement

in five counties

dog

been

party

have

of

USAGE

the directions

2. If it had

4.

IN

drunk

huge glassof

milk

when

home

come

from

school.
15. The

said
lifeguard
out
too
they swum

16.

did

We

that the

drownded

because

far.

think that the

not

boys almost

experiment would

out

turn

very

good.
17. He

18.

told Mr,

Each

Kenworthy that

of the

he

was

forty-eight
sampleswere

sure

to

be

the

on

placed in

mittee.
com-

separate

jar,
19. Headlines

in

the newspaper

is

arrangedso

that

it attracts

attention.

20.

the T-formation

Since

have

teams

21.

The

has been

used

successful,many

school

adoptedit.

old man's

eyes reflected the kindliness

that laid in his

heart.

149

ACHIEVEMENT

22.

I wish

23.

Neither

able

was

Mother

nor

When

25.

When
for

26.

piece of

we

year,

USAGE

story.

hear that Edith

failed;

all.
the

board

for

ten

years, I

gone.
that neither of us

doingso
and

Peters

me

have

did any

shooting

bad.
who

reprimandedif things

is

in the oflRce.

go wrong
27.

at

IN

life was

not

are

alwaysMr.

It is

my

consider

you

careful

left,after being with

felt like

surprised
to

are

she don't do her work


24.

she the whole

tellJackand

to

TESTS

Digging a

hole

ten

man

whom,

feet

deep, the boys went

away

left

and

it.

28.

strange
time,

one

shall

He

30.

The

conference

is

pointin

31.

no

Since

the house

enters

29.

not

you

terrible sick;so
32.

33.
34.

35.

36.

37.
38.

firstprize of

win

I worked

leave
40.

at

joinsthe party.

we

waitingany longer.
Paul and
will

not

I for

be able

visit,our
to

father has been

accept your invitation.

Because

an

jobonlytwo months when I was obligedto


to have
accompaniedmy familyto Nebraska.

the

in order

of the heat

air

wave,

conditioningsold

very

factory
satis-

summer.

Every nightthere has been


I would

have

loved

to

physically
impossible.
150

at

it.

last
41.

Gertrude

expense-paid
tripto Europe will be given
solve the puzzle.
to whoever
can
Everybody said he acted as a fool at the wedding.
board to the
New
don't jump direct from the drafting
cars
like some
productionroom
peoplethink they do.
recommend
that there be appointed an
We
experienced
of waterworks.
superintendent
in oil,he begun life
Losing his fortune in an investment
at fifty.
anew
wise
for you to have given him the key.
It was
not
the highest
made
The prize was
to be given to whomever
mark in German,
but I never
thoughtit would be me who
A

would
39.

and

later,knew

I will see
that he does not.
my
money.
will probablylast until five o'clock;so there

use

invited

you

learned

we

some

have

sort

gone

of party; and although


to all of them, it was

ACHIEVEMENT

42.

TESTS

It says in this article that the average

healthier than
their meals
43.

USAGE

IN

Since

more

the average

singleperson

them

45.

very good indeed.


directors wish
The

to

express

cooperation duringthe year and


to wish you a Merry Christmas.
The

are

you

have

did

appreciationfor your
this opportunity
welcomes

their

47.

studyingSpanishbecause every man


and woman
in the oflficehave spent a good deal of time on
similar subject
that have not helpedtheir work.
some
I have alwaysfelt like I'd like to be a dancer.

48.

This

46.

firm

product,advertisers

improve business.
election againstJohn Cameron,

If you

an

sell

to

44.

won

person is more
because
they have

regular.

good picture can

turningto

married

to
objects

me

school is different than

all of the other schools I have

attended.
49.

The

beach

was

of the

most

so

pleasantI

could

of laid for hours

in the

sun.

50.

One

in
sights
interesting

Seattle

are

the Cascade

Mountains.

151

Capitalization
USE

21,
A

piece

freelyor
writers
not

to

He

new

of

be careless about

first word

Capitalizethe

is dark

car

asked, "Is your

new

Capitalize the

21 d.

book,

poem,

car

blue?"

of

line of poetry.

woman's

word

fair?

which

follows

automobile

An
no

the

under

one

driver's

or

important

play, magazine,

words

of

Salesman

in

magazine

composition. (See Sections


and
Harpers Magazine, Romeo
Sonata, Death

license

should

be

twenty-one.

musical

152

Resolved

resolutions.

in formal

Capitalize

and

wasting in despair

Die, because

grantedto

sentence

every

blue.

first word

Shall I

Resolved:

of

these rules.

direct quotation.

Capitalizethe

Whereas

about

where

for students

Our

21c.

scattered

capitalsare

pression
they should be used gives the imalmost of illiteracy.
modern
It is true
that some
have ignoredthe rules of capitalization,
but it is

the first word

21b.

which

writing in

omitted

wise

21a.

of

LETTERS

CAPITAL

OF

27i

and

Juliet,The

title of

article,or
34a.)

Moonlight

LETTERS

CAPITAL

OF

USE

articles (a,
or
conjunctions,
Capitalize
prepositions,
the) only at the beginning or end of a title or when
an,
letters.
they consist of five or more
Note:

21

Capitalizethe

e.

h'ne and

the first word

A.

Crowded

B.

Poor

topic of
of

item

Capitalizethe

the

is not

list.

following:

sanitation

of

recreation

/ and

pronoun

rarelyused.
capitahzedunless
is

21 g.

Capitalizeall

from

proper

nouns.

The

more

proper

O.
interjection
the tree.

on

oh
interjection

common

beginsa

it

space

the

UsuallyI find the firstripechestnuts


O mighty river, flow on!
O

out-

conditions

parksand
Unpaved sti-eets

2. Lack

Note:

an

housing

1. Poor

21 f.

in each

shows
investigation

3.

in each

of slums

1, Causes

Our

firstword

sentence.

and

nouns

(See Section

1.)

words

They

derived

include

the

following:
of

months, and days


holidays,
(Christmas,February,April,Monday).
1. Names

of

the

week

of persons and titlesaccompanying these names,


usuallynot the titles alone unless the title is used in

2. Names

but

place of
when

used

Mother

name.
as

and

Father

are

only
capitalized

names.

Fred, Helen, Mr. Brown, Dr. Anderson, Captain Wharton,


Aunt
Helen, the doctor, the captain,my avmt
Can

Note:

The

you

hear the

words

whisties.Father?

President

and

Vice

to
President,referring

153

OF

USE

the President

and

President

Vice

CAPITAL

LETTERS

of the United

States,are

alwayscapitahzed,
3. The

of

names

races,

nationalities.
languages,

Caucasian, the French

language,Chinese

lacquer,
Japanese

cherryblossoms
4. The

of cities,states, counties, countries,

names

bodies

of

constellations,and

mountains,

water,

tinents,
con-

planets(exceptthe earth).

River,
5. Names

States, North

Arizona, United

Tucson,

Rocky

Mountains,

America,

sippi
Missis-

Orion, Jupiter

of streets, parks,
trains,planes,
buildings,
ships,

orchestras.
hotels,
Building,
HollywoodBoulevard, Yellowstone Park, Equitable
tra,
the Ritz-Carlton,Philadelphia
Symphony OrchesS.
Super-Chief,

of the

6. Points

when

they mean
precede the name

S. American

(North, South, East, West)

compass
sections

of

Scout

of the

country

street, but

or

not

when

was

when

they

they mean

direction.
moved

We

When

the South

to

when

the thief,he

saw

was

child.

running south toward

the

river.

7. The
their

of

names

members, and

political
religious
parties,
groups
or
particular
organizations
groups.

Democrats, Catholics,Methodists,Bender
American

8.

Company,

Society

clubs, departmentsof the governSchools, colleges,


ment.

Edison

Glee

154

Historical

and

and

High School, Drake

East High School


University,

Club, Departinentof Agriculture

USE

OF

9. Events
War

2B1n^|

LETTERS

CAPITAL

documents.
historical periods,
history,

in

the

Between

States, Middle

Ages, Declaration

classes when

the

of

Independence
of school

10. Names

word

class

companies
ac-

them.

Juniorclass,juniors

or

when
subjects

of school

11. Names

theyrefer to languages

classes.
specific
Latin, AlgebraII, algebra
English,
cred
Capitalizewords referringto the Deity and sabooks, but not the word god or goddess referring
gods.
pagan

21 h.

to

Lord, Savior, Master, Bible, Koran, Jehovah,gods of the


Romans

Note:

We

21 i.

used

Pronouns

can

be

sure

reference

in

that He

will

Capifaiizethe firstword

complimentary close of

Mr.

Evans:

Note:

Any

word

whom

the letter is written

used in

care

for

Deity

are

talized.
capi-

us.

in the salutation

and

the

letter.
Dear

Dear

the

to

placeof

Sincerely
yours,

Sir:

of the person to
is also capitalized,
but not any
the

name

words.
intervening

My
21

dear

Sir:

My

dear Sister:

j. Capitalize the abbreviations


degrees.
A.B.

Ph.D.

of

titles and

demic
aca-

Lieut.

155

21i

USE

Note:

Do

1. The

Wrong:

of

name

2. The

worker

is the Assistant
is the assistant

Right:He

CAPITAL

LETTERS

the following:
capitalize

not

He

OF

particular
job.

of the

Foreman

foreman

of school

names

in

of the

bindery.
bindery.

unless theyare
subjects
of

names
languagesor specific

of

names

courses.

H
mathematics, Journalism
French, physics,

3.

word

Any

but the firstin the

complimentaryclose

of

letter.

Wrong:

lovingNephew,
lovingnephew,

Your

Right:Your
4. The
of

word

when

in the salutation

it follows my

letter.
dear Dr. Harlow:

Right:My
5. The

used

sulphur.

some

to school,if the
referring

6. Terms
is not

substances.

of chemical

names

Right:We

name

of the school

mentioned.

Right:I
Right:I

go

to

go

to

7. Names

Right:He

9. The

juniorhighschool.

Edgar Allan

Poe

School.

JuniorHigh

has measles.

such

precededby
Right:My

the

of diseases.

8. Nouns

father,mother,
possessive.
as

father is a
names

Right:To me,
Right:This is
156

dear

aunt

when

they are

enthusiast.
fishing

of the
autumn

the best

and

seasons

means

earth,sun, and

m,oon.

blue leaf-smoke.

placeto

watch

the

risingmoon

or

sun.

CAPITAL

OF

USE

LETTERS

EXERCISE

The
errors

from students' themes


contain
sentences
following
each senin capitalization.
On
tence,
your paper, rewrite
using the correct capitalization.

1. At the head

of the Student

President and
2. Plutarch

discussed

Statesman

4. The

Vice

Roman

have

we

Student

President.

then

and

Statesman

Greek

compared them.
Sulphurand Hydrogen Sulphidein Chemistry.

and

studied

3. We

Student

Government,

author

lived for many

in

years

small

cottage

in

devonshire,England.
5. The

of

President

consult with the


6. I want

get
7. We

to

to

go

appointeda
organization
Executive
Secretary.
our

Business

Collegefor

committee

months

nine

and

to

then

job.

the advice of

asked

James Hannibal,

but he referred

us

judgerhynhart.
I wish to applyfor the positionof Counselor at camp
coxton.
Of all the good times that I had duringthe Springvacation,
I enjoyedmost
the dance given by the North High gleeclub.
to

8.
9.

studied

10.

Marie

11.

physics.
The lawyerhas
street.
lexington

12.

I think that easter

13.

They moved

14.

Mother

Curie

to

sent

radium

and

his office in the

comes

the

west

nobel

prize in

at
fidelity
building

april8

and settled

visit aunt

to

me

on

the

won

10

east

this year,

on

an

who
sally,

iowa

farm.

lives in

paducah,

kentucky.
15. Horace
but he
16.

The

has
cannot

chamber

called "what

17. We

took

alwaysdone well in physicsand mathematics,


master
Spanishor french.
of commerce
is going to publisha pamphlet
to

boat

see

in Cleveland."

down

the danube

river from

vienna

to

buda-

pest,
18.

If you go

west

of
president
19.

for

blocks,you will find the office of the

two

the company

The

renaissance

and

literature,

was

at 712

charles

street.

periodof great developmentin

art

157

21
20.

21.

OF

USE

read the declaration of

Have

you

bible

completely?

The

wanted

seniors

from

book
22.

The

23.

There

24.

She
act

ever

as

25. An

or
independence

advertisement

an

as

many

were

chief file clerk,but she often has

of
eclipse

the

sun

when

occurs

the Sun

the New

paragraphscontain errors
following
On your paper, write with a capital
each
capitalization.
Samuel

Johnson,one
eighteenth
century, was
shop so
period,many

that

most

taken

became

to queen

could

be

cured

very

by

samuel
anne,

in

word

capitalization.
that requires

figuresof the
September18, 1709.

to

the books

read

in

during this
they believed
quite superstitious,

people were

sick person

passes

colorful

born in lichfieldon

samuel

when
consequently,

cure

the

the boy
father,a bookseller,permitted

the

was

of

Moon

The

to

the Earth.

and

EXERCISE

that

for their year

secretaryto the President.

between
directly

His

the

company.
in
very human
many ways.
there
in
town
catholics.
as
are
baptists our

romans

employed as

was

get

LETTERS

snedden, driscoll and

godsof the
are

to

CAPITAL

well-read,

the touch

of the queen,
suffer from scrofula,he

began to
but the supposedpower

the disease failed, the afiliction remained

gave him trouble for years.


because the Johnsons
did

of

with

queen

to

Johnsonand

enough money to educate


their brilliant son, a neighbor
sent the boy to pembroke college,
oxford, there Johnson
some
beganhis writingcareer by translating
latin verses,
he later wrote
taxation
no
tyranny, which argued
tionary
colonists in the revoluagainstthe pointstaken by the american
and showed
war
Johnsonas a firm supporter of the tory
not

have

party.
the author of the first
as
todaywe remember Johnsonchiefly
showed
book which
a
dictionary,
great prejudiceagainst the
scotch,and as the organizerof a famous group called the literary
club, members

of the latter included

peoplein

london.

edmund
revnolds, the artist,
158

david

the

most

the
garrick,

tellectua
important in-

actor, sir Joshua


burke, the statesman, oliver gold-

USE

OF

CAPITAL

LETTERS

when
all members,
smith, the writer, were
granteda pension by the king,he showed
number

of poor

whom
people,

he

EXERCISE

the

Rewrite

keptin

Johnsonwas

finally

great kindness

his house

on

to

fleet street.

letter,using correct
following
4315

capitalization:

Aldrich

avenue

Minneapolis9, Minnesota
October
Marston
52

east

31, 1960

Brothers
sixteenth

street

illinois
Chicago,
dear sirs:

pleasesend
1 copy
1 copy
2

the

books with bill:


following
preston, the growth of american

anderson,

new

ideals

criticism

bigleaguebaseball
copiesJackson,
very truly
yours,
howard
sachs

159

Punctuation

Punctuation

used,

is

distort

it may

meaning; but if it is carelessly


was
meaning. The followingsentence

aid

an

to

by a businessman not longago. The poor punctuation


used by his secretarydistorted the meaning and caused

dictated

the firm

embarrassment.

some

The

house

bought on

was

dollars. We

She

put

can

wrote:

Monday

for five thousand

it in excellent condition

and

resell

it.

employerhad expectedher

Her

The

house

dollars

bought on

was
can

we

put

write:

to

Monday.

five thousand

For

it in excellent condition

and

resell

it.

careless omission

Sometimes

humorous

Wrong:

results,as
When

we

in the

cooked

complainedthat
cooked

the

the

lead

can

to

in

woman

the

next

apartment

pans.

might tell the

reader

that

woman.

Literaryartists

the

rattled

sometimes

fashion;but in business

in

woman

use

and

a few
important,and following

160

comma

rattled pots and

we

cooked,
we
Right:When
complainedthat we

free

sentence:
following

first glanceat the sentence

A
we

of

pots and

the

next

apartment

pans.

punctuation in
the

very

is
professions,
clarity
simplerules is imperative.

DIAGNOSTIC

TEST

good

How

is your

Do
punctuation?
what
reader exactly

ways
al-

sentences

your

to say?
you mean
what you need to study.Then
to see
the practiceexercises that will helpyou with your

convey to your
the diagnostic
test

Try
turn

to

problems.

COLONS,

SEMICOLONS,

MARKS

QUOTATION
On

your paper,
the necessary

and

them

commas,

in your

of
explanation
If a

sentence.

ing
followingsentences, supplysemicolons, colons,apostrophes,

the

rewrite

quotationmarks.

omit

COMMAS,
APOSTROPHES,
ON

TEST

DIAGNOSTIC

22.

After each

correction.

each

marks

If unnecessary

that you

correction

needs

sentence

no

write

sentence

made

have

correction, do

used,

been

have

not

an

in that

rewrite

it,

but write C beside its number.


1. If you

desire any information about the citywe


that you call on our Personal Service Bureau.

2. When

father gave
3. Lawrence

the

are

we

6. How
7. The

me

after
Simmons

Mr.

the

Biddison

streets

were

10. A

star

chosen

was

my
for

and cobblestoned

not

paved as they

today.
alwaysfair Mr. Hathaway said the manager
try to pleaseour customers,
in
ts are
Davy?
many
your last name
machine
which
the First National Bank
has
adding
pricesare

road

then did
9. Yes

business

in

years course
old job.

Hopkinslacrosse

narrow

justinstalled is a real
8. The

Olympic team.

4. The

5. Our

home

came

suggest

timesaver.

outside Miami
we

round

the flowers
person

applyingfor
clothes

and

curve.

from

were

longand straight
onlynow

was

and

the Aliens'.
a

job
to

see

must

that

be

sure

they are

to

wear

dean

conspicu
in-

and

neatlypressed.
11.

and
Shelley

Keats

poetry occupiesa highplacein English

literature.
161

DIAGNOSTIC

12.

13.

14.

He

is famous

his

which
autobiography

be tolerant of others.

15. Our

chef has

and

has

been

in

for

employ

our

nearlytwenty

excellent staflFto assist him

an

as

result

years

we

are

that the meals will be

alwayssure

17.

for
chiefly

peoplecall the best of its kind.


fire engines and milk wagons
In the days of horse-drawn
cars
Sam
Smith kept a bookshop on Center
Street and we
boys
often went
there to talk about literature and politics.
We
show
that we
have grown
that we
must
intellectually
have increased our interests in current
problemsand that we
can

16.

however

TEST

good.
In modern
times when
one
speaksof a fool he is usually
but in medieval
to a
referring
person who has not good sense
days the fool was a professional
jesterin the kingscourt.
Pepys'tells in his diaryof the bubonic plague that swept
England and of the great fire that destroyeda largepart of
London.

18.

My

father does

he does
19.

The
can

20.

21.

22.

not

want

rule the

William

Harlow

Hallam

Gross

the

the

car.

despothowever

benevolent

rule themselves.

peoplecan

of
plans to build a large number
has begun his work in our city.
the Orioles play against Rochester
see
althoughthese teams cannot compare in
those of New

York

the game

other exotic
many
for his book.
his work

Wisconsin

three

won

placesin

resulted in Mr.

the manager.
of Mr.
Perry son

and

was

Blacks

Mrs.

very

traveled

IllinoisMay 22 1899

Java and

said

Madison

to use

no

as

born in Peoria

neglectof

Major John

James drivingso rapidlybut

who

houses
prefabricated
I took the boys to
said Uncle Jackand
with
playingability
enjoyable.
Mark

states

well

peopleas

get information

24.

to

approve of
forbid him

author of the book

India Persia

23.

not

order

for

to

charged
being dis-

Henry Perry

decorations

to

of

braveryin

combat.
25.

The

report submitted
corner

location for
the
162

new

by

of Fleet and
our

business

plantnext

Mr.

Arnold

Exeter

showed

Streets will be

we
consequently

month.

that the southwest

shall

an

excellent

ing
beginbuild-

DIAGNOSTIC

26.

27.

28.

29.

TEST

thingis certain this is not the kind of bill which should


be rushed throughCongress without serious thought.
A ladys
purse containingfive one-dollar bills a silver ring
and some
in the employeesrest room.
found
change was
its employeesto set
of efforts among
The management
aware
closed shop feeblyendeavored
to
a
nullifythem by
up
union.
promoting an independent
company
One

The

Mutual

floor of the

Insurance

will be obliged
to
building

31.

was

Most

are

convertibles

33.

There
at

34.

five

are

gerund

verb

is

and

children

the

on

ill.
roadsters sedans

new

infinitive.

and

Goodman

The

for

room

buses.
althougha few are old secondhand
kinds of phrasesprepositional
participial

sale of ladies and

make

party at the Kings house but

the party Mrs. Kings mother


of the cars in the parkinglot

There

to

move

day of
and
32.

the

have

plannedto

We

occupies one

now

oflBces.

government
30.

which

Company

Canes

mens

suits

store.

new

playingwith

were

dresses and

misses

pretty little pink

some

seashells which

35.

36.

theyhad found on the beach.


A business which
is unwilling
to change its practices
to
conditions will never
suit new
be very profitable.
When
Ellen heard the lecturer speakwith great enthusiasm
about antiques she iTished out and bought a lovelyChippendale
sofa.

37. When

received

we

and

Henton

acceptance of

Hawkins

plan for the reorganizationof their business


job by moving the credit managers oflBce to
38.

was

39.

born

Hettie

1821

after the death

of

two

the

began

the third floor.


otlier children

of great happiness
to her parents.
who
Manners
a
was
war
correspondent
gives in his

source

Harry
short

in

we

our

story The

Voice

realistic picture of soldiers

Speaks a

in action.

40.

The

steps creaked

stale and
41.

The
outer

as

I walked

on

them

and

of

course

the air smelled

musty.

no-smokingprovisionsdo
lobbies

of theaters

designatedwith
placeswhere

the

to

not

restaurants

approvalof the
smoking is permitted.

or

Fire

to

apply to the
other places

Department

as

163

"

42.

THE

When

the

began scampering

43.

44.

renewing

old

dozens

of

dogs

ing
acquaintancesvisit-

and showinghow
revelry

happy they

be free.

to

were

around

of former

scenes

Hfted

dogs was

quarantineon

COMMA

who

person

wants

to

build

hot rod

several

watch

must

thingscareful grindingof crankshaft bearingsremoval of


of bearings.
metal from the bearingsurface and reshaping
As we
approachedthe house said Peter we heard a man
and we
to me
say 111 get him if you leave the jobentirely
fled without

45. Here

is

lifeand
46. When

nature.

the scientist
he

tree

waiting to hear more.


from
directly
painter who draws his inspiration

which

saw
was

47. It looked

of the

projectingfrom
This animal
its

of his torch toward

the beam

suspendedfrom a branch
hangingupsidedown.
somethinglike a Teddy bear

the branch

48.

sent

legsso

tree

littleanimal

curious

but

the scientist could

as

see

it moved
a

the

of

row

along
spines

its neck.

the potto can


double up with its head between
that it is in excellent positionto use
those spines

49.

too close.
any attacker that comes
Because
I love animals readingSandersons

50.

experiencesthat I have ever


pleasant
had but I should not have enjoyedthe rats snakes and frogs
that the scientist met
everywhere.
and whistling
skinks were
Flyingsquirrels
scalyanteaters

on

was

of the

one

animals

junglebut
much

to

new

about

soon

that

Use

me

until I read

became

of

scientists

acquaintedwith

them

trip to the
and learned

their habits.
THE

before

comma

joinstwo

Treasure

most

23.
23a.

Animal

COMMA

the

independent

coordinatingconjunction

clauses.

The

are
and, but,for,or, nor. A
coordinating
conjunctions
has at least two
compound sentence
independentclauses,
which are usually
To
joinedby a coordinating
conjunction.
determine
whether
what
is compound, read
sentence
a
comes

164

before

the

coordinatingconjunction and

see

if the

COMMA

THE

alone; then read what follows


thoughtis completestanding
the conjunctionand see if it is complete.
If there are two
before the conjunction.
completethoughts,
placea comma
If there are not two completethoughts,
is needed.
no
comma
There

was

elevator for the

an

decided

to

comma

is needed

of visitors,but

use

we

walk up the steps.(Two complete


thoughts)
Norris darted around
the corner
and halted abruptly.
(No
the

because

followingand

words

completein themselves; they are part of the


Norris. )
used with the subject,
compound predicate
not

are

Note:
1. If the clauses

be omitted.
short,the comma
may
This statement, however, immediately
bringsup the question
"How

are

short is short?" If the

independentclauses consist of
and verb,then theyare obviously
short,and the
onlysubject
comma
may be omitted. Examples:John studied and Mary
I laughedand I cried. Sometimes
lack of punctuation
played.
between
short clauses may cause
In
momentary misreading.
readingthe sentence that follows,your firstthoughtmay be
that the boysate the hired man.
The

boysate

2. If the clauses

semicolon

is

bacon

long and

are

used

and the hired

before

the

ate

man

contain

sausage.

other commas,

conjunction.(See

Section

24c.)
When

he arrived

different

at

he
college,

and
fraternities;

it

was

was

only after

with his father,his brother,and


able

to

decide which

to

one

of the

and

On

errors

in the

from

student

comma.

If

no

was

themes

punctuationof compound
of each

your

be used and the

sion
discus-

his friends that he

paper, write the number


Beside it,write the word after which a

sentences.

much

jointwo

sentences
following

letters contain

to

join.

EXERCISE

Most

invited

comma

needs

comma

to

tence.
sen-

should

be added

to

165

COMMA

THE

the
example,

the

beside

write

sentence,

for the firstsentence

correction

the mother

take

to

2. The

had

commercials

very elaborate and


fifteen-minute program.

of

but
everybodyhas his pet superstition
the matter
too seriously.
entirely
from

senator

the
5. Most

of the critics received

art

new

from

one

people

some

cussing
dis-

Georgia were

polltax.

publicloved
6. The

and
Mississippi

take

sometimes

are

3. Almost

4. A

left

was

of himself.

care

three minutes

take

an

givenbelow:

the child

late and

work

to

is

As

late,

1.
1. Often

number.

sentence

the book

the

coldlybut

very

it.
is

museum

beautiful

structure

and

of the

some

paintingsare exquisite.
to Joe for he rested
was
tripon the ocean
pleasing

7. His

most

of the time.
8.

Suddenlydark clouds appearedon


became
rough and wild.
wish

9. We

10.

and

to

We

tried to

have
11.

His
as

assure

15.

you

get

to

pleaseyou.

Toscanini

see

be of service

opportunityto
conduct

but

didn't

we

to fight
strength
throughthe mob.
clothes were
old and raggedbut his spirit
was

should

like

sincere

welcome

to

hope that

could

one

of the small-town

It's been

drive

into

town

you

haughty

as

movie

living
at one
fireplace
A
banquet has
room

other feasts and

holiday,

entered
is

and
Indianapolis

to

press
ex-

houses.

longtime since we've


all about me.
probablyforgotten
The shouts of the people grew
wrestlers had

to

you will enjoy your residence here.


show at
in the evening and see
a

16. The

166

in to

We

two

17.

you for this


desire
of our

sea

the

14.

thank

the

and

ever.

12. We

13.

to

the horizon

the

each other and

seen

louder

and

louder

you've
for the

ring.

and
comfortably
proportioned

has

large

end.
been

arrangedfor

the

festivitieswill be held

evening

duringthe

and

many

three-day

COMMA

THE

18.

I do

hope that

and
19.

will arrange to

The

Last

22.

23.

24.

few
I

summer

that I
21.

for

any

spend Julywith

familyintends

Oakland
20.

haven't made

you

drive

to

weeks

plansfor

the

us.

my aunt's summer
and we'd love to have

played tennis

summer

lodge in

to

almost

you joinus.
day and found

every

bit.

improved quite a

assignedthe task of examining the methods and


proceduresused by other companies and also the job of
to our
use.
adaptingthese findings
One thousand dollars has already
been paidand the balance
of seventeen
thousand will be paidwithin sixtydays.
We
able to obtain adequatechemical supplies
but we
are
cannot
get enough equipment of other types.
She was
proud of her beautyand spent much time keeping
I

was

herself attractive.
25. The

had

sun

vanished

now

peeped througha

break

in

and the silver moon


completely
the deep blue clouds.

EXERCISE

Follow

the directions in Exercise

1.

units for you


and
holdingthe freezing
know
when
us
appreciate your letting
you would

L. We

have
I. It

should

are

them

to
not

clanged

as

the Indian

see

find the

like those in the

J. Streetcars

to

delivered.

to
interesting

was

like

costumes

dances

but

of the witch

appointed
dis-

was

doctors

were

pictures.

theytraveled

to

and

fro

on

their

daily

tripsand grass grew between the stones on the street.


t. The story has been told far and wide and will forever be

legendin

these mountains.

).

The

).

forced out of their homes.


many peoplewere
Lucy had many music teachers but scales and rhythm simply
would not sink into her head.

TrinityRiver broke throughthe levees

in several

places

and

^ Calls for service


the

same

scheduled

day

received

and

for the

next

before 1:00

those

received

p.m.

were

after 1:00

acted
p.m.

upon
were

day.
167

COMMA

THE

8. I invited him

for lunch

and

in the stainless steel

9. The

Metal

and

10.

has been
with

Some

of the homes

The

the

were

simplehouses

relations between

The

look

35

17.

had

not

25

any

and

it

an

pany
com-

prevented

was

of the Governor.
walk

to

to

the top of

that its

states

have

machinery costs
claim

some

reduction

of

feel certain

best effort and

that I

can

quickly.

Charities and no
to the Associated
liberally
good objector worthy enterprisefails to receive his support.
He
made
speechesfrom the truck and was so well
many
received
him
everywherethat his political
party rewarded
with a good job.
Virtuallyall cottages here are reportedrented for the
hotel reservations

and

high.
usuallygone

have

We

have

we

taken

to

has

resort

The

of

passionsand
23b.

Use

united

causes

comma

dependent
The

cottage at Santa
water

clause

Ireland is

have

to

for the

summer

Barbara

sports are

backgroundof pine forests

cause

said

are

Carmel

you will joinus for July.


19. Surf bathingand all kinds of

one

and

and

hit

all-

an

but

this

hope that

oflFeredand

the

picturesquebays.

which

arouses

flaming

violent arguments.
to

introductoryphrase
independent clause.

separate

from

fact that the element

an

is

an

means
introductory

precedesthe independentclause.
168

clash

open

the

subscribes

year

or

in

of

most

but
experiencein the business of selling

learn

time

20.

cancel his

but

management

percent and

give the job my

summer

18.

and

the best time

firm

I will

15. He

16.

to

percent.

I have

14.

Paulson

the littlevalley
below.

at

Practically
every
been reduced
by

13.

stainless steel

estates
magnificent
of workingmen.

labor

earlyevening was

the hilland

supplyof

it.

on

worse
grew steadily
only by the intervention

12.

has

Company

buy from

and

us

were

industry.

trying to persuadeMr.

order

them
11.

Products

the present situation

discussed

we

Often

it is at

that it
the

very

COMMA

THE

may be
Failure

element
of the sentence.
The introductory
beginning
a
clause,a phrase,
merely a word.
or, occasionally,
to

it will

punctuate

the

interfere with

clearness

of the

element
is a clause, it will
introductory
ample,
probablybegin with a subordinating
conjunction for exwhile, or when.
if,as, since, because, although,
If the

sentence.

"

When

she

high school, she

determined

to

be

artist.

an

If

finished

dormitoryrooms

no

are

oflFthe campus.
is months
Althoughsummer

available,I'll inquire about

rooms

to

If
or

an

make

sentence

plansfor

should

comma

Acting on

follow

win

started

phrasecontaininga participle
used as an
an
adverb, a
or
adjective
the phrase.

the advice

the

have
girls

of Mr.

bought some
jective)
(Participial
phraseused as ad-

stock in the company.


To

the

their vacation.

beginswith

infinitive and

away,

game,

you

must

Crawford,

watch

played.(Infinitive
phraseused

as

we

each

card

that is

adverb)

long prepositional
phrase is usuallyfollowed by a
if it beginsthe sentence.
Even
comma
a short prepositional
if the meaning would
phrasemust be followed by a comma
A

otherwise

be confused.

Common
over,

are
prepositions

to, for,from, with, between, in,

under, by,across, after.


littlecountry store

bread
nearby,we bought some
and cheese. (Prepositional
phrase)
After a long walk in the brisk air, we were
glad to rest
before the fire. (Prepositional
phrase,in which the
objectof the prepositionis modified by a second
phrase)
In

Caution:
1. Sometimes

in

compound-complexsentence

the

in-

169

COMMA

THE

clause

phrase or
troductory
the

In

sentence.

could

anyone

which

sentence

because
introductory

precedes the independent clause


hose. Therefore,a
Bill Tucker
and

is used

comma

hit

he

had

reached

it

second

after it.

ball into the hole between

third base; and

reached

the

of

middle

follows, the clause before

it is considered

get

the

in

comes

before anyone
base.

second

short stop
could get it,he had

gerund or infinitive phrase used as the subjectof


from the rest of the sentence
is not separated
by

2. A
sentence

a
a

comma.

a
Planting
gardenrequiresskilland care.
her
To spend a month
at the seashore was

EXERCISE
sentences

after

introductory
phrase or

comma

On

your

Beside

an

paper,
it write

placedand

the

example,the

contain

the word

after

If

comma.

beside

correction

1. While

walking home
physicsbook.
you

3. Because

you
advance

4. If you

desire
are

expect

an

one

of the

should

to be

added

number.

sentence

is

be
to

As

a
an

given below:

yesterday,

from

school

interview

of

attend

sentences.

comma

needs

comma

the

information
to

of each
which

of the

use

dependent clause.

for the first sentence


1.

2. Should

no

in the

errors

the number

write

write

sentence,

have

of these

Most

chief desire.

our

best

about

yesterdayshe

can

be reached

customers

we

lost her

at

home.

want

you

to

the sale.

the convention

for your reservation.


the purchaseof a retirement

pleasemail

the

closed
en-

card

5.

6.

170

Through
policy,
you
of
in
old
yourself security your
age.
If you purchasea cottage at Shelby Cove
you
colony.
property in an exclusive summer

can

assure

will

own

THE

7.

COMMA

During the

suffered

occupationAthens

years of the German

indescribably.
8. As

she

she noticed

water

9.

10.

11.

coming

was

for many

To

run

mile

years and

fast

as

ran

cool

as

our

tions
follow the direc-

what

know

I have

counselor

counselor

good physical

firstof all be in

must

person

pailof

of the bushes.

movement

Thinkingthat the figurewas a ghostwe


legscould carry us.
To make
a
good model airplane
you must
exactly.
as
AlthoughI have not had any training
gone to camp
should do.

12.

strange

the well with

from

back

condition.
13.

In

to
laboratory

function

his expert direction the symphony orchestra


be one
of the most
famous in the world.

Under
to

15.

During the past month 6 percent


requiredfor machineryrepairs.

16.

Because
to

he had

no

of the work

parental
guidanceor

Complying with your request of March


blank.
you a membershipapplication

18.

After

If you
a

20.

Since

of

examination

an

to

sure

want
come

to

for

room

the

guests you

house

in

Portland

we

may

our

placeyour

to

the attractive

for
paradise
AlthoughI have had
is

have

will be

of
pleasure

the

reservation

In addition

ing
reserv-

to

one

thousand

now.

oranges into their dry throats,


that evening.
of gettinghome

features

alreadyoutlined Shelby

children.
littleexperienceI

can

very much interested in the work.


24. Since the establishment of the company
been several reorganizations.
25.

began

mailing

are

we

plan you

hotel is limited

22.

life he

was

ShelbyCove.

Suckingthe cool juiceof the


the boys discussed the ways

23.

hours

you?

capacity of
must

10

easy payment

our

21.

Cove

home

grew

wild.

run

17.

19.

need

we
properly

additional technicians.

two

14.

for the

order

assure

you

that

am

As

I threw

from
rising

open my window
the building
across

I could

the

in 1921

see

mass

there have

of flames

street.

171

THE

EXERCISE

Follow

the directions in Exercise

I look back

1. As

2. For

some

be

to

our

the five years which I spent


that I learned a great deal.

reason

that

busiest

day.

supplya
Noticingthat

it

was

parents would

our

and

5.

have

we

not

balls in order

Having
months

Fridayseems
needed.

plantsare

that
becoming very dark and thinking
be worried,we
began to gatherour bats
leave.

to

two

whole

to

buy

the

on

the

closed
en-

she wanted.

will have
card

clerk in

and candy for


gone without ice cream
Theresa had finally
saved enough money

glovesthat
6. If you

as

determined

citylike this largepower

3. To
4.

3.

on

I see
drugstore

COMMA

your secretarytype your name


mail it to me
I will see that you

and

receive

one

of the first copies.


7. I assured

him

that

24-gaugesteel

as

soon

guarantee that if you

9. We

you may return


have notified our
available

we

do

them

at

not

shipmentof

our

for 100

water

coolers.

find the materials satisfactory

our

customers

shall be unable

we

receive

will fillhis order

we

8. We

not

as

expense.
that since the materials

to filltheir

orders until

are

May

10.

the

and his group moved


throughthe jungle,
zoologist
the bushes
suddenlyparted;and there, in front of the
astonished scientists,
stood a huge baboon.

10, As

23c.

Use

clauses
A

in

series

to

commas
a

words,

phrases,

or

series.
of three

consists

clauses in the

separate

same

Nouns:

or

more

words,

phrases,or

construction.

The

crowd

consisted of men,

women,

and

children.
Verbs:

Mr.

French
Adverbial

phrases:He
into

172

reads, writes, and

Brewster

ran

speaks

like a native.
down

the

the steps,across

park.

the street, and

COMMA

THE

clauses:

Noun

asked

what

I intended

should
Some

the

writers omit

because

in

this omission

it is better

Caution:
a

Do

series

or

Wrong: We
Right:We
23d.
when

Use

placea

not

the United

before and

commas

to

the

use

States.
in

series;but

understand
mis-

cause

may

before

comma

and.
of

before the firstmember

comma

after the last member.


and pears, into the basket.
peaches,
put, apples,
and pears into the basket,
peaches,
put apples,
to

commas

they are

two

separate

or

modifies
adjective

If the last

it modifies

and

the

the combined

no

adjectives

more

modifiers of the

coordinate

modeled
Tall,slender,graceful
girls

coordinate

when

there, and

do

to

to

return

sentences

some

me

arrived in Siam,

I had

how

They

same

noun.

the clothes.

and

noun

the

one

are
idea,the adjectives

ceding
prenot

is used.

comma

At the ticket window

stood

man

a large,
shabby
carrying

leather suitcase.
In

this

leather

sentence

modifies

suitcase.

shabby are coordinates with each other,but


theydescribe the leather suitcase.
difficultto determine

It is sometimes

not

whether

Large

and

with leather;

not

or

the

coordinate. One way


of testingis to insert
are
adjectives
the conjunctionand between
if the and fits
the adjectives;
when
it is omitted. In the sentence
use
a
comma
naturally,
can
above, we
was
large and
say, "The leather suitcase
but "The suitcase was
shabby,"
large,
shabby,and leather"
does

not

sound

natural. We

largeand shabbybut
Caution:

If

than the noun,

word
do

not

therefore
between

use

comma

shabbyand

between
leather.

modifies the
not

rather
adjective
following
separate the two words by a comma.

I boughta
Yesterday

combed

cotton

pullover.
173

THE

the

Here
Hence

do

we

combed

word

have

not

modifies

series.

should be

comma

the

in

errors

Include
placed.

punctuationof

the

comma.

beside the number.

As

is correct,

placea

correction

for the firstsentence

1.
1. The

noun.

of each of the
your paper, write the number
and beside it write the word or words after which

On

sentences
a

contain

sentences

pullover.

not

modifyingthe
adjectives

two

EXERCISE

These

cotton,

COMMA

members

is

If a
an

sentence

example,the

givenbelow.

students,teachers,

of the

students

societywere

teachers

and

clerks.
2. We

that there

sure

are

are

many

like to
3.
4.

5.

you would
home.

purchasefor yourself
your
into
the
A short fat girl
came
room.
In my
classes I have learned about my country its
history
government and its people.
The tight
buttons sewed around
black silk cap had gay shiny
the

crown.

6. The
tax

candidate
reform

was

and

the auction

elected

economy
sale she

in

on

platformof

slum

clearance

government.

bought a beautiful inlaid rosewood


table an antique highboyand a wrought-iron
lantern.
The courses
and to
in science taughtus to questionto reason

7. At

8.

thingswhich
familyor your

experiment.
9. The
10.

He

had dark green cushions.


himself
and made
prescriptions

paleyellowporchchairs
mixed

delivered

sodas

useful
generally

in the store.

EXERCISE

the directions in Exercise

Follow
1. The

and
2. The

and
174

book

tellsof her

off the stage and


uttered
girl
ran

her many

romances

her

war

famous

friends

on

adventures.

piercingscream

for the house.

5.

droppedher pailof

water

COMMA

THE

3.

the butter and

Earlyin the morning we milk the cows churn


pickberries or peachesand stringbeans.

4. It

fun

was

make

to

friends

new

of the school and

activities

take

to

5. I believe that the school has

in the various

clubs.

joina few

to

part

taughtme

think

to

to
clearly

and to appreciatebeauty.
intelligently
cold the
Franklin pioneeredin the study of the common
conduction
of heat by various substances and the prediction
converse

6.

of the weather.
7. The

club

few

competitors and
in

10.

of

Salten

Company

doing

was

purchasedthe plantsof two


planningto establish a branch office

was

Pittsburgh.

The

children

to

came

the

ball

playedlong intense
volleyball,

or

lot

vacant

and

Follow

attic

structure

They

hung

was

rotten

was

needed

to

repairthe roof
3. The
with

girlwore
high narrow

the main

store

the whole

bats

effect

the weeds

down

dodge

ball

speed

5.

clusters of

in order to make
a

4. Standardization

cut

with

and

of

the directions in Exercise

1. The

noons
spring after-

warm

on

games

EXERCISE

2.

on

closed its mills and

country's
power
industry.

years, the J. M.
million-dollar business had

9. Within

and

engine equipment

wheels

displaythe
devices.
safety

have

to

arrangements

strike shut off the

stoppedthe
a

made

boat models

newest

8. The

has

the

wooden

gloomy.

was

erect

the

fences

new

and

placehabitable.

dull green coat and


fleecy,
heels a beigesilk muffler

hat brown
and

shoes

beigegloves.

of the size of the paper will save


space in
in individual office storage cabinets and
room

in file cabinets.

5. The

clerk is trained

information
amount

6. Members
receive

to

in the proper

of the sale
of the

to
legibly

columns

and

show

to add

the necessary
and

extend

the

accurately.

Home

patientshandle

staff in
professional

write

Corps of the
correspondenceand

Service
case

nontechnical

Red

Cross

assist

the

duties.
175

COMMA

THE

7.

8.

9.

Accordingto

today spend an
hour a week at the motion
picturestwenty-five
average of one
hours Hstening
to the radio or
watchingtelevision and five
hours reading.
The
book profits
to visualize the
by the author's ability
and to
to describe it convincingly
scene
eighteenth-century
who made our history.
bringto lifethe men
prove
imScientists all over
the world will perfect
new
weapons
and make
of
ready the instruments
present weapons
destruction that

10.

statistics,individuals

some

The

will turn

man

is to
investigation

each

methods

methods

new

the kinds

cover

the
laboratory

by
samplesand

againsthimself.

which

used

samplesanalyzed
analyzingthe

in

and

time

save

may

EXERCISE

This exercise reviews

of

money.

letters and the use


capital
of the comma
in a series, after an introductory
element, and
before the coordinating
tence.
conjunctionin a compound senOn your paper, write this paragraph,
placingcommas
and
each
capitalletters where they should be. Number
that you make. At the end of the paragraphlist
correction
the numbers

and

the

beside

of

use

each

number

write

the

for

reason

the correction.

Saturdaythe
championshipgame
Last

stadium

the stands

northern

in football, when

filledwith

were

shoutingfor their team


alongin perfecttime

and
our

then took

high school played polytechnic

around

and

half

we

playedwell,

and

the ball carrier fumbled

seats

at

the ben

ton

waving pennants boys


girls

parents and teachers, swinging

gay

band

arrived

we

entered

the field marched

in the reserved

once

section, for the first

skippybroke his ankle and our chances


of winning declined, when
they saw that skippywas out of the
miscalled
the boys seemed
to lose heart, the quarterback
game
time
the right
tackle pulledout of the line at the wrong
a
signal
team

recovered

hoped but
of 13-7
176

then

the fumble

as

he

and

was

tackled, then the

scored

in vain,
my hopes were
in favor of poly.

on

tlie game

the

next

ended

opposing

play.I
with

still

score

COMMA

THE

EXERCISE

the directions in Exercise

Follow
few

A
on

summers

in a
laylazily

her father
sat

chair and read

deck

and

father

beautiful

was

trip.mrs.

nolte

of the time but

most

and
judith

theyplayeddeck tennis and shufHeboard


the top deck to get a good sun
at night,
tan and danced
the boat stoppedfor a day at port of Spain in trinidad the

on

when

active,

were

passengers had
her father had
able

indies, it

8.

with her mother

judithwent

ago

cruise to the west

to
opportunity

an
a

business

the inside of

see

new

kind of life,because

acquaintance in this

town

judithwas

home, it was
built
charmingtropical
around
a
a
patio where palm and banana trees surrounded
fountain, when
home
she talked of nothingbut
judithcame
trinidad. I was
enthusiastic that I plannedto visit the west
so
indies myself.
to

23e.

see

Use

separate

to

commas

clauses from

phrases,or

words,
parenthetical

the rest of the sentence.

and is not
a thought
parenthetical
expression interrupts
Althoughit often
necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
A

makes

the

smoother

sentence

or

adds

bit of additional informatio

the

pressions
thought is completewithout it. Some exused
in a
sense
are
frequently
parenthetical
however, for instance, of course, as we said,for example,
to
tell the truth. If these expressions
or
any others are used
before them and
parenthetically,
theyshould have a comma
a

after them.

comma

The

The
a

task,it is true,

words

diflBcultone.

the thoughtthe
interrupt

The

completewithout
from
expressionis separated

Hence

or

it is true

one.
difficult

of the

is not

the

sentence

is

task is
this
the

not
pression.
ex-

rest

by commas.
The parenthetical
expressionmay be a rather longclause
inphrase.Such expressionsfrequently
give interesting
sentence

177

"^P
formation.

If,however, they interruptthe

considered

theyare

COMMA

THE

thought,

main

parenthetical.

evidentlytakinghis cue from his brother,


answered
aflRrmatively.
if theyhave plentyof time,
even
men,
Many professional
w^illhave nothing
to do with politics.

Kenneth,

conjunctiveadverbs however, moreover,


thus, then, so, yet,
nevertheless,consequently,
therefore,
otherwise are sometimes
used as parenthetical
expressions.
if one
pendent
But
of these conjunctiveadverbs
joinstwo indeThe

Caution:

be

clauses,it must

precededby

Jane,however, stayedat

semicolon.

(Parenthetical)

home.

John went to school;however, Jane stayedat


independentclauses)
23f. Use

to

commas

nouns

or

used

pronouns

Henderson, may I see


I asked you, Ronald, not
The

words

when

comma

yes

used

and

(Two

tence
sen-

in direct address.

to

moment?

here

come

today.

usuallyfollowed by
beginning of a sentence.

no

the

at

the rest of

you for

Mr.

23g.

from

separate

home.

are

Yes, I have studied French.

nobody was

No,

there.

EXERCISE

The

involve

sentences
following

shown

10

23d-f. On

errors

in the

uses

of the

piece of

paper, write
the number
of each of the sentences, and beside it write each
word after which a comma
should be used, with the comma.
comma

As

an

in Section

example,the

1.
1. I cannot
2. Have

178

you

any

givenfor

the firstsentence:

believe. Doctor,

believe Doctor

by

is

correction

chance

that the disease is


a

suggestionas

to

so
our

serious.

lodgings?

COMMA

THE

it will

3. Yes
not

strange I suppose
the old cottage.

to

come

to

seem

to

go

the beach

and

delivery
promiseyou may recall was for the firstweek
in April.
what had happened gave a long wail
Billyafter realizing
and began to sob bitterly,
the loss of his throne drove David from
King Saul fearing
the palace.
but will you do something
No Helene
I don't need money,

4. Your

5.

6.

7.

for me?
8. Our

will I

present Governor

am

be reelected

sure

by

large

majority.
York

9. New

as

all know

we

has

successful

developedmany

writers.

10.

here Rex

Come

and

do your tricks.

EXERCISE

11

the directions in Exercise

Follow
1. Don't

make

2. These

so

much

10.

noise Herbert.

erate-pric
mod-

immediatelyapplyto

effective

price increases
shoes.

whole

3. His

life in fact

might have

been

changed if he

had

acceptedthe job.
her
little sister, bravelyconcealing

4.

My

5.

her seat
relinquished
Boys and girls
you

disappointment,

Sarah.

to Aunt

will have

unusual

an

opportunitythis

year.
6. At

present for examplewe

five thousand
7.

Jenny glad of
think of the

8. Some

9.

10.

test
a

have

tubes which
chance

to

it is said

thousand

of the

need.

we

the

make

unpleasant
company

of the evidence

onlythree

triptried

hard

that she would

by

the defense

not

to

have.
counsel

cerns
con-

and cannot
be presented
secrets
at this time.
military
The house designedI believe by Carter and
Wells is a
French Provincial cottage with a charmingoutdoor terrace.

The

new

airporthas three runways

feet

long and

two

of which

large,impressiveadministration

are

3,000

building.
179

THE

COMMA

12

EXERCISE

_^

Follow

the directions in Exercise


research program

1. Our

2.

begun last year


has

service

passenger

Pepys though not

10.

been

now

of improved

in the interest

completed.
lost interest in

an
entirely
egoistnever

himself.
3.

4.

to
perhaps the majority of the people traveling
will go by air.
Europe this summer
of the greatestcrowds
in the history
One
of American
golf

Many

estimated

United
5. Four

6.

from sixteen

to be

to

twenty thousand

fans

saw

the

Open Championshipyesterday.

States

girlshailed by everybodyas
the
the best-balanced U.S. team
to England won
sent
ever
Wightman Cup matches yesterday.
travel organizationsproceedingon
Some
the premise that
American
good-looking

there will be

too

many

travelers

to

share

tions
accommodaexisting

have

tours.
plannedall-expense
unsuccessful actors
cepting
unwillingto admit defeat by acother employment sank into abjectand
hopeless

7. The

poverty.
8. The
over

9. The

river swollen

hours
by thirty

its banks

flooded the

and

swept

town.

plans for the year, said that nothing


would
be accomplished
did his share.
unless each member
in addition to
The first two
years of high school gave me
of the value
increased factual knowledge an
appreciation
of

23h.

rain

chairman, opening a discussion


blunt,straight-speaking

of the

10.

and

of continuous

an

committee's

education.

Use

to

commas

phrases from

separate
the remainder

non

restrictive

clauses

of the sentence.

phrasesare restrictive when they limit the


the
they modify by identifying
meaning of the word
the question
that is meant.
one
particular
They answer
Clauses

"which?"

and

or

"what

kind?"

John Mackay, who


The

180

man

who

is

our

is

postman, is
postman is a former
our

former
aviator.

aviator.

COMMA

THE

peoplewho

about

I like books

In the firstof these sentences,

who

is

eventfullives.

had

have

postman merely

our

John Mackay;

providesadditional information
In
is alreadyidentified by name.

about

clause identifies the

talkingabout.

man

we

question"which man?"
the question"what
answers

phraseis

restrictive

Ellen

kind

and

of

answers

people?"
whether

determines

sometimes

context

It

In the third sentence, the clause

the

The

sentence, the

the second

are

he

clause

or

nonrestrictive.

or

Sarah

entertained

while

us

lunch the

busy in the kitchen. After


preparedthe meal rested,and
were

and

Louise

Mary

who
girls

had

the others washed

the

dishes.
Lake with Jim and Alan
Crystal
who had prepared
a
picnic.After lunch the girls,
meal, rested while the boys washed the dishes.

Ellen and Sarah drove


for
the

to

In the firstpairof sentences, who

teUs which

of the

the second

pair,there
The

meant.

are

modifier

such

mistake

no

of

writer

about

sentence

can

meal

restrictive.

simplygivesadditional

which

In

girls

information.
tell whether

If he punctuates
he will mislead the reader.
incorrectly,

is restrictive

sentence

Our

clause

onlythe

Sometimes

be

preparedthe

is therefore

rested; it
girls
can

had

club has

camera

worked

nonrestrictive.

or

duringthe

who

The members
projector.

new

paid for

summer

it out

of their

earnings.
The

omission

of

worked

duringthe

clause

is restrictive

members

paid for

that

"

the

worked

duringthe

If you

are

is, that

But
projector.

of the members

have

indicates

summer

that aU

clause would

before and

commas

had

summer.

made

uncertain

this

after the clause who


to

the reader

it tells which

the writer

contributed

and

Commas

before

meaning

clear.

whether

modifier

meant

that the
of

the

to

say

that all had


and

after the

is restrictive

or

181

COMMA

THE

readingthe sentence
stillexpresses the meaning you

without

nonrestrictive, try
sentence

modifier

if the sentence

now

and

is restrictive

means
no

should

and

is nonrestrictive

commas

be

had

mind, the

in

off

set

it. If the

by

commas;

somethingdifferent,the modifier
should be used. Study these

sentences:

With

modifier:Tourists, who
their

cameras,

usuallybe recognizedby

can

to

seem

the native

outnumber

population.
Without

modifier:Tourists

With

modifier:Tourists
a

With

modifier:All
firstsentence

must,

is pure

next

last makes

men

the

sense;

these

two

dutiable
a

is

family responsibilitie

with

same

without

the

the clause is omitted.

clause,but

not

greatlychanged by

the
the

therefore,the clauses

sentences,

or

clause is therefore nonrestrictive.


when

nonsense

meaning

have

the
exactly

means

without

sense

to

carry life insurance.


should carry life insurance.

modifyingclause; the

The

declare

lation.
popu-

goods
dutyplus penalty.
if detected, pay the duty plus

who

men

should

The

fail

the native

penalty.

modifier:All

Without

outnumber

if detected,pay the

must,

the

who

modifier:Tourists

Without

to

seem

EXERCISE

are

same

The

kind

omission.

of
In

restrictive.

13

of the

followingsentences
by
require correction
the addition of commas,
usuallyto punctuate nonrestrictive
of the comma
Other
also required.
uses
are
expressions.
of the sentences
Some
are
correctly
punctuated.On your
sentence, adding the necessary
paper rewrite any incorrect
Some

If

commas.

do

not

1. The
one

182

rewrite

is correct, write

sentence
a

correct

number;

sentence.

fifteen dollars that I had

eveningon

C beside the

so

saved
carefully

date with Sandra.

was

spent in

COMMA

THE

2. Grandfather

who

was

huckster

wanted

to

get

stall in the

market.
3. Her

knees

which

and

shaky.

weak

4. I tried to find

the usual

different from

5. Mrs.

husband

Seaman's

promised to printthe
6. It

to

7. Our

team

who

Mrs.

firm

v/ould

were

now

give me

thing
some-

thing.
is in the

tickets free of

suggestedby

was

spot which

vacation

and

normallystrong

were

who

members

which

has lost four

has

charge.

that

Bruce

call on

printingbusiness
be

committee

pointed
ap-

ill.

are

juries
men
throughinfirst-string

hardlyexpect to win.
Basketball playerswho
than six feet tall have a
are
more
real advantageover
their shorter teammates.
until
I have been reading
about the labor problemwhich was
blank to me.
a complete
recently
who
where
there is love
Parents
do not providea home
if their children become
affection and guidanceare to blame
delinquents.
My favorite in the playwas Alexander Harding who played
the role of the prince's
tutor.
The second and third floors which were
formerlyshowrooms
can

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

are

13.

The
be

14.

other

The

16.

blouse

of similar

stylethat I
catalogue.

on

but the mountain

road

with
friendly

became

He

storage space.

as

page 372 of our


I attended
school which

seen

house
15.

used

now

him

start

The

suit which

18.

of

When

the Governor

you

ordered

vacancy
heard
not

to

you
in your office.
the price which

our

who

offered

can

new

to

help

buy

shippedby

employed last year


think

is

has told

outrageous I

the house.

Everybody who

to

Exeter

20.

schools in the country.


Taking her "over-month"

bag

Grandma

who

have

see

far from

Scott has been

Mr.

19.

to

offer

his business.

decided

to

poorlyconstructed.

was

express.
17. One of the counselors whom
me

not

was

have

goes

her favorite cousins

thinks it is

went

of the finest

one

to

Lynchburg

small farm.
183

COMMA

THE

21.

22.

23.

24.

My

I learned
very interesting
the business the cityand the county.

which

this interview

thingsabout
who

aunt

in
living

was

was

Denver

at

the time

wrote

to

us

of

amazing experiencewhich she had had.

EXERCISE

14

the directions in Exercise

Follow
1. The

meeting

called

was

the chairman

to

13.

order

by

who

Ford

Mrs.

called

for her report.


banquet committee
My father's huntinglodgewhich is set high on a mountain
a lake is as
overlooking
quaint as a picturein a book.
The bullywas
who spent
a strong husky fellow of seventeen
his time beating
the small boys.
on

3.

home.

our

two

During

an

2.

being

was

long weeks she found herself walking up the


gangplankof the shipwhich was to take her to America.
AlthoughI have learned many thingswhich will helpme I
value my English
trainingabove all others.
After

many

25.

four miles from

about

constructed

bridgewhich

to visit the site of the

planwas

Our

4. We

knew

Roger

as

when

boys around
5. The

of the

theywanted

of the

success

used

follow other

made
leadership

my

who

successor

my

to

be rid of him.

to

organizationunder

impatientwith

me

littleboy who

slow

was

easygoing

boy.
6. All of

which

sudden

we

had

been

any

warning in

went
following

7. The

machine

will cut

operate it an
8. When

interest

lecture

9. The

second

downpour

of control and turned

out

office expenses and

Mr.

Reever

he stood up

folded

the

he read

with

and

began

magazine

us.

flood in that
of rain

who

samplesbut he
wool

give employeeswho

finished the article which

within

area

which

felled

called
was

that I wanted.

on

unable

week

and

backed

had
yesterday

me

to

followed

telephonewires

crashingupon parked automobiles

184

the truck

day,

easier

Josephhad

great

10.

advance

completely.

over

to

without

get

me

some

up

heavy

sent

trees

sewers.

interesting

any of the fine

English

COMMA

THE

23i.

Use

separate appositivesfrom

to

commas

the rest

of the sentence.
An
to

appositiveis

another

substantive that

American

Robert

and

an

same

excellent sailor.

two

or

the end
followed

of the finest

one

poets. (Jones and Englishmanare the same;


the same.)
Frost and author of "Birches" are
should

commas

the

appositivefrom
is at

the

pronoun)joined
thing.

or

Frost, the author of "Birches,"is

Robert

comma

(noun

means

was
Englishman,

Jones,an

substantive

of the

rest

be used

sentence.

If the

appositive

precededby

of the sentence, it is

by

separate the

to

comma

period.

Caution:

which
appositive

1. An

is

part of

name

is not

separated

by commas.
Richard

the Lion-Hearted

was

an

king.
English

appositiveis restrictive; that is, it


identifies or Hmits the meaning of the word with which it is
the question
in
apposition.If the appositiveanswers
2.

Sometimes

an

"which?"

it is restrictive and

commas.

(See Section
The

phraseto

My

brother Sam

my

means.

not

be

separated
by

house

is adverbial.

is sick.

my house tells which


and
It is therefore restrictive

In the firstsentence,
writer

23h.

should

to

phrasethe
requiresno

commas.

The

second

in apposition
Names
case.
special
with words
like brother, sister, friend are
written
now
if one
has onlyone
brother or sister
without commas.
Even
or
friend,so that the appositivedoes not tell which, the
related to the preceding
is considered so closely
name
noun

that

no

commas

sentence

are

is

needed.
185

THE

COMMA

15

EXERCISE

your paper, write the


where they are needed

followingsentences, placing
to punctuate an
commas
appositive,
of address,a parenthetical
a series,a term
or
an
expression,
introductory
dependentclause.
On

1. Bob
to

Coleman
the cup

win

2. Good

4.

is the

Prince

well-known

Southern

at

High expects his

team

this year.

Night,Sweet

more

3.

the coach

biographyof John Barry-

much-admired

actor.

keenest
rivals have
two
Polytechnicour
several of their outstanding
players.
tools
Mr. Andrews
of
a
man
longexperiencein selling
tellyou the advantageof buying our
products.

City

5. He

lost

and

sold the business

J.P.

to

David

Company

will

old reliable

an

firm.
did

6. Dan

Baumgarten
7. One

that

know

you
was

once

of the persons

8. Dr.

she

met

the

book

Dr.

Celeste

was

Armiger an

reputation.

director of the

Nils Peterson

of

teacher?

whom

author of considerable

author

the

worried
is greatly
hospital

about
9. He

the increased expenses.


opened the icebox and saw

a
fancyimmediately

10. When

I reached

Sheldon

somethingthat caughthis

dish of macaroni

the

1. The

3. She

first wrestler

Mrs.

15.

youthlooks small and insignificant


man.
ruggedlargeheavy-set

mere

the turningof the tide.


speechmarked a historic moment
was
happy because she was leavingRussia and going
the land of

opportunity.
an
important businessman
the large
expensivedepartmentstores.

Joan'sfather

5. Student

government

an
speaking

186

greetedby

was

16

the directions in Exercise

to America

4.

cheese.

the director of the volunteer workers.

beside the other


2. The

waitingroom

EXERCISE

Follow

and

art

which

gave

me

worked

chance

will be valuable to

me

to

for

learn

one

of

public

in later life.

COMMA

THE

6. When

did

not

9.

Bob

tall handsome

settle down

to

expect

on

at

10. Elizabeth

farm.

our

became

haughtyand

interested

conceited

in

Mr.

Follow

where

of the

most

2. Winston

took
fighting

15.
end

of the

3. In your

Dr.

course

fact and
the

5. Some

Labor

I have

Davis

learned

to

tween
bedistinguish

opinion.

scientists

producta

the

policy.

is far different from

man

part
later

and

Minister

Prime

oppositionrebuked

Conservative

for its food

Government

of the island that

place.

Churchill British wartime

leader

Pope

the southern

firston

arrogant

an

17

the directions in Exercise


landed

1. We

Darcy

person.

EXERCISE

4.

she

marine

Spanishclub two guests one from Uruguay


and one
from Cuba spoketo us in Spanish.
the sixth and seventh of the season
In two
games yesterday
Northern High the championof last year was
badlydefeated.
When
farm he found
he visited The Poplars
a
neighboring
the peoplegreatly
of a robbery.
disturbed by news

7. Last week

8.

married

Joanne

have

DDT

Pope

been

working on
wallpaperwhich will

the poet.
an

new
interesting

kill moths

flies and

mosquitoes.
6.

Henry

Bronson

county

was

one

married

of the
to

most

wealthy farmers

kind-hearted

in

the

pert engagingwoman

of
7.

thirty.
Godfreywas

never

8.

9.

have

often led into

occurred

to

him

doingfoolish thingsthat
had

it not

been

would

for Dunstan

his

dishonest brother.
thoroughly
I have a reasonably
of two
guages
good command
important lanLatin and Spanishabout which I had no knowledge
before I entered high school.
Doing two term papers one on labor problemsand the other
on
a

the
fine

development of

American

railroads has

given

me

develop a techniquefor handling


skillin usingthe library
and a method
of

opportunity to

reference materials
facts.
organizing

187

23i-k

THE

10. Surrounded

monarch

robed
regally
which

three

by

23j. Use

distinguished
guests

ascended

the throne in

the

the climax of

after the

it follows the

and

after the year


the month
and day.

when

Use

Jr. and

before

commas

Sr. and

ceremony
of the most

to

go

and

abbreviations

James Norman, Ph.D.,

of

name

of

name

the month

or

Peoria, Illinois.

after the abbreviations


of academic

and

state

fore
city,and be-

it follows

Johnleft on July8, 1959, to


23k.

one

the

of the country.
history

before and

commas

country when

or

hundred

lasted fourteen minutes

importantdaysin

COMMA

Frank

degrees.

Hale, M.D.,

the

are

authors of the book.

GeorgeMadison, Jr.,is the

of the

owner

EXERCISE

18

sentences,
your paper, write the following
where they are needed. Most of the commas

On
commas

be those called for in Section


be needed

for other

February12

1. On

cabin

Ohio

will

commas

uses.

1809

Abraham

Lincoln

County Kentucky.
testified that on May 9

FridayApril10

was

born

in

log

1943

he

in Athens

was

1868

the birth date of

was

great

George Arliss.

actor

studied

writer

10 1933

5. On

some

will

business.

on

3. Good

4. The

but
23i-j,

placing

in Hardin

Saunders

2. Mr.

to

May

July20

1942

States

Army

from home

30

at

the Sorbonne

September

of

women

Moines

to

jointhe

United

Iowa.

away
my father spent his first vacation
where
he
had
relatives.
in Chestertown
Maryland
seven

7. Simon

Bolivar the great South American


of Caracas Venezuela.

8. Florence

Paris from

1934.

the firstgroup
showed
up at Des

6. At the age of

ISS

building.

famous
Nightingale

patriotwas

for her works

in

native

nursingand

COMMA

THE

reform
hospital

in

from

name

9. It

in

was

that town.

12 interested
11.

Wilkes
12.

in the Denver

of

Lincoln

shot

was

by John

actor.
Shakespearean

Ontario
Martin
years ago in Windsor
steelworker bade his wife good-byand went
to a

night fifteen

One

lodgemeeting.He
Elizabeth
educate
14.

Abraham

1865

Booth

Banner

13.

Post

began.
ThursdayMarch

me.

April 12

On

Revolution

that the American

April1775

advertisement

10. Your

took her

and
Italy

in Florence

born

was

Henry
who

Benson

women

started

lived

City.
January9
was
Carrington

231. Use

the

pioneersin
visited HastingsNebraska
school with

door

next

again.

seen

of the

one

to

15. On

never

was

1834

to

him

his cousin

to

10

1908.

Henderson

Boulevard

Massachusetts

in Boston

May

on

Pauline

Linwood

on

movement

book

Kansas

by John

published.
to

comma

contrasted

separate

coordinate

elements.

My
He

23m.

John,not Henry,
but wildly.
forcefully,

is

name

struck

Use

after the

comma

close in
Dear

salutation

and

mentary
compli-

friendlyletter.

Harold,

Sincerely
yours.
Note:
a

in

The

business
a

23n.

colon

is

used
generally

letter and

may

after the salutation in

also be used

after the salutation

letter.
friendly
Use

introduced

before

comma

by

{See Sections

Morgan

verb

25b
said

I" the sentence

such

and

not

said,exclaimed, thought.

as

27a.)

proudly,"I

does

direct quotation that is

am

Texan."

end with the

a
quotation,

comma

189

^"""J^

COMMA

THE

requiredbefore the closingquotationmarks unless the


quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation
of the sentence
itself calls for some
point or the structure
other mark of punctuation.
(See Section 27f )
is

stranger said,"This

The

"Did
He

23o.

Use

you hear me?" he asked.


wrote, "I shall expect you
he mightexpect, I had

expression from

23p.
which

the rest of

commas

mounted.
and distrail,"

intention

of

separate

an

no

going.
absolute

sentence.

havingrisen, Ferris floated the sailboat.


the lighthouse.
he saw
island,the foghavinglifted,

the

Use

before

comma

introduces

new

final

phrase

clause

or

idea.

for everything
grateful
you have
for your kindness duringmy
especially

am

EXERCISE

On

our

ever
five o'clock";but what-

at

to

commas

of

tide

On

or

comma

The

is the end

for me,
illness.
done

19

placing
paragraph,
your paper, rewrite the following
in
where
each comma
they are needed. Number

sequence. At the end of the


and beside each number
write
comma

indicated

by

list the
paragraph,
the

for the

reason

numbers
use

of the

that number.

of our
ment
long ago some
reportedthe developnewspapers
all thoughtof the great
of jet-propelled
automobiles and we
developmentthat has taken placesince the firsthorseless carriage.
to think of a life without
cars
now
Althoughit seems
impossible
those carriage days very well.
our
grandparentsremember
Grandpa climbed into his buggy took the reins in his hand gave
The first
old Dobbin
a
gentleslapand set off to see his girl.
Not

horseless

carriagewas

built

Massachusetts
Springfield
190

by

Charles

in 1892.

It

was

and

the

Frank

Duryea

Duryeas also

in

who

COMMA

THE

the firstroad automobile

won

race

held in the United

ever

States.

photographalbum and
said "If you want
to see
somethingreally
amusing look at the
clothes worn
by those earlydrivers." Long loose coats biggoggles
used by the men.
The ladies not to be
and visored caps were
outdone added to this costume
longveils which tied their hats
With a speedof seven
miles an hour the cars caused
on
securely.
The

other

day Jane came

great wind

to

with

me

cloud of dust and

wild excitement.

EXERCISE

the directions in Exercise

Follow

television has

Since

less

reads

20

accordingto
is

average person

become
a

It may

raisingchickens
establish

mental
who

to

of

far-from-modern

sharingthe

widelyknows

broaden

one's

own

FoUow

farm

ideas of

what

fun it is

outlook

approachedthe

to

grow

or

problemsof
the struggle
to

the

factions
of the greatestsatisfrom readingis the

to

challenging
intellectually.
meet

stream

19.
his heart

summoned

Instead

Anyone

great men.

began to thump.

all his resolution gave


up however
kick in the ribs and attemptedto dash briskly
across
He

perience.
ex-

21

the directions in Exercise

Ichabod

for vicarious

in distant lands

EXERCISE

As

chance

business that pays. However


one
that the average man
obtain
can

has read

ideas

us

stimulation

person
then the

report. If this is true


great experiencethat could be his.

be adventure
a

average

recent

missinga

on

popularthe

so

the first placereadingoffers

In

19.

his horse
the

bridge.

of

side
startingforward the perverse old animal ran broadagainstthe fence. Ichabod whose fears increased with the

all in
It was
lustily.
vain. His steed started it is true but it was
onlyto plungeto the
bestowed
both whip and
oppositeside of the road. Ichabod now
heel upon
the ribs of Old
Gunpowder who dashed forward
and snorting.
he stoppedas suddenlyas he
In a moment
sniffling
had begun. In the dark shadow
beheld
of the grove Ichabod
somethinghuge black and towering.As he looked he realized

delayjerkedthe

reins

and

kicked

the horse

191

"

THE

with horror that the

greaterwhen

the shoulders

on

headless;but his horror

was
figure

should

before the rider

carried

was

which

that the head

he observed

SEMICOLON

have

the

on

still

was

rested

pommel

of

his saddle.

Adaptedfrom

"

The

Legend of SleepyHollow
by WashingtonIrving

EXERCISE

Follow
A

the directions in Exercise

There

theywere
a

later

moment

corner.

19.

throngof peoplecame

could

have

not

been

fewer

dancinglike five thousand


of

storm

mere

22

red

coarse

than

five hundred

woolen

coarser

mad

rose

another
those

ghastlyapparitiongone
square some
retreated clutched
them. They advanced

among
spun round
down

were

in

the

of them

pairsuntil many
linked

rest

hand

in

and

rags but

they filled the

as

the

At first theywere

demons.

and

caps

pouring round

at

one

dropped.While

hand

round

raving

and

all spun
terrible as this

could have been half so


No fight
together.
fallen sport a healthypastime
dance. It was
so
a
emphatically
of angering the blood bewildering
the
changed into a means
and steeling
the heart. This was
the Carmagnole.
senses
Adapted from A Tale of Two Cities
by Charles Dickens
"

24.

The

semicolon

is

THE
a

SEMICOLON

stronger mark

a
signifies
greater break
between
chiefly
parts of a

It

comma.

It is used

of

punctuationthan

between
sentence

sentence

the

that have

parts.

equal

rank.
24a.

Use

semicolon

joinedby
for,or).
not

independent clauses
coordinatingconjunction{and, but, nor,
to

separate

Please close the window;


I entertain

my

friends

tap dancing.
192

the

room

is cold.

by playingthe piano; Ellen

does

24b-c

SEMICOLON

THE

24b.

Use

semicolon

separate independent clauses

to

connected

so,

over,
by a conjunctiveadverb (fiowever, morenevertheless,consequently,therefore,thus, then,
likewise).
yet, otherwise,still,

They

oppositecharacters;yet they remained

of

were

friends for many


We
regret that we

have the

however, we
Note:

Do

not

years.
have sold all of the blouses in blue;

use

conjunctiveadverb.

semicolon
Be

in pink.
style

same

sure

every time that you see a


independent
first that you have two

clauses.

John,however, has
has

failed

semicolon

no

to

because
does

expression and

(This sentence

do the work.
however

not

is

parenthetical
two
complete

connect

thoughts.)
24c.

Use

semicolon

to

separate independent clauses

joinedby a coordinatingconjunctionif the


long or contain commas.
When

scorpionstung the man, he felt a sharppain


his foot;but since there was
he thought
no
swelling,

that he had

been

not

injured.

Roberta,a very good friend of mine,


camp with her; but because
three years in succession,I am

Caution:

clause and
clause and

Wrong:

in the

same

Whenever

been

me

to

to

camp

to

go

for

undecided.

dependent
inappears betv^^een an
dependentclause or an independent

phrase.A

I have

wants

semicolon

Usuallyno

are

are

the

in

which

clauses

semicolon

form

joinsonly those things

structurally.

I hear from

one

of the old crowd; memories

rush to
my mind. (The firstclause is a dependentclause.
It would not express a completethoughtif used alone.

The

second

express

clause is

an

independentclause.

if used
completethought

It would

alone. )
193

"^y

Right:Whenever
to

I hear from

mind.

my

doeskin

sent

you

me

is

the
beautiful;
especially

me

is

the
beautiful,especially

gloves.

Right:Everythingthat you sent


white doeskin gloves.
24d.

Use

semicolon

like for

rush

of the crowd, memories

one

(See Section 23b.)

that
Wrong: Everything
white

SEMICOLON

THE

before

explanatory expressions

examplef namely.

The

government has given to

veterans

considerations;
special

some

trade training,
and
namely,college
training,
insurance.

24e.

semicolon

members

of

if any

series

the field came

Down

used

is sometimes

of them

three

EXERCISE

of the

Some

others

your
not

for
painful

1. It is

of it

wretched.

is correct, do

sentence

C beside its number.


recall the story I

prefernever

to

think

again.

2. When

I arrived at the doctor's office I

of
history
3. I can't

but

to

me

and

correctly
punctuated;
the latter,using
rewrite
Write
they are required.
If

correction.

it,but write

rewrite

4. Mr.

On

for each

reason

white

majorettes in

muddy

competent
in-

are

your paper,
semicolons
where

and

commas

commas.

23

sentences
follovs^ing

not.

are

contain

drum

the team,

spangledskirts;and

the

separate

somewhat
newly organized,

the

band;

to

my

imagine what he

Howells
at

5. Heat

lifethen I

was

born

the age of

two

was

on

May

30

he moved

expandssolids;cold

heard

never

1903
to

contracts

asked

into the main

ushered

wants;

was

to

office.

of him

in Richmond

Long

Beach

givethe
before.

Virginia
California.

them.

residents for
has many
advantagesto ofi^ernew
examplegood schools an excellent shoppingcenter and low

6. Our

town

taxes.

7. Guests

194

at

the

wedding

included

Mr.

and

Mrs.

Jerome

SEMICOLON

THE

York

New

and

Smith

8. Mrs.

Ohio

of Columbus

Woodward

Ellen

Miss

is interested

Walter

Mr.

of Auburn

Bums

of

Gary Indiana.
of our
some
purchasing

Ames
in

stainless

however, she thinks our pricesare too high.


products;
bit strange to you in fact
a
Things back home will seem
in the old town
has changed.
everything
steel

9.

10.

Mr.

that Benito

noticed

Mayer

average Indian
child to school.

therefore

servant

alert than

the

send

the

decided

he

to

24

EXERCISE

Follow

more

was

the directions in Exercise

23.

my letter in
year I have my last opportunityto win
be wearing the
basketball and if all goes well I shall soon
emblem
of the school.

1. This

2. If
any fault in
store

our

we

has caused

service

our

anxious

are

to

correct

longabsence

your
it for

want

we

from
to

you

be

satisfied.
entirely
3. It

was

time

4.

her firsttransatlantic voyage


she had ever
the ocean.
seen

Johnsonhated
examining him

5. I

was

be

on

all kinds of

I had

sure

nevertheless

questionedand

were

Boswell

of

7.

Farming

to

try.

received

from

Henry Lowell,

manager
proprietorof the

Market

for
and

10.

everywhereone

be

to

the chief

could

see

chief librarian

occupation of the section,

fields plantedwith

corn

wheat

potatoes.

approachedthat the men


inconceivable
strike and it seemed
would
that they would
strike againstthe government after seizure of the plant.
On our
side of the street the lawns are neat and the hedges

8. No

9.

seemed

eternally

was

winning the scholarship

Ralph Summers
Four
Comers
Pharmacy and Lillian Moore
of the Chestnut Grove
Library.
Sunrise

the first

was

subjects.

chance

no

I determined

6. Contributions

of the

to

in fact it

one

thoughtuntil

the deadline

the other side the lawns

trim

on

cans

stand

in front of the

Jane Winters

invited

me

have

gates.
a
party she

to

ash

tall weeds

and

is

give for

going

to

195

THE

and

Mary Lou;
she included

when

she heard

that you

1. For

master

him

and

to

2. When

continued

to

scold the

to

worshipthe master
to sneer
at
disciple

love him.

the

started

game
the week

success

23.

Bos well continued

twenty years
the

be in town,

25

the directions in Exercise

and

would

in the invitation.

you

EXERCISE

Follow

SEMICOLON

before

not

was

what

spectatorswondered

Leroy
had

who

had

been

the field and

on

happened to

neighborhoodwhere I lived there were


or
playgrounds,
nursery schools where children
for

movies,

no

could

empty lots

were

go for
used

play.

4. It will in the future


with

and

room

5. The

not

board

his

adjustmentin

6.

and

great

all of the

him.

3. In the

recreation; therefore,the streets

be
at

salaryis

Schultz
to provideMr.
possible
the buildingconsequently
some
necessary.

by anyone that needs it


however
the laboratory
for
employees are
responsible
keepingit in good condition.
there trouble with the chickens but since the
Not only
farm
with the
far from modern
Hilda had to struggle
the plumbingand the heatingsystem.
stove
Boswell was
attracted to Johnson;he made
it his
very much
equipment

is available for

use

was

was

7.

business
to

watch

the great
the remarkable

to

remember

8. Salt lowers
to melt

9. I
at

at

the
a

temperature below
the

because

being reordered
as

soon

the

as

current

however
new

be

said.
that is it

water

degrees.
to
impossible

ice

causes

32

model

is out

I assured

model

discover his habits and

thingshe

freezing
point of

explainedthat it would
once

to

man

the

is delivered

fill the

of stock and

is not

that

customer
we

order

will make

just
the

shipment.
10. There

is to be

June 11,

to

196

to

meeting with

consider the

Welfare; and
appear

show

the

budgetof

City Council
the

the funds

are

Monday,

Department of Public

of this group
representatives

why

on

necessary.

are

planningto

25ci-c

COLON

THE

25.
The

colon

is used

25a.

Use

Please send
1 White

1 Beach

have

We

robes #228, medium

notified the

purpose of our
the new
branch

Note:

Do

to

not

following
people:Mr. James
Richard

threefold:

tripwas

to
factory,

enjoy a short
use

Stout, Dr.

gomery,
Mont-

Watkins,

Ezra

Slocum.

Martin

The

and

size

umbrella,red and black, #426

Captain
Mrs.

list.

by express the following:


bathingsuit #427, size 14

beach

Red

planations,
series, exlists,

quotations.

colon to introduce

introduce

to
chiefly

formal

or

COLON

THE

visit

site for

prospectivecustomers,

in the mountains.

vacation

colon after

select

to

are

when

were

or

simple

series follows.
The

kinds of

be found

dogs to

at

the kennels

are

terriers,

bulls,and collies.
25b.
a

Use

formal

colon

E.

Lee

an

formal

statement

Use

colon

reputedto have said: "Duty


in the English
language."

is

sublimest word

by

or

quotation.

Robert

25c.

introduce

to

after

explanatory clause
These

two

beautiful

thingshe

or

is followed

expression.

admired:

an

honest

and

man

of money,

and

the

planis

the

returns

this: it will
are

cost

to
likely

be

great deal
small for

years.

Everythingwas in good shape for the meeting:


of
placed,
pads and pencils
ready,and a pitcher
at

woman.

to
My objection

many

which

statement

is the

the head

chairs
water

of the table.
197

'mff

25cl. Use

THE

colon after the formal

salutation of

COLON

ness
busi-

letter.
Dear

Henderson:

Mr.

colon to separate hour and


In writing time, the act from the scene
title of a book
from the subtitle,
the
25e.

Use

minute

the biblical

of

figures
play, the
following

verse

chapter.

7:35
Hamlet

1:2

A CollegeTextbook
of Geology:
Principles
Mark

6:10

Caution:
such

1. When

onlya

is followed

as

Austria, and
2. The

words

by

short illustration,
ally
usu-

is necessary.

comma

has visited many

He

by

countries,such

France.

namely, viz.,i.e.,that

semicolon

Switzerland,
Italy,

as

is

unless the material

usuallypreceded
is
following very
are

long.
have

We

studied five parts of speech;


namely,nouns,
adverbs.
and
verbs,adjectives,
EXERCISE

the

Write

Give

the

26

followingsentences

semicolons, and

commas,

reason

for each

nouns,
pro-

on

your

where

colons

paper.

they

are

Place
needed.

correction.

1. Above
2. He
3. The

else he hated one


thinghypocrisy.
everything
could barelyread the sign "Danger,Explosives."
the world Germany Italy
from all over
playerscame

Japan
4. Howard

Russia

had

China

and

littlemoney

way.
5. The lecturer said that
198

we

Canada.

therefore he had

must

do three

to

walk

all the

thingsbalance

the

COLON

THE

back

budget,go

he would

6.

father

My
3

not

guarantee

thoughtthat

I
nevertheless,

16

9.

the

see

10.

11.

immediate

an

the minister

of prosperity.

return

to John
referring

was

that he

certain

was

ever
raise tari"Fshow-

Luke

meant

10.

drink plentyof milk


living
eat
good-sizedquantitiesof fresh, green vegetablestake
exercise
in the open air sleepat least
every day,preferably
eighthours every night.
that
A football team
be littlebetter than its signal-caller
can
is to
dependsupon the playsit uses.
say, its success
There are
three thingsthat I wish to do before I die go to
Beach
of Waikiki
invitingwaters
Europe bathe in the warm,

7. This is his program

8.

goldstandard, and

the

on

for healtMul

Taj Mahal.
Chase

Stuart

the

most

He

has

very

the milk

of human

kindness

substitute is soft

obvious
a

"For

wrote

once

soap."
he cannot
leg consequently,

sore

the

make

trip.
12. The

letter began "Dear


last letter

your
been

13.

14.

The

had

notice

should

to

great

17. There

is

this however,

used

He

then

15

10

extent

put

answer

I have

on

one

one

Street,Broad
astound

off
rattling

the

and JulietIV

Please

wipe

The

on

at

least

coat

trait

two

look like

your

source

of flat

paint,

collegedepends
to concentrate.
namely,the ability
in

success

the

street

in

names

Street, and

Street,Bank

his friends

coats

of varnish.

about
nothingvery original
to

be

must
lights

sharp."

experiencethat

Romeo

to

it "All

ring to

give that chair

Main

town

ominous

an

then you should


16. It has been our

20.

to

occupied that I have not had time to give my


the thoughtit deserved."
answer
At 12 15 last nightour
telephonerang loudlybut when I
answered
it, nobody replied.

15. You

19.

promptly than

more

I intended

so

at
extinguished

18.

President Smith

so

our

on.

by quoting somethingand

for it, such

as

Macbeth

2,

or

1.

feet

our
carefully,

pigsty.
Johns Hopkins Universityhas

front hall is

beginning

six divisions

Collegeof
199

COLON

THE

and

Arts

School, School

Medical

which
My itinerary,
morning, is certain

21.

it will take

When

22.

he

his head

back

troubled

times

and

one

began

ahead

but
adjustments,
23.

the travel agent this


thingfor me, if nothingelse

in Europe.
important art galleries
of the university
threw
speak,the president

to

rose

do

lege,
Col-

McCoy

from

I obtained
to

Health, and

of Public

all the

to

me

School,

Collegefor Engineers,Graduate

Sciences,

"Ladies

and

gentlemen,in

shall be called upon

we

there is

to
principle
of speech."

one

make

to

which

the

many
must

we

it is freedom
clingtenaciously
In our
modern, complicated
society,students must do three
of all information before
thingstheymust ask for the source
they believe it they must learn to recognize bad reasoning
they must send to their lawmaking bodies only well qualified

representatives.
The

24.

but

train

when

definite
25.

scheduled

was

we

left the

create

in

30, there

his address

purpose

at

45,

still no

was

of

"The

school

trade

trained
puttingpractically

other things,
to
exists,among
jobsthe university
and expand the sciences
that providethe jobs."

27

EXERCISE

paper, write these sentences,


semicolons where they should

your

colons,and
1. These

are

the words

great empire and


2. I should
to
to

Milwaukee

into

men

On

at

in

of its arrival.

said

exists for the admirable

arrive

station

of the time

news

Isaiah Bowman

Dr.

to

like

to

Burke

be.
fine

statesman

go ill together."
this motion
that we
appoint

"A

littleminds
make

studythe

the Board

of Edmund

placingcommas,

whole

question and

mittee
com-

report the findings

of Directors.

3. When

she gave the girl


advice Mrs. Martin quotedthis very
appropriateline "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may."
4. Edmund
Burke
of handling
the
to force as a means
objected
colonies for these four
it

impairs the

using it.
200

reasons

objectand

it is uncertain

England has had

it is
no

temporary

experiencein

pointwhich

5. One
is

you

plurals

and

possessives

apostrophe:

THE

is this Walt

will all concede

Whitman

in American
of the greatestfigures
poetry.
framework
of the bill is as follows the commission

one

6. The

of

consist

chairman

and

four members

will
the

appointedby

of the Senate.
to the approval
subject
8:50
him a telegramwhich
said "Meet
We
sent
Pacific train from Spokane."
President

7.

questionswhich

8. The

these

are

shall

we

plan the improvements and shall this


elected?
committee
be appointed
or
the evidence of the lie
Scientists do not
on
relyentirely
detector for an obvious reason
all peopleare not frightened
by a third degree.
The train stoppedbetween
white fields ahead the snow
two
have

9.

10.

had

committee

to

buried the tracks.

26.

The

apostropheis
and

nouns

POSSESSIVES

APOSTROPHE:

THE

AND

of

decide

must

we

Northern

PLURALS

used

indicate

to

of pronouns

like

the

possessivecase

anybody,someone,

one,

everybody.
Carl's book
Someone's

26a.

hat

was

left in the locker

apostrophe and
singularnouns.

Use

of all

lost.

was

an

to

form

room.

the

possessive

boy's,dog's,doctor's, lady's,James's,Dickens's,
Jones's

Mr.

Note:
1. The

before the s if the word


is
apostrophecomes
singular.
2. Singularnouns
ending normallyin s may omit the
second s. The apostrophewill then be placedafter the s
which

is

part of the

noun.

James'ch: James's(But

not

Jame's)
201

26b-cl
Keats'

or

Dickens'

Keats's

(But

Dickens's

or

If the addition
add

APOSTROPHE:

THE

of

an

POSSESSIVES

AND

PLURALS

Keat's)
(But not Dickens)
not

in pronunciation,
difficulty

causes

only the apostrophe.


princess'
Aristophanes',

26b.
of

Use

apostrophe alone
ending in s.

an

pluralnouns

after this

form

formed

pluralsare

Most

to

by adding -5.
Section 39d. )

(See

s.

the possessive

Place

the apostrophe

friends'
boys',dogs',doctors',soldiers',

that end

Nouns

The
plurals.

in

the

must
singular

of these

possessiveform

after the final


The

in the

pluralsdo
possessive.

has

nouns

for the

-es
an

trophe
apos-

s.

burned

house
Joneses'

few

add

end

not

last

in

s.

night.

These

add

must

to

form

men's, women's, children's,


people's
26c.

When

two

the

or

more

sign of the

people possess
possessive is added

thing

to

the

gether,
to-

last

v/ord.
I'llmeet

Henderson,
Second

We

went

Levy

at

you

Brown's

and

store.

Company'sbranch

Sellers,and

ofiice is

on

Avenue.
into

Ed

and

John'sroom

to

see

their school

pennants.
26d.

Add

the

apostrophe to
phrase.

somebody else'sbook
my mother-in-law's house
sister-in-law (Singular)
202

the last member

of

pound
com-

APOSTROPHE:

THE

AND

POSSESSIVES

sister-in-law'shouse

26e-h

PLXmALS

(Singular
possessive)

sisters-in-law

(Plural)I have three sisters-in-law.


sisters-in-law's (Pluralpossessive)
all
sisters-in-law's dispositions
are

My

26e.

apostrophe with
ownership is indicated.
Use

and
Sally's

Use

an

of

omission

Roger'ssisters

apostrophe in
a

are

when

noun

Helen's dates for the dance

Albert's and

26f.

each

an

ful.
cheer-

brightand

rate
sepa-

both very tall.

are

blondes.

contractions

indicate

to

the

letter.

don't

(do not)
can't (cannot)
haven't (have not)
shan't (shallnot)

Althoughthe II in shall and the


is used.
shan't,onlyone apostrophe

Note:
in

in not

are

omitted

26g. Use an apostrophe and s to form the pluralof


letter,figure,or word considered as a word.
There

theme

Your
He

Note:

wrote

r's in my

two

are

has

before

Wrong:

words

used

in

this way

are

)
of

noun

or

pronoun

is used

gerund.

I do not

Be

34c.

possessivecase

Right:I do
Wrong: Has
Right:Has
Note:

too

and
Letters, figures,

The

name.

end's.
many
three 2's on the paper.

italicized. (See Section


26h.

of

Johnplayingfootball.
of John's playing
football.
not approve
Father agreedto you studyingGerman?
German?
Father agreedto your studying
approve

careful

to

between
distinguish

the

gerund and
203

THE

possessives

apostrophe:

plurals

and

Although they look exactlyalike, the parparticiple.


ticiple
is
used
whereas the gerund
as
is used as an adjective,
noun.
(See Section 3g.)

the

of saw;
do not

letter.

John'swriting without
(Writingis the objectof like and is

26i.

(Correct.John is the object


merelymodifies John.)
writing,a participle,

John writinga

saw

like

careful to

Be

apostrophe only when

the

use

knowledge.
my
therefore a gerund.)
it is

needed.
in formal English,
indicating
living
onlynouns
Usually,
thingsare used in the possessivecase. Some organizations
composed of livingpeople may be considered possessive.

1.

the

Correct:

the

company'splan
streets
city's

Informal: the desk's top


Correct:
the top of the desk
of time
expressions
be possessive.

2. Some

may
A

3. Be

week's

pay,
breadth, for

month's

some

rest,

idiomatic

today'spaper,

sions
expres-

hair's

sake
goodness'

that the word

sure

and

is

completedbefore

the

phe
apostro-

is used.

Wrong:

Charle's

4. Be

careful

Mr. Jone's
car
hat, Mr. Hopkin'snew
finger,
Mr. Jones's
(or Jones')
Right:Charles's (or Charles')finger,
Mr. Hopkins's(or Hopkins')new
car
hat,,

endinga
Wrong:

not

to

use

an

before
apostrophe

after

verb.
He

Right:He
5. Never

lives' near
lives
use

near

the

us.
us.

to
apostrophe

(See Section 14.)


objective
plural.
204

or

form

the nominative

or

apostrophe:

THE

The

Smiths'

The

have just come


Jones's

The

present was

Wrong:

Right:The

Smiths

present

were

from

at

the party.
home.

the Raiders'.

The

present at the party.


home.
Joneseshave justcome

The

present

were

was

be

6. In contractions

where

plurals

and

possessives

letter has been

from

the Raiders.

sure

to

exactly
put the apostrophe

omitted.

Wrong: do'nt, have'nt,whos'


Right:don't,haven't,who's
Who's

Note:

means

"who

book

is this?

is." The

is

possessive
pronoun

whose.
Whose
Who's

7. Do

at

not

use

the door?
an

apostrophewith

ending in

pronouns

-selves.

or
-self

Oneself, themselves
used to
is never
apostrophe
personal
pronouns (hers,yours,

8. The

of

case

The
Do

not

dog wagged
confuse the

form
ours,

the

possessive
his,its,theirs )
.

its tail. (Possessive)

form
possessive

its with the contraction

it's(itis).
It's a beautiful

day.
EXERCISE

28

in the
contain
errors
followingsentences
and the possessive
of apostrophes
On your paper
case.
use
where they are
these sentences, addingapostrophes
rewrite
words in which
needed, correcting
apostropheshave been
used incorrectly,
or
making any other necessary change.
for making each change.If a sentence
Write your reason
is

Most

of the

correct, do

not

rewrite

it,but write

beside

its number.

205

THE

1. After Bobs

apostrophe:

part

in

the

possessives

play was

and

he

over,

plurals

in
collapsed

the

room.
dressing

2. I like the book

3. In music

because

the authors

appreciationclass

styleis clear

learned

we

about

and

lating.
stimu-

cians
musi-

various

lives.
4.

Any

educated

the

opinionon

persons

would

matter

be worth

considering.
5. Anne

Hathaway was

6. Dickens
7.

James

8. We

books

are

wife.
Shakespeare's
class,
very popularin our

brother Allen is

all like Frances

our

clerk.

new

singing.

9. It's nobody's
business what

I do with

10. Is that hat yours or hers?


11. My sister-in-laws house has

justbeen

12. The
13.

The

14. The

have

desks
stenographers

money.

my

sold.

all been

painted.
embroidered
princessclothes were
beautifully.
firemens struggle
the building
heroic
to save
was

but

futile.
15. All requests for tickets
For

17.

My respect for my
home
training.
Arrangements were
mothers'

19.

church

made

Pinemans

and

her brother

20.

One

of the Tibetan

21.

The

Bermans'

Adantic

23.

to

the

womens

mittee.
com-

it'sbeliefs is

and

the food

have

to

result of my

preparedby

the

group.

Sue

22.

sent

pityssake, do something.

16.

18.

be

must

parents

went

staved

to

with

Bismarck

last week, and

Sue

us.

radio.
draggedaway the plane's
at
their niece to spend the weekend

natives

invited

City.

ThanksgivingDay we have
the two boys high schools.
My parents finally
gave in and
On

the annual

said I could

game

get my

between

drivers

license.
24.

The

considered
neighbor's
of interest

25. The
been
206

day'send came
workingfor

Dunstan

ten

spiteful
person,

capable
in-

persons welfare.
quicklythat I couldnt believe I had

in another
so

hours.

THE

apostrophe:

possessives

plurals

and

29

EXERCISE

Follow

the directions in Exercise

28.

1. In the

2.

theater,the womens
Shakespearean
by young boys.
Pepys diarygivesan excellent pictureof

played

partswere

the time's in whicli

he lived.
3. Ellen combs

the

she

day,but

fur every

cats

clipsits

never

claws.
4. Who's

house

is this?

with mud.
white gloveswere
spattered
policemens
matics
in matheOne
in history
and two
years work
years work
are
necessary for graduation.
the ideas
This years Press is a real students paper, reflecting
and thoughtsof the student body.
There is no
record of that oflRcer havingbeen assigned
to
the duty mentioned.

5. The
6.

7.

8.

9. Mother
10.

The

not

to

hospital.
Bright's

Dr.

decision

citizens

call

to

buyersstrike.
government should

being sacrificed
When

Fifteen years
to handle
our

15. The

to

fur

it'sinfluence

use

to

was

quarrel.
robbed last night,
the
her

and

coat

two

clients investments
from

came

by the Burtons.
Somebodys coat has

man

thieves took

sisters watches.

experiencein bankingmakes

flowers which

prevent the

local

Janes house

her mothers
14.

Charlotte.

James writingto

next
are
headquarters
to hear of the
surprised

were

12. The

13.

of

approve

nurses'

11. We
a

does

with

it

for
possible

us

skill.

Hazlitt and

Paine's

store

were

sent

16.

17. At

Mr.

Carltons

been

left

on

I
suggestion,

am

the Clarks

porch.
sendingyou samplesof

materials for childrens dresses.


18.

I cannot

19.

We

had

Conner
and

21.

The

Rivers

Doris

Chambers

to help you.
refusing
orchestra,and the girlsfavors

school seals.

were

20.

understand

and

Evans

the goods on
business,including

all the companys


sold for
was
fixtures,
United
Automobile
Companys annual

stockholders

dividend

hand

$130,000.

report shows

of 4 percent,
207

"

22.

mail there
yesterdays
Office Supply Company.

23.

In

ladies purse
and

Benton

24.

with

was

dress

order from

an

of

monogram

Kings store

J. M.
T

two

was

Hawkins

lost in

Friday.

on

sister-in-laws wedding dress

My

MABKS

QUOTATION

from

came

the

new

womens

departmentat Hughes departmentstore.

25. There

have

Houston

been

in the papers

football franchise

gettinga

articles about

great many
in

the

All-American

Conference.

27.

27a.

Quotation

the

at

end

MARKS

QUOTATION
marks

of the

are

used

at

words

exact

the

which

beginning and
a

person

says

(direct quotations).

Right:Scott said, "I am going home."


Right:Scott said that he was going home.
Scott said "that he

Wrong:
The

and

second

quotation.The
the sentence;

was

third

exact

contain

sentences

words

which

Scott

an

used

are

indirect
not

in

quotationmarks are necessary.


If
The
first word
in a direct quotation is capitalized.
the quotationis introduced
by an expressionsuch as he
must
said,a comma
precedethe opening quotationmarks.
Martin

If the

therefore

going home."

no

said,"It looks like rain."


does

end with the

a comma
quotation,
is requiredbefore the closing
quotationmarks, unless the
of the quotationcalls for some
of the sentence
structure
or
other mark of punctuation.
(See Section 27f )

sentence

not

Martin

said,"It looks like rain,"but

Lana

with
disagreed

him.

If the
marks

onlyat
208

quotationconsists

do not

the

introduce

each

beginningand

of several sentences,
sentence.

end of

an

Use

unbroken

quotation
quotationmarks
quotation.

^imW

MARKS

QUOTATION

PerhapsI
go downtown.
change the arrangements.I'lllet you know in

said,"I have

She

could
few

Oliver

promisedto

minutes."
Wendell

Autocrat
of the
says in The
is a
"This business of conversation

Holmes

Breakfast Table:
serious

There

matter.

thoughtsdo
If there is

should
but

paragraph
used

are

27c.

not

be

used

dialogue,every
separate paragraph.
"It

never

must

the

at

cessively
ex-

includes

eral
sev-

of poetry, quotation
of
each
beginning

of each

of the last

In

"I've

stanzas

the end

at

the end

at

run

several

or

are

some

long quotation which

paragraphs
marks

not

espritwho

ers
They are the talkpeople.
may be called jerkyminds. Their
in the natural order of sequence."

what

that have

of

men

are

to
exhausting

27b.

m9^W^

paragraph. They
paragraph only.
of

change

speaker requiresa

gone to a better dance," said Jessie.


have been great fun," answered
Ida. "Who

took

you?"
"I

went

with
we

27d.

Ed, and
all went

Paul

Sallyand
to

Saunders'

for

wards
joinedus. Aftera
hamburger."

If the

quotation is broken by an expression like


he said, Mary answered, this expression must
be
not
included in the quotation marks.
go,"he said,"be sure to let me know."
afraid that I can't
"I am
"No," Andrew
objected,
solution."
that you have found the right
"If you

If

quotationbroken

composed
period,an
end of each

of

than

more

exclamation

by

expressionlike

an

be

sentence,

one

point,or

he

said is

to

sure

questionmark

agree

use

the

at

sentence.

"It's raininghard," Harold

picnicin

the rain. Do

you

said. "There
want

to

is

no

fun

on

go home?"

209

"^P
quotation mside another
single quotation marks.

27e.
in

QUOTATION

quotation is enclosed

"When

her
telephoned

last night,"
said

again and again,'Don't worry.


27f. Commas

and

Gary,"she

I won't let you

placed inside

periodsare

MARKS

colons

and

the

told

me
"

down.'

closing

placed
exclamation
points are
ing
quotation marks, accord-

quotation marks; semicolons


outside; question marks and

are

placed inside or outside the


to the meaning of the sentence.
heard

We

heard

so

"Don't

for me," and

wait

then

we

sudden

cry.
"Don't
said,
worry."

Andrew
The

Phyllis
say,

postman said,"I

depressedthat

This is what

Jim

receive

never

shared

we

when

meant

any

mail";he looked

with him.
postcards
said,"Bringeverything

our

he

shall need":

food, feed for the horses, bedrolls,


cookingutensils,and warm
clothing.
He asked, "Who
has my knife?" (The question mark
is
we

part of the quotation.)


Did

Nancy really
say, "I won't go"? (The questionmark
is not part of the quotation.)

Rob
is

How

cried,"There

in

point is

not

quotation marks
nontechnical writfng.
Use

This is
A

Note:

to
likely

common

Use

(The exclamation

part of the quotation.)


amazed
I was
to hear her say, "You

exclamation

27g.

hat!"

goes my

be unfamiliar

(The

part of the quotation.)

to

"watered"
heavily
problemin home

quotationmarks

have won"!

point

enclose

technical terms

issue of stock.

aquariumsis "greenwater."

onlyif the

term

is

one

which

is

your reader. For example,do not


enclose in quotation marks the names
of parts of an automobile
engine;though they are technical terms, they are

familiar
210

to most

to

people.

MARKS

QUOTATION

27h.

In formal

words

which
The

quotationmarks

writing use

suggest

different level of usage.

opinion is
prevailing

the Board

The

of Directors

that President

Slade

that their decision

conducted

symphony was

enclose

to

by a

was

informed
eyed."
"cock-

"stuflFedshirt."

Caution:

always go in pairs.Be careful to


beginningand the end of a quotation.
quotationmarks to indicate humor.

Quotation marks

1.

both
2. Do

not

the
use

dicate
in-

quotation marks to enclose titlesof magazine


short poems.
short stories, and
(See Section
articles,

27i.

Use

34a.)
"The

Bug," a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, is


the earlyclassics of detective fiction.
"To a Skylark"?
read Shelley's
ever
poem

Gold
of

one

Have

you

EXERCISE

30

the followingdialogue,
adding
paper, write
quotationmarks and other punctuation where necessary,
On

and

your

new
beginning

paragraphswhen

required:

longtalk last nightsaid BettyLou. He thinks


that we
should go steady,
hard to
but my mother is definitely
deal with. Parents can
be such problemssympathizedJacqueline.
mother
agine
Imme
My
alwaysinsists upon calling
Jacqueline.
It's onlywith my own
friends,
giving a girlsuch a name.
understand
who
that I can
be called Jackie.
be
It would
me,
did you tell
romantic
to go steadywith Ralph.What
definitely
Ralph and

him?

What

I had

could

I tell him?

My

mother's

same

old line. Girls

should

know

cetera.

Jackiesippedher

behave

she said. If you went


steadywith Ralph you'dalways
a boy
good date for every dance. If you don't go steady,

have
can

number

alwaysmake

of

boys.I'm

lemonade.

date with

someone

et
young to go steady,
It'sterrificthe way parents
too

else.

Betty Lou

sighed.
211

I
Oh

ACHIEVEMENT

well, there's nothingI

friend of hers

do.

can

ON

TESTS

My

mother

PUNCTUATION

even

invited

some

ested
bringher son for dinner so that I'd get interin somebody besides Ralph. I didn't like him
at all. Hi,
into the drug store;
Sonny, she called as a blond youth came
what's on your mind? Parents answered
the boy,joiningthe two
trouble.
girls.
They give a guy more
to

28. ACHIEVEMENT

TESTS

Achievement

28a.

Test

ON

on

PUNCTUATION

semicolons,

commas,

co*

Ions, apostrophes, quotation marks.


On

the

followingsentences, placing
If any punctuathey are required.
tion
used, make any necessary
incorrectly

paper, write
punctuationmarks where
your

marks

have

been

Write

corrections.

your

sentence

requiresno

C beside

its number.

1. When
2. The

for each

reason

correction, do

the lecturer arrived


sales volume

at

rewrite

the hall

8 30

was

If

it;but write

filled.

consequently
declining
its advertising
appropriation.
and conservac
ourteous
tive
friendly

of the company

the management
increased
3. A business letter should be

not

correction.

was

in statement.

4. If businessmen
can

improve

5. The

interested
really

are

it in many

speakersmanner

in their

government

they

ways.

pleasingbut

was

his enunciation

was

poor.
6. When

Joan arrived

we

were

in the midst

of great preparations

for my

7.

fiftiethwedding anniversary.
grandparents
the commissioner
Accordingto reports made by R. T. McClintook
of publicroads the proposedhighway will greatly
aid trafiicbetween
Easton
Maryland and Charleston South
Carolina.

pleasedto notifyyou that in accordance with vour


have opened a charge account
request of February 10 we

8. We

are

for you.
9. Dont

when

212

get excited said Jane, Mother


she

comes

to

see

you.

will

bring the

books

ACHIEVEMENT

10.

TESTS

Williamson

Martin

Wendover
the
11.

Its

PUNCTUATION

ON

of Mr.

son

Road

and Mrs.

Delaware

Dover

scholarships.
that the club
likely

will

for

selected

was

into its

move

Williamson

Peter

918

of

one

quarters next

new

month.
thing
policemenswhistles I thoughtthat somedreadful had happened.
of the characters' was
presentedwith great care,

12. When

13.

Each
a

14.

I heard

the

result the novel

was

very

was
originof this quarrel

15.

16.

17. In

cant

we

get your

can

the

Jim

had

felt

quite smart

Dr.

Martin

Ellen
20.

21.

22.

23.

25.

going to

use

ours.

his father's

when

for

worked

men

for the

car

occasion,

and

Buick.
helpedme into the new
of the societysent letters of
president

Baum

he

Hubert

Enders

Dr.

Mark

Candell

and

vitation
in-

Dr.

Harrington.
and

and

womens

Company

childrens

new

store

has

sale of

clothes.

Ralph has no regardfor other peoplesproperty for instance


last nighthe put his feet up on
sofa.
Mrs.
Simpsons new
Gustavus
is often called the father of
Adolphus of Sweden
modern
field artillery
he standardized
the calibers
because
of his guns
brought into existence
lightercarriages and
placedpowder and projectile
together.
The

captain gave

the sailors
24.

unless

said David

Sam

long hours in
faced the people.
prisonsconstantly

debtors

Dr.

the game
father is

century

Randolph, Brown
mens

My

car.

borrowed

to

to

go

nineteenth

factories and

19.

taxation.

this

afraid

Im

you

18.

avowed

periodthe first organizedresistance began and


number
of employeeslookingfor a solution of their problems
joinedlabor unions.

During
a

striking.

the publicand
indisputable

fact is clear and

One

as

Along the

to

for everyone
the sails.

orders

lower

to

go below

and

told

paradepeoplelined the streets filled


the windows
and added
silhouette
of oflRce buildings
a
new
the rooftops.
to
The
proposedbridge,which will cost $1,397,000, will be
valuable

to

route

many

of the

businessmen.
213

ACHIEVEMENT

28b.

Achievement

Test

II

TESTS

on

ON

PUNCTUATION

semicolons, colons,

commas,

apostrophes, quotation marks.


Follow
1. I
2.

3.

the directions

given for

Achievement

Test

I.

about

Ralph going to college.


residents
Fredleysstore will be glad to grant credit to new
who want
exclusive tailoring,
In Walter
Reeds
men
experiment with yellowfever some
and
sterile rooms
others sleptin a
were
put in perfectly
victims clothing.
placethat contained yellow-fever
not

am

4. The

sure

groups claimed that if price controls


would increase goodswould pour
production

pressure

were

leased
re-

into the

priceswould control themselves.


5. In the final vote, twenty boys expresseda willingness
to
method; five turned down the plan;and three
try the new
markets

voted

and

for it with

amendment.

an

approacheda small
lonelycountry road we were

6. As

we

full of uncultivated

were

7. Waterview

will

Avenue

plans,for Totem

desolate

farm

attracted
and

cotton

playan

by

the fields which

tobacco.

important part

will be connected

Street

the side of

on

to

in the

Waterview

city's
by

bridge2,300 feet long.


When
the bullybeat up one
of Hanks
friends a short skinny
fellow who
limped Hank rushed to the rescue.
has taughtus the difference
A
in critical thinking
course
fact and opinion truth and propaganda and good
between
a

8.

9.

bad

and
10.

11.

of information.

sources

they failed to realize the


of war
it was
until the
not
engines consequently
power
that these weapons
time of Alexander
were
developed.
In the morning of one
had a
of our
last days at camp
we
As

as
practical

the Greeks

dress rehearsal which


could
12.

I want
room

13.

not

The

to

stay up late
find

in the

medical
and

eyes
214

nose

was

out

at

were

given for the young

night.

if there is
any

chance

dormitory.
clinics occupiedthe
consisted

throat and

of
ears.

children who

rooms

for

second

of

Jack gettinga

pensary
floor of the dis-

treatingdiseases of the

ACHIEVEMENT

TESTS

PUNCTUATION

ON

work
in laboratories and months
years of secret
limited commercial
operationthis powerfuldevice was

of

14. After

at

last
15.

ready for the public.


has
My practical
experience in selling

Green

and

of the Dalton
16.

Infant

Hoskins

Department
Company.

Motor

obtained

been
and

the

in

in

offices

for art
shared my
fellow art majors who
zest
my
who liked to spend their free time with the paintsand

Among
and

brushes

I found

the kind

of

I
companionship

had

longed

for since

earlychildhood.
eighto'clock Marion

17. At

best clothes and

our

18.

the

21. A
at

me

Marian

sale of

womens

Prestons

While
and

for his

continued
the

found

were

this

three-year-old

time.

same

joy the child rushed into the


John has given me a littlewhite

and

wrote.

and

clothes

misses

nearlycaused

yesterday.
and straightforward
in mind

store

Settle
she

was

of

worst

by

thingswhich

Dr.

Phelpswho

the

nurses

at

her husband

offenses

but
pettishness

worried

of the

action

of

man

sense

after his death

her friends.

graduationexercises

of the month
some

schools in their eagerness for progress


much
emphasison medication and methods.
the

and

riot

impertinentjokeslittle

were

will retire at the end

their

noblemen.

natures

short fits of

lies and

she did many

one

restrained

was

firmness her

white

24.

Forest

lost since

Bozo

Simple clear bold


Colonel

23.

dog

shoutingUncle
rabbit. May I keep it?
I am
sendingyou a sampleof Chinese brocade from Nortons
shop and should greatlyappreciateHelen tryingto match
it for

22.

his

National

Hvingroom
20.

in

the theater.

disappearedat

excitement

got dressed

we
cheerfully

and

Lynn

search

sister Estelle who

Filled with

to

the Coconine

but

morning
19.

went

Five-year-old
Tommy

Thursdayin

said

nurses
are

said

to

ing
train-

placingtoo

Remember

that

person is your firstconcern.


25. Please follow these directions for typing the paper
Double-spacethe lines.
care

Use
Write

patientas

1/2-inch left-hand
all headingsin

margin.

capitals.
215

29a-b
PERIOD

29. THE

29a.

PERIOD

THE

Use

tive
completedeclara-

the end of every

periodat

sentence.
It

was

cold, dismal day.

Althoughhis

health

poor, he

was

decided

to

leave the

sanatorium.

go ahead
home.

with your

You

proposedtrip;I

shall remain

at

Note:
1. Do
of

as
completeunits
fragments
stand for completeexpressions.
they obviously

not

sentence

punctuate

thought unless
(See Section 55.)
"I

Correct:

want

"All

go with

to

you."

right."

"When

do

you

leave?"

"Tomorrow."
Incorrect:

fast

Walking as
At

2. Periods

marks

(See

Section

before you
Leave
the house

Use

used

are

Look

29b.

30a.

envelope
postmarkwas

awake.

are

mildlyimperativesentences;
after vigorously
imperative

once!

at

James Smith, Esq.,was


The

few

leap.

periodafter

when

also used after

are

exclamation
sentences.

earlyhour

an

he could.

as

standard

director of the

addressed

was

abbreviation,

to

Paul

enterprise.

Travin, M.D.;

the

London.

(b. 1875; d. 1937)


10; bbl.;n.b.;qt.;p.m.

Henry Jones,D.D.
Dec.

Note:
1. Abbreviations

agenciesand
216

some

of

the

names

international

of

some

government

organizations
are

generally

EXCLAMATION

if the lettersform
periods,
especially
be pronouncedas a word.
can

that
UNESCO

Iceland

and

member

with the ordinal numbers

1st,2nd, and

so

the

command,

phrase

when

they

on.

POINTS

exclamation

emphasis, or

AND

MARKS

QUESTION
Use

original

period.

30. EXCLAMATION

30a.

twelve

abbreviation of the Latin

without

it is written

written

bination
com-

of NATO.

nations

periodis used

3. No

4, 1946.

the

among

were

Althoughpercent is an

per centum,

November

beingon

into

came

Norway

are

30ci-c

MARKS

QUESTION

without

written

2.

AND

POINTS

point

to

surprise,

express

strong emotion.

Help!Help!
What!
How

30b.

Are

luckywe

Use

certain?

you

to

are

have

question mark

such

good weather!
end

the

at

of every

direct

question.
Do

you

Why
Caution:

are

Do

the whole

know
really
so

you
not

use

eager

the

to

go

story?
Island?

to Sea

questionmark

after

an

indirect

question.
I

Wrong:

was

Right:I
30c.

Use

express

asked

whether

asked whether

was

I wanted

to
to

question mark enclosed


doubt or uncertainty.
shipsshown

Swallow, and

in

Richardson
Do

not

was

overuse

in this paintingare

the

go?
go.

The

Caution:

I wanted

parenthesesto
the
Washington,

the

LadijClinton {?).

born

in

the

1900

(?)

in Selma.

questionmark

for this purpose.


217

31a-b
If it is

THE

for
impossible

needed, you may

lazy excuse
questionmark
as

use

you to find the


the questionmark.

for

not

to

express

31. THE

Careless

writers

When

Wrong:

we

dark

the

use

dash

that the

colon.

reached

home,

the

style.

makes

substitute for

as

house

opened the door and

we

"

not

it

use

sensational

the dash

use

a semicolon, or
period,

Do

not

result,they sprinkle
friendly

dashes. Never

letters with

makes

think

sometimes

As
chatty,informal style.

do

But

DASH

of the dash

frequentuse

Too

information

exact

doing research.
ironyor humor.

DASH

completely

was

his

Jo-Jowagging

saw

tail.

Right:When

reached

we

dark. We

home,

opened the

door

the

house

and

saw

completely

was

his

Jo-Jowagging

tail.

31a.

Use

dash

Here

is

indicate

to

fuller

break

or

shift of

thought.

explanationbut perhapsyou

not

are

"

interested.
is the

He

despicablebut

most

"

I should

not

say any

more.

Do

Note:

we

Omit

can

"

the

we

periodwhen

Well, if that

is how

the

Use

dash

am

or

dash.

"

to

parentheticalmatter

ends with

statement

the trustees?

to

you feel

George began,"May
31b.

such action

propose

"

I ask

ofF

set
to

"
"

secure

sharply distinguished
emphasis or suspense.

I repeat
unalterably
opposed unalterably,
"

"

to

this

suggestion.
She

was

aware

"

she

must

have

known

hopeless.
I should
pleased delighted,

that the proposal

"

was

was

"

excellent report.

218

say

"

to

hear

your

^S IC^^d

DASH

THE

material set oflFby dashes


parenthetical
requires an exclamation point or question mark, such
punctuationshould precedethe second dash.
the

When

Note:

If I should miss the train

"

forbid!

heaven

I'lltelephone

"

you.

31c.

the dash

Use

indicate the omission

to

of words

or

letters.
General
The
Note:

was

"

Civil War

The

dash

an

excellent soldier.

fought1861-1865.

was

used with numbers

is

short dash.

3 Id. The

dash

separate

long appositiveexpressions from

may

be

used

instead

of the

to

comma

the rest of

sentence.

All

the

hounds

dogs

in

town

lined up

"

"

dalmatians, dachshunds, deer

for the animal

EXERCISE

parade.

31

sentences,
your paper, rewrite the following
dashes where they are required:

placing

On

1. Col.

from

John Hudson

Kansas, you know

foughtin

France

in 1942.

2. When

I looked

4.

5.

6.

my

heart misses

beat

even

now

at

the

huge beast before me!


You are
shall I say?too matter-of-fact to do such
too how
a hotheaded
thing.
From
1922 to 1925 perhapsit was
1921 1925 the man
made
of the cityof Los Angeles.
a
canvass
As I was
walkingalongWaverly Place but before that I
should mention
the sightI saw
Street
on
Twenty-first
He was
who wore
hat and a topcoat a
straw
a
a
largeman
I assure
very odd sight,
you.
very memory

3.

up

7. The

food

was

saw

excellent,but the boarders

certain no, I am
that
reasonably
positive
this if you will onlygive it a fair trial.

8. I

am

you

will like

219

THE

AND

HYPHEN

EXERCISE

SYLLABIFICATION

32

the followingsentences, placing


your paper, rewrite
exclamation
periods,
points,and questionmarks where they
On

required:

are

1. The

letter was

addressed

follows: "Milton

as

Johnson,M

D,

Barton, Nev"
feverish you

2. How

Shall I call Dr.


3. Ouch
4.

5.
6.

Watch

Are

seem

Jones You

where

you certain
be ill

must

right

going

are

you

all

are

you

reason" asked Adam


leavingAny particular
Please stop that You know
crying onlymakes you feel worse
asked
He
John if he would go John emphaticallysaid,
is he

"Why

"Never"
7. Are
8.

quite certain that he holds the degreeof

you

Fiftypercent, of

the

the others all left on


9. Isn't it

10.

Bob
but

is stillnot

will work

The

and

hyphen

is

It indicates

more

at

year

quite

HYPHEN

Use

both

born

the

Universityof Minnesota,

try

or

AND

were

mark

that two

he
whether, after college,
to

hyphen

to

earn

degree of

SYLLABIFICATION
of

words

for correct, clear

20;

Browne

of tion.
punctuaword
two
or
parts of one
mechanical
device which
than
spelling

writing.It

from the dash, which


distinguished
is the act or method
Syllabification
syllables.
32a.

Dec

Mrs

certain

The hyphen is
belongtogether.
is necessary

holidayson

22

for his father

32. THE

the

11, 1908
his fourth

is in

he

Dec

strange that Dr

December

on

boys left for

should

be

sharply

longer.
words
of dividing

is

join the parts

of

into

compound

word.
The

use

Do
greatly.
a

220

of

hyphen

in

not

attempt

to

standard

joiningcompound
learn the

dictionary.

numerous

words

varies

sult
rules; con-

SYLLABIFICATION

AND

HYPHEN

THE

Hyphens

used:
generally

are

1. Between

two

or

words

more

modifying a

substantive

a well-bred
singleadjective:
person; a neveradverbs
incident. But when
ending in -lij
to-be-forgotten
the hyphen is not used: highly
in such expressions,
occur
seasoned
food. (Do not mistake adjectives
ending in -lij
for adverbs. Write
a
tune, a manly-looki7ig
lively-sounding
boy.)
numerals
the parts of compound
2. Between
(from
) fifty-two;
eighty-four.
twenty-one to ninety-nine

and

used

as

denominator

and

the numerator

3. Between

of

fraction:

four-fifths
majority.
the

4. Between

parts of certain

verbs: actor-manager;
dress.
to dry-clean
a
and

verbs,
adcompound nouns,
well-nighhopelesstask;

between
the short mark (period,
carefully
Distinguish
and
dot) generallyused by dictionaries to divide syllables
the longer mark
(hyphen) used to link two words. (See
Note:

37. )

Section

32b.

Use

broken

hyphen

of

the end

at

The

indicate

to

word

line.

ramblingold house,
better if it

the division of

it is true, would

ably
look consider-

freshlypainted.

were

Note:
1. Do

avoid

the

word

at

the end

of

line if you

can

doing so.

2. Place
at

divide

not

the

hyphen at the
beginningof the second.
divide

of the first line, never

Such words
as
syllable.
though,ground,death, grace, quick,asked,
purse, through,
and breadth cannot
be divided. Write the completeword
on
3. Never

the first line, or


word

over

to

word

end

leave

the next

of

blank

one

space

and

carry the whole

line.
221

"

Consult

determine

dictionaryto
your
of words. It is easier
syllabification
4.

than

learn

to

the

Prefixes and

Compound
Two

suffixes may
words

consonants

are
are

the

correct

authority

an

rules for

various

followingsuggestionsmay

consult

to

BRACKETS

AND

PABENTHESES

be
be

The

dividingwords.
however:
helpful,
written
separately.

divided

between

their main

parts.

usuallydivided.
EXERCISE

33

which of the
determine
the aid of your dictionary,
words
are
following
compounds and should be written with
1. With

hyphens:notebook,

mother inlaiv,understand,

tight,
airlaborsaving,
bathroom, foregoing,
selfstarter,
hangeron,blowout, quietspoken,hardworking,
thirtynine,
crazyquilt.
onstage,
words:
2. Syllabify
the following
symphony,revolt,delicious,
radiation, carefully,
torpedo,chemical, heighten,throughout,
grounded.

33. PARENTHESES
Do

confuse

not

used

BRACKETS

AND

brackets

off inserted

[] and parentheses
( ) Brackets
.

merely
incidental to the context, especially
made
comments
by
other than the author of the text. Such interpolasomeone
tions
be
or
corrections, comments,
explanations.
may
are

to

Brackets

set

are

used

to

set

matter

33a.
which

own

extraneous

or

apart the writer's additions

are
quotedmaterial;parentheses

author's

as

used

to

enclose the

to

original

words.

material
parenthesesto enclose parenthetical
only remotely connected with the context.

Use
is

This

punctuation (I am

convinced

it is

should
important)

be
If

Note:

studied.
carefully
theymust
you find any hollyberries (surely
some.
now), pleasebringme

In

such

constructions

the

the thought.Thus
merely amplifies
222

be

merous
nu-

material
parenthetical
writers
prefer
many

dashes

be used
changeably,
interThe
marks
parentheses.
may
are
more
commonly used
althoughparentheses
material takes the form of a complete
parenthetical

to

when

BRACKETS

AND

PARENTHESES

the

sentence.

33b.

parentheses to

Use

enclose

references

direc*

and

tions.

Agrarianism(see

parentheses to

Use

ensure

the

was

topicdiscussed.

next

enclose

figuresrepeated

to

accuracy.
He

thirty(30)

were

Students

Note:

often have

be followed

must

claims for

damages.

idea that

an

by numerals.

legal documents,

in

except

dollars ($10.00) for the shoes.

paid ten

There

out

I)

illogical
comparisons. (See ChapterX.)

Avoid

33c.

Book

This is

words

or

number

a
a

written

mistaken

notion;

figuresalone

are

sufficient.
33d.

Do

not

use

writing. Erase

or

wish

to delete.

33e.

Use

brackets

passage

quoted

"In 1865

"The

he

parentheses to cancel parts of


draw
lines through the words
enclose

to

from

material

your
you

interpolatedin

else.

someone

[Lincoln] was

candidate

for the

can
Republi-

nomination."
vice-presidential
youth of today [1775] are an unrulylot."

EXERCISE

34

the followingsentences, placing


paper, write
brackets wherever
or
parentheses
theyare required:
On

1. It

your

in December

was

became
2. The

I think it

was

December

that Mrs.

Glass

ill.

measurements

of the lot 90

by

60 feet

were

considered

small.
223

"

3. The

ITALICS

old ogre

mean

he

is all of that made

the child cry

bitterly.
4. "The

magazine
1878

by

first publishedin the nineteenth

was

Lee

and

known

Jonesnow

as

Jonesand

tury
cen-

Bush-

wick."
5. This

article by

him?

remember

James Hayes you

has been

widelyquoted.
6. Plain Sense

publishedin

was

the nineteenth

century 1836

Englishfirm.
Totalitarianism see Chapter10 was
eagerlydiscussed
last meeting of the Philosophy
Club.
by

7.

an

8. This

the

book
of

I referred to

one

earlier is

an

at

the

excellent

ample
ex-

thought.
sixteenth-century

34. ITALICS

in

Alaterial

that would

be

typedor

handwritten

papers.

italicized in

printis

underlined

italics

of
to indicate the names
(underlining)
ships,trains,and planes and the titles of magazines,
and
musical
books, plays, long poems,
newspapers,
compositions.
34a.

Use

From

the

of
library

the

Queen Elizabeth he borrowed

York
copy of Life, The New
Roosevelt and Hopkins.

Times, and

Sherwood's

Note:
1. Do

of

not

italicizethe

name

of

unless the name


newspaper
title.
part of the newspaper's
a

The
of
The
2. Do
Correct:

224

not

The

San

Francisco

Chronicle

cityused with the title


of the cityis actually
a

(Name

of

cityis

not

part

title.)
New

York

omit
Rime

an

Times

(Name of cityis part of title.)

article which

of the Ancient

forms part of the title.


Mariner.

-c

ITALICS

3. Do

add

not

article to

an

titlei" none

in the

appears

work.
original

Victory,
by JosephConrad.

Correct:

34b.

foreignwords

italics(underlining)
to indicate

Use

made
has
phrases unless continued
usage
words
or
phrases part of the Englishlanguage.

these

or

an
enfant terrible.
really
extinct.
dodo bird {Didus ineptus)
is now
had arroz
dinner we
con
a
polio,
Spanishdish

Henry
The
For

was

chicken

34c.
or

and

rice.

italics (underlining)
to refer to

Use

number

of

spoken

You

must

of

word, letter,

such.

as

the

note

difference

between

whether

and

weather.
like Ts.
exactly
Form
your 7's and 9's carefully.
miscellaneous on the test.
I misspelled
i's look

Your

35

EXERCISE

of each of the following


your paper, write the number
Beside each number, write correctly
sentences.
any word
On

or

words

from

that

which

indicate italics

or

marks.

the

Include

1. Noel

Coward's

should

5. Mr.

to

placedwithin quotation

be

playThe

Astonished

on

the Nieuw

Heart

has been

Amsterdam

received

Ethel

sat

readingGeneral Clay'sDecision in Germany.


the dean mentioned
of Humor
lecture on Psychology

article called National


in The

4. The

be underlined

deck

3. In his
an

should

punctuation.

with great enthusiasm.


2. AU the way to Europe
on

which

sentence

San

is interested in

is to be

au

which

peared
ap-

Mercury.

Chronicle

Francisco

Samuelson

chief aim

American

Differences in Humor,

good newspaper.
that happens.His
everything

is

courant.

225

35ci-b

ABBREVIATIONS

dot an i in your themes?


6. Don't you ever
7. We
enjoyedreadingMelville's novel entitled
8.

Henry

9. The

has written

train

story called The

traveled

we

Dick.

Vandal.

Seattle

from

on

Moby

the

was

Olympian

Hiawatha.
10. Robert

Frost

The

the poem

wrote

of the Hired

Death

Man.

35. ABBREVIATIONS

Avoid

35a.

who

I asked

Incorrect:

His

in formal

abbreviations

most

prof,of

the

N.J.lies across

the lit.class

R. from

the Hudson

Correct:

Mrs.

Scott lives

Incorrect:

Last

wk. I

to

went

see

N.Y.

Street.

Primrose

on

was.

aft.

Wed.

train arrives

writing.

dr. in the

bldg.at Valley"

First.

Note:

tions
writingit is best to use abbreviato avoid
sparingly,
giving the impressionthat your
in informal

Even

letter or

theme

In formal

worth

is not

do
writing,

not

your time or trouble.


notes
abbreviations except in footuse

and

do not use the amperbibliographies.


Especially,
sand
(" ) the abbreviation symbolfor and.
ever;
howCertain very common
abbreviations are permissible,
,

Mr., Mrs., Dr., Ph.D.

with

used

proper

are

names

correct.

Incorrect:

The

Rev.

Correct:

The

Reverend

Incorrect:
Correct:

35b.
A

with

Do

Is the Mrs.

an

is

as

at

home.

Brown

was

not

home.

at

here?
here?

contractions
a

to
apostrophe

contractions
are

use

contraction

Dr.

Anderson

Is Mrs.

not

not

was

form

in formal

of abbreviation:

indicate the omission

writing.
a

of

word
a

written

letter.Such

won't, don't,cant, shouldn't, and

wasn't

out of placein formal writing.


usually
used
In reportingdialogue,
contractions
are
correctly

226

to

3tf"a-b

NUMBERS

words
convey the exact
of contractions
and
use
of

of the
other

making your reports of

avoid

Do
not
speaker.
to
colloquiahsms

conversation

the

the

extent

artificialor

seem

forced.
Periods

Note:

used with contractions

not

are

EXERCISE

with nicknames.

or

36

sentences,
your paper, write the following
all errors
of abbreviations:
in the use
On

1. The

sts.

run

and

in N. Y

2. The

kingof Eng. from 1485


followed by Henry VIII.

3. The

he

Pres. didn't make

the

swimming

5. Last
6. The

vacation

to

agent asked

Mrs

see

to

refused

was

run

to

"

s.

Henry VII; he

was

Feb

because

two

months.

let him

try

out

for

Wilson.

the Rev.

see

said that he would

7. He

to 1509

aves.

team.

I went

mo

" the

speechesin Jan or
in Fla duringthose

said that the dr. had

4. Tom.

8. I

takinga

was

any

C,

correcting

arrive at

regret that I shan't be able

Henry

Oilman.

eighta.m.

Mon.

on

accept your kind invit. of

to

Jan.10.
9. Ga.
10. The

lies justacross
dr also

the Savannah

R. from

prof,at

the univ.

as

serves

S C.
town.

across

36. NUMBERS

36a.

Use

words

to

than

two

words

are

Ten;

represent

numerals

when

no

more

required.

four hundred; eightthousand;


thirty-six;

three million;

one-third

Bettyis eighteen
years
36b.
words

Use
are

old.

figuresfor numerals
required.

$9.25

1,689

208

when

more

than

two

165
227

36c-cl
Note:

with

NUMBERS

Figuresare always used with the word


the percent signexcept at the beginningof

used
Usually figures are
telephone numbers, chapters of
36c.

of numbers

in the

same

'percent
a

or

sentence.

dates, street and


book, and groups

in
a

passage.

Avenue; Parkhurst
1963; Chapter6, 9, and 15; Track 4; Annex 12

June 14, 1856;


The

36d.

150

dimensions

Do

are

begin a

not

ValleyView

4 feet

by 9

feet.

with

sentence

4-

numeral.

boys are playingtennis.


Right:Thirtyboys are playingtennis.

Wrong:

30

Caution:
1. Do

where

not

great accuracy

2. Use

number

parenthetical
figures
except

in

is desired.

(See

33c.

Section

off figures
in groups of three except
and
2,365,189;
telephonenumbers:

to set

commas

and

dates

in

repeat

street

365,107.
3. Do

with

not

street

Correct:

use

st, nd,

rd, th after days of the month

numbers.

May 16, 1911; February18;


EXERCISE

On

all

your

errors

words

or

23

10 West

Street

37

sentences, correcting
paper, write the following
of numbers
in
in the use
in figures
or
expressed

1. He

says that the last time

he

the witness

saw

was

on

ruary
Feb-

4th, 1959.
is Hemlock
number
4,315.
telephone
11 players
football team.
constitute
a
There are
in the school,but
only500 women

2. His
3.
4.

least
5. The

one

Blacks have

Street.

228

thousand

five hundred
moved

to

new

there

are

at

men.

home

at

8,634 Avondale

NUMBERS

four-six nine

Oregon
7. 2100

at

were

men

telephonenumber

work

on

the club had

of five years it had 63; and


membership of 134.
10.

the

projectwhen

the last check

on

its first year

9. In

changed to

was

six two.

April2nd, 1959.
failed the
three girls
4 boys and
for only% of the
studied diligently
made

was

8.

sixteenth his

March

6. On

now,

March

has

received

onlytwenty-two

they had

because

term.

eleven

members;

at

the end

after 10 years it has

1959, he received
first,

On

test

check

dollars and

total

for $50, but he


cents
fifty

since

that time.
11.

If I lived

blocks from

only4

school,I would

never

be late

either.
12. Additional

discussions of this

three, seven,
13. 3
14.

are
players

more

It is hard for

15. When

and

I
and

was

me

to

topic may

thirteen of the

all we

same

in

ters
chap-

book.

need.

believe that

sick last winter

be found

my

Marjorieis only17 years old.


temperature

rose

to

one

dred
hun-

five degrees.

229

The Word

Are

of the words

sure

you

all written
when

happen

by

four
you use? The following
high school seniors, show what
careful

not

are

you

the

about

words

amples,
excan

you

select.
Esmond

Henry

activities
engaged in literary

as

alihi

an

for his love for Beatrix.


the

They glancedacross
entire

for

my

can

The

writers

trouble

with

the

one

me.

follow

of the
words.

The

and has

alihi. The
not

clause.

subordinate
introductory

first student

enhance, and glancesound


this way. The
that he can
use

an

precedingsentences

of the word

of enhance

use

to

must

coma

meaning

enhance

glance.
to receive
gift
delighted
your lovely
that
colors
The scarf has such lovely
birthday.
it. It was
lovelyof you to
hardlywait to wear
in

scene

give it
A

tryingto

and
surprised

was

beach

were

does

to

his

not

having
the

know

in his

is mistaken

second

listened

all

sentence.

Glanced,

when
silly

broughttogetherin
third student seems
to know
only one word
him, and
to describe somethingthat pleases

the fourth expects unconsciousness


to result from the
subordinate
clause. These
students all need work
a

use

of

with

words.
The
such
much
230

sections
following
errors

will

helpyou

speakingand writing.You
helpfrom your dictionary.

in your

additional

of this book

own

to
can

avoid

get

OF

USE

DICTIONARY

THE

OF

37. USE
To

effectively
you need to have
books. One is a good handbook

words

reference

two
or

use

DICTIONARY

THE

and

communication,

the other is

you have not alreadydone


well acquainted
with your

so,

now

hand

at

of

reliable

at

least

composition

If
dictionary.

is the time

to

become

It will tell you these


dictionary.
pronunciation,
thingsabout a word: spelling,
part(s)of speech,
forms
labifi
syl(tense,plural,
comparative,superlative),
and antonyms. A
meaning, origin,synonyms,
good dictionaryalso shows levels of usage, indicating
dialect.
whether
word
is slang,
or
obsolete, colloquial,
a

37a.

Choose

good dictionary.

be careful, for not


choosinga dictionary
you must
is reliable. Some
pocket dictionaries,for
every dictionary
example,are so small that they can be used onlyas limited
guidesto spellingand pronunciation.Others, though of
good size, may have been so hurriedlyand carelessly
producedthat theyare of littlevalue.
which
When
be sure
that it is one
you select a dictionary,
Before making a final
trust.
you and your teachers can
decision about which one
should ask the
to use
or buy, you
:
following
questions
In

this

1. Has

been recently
dictionary
publishedor recently

revised?
2. What

the

are

of the peoplewho
qualifications

compiled

and edited it?


have a good reputation?
publisher
100,000 entries)?
large(approximately
sufficiently
the

3. Does

4. Is it
Three

comparablein
good dictionaries,

The

American

New

size and

(Random
CollegeDictionary

price,are

House, Inc.,

York)

Webster's

Collegiate
Dictionary(G.
Mass.)
Company, Springfield,
New

"

C.

Merriam

231

USE

Webster's

World

New

OF

DICTIONARY

THE

World

Dictionary(The

ing
Publish-

Company, Cleveland)

Largerdictionaries

than those listed above

providemuch

completelist of words, but


to carry
they are very expensiveand difficultor impossible
International
New
around.
Webster's
Dictionary, The
Shorter Oxford Dictionary(2 volumes). Funk " Wagnalls'
Standard
New
Dictionary,and the twenty-volumeNew
plete
English(Oxford) Dictionaryare four such largeand comdictionaries. These
can
usuallybe referred to in
and

information

more

more

classrooms.
libraries,
offices,
or

37b.

how

Learn

to

use

dictionary.

differ somewhat

Dictionaries

in their

from your dictionary


it follows. First,
clear idea of the method

material;therefore,to gainthe
you
turn

should have

the table of

to

and
over

material

contents

to

most

see

the editors have

tion
kinds of informa-

what

included.

Second, look

the introductory
sections, and
preface,

the

material
you

systems of presenting

what

at

the back

information

can

of the book.

be

will

help you understand how


will contain
Your dictionary

These

found

in the

to

it.

use

many

the

mentary
supple-

will show

and
dictionary
with which

words

you

do

not
words,
you come
upon
try to guess the sounds of the letters. The pronunciation
chart in the front of the dictionary
the key at the bottom
or

unfamiHar.

are

of each

page

that certain
Each

useful
you

will show, with

examples,the

as

will find

much

various

sounds

letters have.

of your dictionary
contains
well as valuable information.

languagein
232

these

page

New
how

When

portionsof a
Collegiate
Dictionarygives an
on

page

235

of

can
dictionary
general.

your

tell you

vast

The

amount

of

reproduction

page

from

ster's
Web-

example of just
about

words

and

OF

USE

DICTIONARY

THE

what

Learn

37c.

information

will
good dictionary

supply.
merely to look up the
peopleconsult a dictionary
ever,
or
spelling,
pronunciation,
meaning of certain words. HowMost

realizes that he will

the student who

in the future studies each

words

want

to

use

these

word

he looks up. In the


and effort.

longrun, such studysaves both time


The following
in Webster's
entry*for the word rescue
New
Collegiate
Dictionaryshows the kinds of information a
for most
of the words it defines,
good dictionary
provides
(-kud); res'cu-ing
(-ku-Tng). [OF.
fr. re- + escorre
to move,
to shake
shake, fr. L. excutere
1. To free from
out.]
any
violence,danger, or evil.
confinement,
2. Law.
To take forcibly from the custody of the law.
3. To regain,
A rescuing;deliverance from restraint,
violence,
by force.
n.
or
recover,
goods from
danger; also.Law, forcible removal of a person
or
or
res'cu-er
the custody of the law.
n.
(res'ku-er),
to free from
Syn. -Eescue, deliver,redeem, ransom, reclaim, save mean
danger of death, destruction,or evil. Rescue
implies release from imminent
danger by prompt
vigorous action; deliver,release of a peror
son
(usually) from confinement, temptation, slavery,etc.; redeem, release
from bondage
from
penalties by giving what is demanded;
or
release
of one
enslaved or kidnaped by paying the amount
a
rapsora,
demanded
by his captor or owner;
reclaim, a bringing back to a former
of someone
state or condition
something abandoned
or
or
debased;
in existence or in
a rescue,
deliverance,etc., and a continuance
save,
usefulness.

res'cue

(reslcQ),v.t.; RES'CUED

rescourre,

"

" "

Vocabularyentry
The

entry word

usuallygiven in

this kind

printedin

word,

root

is

of type
when
especially

are

bold-faced

different forms

these

new

black

of the

type within the

same

same

another

are

example:reputed,which is
is an
which
adverb, appear
reputedly,

part of speech.For
and

forms

type. Also

an

in

adjective,
heavy

entry.

Spelling
The

entry word, given in bold-faced

type, indicates the

has two or more


of a word. When
a word
spelling
tionary
form is usuallygiven first.A dicthe preferred
spellings,
in the following
will also helpwith spelling
cases:
correct

Webster's New
CollegiateDictionary, copyBy permission. From
right
Co.,
1949, 1951, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1959 by G. " C. Merriam

publishersof the Merriam-Webster

Dictionaries.

233

1.

Vocabulary Entry
The

word

Run-on

closelyassociated

bold-faced

3.

printed

in

bold-faced

ore

hyphenation

type. When

the meaning

with the entry

the meaning

of the entry

word

of the

word, the

run-on

printed
be

can

is not

run-on

meaning of a word
usually labeled by

in

inferred

defined.

is stated in its definition. Different

of numbers

means

or

meanings

letters.

Pronunciation

pronunciation of the entry word is shown


by
marks, diacritical marks, and phoneticrespelling.
of

5.

Part

6.

Origin

7.

Principal Parts

8.

Usage

accent

Labels

in which

slang and

as

word

Example

Contexts

10.

Synonym

Study

11.

Miscellaneous

show
colloq.(colloquial)

meaning

or

9.

include

people, places,and

Subject

occurs.

about

providing information

entries

portant
im-

events.

Labels

Technical
the field

or

such

meaning

scientific meanings
branch

or

Geographic
Labels

the level of usage

Information

dictionaries

Most

of

means

Label

Speech

Labels such

13.

shown.

are

also

are

The

12.

Spelling,

type.

Definition
The

4.

is

Entry

Words

from

defined

and
syllabicdivision,
capitalization,

accent,

2.

be

to

of

knowledge

are

to

usuallylabeled
which

according to

they belong.

Labels
as

Brif. (British) or

chieflyU.S. tell where

word

or

is used.

(opposite ) reprinted by permission. From


Collegiate Dictionary, copyright 1949, 1951, 1953,
1956, 1958, 1959 by G. " C. Merriam
Co., publishersof the MerriamDictionary

Webster's
Webster

234

column

New

Dictionaries.

past part, of geai. [L. gestieulatus,


tik^Q-lat)
tlc^P-latej(jesfr. gesticulus mimic
gestiiiOi diwii %l pattm*

ges-

v.

gesticulate,

lo

iicuurri

npoakinB. ' ges-tic^U-la^tiTa


w.r"
"tic^u-la^tor (-latter),
Art nf irpgtif-iiiatiTig or ma.kini
1
representing passion,or enforcing argu
im

gfitura,] To iniho gootUFOOi

when

odpj

Ti

adj.
Brit.,-ter-Tj,
laitU^nf(jes-t!k^u.ld"to^rT
or, esp.
by, belongme

to,

(jE3"huiB)4 7tJ [L. ffesfto

"

senting
Repre-

geslidUiatlflfl.

resemDling,

or

managing, fr. ffer ere

to

bear,man-

^Tniffpmantj rnnriiirt

Archaic.

oestumX
gesjttra mode of action,fr.L. gerere,
:2. A niotion oi
posture.
Oba.
1.
Carriage;
^ct."
,_^SXJl
idea or a passion,or to enforce
an
intended
to express
or limbs
Dody
tions
assertion,or opinion. 3. The use of moemphasize an argument,
4. [Influenced by
of expression.
of the limbs or body as a mode
uJ [ML.
i;-tj)r),ti
behave,

_.

,,

_.

or

geate.'i Something done


or diplomacy.

F.

make
V. i. To
er), n.
Ge-sund'heit
as

:et (get).

when
";;. t.t

gestures

gesture; gesticulate.

past

got

(got)

courtesy,
formality,

ges'tur-er (-t5r-

"

health;

(To your)

[G.]
n.
Cge-z66nt'hTt),
drinking,or after

of

way

"

tation,
salu-

sneeze.

"

Archaic

"past 'part.\
Dial. GAT"(gat);

pres. part, get^ting.j [OW.


_(got''n);
(esp. in U. S.) got'ten
1. Tu Luiiie iuto pusi.6stiiuu ut. tu ubtdin, amuiie; I'toJOTve.
Vf.lyi..']
as
hunting,
process,
Hence, in idiomatic uses: a To reach by some
To resounding, etc.; as, to get a fine stag; to get boUijinii h Colloq.
To
thrcA
tn
hit;Strike;
cfntpnrf
Slangi
rpi-iff.
pgi"
m^ntho J^
nf;
d Procure jg by ftlthing;
as, let me
as, the blow got him in the mouth,
with, as by telephone.
hat, fi To p^t-ahligh communication
get my
To obtain the mastery
Si-ipoi'f irh''''''^'
n
over; as: a To overColloq]
as)a bad lidbiLyws one at last, b To capture; as, the police
master;
puzzle; as, this problem gets me; also,to
C To baffle;
got thethief.
also,to
irritate, d To pen; trap; hence, to bring to retribution;
annoy;
put out
or
kill;as, to get the murderer, e In certain sports, to retire,
have and had: Pleonas4. With
a catch.
(a play.fr)PHI ,bymaking
be obliged to; as, he has not to Hn it, 5. a To cause
JJcaiUiC'oZZog.,jto
b To cause
to be iffT
be removed; as, to get him Sj^Sy. U T6 get ready: prepare;
to move
or
7. To betake;
him to go.
U:!,lu get diailfil-. t". lo induce; as, to get
of animals.
8. To begetj now
as, let us get us away.
reflexivebi;
If nr itirtlfinj-n.
a state, condiarrive atj or bring "n
V. i. 1. To
2. To make
acto get free.|
tion,or pooition;go, to get to be ffiondajl

GOT,

or

ag

-i

or

by

said merely

or

"

"

"

"

quisition;tn nrnfilSyn. _Q"t, obtain,procure,

to
mean
acquire, ^aic, win, earn
secure,
not
or
may
of.
general term, may
into possession
Get, a very
of an end
the attainment
obtain
suggests
imply effort or initiative;
for
effort in obtaining something
sought for or hoped for; procure,
tained
oneself or another; secure, difficulty in obtaining and fixing that obtion,
addiin one's possession or under one's control;acauire stresses
already possessed; gain
to something
as by inevitable result,
adds to obtain the implications of struggle and, usually,of material
ties
value in the thing obtained; win adds to gain the implication of qualithat favor;earn
impliesa correspondence between
or circumstances
the effort and what one
gets by effort, i
come

"

get

"

"

alteaa

of.

Volloq.

lo

surpass.

1. An offspring (of an animal); breed.


3. In certain games,
o' War's get.
of Man
of a shot that ordinarily would
a return
n.

get'-at'-a-ble (get'at'd-b'l)adj. Possible


or
known; approachable;accessible.

to

as

2. Begetting; as, colts


ball,
lawn tennis and handfor the opponent
score

got,
reached,attained,

be

get^a-way'(get'd-waO,n.
going,

6eth'Seni'a"ne
fr

The

act

n.
(geth.sSm'd-ne),

nrt^ft s^igmfl.nirm)

ArRm

"

scene
4 of Jerusalem,

of the

nilprpgg]
agony

and

[Gr. Gethsemane, Gethsemanei,


I hp pn'^|/^cnra
H,h
Tt
,jnfg,j^t

arrest

of

Ami uln^itiui ucLabiuu uf KieaL,


suffering. Cf. Calvary, 3.

"lim

cap.]
"

gnt^tpr(gpfpr),n
a

starting,

fact of getting away,

or

etc.

vacuum

tube

Onp

wlm

gptg

"".I g;^/.

"

to remove

n.
get'np' (gSt'iip'),

traces

2.

Jesua

"

cbp.

ja

{.numettmes

ufental or spiritual,
substance placed in

of free

Colloq. (General composition

or

structure:

make-up.
avens.
[L.,herb bennet.]
ge'oiu (je'iim),
n.
bauble.
A showy trifle;
n.
gew'gaw (gu'go),
ioy(g5))"rfy. Seoti Conoidorabloitolarabloi
=

"

erably;very; pretty.
Scot.
geyOies,gayOies (ga'laal^du.

aUo
i,V".ilBrit\
ecy'aey (aI'j"i,

"

"

adj"2haay.
arfiil
Scoti 0}nsid'

Fairlywell;very much.
ga'zer,ge'-,usually gS'- tn sense

21,

235

USE

OF

DICTIONARY

THE

1. The

forms its
are
pluralsof nouns
given if the noun
other way
than by adding s or es.
pluralin some
The comparative and superlative
degreesof adjectives
and adverbs are given when
adding er or est changesthe
of the root word, (happy happier)
spelling
The past tense, past participle,
and
present participle
of verbs are given if there is an unusual
change.
spelling
Compound words spelledwith a hyphen, as one word,

2.

"

3.

4.

or

words

two

as

are

indicated.

so

Capitalization
Most

good dictionaries will tell you whether a word is


If an entry word is written
with a capiusuallycapitalized.
tal
that word
should always be capitalized
letter,
ample,
(for exsuch a word
will have one
African).Occasionally
or
stance,
more
meanings which require a small letter. For inin Webster's
New
Collegiate
Dictionarythe third
meaning of Afghan reads as follows:
3.

[not cap]A kind of worsted

word
a
Similarly,
letter may

have

that is

blanket

or

usuallywritten

wrap.

with

in which

small

it is

capitalized
Your
then add "(cap.)" "(often
dictionary
may
cap.)" or "(sometimes cap.)"to these particular
meanings.
either
in their
Proper names
(people,places) appear
section
alphabetical
positionwithin the text or in a special
sections

or

names

you

are

one

or

meanings

more

Where
these proper
dictionary.
dictionary
given depends upon the particular

at

the back of the

use.

Syllabification
Most

dictionaries

use

dot

to

in the
separate syllables

vocabularyentry; some
replacethe dot with an accent
when
is to be stressed. If you look
a particular
syllable
the entry for
divided into two
at

236

rescue

on

page

of
syllables,

233, you
which

will

see

mark
back

that it is

the first is accented

OF

USE

DICTIONARY

THE

the second

and

follow

the

unaccented.
method

same

all dictionaries do

Since

of

not

it is
separatingsyllables,

portant
im-

the

in your dictionary
notes
introductory
what system is beingused.
to see
is importantfor two
Knowing how a word is syllabified
the word, and it shows
It helpsyou to pronounce
reasons.
divide a word
if it is too long to be
you where
you can

read

to

in full at the end

written

of

line.

Pronunciation

word

pronounceddepends upon two things:


where the accent
the letters are sounded.
is placedand how
Your dictionary
has in its opening pages a chart showingthe
sounds of the various letters and the markingsused to indicate
those sounds. (See Section 38 for a completediscussion
of this topic.)
when
As with spelling,
two
or
more
pronunciationsof a
word
used, the more
are
commonly used pronunciationis
ently
words
are
generallygiven first.When
pronounceddifferHow

in

the
localities,

various

labeled
usually
a

is

show

where

pronunciationis

labeled

to

this indicates that the word

variant

pronunciationsare
from. If,for

they are

British

as

spokenin

is

ple,
exam-

ChieflyBritish,
this way in England.

or

Part(s) of speech

"partof speech"(noun, verb,


adverb, etc.)is given.After the word rescue, for
adjective,
that it is a transitive
example,we find v.t.,which means
For

almost

every entry the

verb. Farther

down

that it

can

in the

also be

entry
used

is the label n., which

as

abbreviation, the
part-of-speech
meanings are usuallygiven,and
Whenever
of

certain

you

are

abbreviation, you

table
dictionary's

in

Followingeach
particular
meaning or
noun.

the

correct

doubt

about

can

cates
indi-

plained.
usage is exthe meaning

quicklycheck

it in your

of abbreviations.
237

OF

USE

Principal
parts of
When

If you

are

DICTIONARY

verbs

in some
irregular
way, dictionaries spell
and often the present
out the past tense, the past participle,
immediatelyafter the part of speechabbreviation.
participle
If there are
alternative forms, these are
given also. Our
example, rescue,
gives the past tense, rescued, and the
present participle,
rescuing.The "entry"word itself is the
with
When,
as
(or the present infinitive).
present tense
the past tense
and the past participle
have the same
rescue,
form, this form is spelledout only once.

past

verb

THE

about

unsure

and

tense

is

whether

with
past participle

verb

certain

the usual

will tell you.


endings,
your dictionary
of certain regular
verbs are also given.

The

forms

its

-d, -ed, or

-t

principal
parts

Origin

and where
will tell you how
Frequentlyyour dictionary
word
into being.It may
have arisen through association
came
with

the

was

have

name

been

the
of

of

name

such

person,

seventeenth-century
hangman; or it may
from an
ancestral or foreignlanguage.

derived

Old

English,Latin, Greek, German, and


the heaviest contributors, though many
have
also played a role in forming our
vocabulary.
The
historyof the originof a word
within brackets near
the beginningor at
entry. In the
word

from

came

of
or

the

derrick,which

as

of

case

the Old

prefixre-

shake). Escorre

was

rescue,

French
and

word

escorre

derived

we

from

French

have

other
current

the end
are

(meaning
Latin

(meaning "to shake out"). This information


abbreviated.
For
example, in the entry mentioned
stands

simply means
238

for "Old
"from."

French"

and

L. stands

of

tionary
dic-

told that the

rescourre,

cutere

OF.

languages
English

usuallyplaced

is

the

been

bination
com-

to

move

word

ex-

is often

above,

for "Latin"; fr.

USE

DICTIONAKY

THE

OF

Meanings
Words

have

at

if not

least one,

of the

more,

following

meaning, a traditional meaning, a


figurative
meaning.
meaning, a special
meaning, or a new
It is a good idea to learn the order in which
meanings for
words
that is, whether
the
are
given in your dictionary;
meanings are arrangedin order from oldest to newest, from

meanings:

historical

from

generalto specialized.
the significance
of numbers
It is also important to know
(1,
definitions.
2, 3) and letters (a, b, c) precedingvarious
This information
titled
can
usuallybe found in the section en"ExplanatoryNotes."
Whenever
you look up the meaning of a word, read
throughthe entire entry and then select the definition which
fits most
where
come
closelyinto the context
you have
most

to

common

most

rare,

or

the word.

across

that

hyphenated and phrasesthat have an


idiomatic, specialized,
or
figurative
meaning are in some
dictionaries entered separately
in the regularalphabetical
word. Most
in others they are
listing;
put under the main
Words

dictionaries

foreignwords
Level
The
does

(s) of
mere

are

have
and

now

added

abbreviations

common

the main

phrasesto

body

and

of their texts.

usage

fact that you find


that it is in
mean

word

listed in the

dictionary

of its
good use or that some
specialmeanings are appropriatein current
English.The
tionary
boy who proudly pointed to ain't on a page of his dicand said "The word
is in the dictionary,
it must
so
hadn't read far enough to see
the word
be right"
how
was
labeled. Farther
along in the entry appear the words:
used in dialect or illiterate speech."
now
will help you to judge the acceptability
Your
dictionary
of a word
in various
situations
by the absence or presence
not

"

"

of

"restrictive label." Some

words

have

no

labels, and
239

USE

Others have
their

use

without

OF

DICTIONARY

THE

labels

as

applyingonly to certain meanings or


certain
part of speech.All words that
labels of any sort
formal
English.Words

restrictive

appropriatein

to
are

be considered
may
labeled colloquial

in informal speech or writing,but


usuallyacceptable
in formal writing.
not
All dictionary
labels are guidesto the special
appropriateness
of word
be put into four
usage; generallythey can
categories:
are

1.

which
Geographical,
a

country where
These

When

4.

240

or

country

or

particular
meaning

labels tell whether

the

is

is used

word

of

section
mon.
com-

marily
pri-

such

word

is in current

3.

word

places as England,Australia, Scotland,


the United
States. They may
also indicate special
or
regionssuch as New England,the South, the Southwest,
the West.
Since Englishis the native
or
language of so
prising
people in various parts of the world, it is not surmany
that geographical
labels are
necessary.
which
of its meanings,
tellswhether
one
Time,
a word, or
is no
longerused; is disappearingfrom use; or is still
solesce
used but has a quaint form or meaning. Obsolete, oband archaic are
three possible"time" labels.
in

2.

indicates

has

no

such

label attached

to

it,the word

use.

which indicates that a word


of its meanone
ings
or
Subject,
department of knowledge.
belongsto a specialized
Examples of this kind of label are Geom.
(geometry),
and
Med.
(medicine),Mus. (music), Naut. (nautical),
Photog.(photography).
tells whether
word
Cultural, which
or
a
a
specialuse
of it is substandard
or
acceptableas informal English.
and Slangare three
Dial, (dialect),
Colloq.(colloquial),
such labels. If no
"cultural" label is given in the entry,
the word
and
its various
meanings are usuallysuitable
for both formal and informal
writingand speaking.

OF

USE

DICTIONARY

THE

authorityto decide exactly


editors can
how and where a word may be used, dictionary
onlyuse their best judgment in recordinginformation about
cover
words. You
should not be surprised,
therefore, if you disthat dictionaries sometimes
disagreeabout the labels
they attach to certain words or meanings. Such differences
of opinion usuallyarise over
labels that indicate levels of
Note:

there

Since

is

no

one

usage.
For

further

Sections 41, 42, 44, 45, and

see

Synonyms

and

are

often

come

at

the end

back

at

the

redeem,
all

dozen

usage

46.

antonyms

Synonyms (words

are

the different levels of word

study of

that have

included
and

are

entry for

ransom,

the

or

same

similar

ings)
mean-

entries; they usually


dictionary
precededby Syn. If you will look

in

rescue,

reclaim, and

you
save,

will

with

that

deliver,
their definitions,

note

Though, as in this case, half


synonyms.
have similar basic definitions,each one
may

given as
words

different shade of meaning. By giving


expresses a slightly
not
a
only helps you to
dictionary
you lists of synonyms,
understand
better the word
but also enables you to
itself,
choose

word

which

may

come

closer

to

expressinga

is
idea, concept, or feeling.
particular
Finding synonyms
so
important that entire volumes have been compiledto
Webster's
of these are
help speakersand writers; some
Dictionary of Synonijms, Crabb's English Synonyms, and
Roget'sInternational Thesaurus of EnglishWords.
Antonyms (words that have opposite meanings ) can also
be found in the entries for certain words in the dictionary.
ster's
For example,when
silent in Webyou look up the word
New
CollegiateDictionary,
you find that talkative
is given as
of words
which
an
are
antonym. This listing
oppositein meaning will often helpyou to understand more
the word
clearly
you are looking
up.

241

"

Other
In

PRONUNCIATION

information
addition

about

information

to

dictionaries include such

words

useful material

as

as

words,

notes

on

most

famous

and states, populaof countries


tions
peopleand places,
capitals
of cities,locations of colleges,
tables of weightsand
marks, and picturesto illustrate
measures,
proofreader's
words.

certain

38.

Words

mispronouncedbecause of
failure to give the
or
syllable

are

the proper
sound.
38a.

PRONUNCIATION

Watch

the

and
respelling

the

give you

placed over

to

accent

letters the proper

diacritical marks.

to
respelled
phonetically
acceptedpronunciation.Usuallymarks are

words
dictionaries,

In most

failure

the vowels

called diacritical marks.


with
respelling

are

indicate the

to

These

are

followingexample

of

there
good dictionary

is

the

Notice

sound.

diacritical marks.

hay'rack' (liE'rak')
a

pronouncedlike a
is pronouncedlike

is

At the bottom
a
key
usually

marks

over

or

the letters. For

ebb

equal

if

ice

are

marked.
similarly
an

in mat.

marked

of

words

written

with

these

example:
dare

able

words

of each page
list of common

act

These

in mate.

art

of letters
pronunciation
If the word that you are examining contains
a, the letter will be pronouncedlike the
a

guideto

the

in act.

If the letter is
242

not

at
explained

the bottom

of the dic-

PRONUNCIATiaN

tionarypage, consult the full key


the

sections
introductory

38b.

Watch

In

your
indicated

accent

is followed

has

should

by
{'').

marks.

two

that
syllables

be accented

accent
light

in'tellec'tual

more

mark

your

stressed will be

words

are

accented, the syllable

than the other


lightly
( ) or by a double accent
'

chor'eog'rapher
EXERCISE

The

in

or

mis'chief

If the word
which

cover

dictionary.

the syllable
to be
dictionary,
by a heavy accent mark (').

mod'el

mark

of the

the inside

on

in this list are

Bes"sara'bia

often

Consult
mispronounced.

for the correct


Then
dictionary
pronunciation.
tice
practhe
words.
them
Use
in
conversation.
saying
your own

243

SPELLING

EXERCISE

If you

have

largereadingvocabulary,
you

stand
under-

may

words

that you do not know how to pronounce.


of the words
in the following
lists are familiar to

many
Which

all the words


in the list and
check youryou? Pronounce
self
the
the
in
by lookingup
dictionary.
pronunciations
given
the correct pronunciation
Learn
of any word that you have
mispronounced.Learn the meaning of any unfamiliar word
in the list.When
the correct
meaning and proyou know
nunciatio

of all these
in

conversation,

so

words, try to

that

theywill

use

them

all become

in sentences

parts of your

speakingvocabulary.
acumen

comparable

amenable

condolence

audacious

conversant

incomparable
indisputable
inexplicable

autopsy

debris

intricacy

bourgeois

decorum

sonorous

chastisement

formidable

inveigle
irreparable

chiropodist

irrevocable

syringe

clandestine

grievous
grimace

lamentable

ultimatum

combatant

incognito

lingerie

verbatim

EXERCISE

patronize
quay

reptile
reputable
subtle

eign
followingforthat are
in common
use
today? Consult your
of each word.
for the acceptedpronunciation
dictionary
Are

you
words

sure

gratin

au

bona

fide

bon

voyage

pronunciationof

of the

boudoir
chaise

the

finis

longue

coiffure

per

diem

pizza

ravioli
table d'hote
tete

tete

39. SPELLING

of carelessness. Although
is a matter
spelling
of all words
the spelling
not
by
possibleto master
of rules,a few simplerules will help a great deal.

Most
it is
means

244

poor

SPELLING

39a.

Pronounce

1. Do

not

add

words
vowels

correctly.
in

pronouncing such

and you will


similar,
athletics,
2. Do

not

omit

in

consonants

words

as

astrous,
dis-

them.
misspell

not

pronouncing such

words

as

and government and you will not misspell


them,
library
words
omit
in pronouncing such
Do
not
as
syllables
spell
and you will not misminiature, sophomore,
accidentally,

3.

them.
words
that contain
carefully
{p)neumonia,g{h)ost.
{p)sychology,

silent letters:

4. Examine

EXERCISE

These

words

often

are

Choose

pair and

the

because
misspelled
correct

form

in

they are

each

pronounce
mis-

numbered

Check
your paper, with its number.
another list of the words that you
your choices and make
misspell.
Keep the list for study,addingto it other words
write

that you

it

on

in
misspell
(See Section 39c.)

your

written

work

or

correspondence.

1.

accidentally
accidently,

16.

goverment, government

2.

artharitis
arthritis,

17.

grievious,grievous

3. asparagus, asparagrass
athletics
4. atheletics,

18.

heighth,height

19.

hinderance, hindrance

5.

attackded, attacked

20.

hunerd, hundred

6.

basicly,
basically
boundary,boundry

21.

incidentally,
incidently

7.

canidate, candidate
9. children,childern

8.

interduce, introduce
23. mischievious, mischievous
22.

24.

modern, modren

congratulations,
congradulations

25.

prespiration,
perspiiation

26.

pernounce,

11.

cruel, crule

27.

quanity,quantity

12.

disasterous
disasti'ous,

28.

realisticly,
realistically

13.

drasticly,
drastically
emotionly
emotionally,
Februarj',
Febuary

29.

recognize,reconize

30.

sarcasticly,
sarcastically
satirically,
satiricly

10.

14.
15.

31.

pronounce

245

SPELLING

32.

sophmore, sophomore

34.

33.

strickly,
strictly

35, temperment,

39b.

See

Poor

the words

should
especially,
spellers,

pay

most

mistakes

that look alike


the

your

sentences

of words.
When

and

meaning

Divide

or

class into

3.

seven

groups. Let

the correct
illustrating
Group 2 may take the

the groups

have

accept, except

2. access,

because

peopleconfuse words
somewhat
alike. Use a dictionary
to learn
pronunciationof the followingwords.
are

by readingthe
1.

made

attention
particular
ualizing
frequenterror in vis-

for another.

EXERCISE

Some

temperament

use.

you

of words. The
the appearance
words is mistakingone

to

suprise
surprise,

excess

addition, edition

advise, advice
5. affect,eflFect

4.

use

next

1 write
group
of the first ten pairs
ten

pairs,and

finished their work, check

sentences

so

the

aloud.
21.

cite, site, sight

22.

cloth, clothe

23.

coarse,

24.

comma,

course
coma

25. conscious, conscience

6.

aisle,isle

26.

corps, corpse

7.

allusion,illusion

27.

costumes,

8.

ally,alley

28.

9.

altar,alter

counsel, council
29. descent, decent

10.

anecdote, antidote

30.

dessert,desert

11.

angle,angel

31.

12.

bath, bathe

32.

diary,dairy
dual, duel'

customs

berth, birth
14. break, brake

33.

eligible,
illegible

34.

eliminate,illuminate

15. breath, breathe

35.

formally,
formerly

bridal, bridle

36.

17.

capital,
capitol

37.

grate, great
hoarse, horse

18.

censor,

19.

choose, chose

39.

hoping,hopping
huge, Hugh

20.

chord, cord

40.

idle, idol

13.

16.

246

censure

38.

on.
sults
re-

SPELLING

56.

later,latter
42. led, lead

quiet,quite
57. rain, reign,rein

41.

43.

lessen, lesson

58.

44.

lose, loose

59.

rapped,wrapped
respectively
respectfully,

45.

mist, midst

60.

scene,

46.

moral, morale

61.

shone, shown

47.

nauseous,

62.

sole, soul

48.

passed,past

63.

stationary,
stationery

49.

peace,

piece

64.

steel,steal

50.

persecute, prosecute

65.

surely,
surly

51.

personal,
personnel
precede,proceed
proscribe
prescribe,
principle
principal,
prodigy,
protege

66.

tenants,

67.

thrown, throne

52.
53.
54.
55.

nauseated

track, tract
69. trial,trail
70.

weather, whether

the word

that is

requiredby

the renthese
pathe meaning of the

your paper, write the number


beside it write the word
that you

On

sentence.

and

did not

(accept,
except)the

from

of each
have

tence
sen-

chosen.

invitation.

dark
tall,

3. I do not
4.

of tlie following
sentences, choose

In each

2. A

tenets

68.

EXERCISE

1. We

seen

(woman, women) entered the room.


know
(whether,weather) I can go to the game.

Many people were

prosecuted)for
(persecuted,

beliefs in the sixteenth century,


5. Sylviais such a (quite,
quiet)girlthat

we

never

their

learn

ligious
re-

to

her.

know
6. Do

you

understand

the

theorem

about

right (angles,

angels)?
(coma, comma) to separate the items in a series.
Jack is much taller (then,than) I am.
I was
so
(scared,scarred) that I ran out of the house.
Have
(clothes,
cloths)for Easter?
you boughtany new
How
did you (loose,lose) your money?

7. Use
8.
9.
10.
11.

12. The

of my
13. The

man

standingon

the

porchis

the

(principle,
principal)

school.

(sole,soul) on

Bob's shoe is

an

inch thick.
247

SPELLING

14.

The

(wrapped,rapped) in
arrangedthe Hne, Hazel was

present was

15. When

we

silver paper.

(proceed,precede)

to

me.

16.

Please

Ellen for

excuse

(nauseous,nauseated) all
17.

doing her

not

last

homework.

will

Company,

be known

now

felt

evening.
Hecht

called David
business, (formally,
formerly)

The

She

as

Hecht

ufacturing
Man-

Brothers,

Inc.
18.

he
19.

(dairy,
diary)that tells of the
London.
(led,lead) in seventeenth-centiiry
personnel)manager asked me to come
(personal,

Samuel

The

Pepys

his ofiBce for


20.

The

Keep

be shown

your

life

to

interview.

an

picture (censor,censure) refused

motion

pictureto
39c.

wrote

to

permit the

in the state.

listof

own

words.
mls$||"elled

tion
spellsimplyby paying close attenof words
which
to the appearance
they see in their
but almost everybodyhas trouble with a few words
reading,
that are difficultfor him. You save
time by keepinga record
effort
and making a special
of the words that you misspell

Most

to

peoplelearn

them.

learn

students, but
trouble

to

Your

there

many

to

list will differ from


are

some

common

people.Exercises

the lists of other


words

that

7, 8, and 9 contain

give
some

of these words.

EXERCISE

These
to

write

the words

are

simplewords

these words
which

you

from

Be
frequentlymisspelled.

dictation. Put

misspell.

in your

own

able
list

SPELLING

249

SPELLING

EXERCISE

The

followingwords

Write

words

more

difficultthan

those in Exercise

students' papers.
many
from
the words
dictation. Add
list of
to your
own
For rules to help you with
any that you misspell.

7 and

see
spelling,

have

are

been

Section

in
misspelled

39d-j.

SPELLING

restaurant

serviceable

sandwich

simile

scarcity

transferred

unnecessary
valiant

schedule

spaghetti
specialty

unanimous

vehicle

scheme

specimen

unconscious

sympathizes

undesirable

vengeance
volume

sergeant

temporarily
tendency

EXERCISE

of these

Some

See
speller.

how

will

words

give trouble

of them

many

undoubtedly

you

to

even

good

spell.

can

abhorrence

conspicuous

imminent

absorbing

contemptuous

accustom

deteriorate

acknowledge
aeronautics

diphtheria
dirigible
discipline

preference
incredulous
prevalent
intentionallyproffered
intercede
promenade

aggravate

acquaintance

pneumonia

impetuosity

irrelevant

recede

dissatisfied

legitimate

recommendation

analogous

dissipate

leisure

reconciliation

apparent
arrangement

distinction

liquefy

representative

ecstasy

mercenary

rescind

artillery

exhilarate

mimicking

reservoir

auctioneer

exorbitant

momentous

rheumatism

authoritative

extraordinarynotoriety

auxiliary

facilitate

barbarous

Suillotine

battalion

harass

sacrificing
parliament
sacrilegious
particularly saxophone
pasteurization soliloquy
specifically
perceive
perceptible tyrannically
occurrence

hesitancy
coincidence
hypnosis
colloquial
hypocrisy
comparativelyilliterate
carburetor

concede

imitation

conferred

immigration

39cl.

the

perseverance

vacuum

pervade
picnicking

vaudeville
visible

Spellingof plurals.
pluralsof
singular.

1. The
to

ridiculous

desks

most

dogs

nouns

boys

are

formed

by adding -s

chairs
251

SPELLING

ending in ch, x,

2. Nouns

sh, s

z,

add

-es

to

form

the

plural.
boss,bosses
taxes

tax,

of
singular

the

i and

topaz,topazes

z,

sh, s form the third person

in this

fixes

passes

add

-es

to

the

change

consonant

sky,skies
families
family,
memories

memory,

Notice

person

singular,
present
by a consonant.

same

tense, of verbs

ending in

marry,

studies
study,

hurries
hurry,
justify,
justifies

ending in

y preceded

marries

try,tries
worry, worries

of the third

the formation

change in

Note:

4. Words

fizzes

pinches

y precededby
form the plural.

baby,babies
lady,ladies
dairies
dairy,

fashion.

same

ending in

3. Nouns
to

glasses
glass,

present tense

pushes

church,churches

ending in ch, x,

Verbs

Note:

sash,sashes

ay, ey, oy

add

merely -5

for the

plural.
valley,
valleys
donkey,donkeys
5. Musical

precededby

journey,journeys
attorney,attorneys

terms

ending in

vowel

add

-s

studio,studios
radio,radios
6. Most
-es

252

for the

for the

and

ending in

nouns

plural.

soprano, sopranos

piano,pianos

endingin
plural.
nouns

precededby

consonant

potato,potatoes

hero, heroes

mosquito,mosquitoes

Negro,Negroes

add

SPELLING

7.

others

Many

nouns

endingin

but
endingin / add -s for the plural,
/ or fe have plurals
endingin ves.

chief,chiefs
dwarf, dwarfs

wife, wives
wharf, wharves

reef,reefs
belief,beliefs

lives
life,
loaf,loaves

Believes is

Note:

has
religion

Each

Compound

word

verb.

believes that he is

Howard

8.

of the

its

own

right.

beliefs.

usuallyadd
compound.

nouns

brother-in-law,brothers-in-law
commander
in chief,commanders
maid

of honor, maids

-s

to

the

most

tant
impor-

in chief

of honor

court-martial,courts-martial
man-of-war, men-of-war
9. Some

words

retain

foreign
plurals.

the foreign
foreignwords have two acceptedplurals,
In the following
the
list,
pluraland an Englishplural.
foreignpluralform is given firstfor each word:
A

few

SINGULAR

PLURAL

memorandum

memoranda, memorandums

curriculum
index

curricula,curriculums
indices,indexes

radius

radii,radiuses
253

SPELLING

10. Some

words

have

the

same

form

in both

and
singular

plural.
deer

sheep

grouse

EXERCISE

On

your paper, write


words:

moose

10

tlie plural
form

of each

of the following

weird.
leisure,
seize, neither,
Exceptionsoften misspelled:
254

SPELLING

39f. Final

e.

ing
endingin silent e usuallydrop the e before addwith a vowel
suffixbeginning
(-ing,-able,-ance, -ous )

Words
a

resemble

resemblance

believe

believable
believing,
interfering
advisable
advising,
hoping
desirous
desiring,

interfere
advise

hope
desire

caring
arguing,arguable
amazing

care

argue
amaze

keep the e before a suffix beginningwith


-ful,
-merit, -ness).
{-lij,

Such

words

consonant

pale,paleness
sincere,sincerely

care,

careful
amazement

amaze,

state, statement

Note:

dyeing,
argument, truly,
Exceptionsoften misspelled:
canoeing.

a suffix
ge drop the e onlywhen
with e or i is added. This rule is easy to remember
beginning
that the spelling
if you keep in mind
reflects the pronunciatio

Words

that end

Before

in

ce

or

and

i, the letter

pronounced like
and the letter g like /'(with a few exceptions,
such as
s
but before a, o, and u the c is pronounced like k
tiger);
and the g has the "hard" sound as in go. Therefore, to keep
tage),
the "soft" sound
of these letters (as in peace and advanhave to keep the e after c or g before adding
we
any suffix beginningwith a, o, or u.
e

notice, noticeable
peace,

peaceable

outrage,outrageous

is

change,changeable
courage, courageous

advantage,
advantageous

bridge,
bridgeable
255

SPELLING

other words

Like
before

ending in
with
suffix beginning

words

keep the

consonant.

strange,strangeness

arrange, arrangement
resourceful
resource,
Note:

e, these

large,
largely

judgment and acknowledgment(preferred

Exceptionsare

spellings).
EXERCISE

On

Then

your
from

the
paper, write
form
each word

11

words
as

many

in

the

followinglist.

other words

as

you

by adding suffixes {-ed,-ing,-ous, -able,-ihle,-ness,


words beside the words
Write these new
-ance, -ment, -ly).
from which they are formed.
can

Words

endingin

suffix

change y
precededby a consonant
beginningwith i. Be sure
except one

to

i before

any

to

keepthe

y if the suffix -ingis added.

happy,happiness
study,
studying
steadiness
steady,
256

worry, worried
try,tried

worry,

ready,readied

ready,readying

worrying

mercy, merciful

SPELLING

39h.

Words

There

is

in -ibie

ending

or

-able.

that will tell you how


-able. If you are
not
sure

simplerule

no

words

ending in -ible or
is correct, look the
spelling

word

EXERCISE

Then
spelling.

correct

that you

ones

put

on

dictionary.

followingwords, substituting
Consult a dictionary
for the
listthe
spelling
your personal

miss.

accept

convert

access

depend

incomprehens-

mov

adjust

desir

incred

not

admiss

destruct

"

"

allow
avail

maccess

"

"

"

advis

"

"

"

commend
compar

"

"

compat

inexcus

plaus

discern

inexpress

precept"

infall

permiss

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

insepar

sens

elig"

intang

excit

invis

suscept
tang

"

"

"

"

excus

"

"

digest

dur

"

"

"

notice

divis

"

manage"

"

indispens

"

"

"

combust

which

12

your paper write the


-ible or -able for the dashes.
On

in

up

spell

to

"

"

"

"

"

irrefut

unbear

"

comprehens

feas

irresist

valu

conceiv

flex"

liv"

vis

lov

vulner

"

"

contempt
39i.

1. The

last
2. The

"

imagin

"

Double

Double
with

"

before

consonant

the final

vowel

"

consonant

if both

word

has

word

ends

of the

only one
syllable.
in

"

"

"

"

"

suffix.

before

suflBx which

followingconditions
or
syllable

singleconsonant

begins

exist:

is accented

on

the

precededby

singlevowel.
ship (One syllable
ending in a singleconsonant,
vowel, i) shipped,
shipping,
precededby a single
with
does
not
vowel.)
begin
shipment(SuflBx

p,

257

SPELLING

with the accent on the final one),


compel (Two syllables
compelling
compelled,
with first accented), quarreled,
quarrel(Two syllables
quarreling
the final one.
Do
with accent
confront (Two syllables
on
not double final consonant
t, because it is not preceded
by a vowel.) confronted, confronting

few

Note:

silent

preceded by

consonant

the

words

words, mostlyadoptedfrom

consonant

thoughthe

accent

is not

falls

on

crochet,crocheted

EXERCISE

Write

on

-ing,-ment
time

258

you

French, end

singlevowel.

before

doubled
the last

In

in

such

sulBx,even

syllable.

ricochet,
ricocheting

13

this list.Then add -ed,


your paper the words in
each
word
the whole
Write
where
possible.

add

suffix.

GROWTH

VOCABULAEY

39j.Words

ending

in

-ally.

add -lyalone
ending in c do not usually
adverb. They add -ally.

Words
an

Note:

Watch

also

to

form

and incidentally.
accidentally

GROWTH

40. VOCABULARY

simplylearningnew
Vocabularygrowth does not mean
words. It means
also discarding
worn-out
expressions,
using
words
accurately,
learningto suit the expressionto the
audience and the occasion. It means
makinglanguagework
portant,
that it says exactly
what you want
it to say. It is imso
then, to consider how you can develop a useful
vocabularyand use it wisely.
40a.
No

needs

for

Simple words
listof words
of

growing vocabulary.

supplied
by

peoplewho

wish

book

can

understand

meet

all of the

better what

they
read or hear. Make
personallist composed of
your own
and
words which you find in your readingor your Hstening
which will be valuable to you. Use new
words frequently
for several days in order to fix them in your memory.
Althoughnothingcan take the placeof a personallist,
words
it is sometimes
to examine
common
some
interesting
whether
to see
they are a part of your vocabulary.
to

EXERCISE

Do

you

know

the

meaning

14

of the words

italicized in the

Consult your dictionary


for the words
following
paragraph?
that are not clear to you. Be preparedto explain
their meaning
in the paragraph.
An

eminent

scholar,known

for his

eccentricity,
complained
259

40b

VOCABULARY

he had

that
recently
and

had

been

received

number

the

approachedon

GROWTH

of anonymous

by

letters

ungainlycreature
who made
the
stiange grimaces and gestures while threatening
learned man.
the letters beFor a time the scholar had ignored
cause
tions
peopleof refinement do not write anonymous communicastreet

an

pay any attention to them; but the notes


that he was
frequently
annoyedby their insolence and
or

to

magistratewho

was

little sleuthing
as

scholar
and

the

discover

to

try

at

no

had

men

When

this

Words

man

from

at

do

to

with
the

the

notes

first seemed

no

libel suit,he

more

was

mail.

anonymous

magazines^

bipartisan
policyis?
foreign
campaign,
speaksof a gubernatorial
a

happening?
tried for

The

man

The

italicized words

was

in newspapers.
regularly
success

and

in the

had

he done?

precedingsentences

democratic

the words

Learn

newspapers

What
perjury.

government

literate citizens,peoplewho

upon

going on.

that

used

are

appear

depends

know

what

in
frequently

the

magazines.
EXERCISE

15

On
in everydayreading.
appear regularly
the words
in the first list.Then
write
write

words

your

paper
oppositeeach

the second

word

column

Example:
1. arbitration

260

with

and

newspapers

you know what


When
the paper

These

evidence

threatened

was

Do

is

the

the scholar received

and
frightened,

for its

scholar liked

in working
displaygenuine acuteness
another
decided to accuse
they finally
fellow known
in the village
thrope.
misana
as

problem;but
uncouth
an
neighbor,

is

material. A

to

the

what

the

so

decided

He

avocation.

an

conclusions. Because

made

40b.

neighborof

malicious

agreed to work
theyexamined
pecuniary gain.Together

obscure, the
out

of such

writer

came

of the group
that defines it.

the number

of words

in

VOCABULARY

40c

GROWTH

another

1. arbitration

workingwith

2. collaboration

make

3. facilitate

and
a dispute
settling
by discussing

easier

coming

to

agreement

an

agrarian
5. reciprocity

mutual

6. deteriorate

havingto

7. dilemma

dishonest,
cheating

4.

exchange

become

worse

do with farm

the

8.

strategy

8.

to
belonging

9.

prejudice

9.

compensation by
for

between

amphibious

10. contact

11.

contemporary

11. skillful

12.

reparations

12.

10.

time

same

defeated

damage after a

matters

nation

war

persons

or

groups

workingtogether
management
better of an opponent

13. liaison

13.

14. autonomous

14.

15.

water

preconceived
opinion

EXERCISE

Choose
and

from
words
interesting
your
definition for each. Arrange words

lists as

in two

classmates
40c.

can

Business

manage

in

match

Exercise

15 and

each

are

word

to

know

business

some

your

terms

in order

his afiFairs.

17

some

and

common

its

words

meaning

as

1. disbursements

1.

2.

2. to

commodity

3. allocate

whether

see

them.

EXERCISE

Here

newspaper
and definitions

words.

Everybodyneeds
to

16

fifteen

write

get the

self-governing,
independent
diflficult
situation
a
or
embarrassing
capableof working on both land
and

15. fraudulent

to

an

that will be useful. Match

you

did in Exercise

addition

to

15.

will

reduce, diminish

3. decrease

in value

throughuse
261

40cl

VOCABULARY

4. codicil

make

4. to

GROWTH

for expense

payment

or

loss
5. curtail

5.

of money

sum

in

corporation
subtracted from

6. amount

6. amortization

shareholders

paidto

prompt payment

other

or

bill for

special

reason

7. the

7. assets

8.

depreciation

of

sum

is short

money
8.

which

by

amount

pledgedfor payment
security

of

loan
articleof trade

9. dividend

9.

10. discount

10.

property

11. reimburse

11.

company
paidbefore material is sent

12. deficit

12. to set

13.

prepaid

14. invoice

an

cash

or

apart for

possessed
by

special
purpose

bill

itemized

13.

an

14.

gradualpayment

of

debt before

the due date


15.

15. collateral

40d.

Foreign words

Long

ago, the Romans


non
gustibus

De

about

The

the
Cado

est

everyday
had

paid out
use.

littleproverbthat said:

(There is no disputing
disputandiim.

tastes.)

French
Chacun

But

in

amounts

say:
a

gout. (Everyoneto his

son

with
Spaniards,
loco

su

tema.

their

own

sense

(Everymadman

taste.)

own

of
to

humor, say:

his

own

sion.)
obses-

languagehas been enriched by adoptingfrom other


like these. Many terms
used in everylanguagesexpressions
day
from Latin, French, Spanish,
man.
are
Italian,or Gerliving
Our

262

VOCABULARY

GROWTH

EXERCISE

Write

abbreviations

or

the

correct

of the

containingeach

sentence

18

and

then

read

the

If you
pronunciation.

have

words
following

sentence

with

aloud

trouble,consult your

dictionary.

19

EXERCISE

These
Exercise

foreignwords
18. Follow

are

more

difficultthan the words

the directions in Exercise

18.

crepe suzette
de corps
esprit

noblesse

agent provocateur

fait accompli

al fresco

habeas

peseta
piecede

antipasto

junta

ad infinitum
ad

au

nauseam

carte

blanche

mare

coup

d'etat

milieu

40e.

Medical

should

It is often

order

to

resistance

savoir vivre

nostrum

summa

cum

laude

verbatim

terms.

If your doctor
has happened to
What

grata

savoir faire

d'hotel

maitre

courant

oblige
non

persona

corpus

in

tells you

that you

have

what
laryngitis,

you?

do if you need
to know
a
necessary
you

understand

what

your

tonsillectomy?

few

doctor

medical

terms

in

tells you.
263

40f-g

VOCABULARY

EXERCISE

Explainthe meaning

40f. Musical

20

of the

words:
following

terms.

you read your program


reportof a musical event?
Can

at

EXERCISE

What

do

GROWTH

these

terms

mean?

concert

or

the newspaper

21

them

Pronounce

correctly.

40g. Scientific termSt,


Scientific terms

and magazine articles


appear in newspaper
Can
dealingwith scientific subjects.
you understand

such

terms?

The

meet

unfamiliar

their

meaning

exercise
following

scientific terms

may

in your

help you. As
reading,find

you
to

out

add

the

words

using these words. Read


aloud, pronouncingthe words correctly.

the

sentences

your

and

pronunciationand

personalvocabularylist.
EXERCISE

Write

264

sentences

22

VOCABULARY

40h.

words.

Art

Here

are

art

your

40h-i

GROWTH

few

words

teacher wHl

used in discussions of

help you

increase

to

art.

Perhaps

the hst.

caricature

chiaroscuro

etching

pastel

ceramics

cubism

impressionism

symmetry

40i.

Literaryterms.

The

you may need if you are


literature. Do you know

words which
are
following
about
going to talk intelligently
their meanings?

40j. Words
How

for the ambitious.

good

is your

of the words

many

vocabulary?Test it by seeing ho\\^


in the following
exercises
you know.
EXERCISE

23

your paper, write the words in the firstcolumn. Then


of the definition
placeoppositeeach word the number
On

which
own

you think suits that word. Write


these words.
in which you use

1. abscond

1. able to

2. adamant

2.

3.

adroitly

run

5. ameliorate

5.

7.

6.

7.

away

8. harsh sound

9.

9.

10.

cacophony

to

avoid

in

8. assiduous

bilingual

well
equally

legalprocess
application
unyielding
able to speaktwo languages
cleverly

3. to

4. constant

antipathy
apothegm

both hands

of your

improve

4. ambidextrous

6.

use

sentences

short,pithysaying

10. dislike

265

40

VOCABULARY

24

EXERCISE

Follow

2.

23.

the directions in Exercise

1. denouement

calumny

1.

GROWTH

possess something
expressionof praise

great desire

2. formal

to

3. commensurate

3. abominable

4.

4.

foolish

5. concatenation

5.

consistingof similar parts or

cupidity

6.

onlya short time


lasting
equalor proportionatein

6.

complicity

7. cynosure

7.

or

8.
9.

discrepancy
edifying

10. elucidate

8.
9.
10.

ments
ele-

measure

extent

in wrongdoing
partnership
state of beinglinked together
of a plotor of
the final outcome

complicated situation
11.

encomium

somethingthat stronglyattracts

11.

attention

12.

deviation,variance

13. execrable

13.

and improving
instructing

14. facihtate

14. slander

15. fallacious

15.

16. fatuous

16.

12.

ephemeral

beliefs
religious
contrary to the acceptedform
grand
affectedly
a

person

17.

ghetto

17. make

18.

grandiose

18.

who

clear
which

placein

requiredto
19. make

19. heretic
20.

homogeneous

live

easy

25

the directions in Exercise

1. imminent

Jews have been

unsound
logically

20.

EXERCISE

Follow

has

1. out

of

23.

keeping,not

character
2.
3.
4.

incognito
incongruous
ingenuous

5. innocuous

266

2.

by nature
essentially,

3.

innocent
artless,

4. mournful
5.

hater

of mankind

harmonious

in

VOCABULARY

40

GROWTH

EXERCISE

Follow

the directions in Exercise

26

23.

267

41-42

PROVINCIALISMS

41. PROVINCIALISMS

When

only learn
with

work

you

must

not

that interfere

ones

speechand writing.

effective

accurate,

usage is that words

formal

requirement of

merely sectional,use. A provincialism,


stood
or
localism,is a word or phraseused and underin only a particular
section or regionof the country.

must

be

Such

words

in

national,not

have
that

assume

himself

has

the United

difficult

are

speakermay
to

words, but discard old

new

fundamental

developa vocabulary,
you

to

they are

known

them

because

accept them

to

come

detect

to

as

writer

or

reputableand

understood
nationally

since

from

parts of

childhood.

Some

he

rich in colorful localisms


especially
which
add flavor to speech but which
be immediately
not
may
Such localisms are
in other areas.
intelligible
propriat
apbut should
in informal writingand conversation
usuallybe avoided in formal writing.
Examples:chunk and
chuck for throw; tote for carry; tote (noun) for load; poke
for bog or sack; fatback for bacon; bunk into for bump
States

into; reckon
for

to
gully;

are

for think

home

or

for at

suppose; choose for wish; draw


home; loco for crazy.

EXERCISE

Make

list of localisms heard

Then
decide
vicinity.
your formal writing.
42.

Dictionaries

mark

which

ones

should

conversational
informal
not

be

avoided

words

expressionwhich

st\'leof

in

as

is

ing.
writingand speak-

appropriatein

judgment of the editors


speech than in writing or more
268

or
neighborhood

in your

COLLOQUIALISMS

is a
colloquialism
in an easy,
permissible
are
Colloquialisms
speaking.

in the

27

formal

writingor

colloquial
(Colloq.)when
in
common
they are more
appropriateto informal

IDIOMS

than

to

formal

editors differ in the interpretations

discourse. Since

of their

the
findings,

label

colloquial
apply
may
kinds of words. All contractions, for example,may
to many
whereas
be considered
some
colloquialisms,
"respectable"
in informal
other kinds should be guarded againsteven
writing.
of colloquialisms
The test for the use
is appropriateness.
rule to enable you to
There is no
exact
test or
objective
when
be used. Certainly
determine
it
colloquialisms
may
is better to employ them than to avoid them and make
your
artificialand awkward.
But in formal, wellwritingseem
planned writingthey should be avoided unless they are
used to achieve some
effect. Consult
stylistic
deliberately
the dictionary
whether
word
is considered
to determine
a
colloquial.
Examples of colloquialisms:
ad

flop

alongside of
backer)
angel(financial

(a person lost or dead)


gumption

auto

in back

brass tacks

goner

(facts)

phone

cute

show

don't

take

fizzle

of

(to faU)

up
a

try at

try and
won't

flabbergast

43. IDIOMS
Idioms

forms

are

of

expressionpeculiarto

idioms

language.
because they
a

but
defy grammaticalanalysis;
sanctioned by current
looked upon as
are
usage, they are
Idioms
correct.
used make
correctly
speech and writing
vigorousand picturesque.
Althoughidioms often cannot be analyzedgrammatically,

Many

the

careful writer

changethem
a

statement

not

therefore

assume

that he

can

he

will contain
A good dictionary
pleases.
idiomatic usage following
words which need

as

of

will

269

IDIOMS

such

Many idioms
explanation.
A few examplesof idioms

involve the

helpbut
complyto
die with

talk

helptalking
with
compl)'
cannot

die of

(a disease)

different from

doubt if

doubt whether, doubt

graduated(highschool)

graduatedfrom

identical to

identical with

listen at

listen to

loud

at

home
for (to await)

wait

on

Certain

words

different

combine

with

different

meanings.

Examples:
proposal
plan

{to
a

on

with

person

'to

somethingsimilar
with something
dissimilar

compare

for a principle
contend

""

differ

with

with

person
againstan obstacle
person

else
from something
about

or

over

question

desired
for something

impatient

with

someone

else

of restraint
at

270

(highschool)

planto go
providedthat

home

wait

that

aloud

planon going
providingthat
to

tions.
preposi-

UDIOMATIC

different than

out

of

follow:

UNIDIOMATIC

cannot

use

someone's

conduct

to
prepositions

press
ex-

IDIOMS

(forsomethingdone
"!with

rewarded

gift

Iby a person

regardto (not in regardsto)

In

The
to

Mr.

Blank, Rischler Company

beginthe

work

Southern

diflFerswith

agreedto

January1.

on

This
The

Hudson

Rhine
When

for its
I

was

Hudson

has

River

are

details.

in many

been

we

to

the

it with

the

compared

beauty.
the

on

and

often

thinks that

He

you.

readyfor expansion.
plan differs from the firstone

not

suggestion

our

Rhine, I compared

concluded

that it has

nothingthe

Hudson

lacks except castles.


Note:
at

In casual

the end

of

it
English,

is all

rightto

Sometimes

sentence.

use

it is

preposition

acceptableeven

in formal

in certain idiomatic
English,especially
sions
expresthe verb becomes
in which
is retained when
a
preposition
passive,with the objectof the prepositionas its
subject.

Active:

We

Such

Passive:
Active:
Passive:

When
make

thingis not
laughed

Someone
He

sure

think of such

cannot

hated

to

a
you use
that it is

Right:What

are

be

at

to

be

him.

laughedat.

prepositionat
not

you

an

of

sentence,

preposition.

writingwith?

are

you

going to?

Right:Where

are

you

going?
EXERCISE

On

the end

unnecessary

Where

Wrong:

thing.
thoughtof.
a

28

of each of the following


paper, write the number
Beside the number, write
sentences.
the preposition
your

that should

be

if you
dictionary

suppliedfor that sentence.


have difficulty.

Consult

your

271

IDIOMS

that he will accede

1. This letter means


2. I doubt

go with you.
hat is similar

can

3. The

color of your
is not identical

4. The

to

that of your

glovesbut

it.

did not agree


manager
the filing
system.
that

your request.

my

ing
suggestionfor improv-

6. This

salaryhas been increased, Hilda is


her relatives.
independent
suitcase differs
that one
onlyin lengtli.

7. Mrs.

Robbins

5. Now

8. Do

9.

her

think the

you

home

will be

tonight?
The new
familynext

this afternoon.

will

snowstorm

prevent him

is very different

door

pletely
com-

coming
the

that

one

lived there before.


on
a small
living
salary.
capable
doing such a thing.

reconciled

10.

Jack is

11.

I didn't think him

12.

Jane is

now

her appearance.

careless

too

EXERCISE

On

your

sentences

kind of

did you

car

3. When

following

didn't

planon

have

we

if

6. I doubt

to

you

home

to

Jane has

caused

all the trouble.

parents graduatedhigh school, education

our

different than it is

not

the

bu)'?

help but think that

2. I can't

5. If

of

1. What

4. We

each
correctly

write

paper,

29

7. I differ from

on

will

very

now.

going

wait

was

the shore

to

him

much

early.
shall
we
longer,
so

get any help from

be late.

Ellen, because

she is

often.

George about holdinga

new

club election

right

now.

8. I cannot

help but

listen when

you

practiceyour part

out

loud.
9. I
10.

thoughtall alongthat

I doubt
one.

272

if you

can

ever

Bill

was

find

planningon going with


jacketidentical to your

us.

old

IMPROPRIETIES

44. VULGARISMS

Vulgarisms(alsocalled "barbarisms" and "substandard"


and phrasesnot ac"illiterateexpressions")
words
or
are
cepted
in either colloquial
formal language.Since they
or
used by uneducated
are
speakers,such expressionsare
always to be avoided in writingunless you put them into
the dialogueof people you are
cated.
uneduas
characterizing
The following
words and phrases
should be guarded
against:
hadn't

couldn't
ought,mistakened, this here, anywheres,
of, hisself,
being as, concertize, vacationize, stilland

all,coronated
45. IMPROPRIETIES

recognizedEnglishwords which are


misused in function or meaning. The word that constitutes
which causes
it is its misuse
an
improprietyis acceptable;
are
Improprieties

an

in diction.

error

improprietiesin grammatical

Avoid

45a.

function.

be transferred from one


part of speechto
may
another,but the careful writer will not employ such a word
word

in

its

function

new

unless

it is sanctioned

in
Examplesof improprieties

Verbs misused
eats,

an

as

by good

use.

function:

nouns:
a
think,a
fix,

invite,a

combine

bination"
(meaning"com-

)
Nouns

misused

as

verbs:

to suicide
suspicion,

to

misused
Adjectives

as

adverbs:

real pretty,sure
misused as
Prepositions
like for
Avoid:

We
I

as,

served

some
pleased,

tall

conjunctions:

except for unless


eats.

that
suspicioned

the

planwould

fail.
273

SLANG

Use:

45b.

served food.

We

that
suspected

Avoid

the

planwould

of words

"
-

improprietiesin meaning.

in meaning
improprieties

Most

fail.

similar in form.

groups

are

caused

are

by

example,words

For

the misuse
in

the following

misused:
frequently

accept,except
effect
affect,

formally,
formerly

all ready,already

ingenious,
ingenuous

all together,
altogether

irritate,
aggravate

illusion
allusion,

avenge, revenge

later,latter
liable,
likely

complement,compliment

noted, notorious

council,counsel

party,person

uninterested
disinterested,

principal,
principle
respectfully,
respectively

healthful,healthy

elude, allude

stationary,
stationery

expect,suspect
farther,further

than, then
EXERCISE

1. Use

in
correctly

listed in Section

each

of the groups of words

45b.

in a sentence:
followingwords correctly
continual,creditable, practicable,
apt, continuous,

2. Use

each

sentences

30

of the

vocation, consul,can, may,

conscious, conscience.

46. SLANG

kind of vulgarism.
particular
Formerly the
term
was
applied to the cant of gypsies,beggars,and
class of society.
thieves,or to the jargon of any particular
Now
slangis defined as languagewhich consists of widely
playing
current
terms
havinga forced or fantastic meaning, or dis-

Slang is

ful,
very colorful and forcebut it is often used with such crudeness that it may
offend peoplewho
careful of their choice of words and
are
It is
eccentricity.

cause

274

the person

who

uses

sometimes

it to

be

considered

vulgar.

TRITENESS

these

Note

typical
slangexpressions:

with it,bang-up,
to get pinched,
a bum
what, spuds,take the count,
so
steer, to put it across,
put on the dog, have a heart, a lemon,
going some,

grub,to get away

cut
attaboy,

ice, fall for it,hard-boiled, get the

no

goods

him, talk throughyour hat, goofy,wacky, off his nut,


squawk,dead pan, crab, let it ride,you said it,to get hep,
on

rat

race,

on

the beam,

cockeyed,good

sourpuss,
"to
die" or
(meaning

egg,

"to kill"),that's for


mike, croak
the birds,heap (car),egghead,square, drag

47. TRITENESS
How

have

times

many

you

behalf of the team,

On

Anderson

This is

heard

the

I should

this small token of

following
speech?

like to present

appreciation.

our

speech.The firsttime that


but the person who
was
uses
acceptable;
that he is lazyor unwilling
to think
clearly
Trite

trite

are
expressions

often. Avoid
Here
notice

them.

are

some

other

many

or
speeches,

Make

that
expressions

injury

all the luck in the world

bitter end

all work

bolt

play

no

lines

of
receipt
house

as

bigas

as

luck would

at

at

an

have it

loss for words

earlydate

your earliestconvenience
be that as it may
be there with bells on
at

shows

now

for himself.
been

used

too

in conversations.

biggerand

in

it

ing.
languagefresh and interestwill probably
to avoid. You
expressions
trite expressions
in your reading,
in public

add insult to

are

used, it

was

your

better half

alongthese

it

have

abreast of the times

and

Mr.

to

of the blue

out

brown

better

as

berry(or a nut)

buddinggenius
busyas a bee
by and large
by leapsand bounds
captainof industry
center

of attraction

checkered

career

vine
clinging

275

TRITENESS

cold

as

ironyof fate

ice

conspicuousby his absence

last but

deadlyearnest

level best

deem

it

and

honor

an

lege
privi-

least

not

the world

makes

live in

placeto

the eye
method in his madness

deepestgratitude
depthsof despair
do

to
justice

doomed

meets

milestone

dinner

needs

disappointment

to

each and every


esteem

it

on

the rule

exceptionproves

the

none

of

out

fair sex

the road

the bud
for

worse

clear

wear

sky

festive occasion

proudpossessor
moment
psychological

few and far between

red

lucre
filthy

ripeold age

firstand foremost

shot heard around

fools rush in

take this opportunity

goes without

good time

the

saying
had

was

as

the weaker

by all

the

green with envy


heartfelt thanks

time

marches

to

make

too

in this day and

words

The

age
to

avoid trite ideas

giftwas

what
exactly

as

on

good thingsmust

come

EXERCISE

Criticize the

longstoryshort

fullfor

utterance

failto express

well

as

trite

expressions:

I wanted.

I'llthink of you every time I


Do not hesitate to call on me.

All

wear

of my life
tired but happy

bear

careful

sex

for

worse

ignoranceis bliss

Be

the world

time

all-time low

hungryas

rose

good life

great open spaces

hit an

of life

introduction

no

nippedin

great honor

better

to

wear

an

it.

end.

31

Which
Englishin the followingsentences.
would
be acceptable
Which
in casual English?
expressions
are

276

trite?

TRITENESS

1.

Everybodyhad a
didn't show
up?

2. I'd

have

never

ball

the

at

How
picniclast night.

if each and every

won

come

of you hadn't

one

you

helped

me.

that
suspicioned

3. I

another guy.
last but
4. Now,

you

weren't

least,we're happy

not

when

coming

Joan with

saw

present the Nairobi

to

Trio.

5. Well,

keep in

touch.

32

EXERCISE

the directions in Exercise

Follow

I reach

1. When

cityand

go

to

ripeold

the wide

2. If this inflation

age, I

spaces.
you will be

the

from

get away

open

keeps on,

I've worked

to

want

you reach that ripeold age.


that pricesare
3. It's certainly
true
bounds.

31.

like

dog and

when

out

by leapsand
nothingto show for

going
have

and

down

up

it.

4.
5.

I think it'swacky to worry in


large,
but trouble often comes
Maybe you'reright,
sky;and I think we should be preparedfor
and

By

EXERCISE

speech.Then
following
speaker.Try to make it free of

Avoid
expressions.

trite

from

the audience
This

of

age.
clear

rainy day.

write

an

introduction

trite ideas

well

as

as

background
tracingthe speaker's

that he is about

morning we

seniors

are

to

address.

in school for the last time.

Soon

shall be

we

honor
needs

speak

it an
the shipof life into the future. I deem
sailing
and a privilege
to present to you as our
speaker,one who
that Dr. Edward
introduction. It is fitting
should
Benson
no
to

us

should like
of

out

high school to the present. Select only the details that


show
valuable
or
why his speechshould be interesting

will
to

day and

33

Criticize the

of

this

on

this occasion.

to offer him

our

Before

present him

to

you,

for takingtime
deepestgratitude

out

busyday to joinus.
277

JARGON
48.

JARGON

think that theyvriilimprove


writers
inexperienced
their writingby using long words, elaborate expressions,
or
technical words understood
of a speonlyby the member
cial
the best writingis simtrade or profession.
ple,
Actually,
Some

direct,clear. Instead of "No," the


"The

writer

of

jargonsays,

is in the

negative."
Government
omists
pamphlets and letters and reports of econand
engineers could often be improved by the
of jargon.Recentlyan economist
who
wished
omission
to
tell Congressthat part of the farm problem is that there
answer

too

are

"The

many
hard

surplusof

farmers
core

human

said:

of the United

States farm

effort committed

to

problem is
farming."
CLEAR

JARGON

his tasks with

Pursue

Unfavorable
Enter

conditions

into the state

Business

avoid

of

people are
such
expressions

attached

great diligence

hereto, in

matrimony

often
as

of

users

alongthe

connection

Work

WRITING

hard

Bad

weather

Get

married

jargon.They

line

the

should

of,with regardto,

with, enclosed

herewith

pleasefind.(See Section 95. )


the Art of
Sir Arthur
On
in his book
Quiller-Couch,
Writing,says the jargoneermakes use of "vague,woolly,
abstract nouns
rather than concrete
ones." Quiller-Couch
probablyhad in mind words like case, instance, character,
nature, condition, persuasion,
degree,quality,
personality,
asset, thing,
state, and factor.
discusses is
Another trick of jargonwhich Quiller-Couch
to repeat a word
variation,"an unwillingness
once
"elegant
often practiceelegant
it has been used. Sportswriters
iation.
varTo avoid repeatingthe word
writers
some
football,
oval. Similarly,
such writers
resort
to pigskinor
strain to
nicknames
in order to avoid repeating
invent descriptive
278

JARGON

the
the

they are writingabout. Joe Louis,


known
"The
as
heavyweight champion, was

of the person

name

former

Bomber"

Brown

"The

and

sounds

variation

at
afiFected;

to repeat
preferable

It is

Often, of

necessary.
used.

course,

or

best elegant

At

it sounds

worst

word

name

absurd.
often

as

personalpronoun

EXERCISE

On

Menace."

Detroit

as

be

can

34

sentences, improving
your paper, rewrite the following
Substitute
other
words
for
the wording.
jargon.

1. The

man's
2. In

in his

greatest factor
in

estate

the

3. Ruth

judgedas

was

reached

present, the

not

of

of their offense

nature

different character.

of baseball's greatest assets.


He
possessed
and thousands of human
unusual degree,
beings

one

to
ability

an

in the environs

rival the

ever

that he had

was

healthyphysicalcondition.

of those

case

will be

success

of New

City thoughtthat

York

great Bambino.

the Bronx
things,
a
long periodof

Behemoth

the

by

But

entered

no

could

one

very

state
declining

of

nature

over

of the
years. Later the fickle fans were
Joe DiMaggio,
persuasionthat,with regardto baseball ability,
the former
former

San

Francisco

home-run

5. He

to
was

of the

stature

same

as

the

king.

4. In this instance, his


asset

star, was

in the affirmative

answer

was

distinct

business.

our

type of student who

serious

wished

major

to

in

the field of
6.

chemistry.
Illumination is required
before
to be extinguished
is closed for the night.
EXERCISE

On

your

rewrite

paper,

Dear
In

Mrs.

35

this business

English.(See
straightforward

this building

Section

letter in

simple,

95.)

Jenkins:

replyto

your

letter of

January 10

with

regardto

mer-

279

AND

CONCRETE

along the line of slipcovers, we


samples of three types of materials.

chandise

advise that
and

we

of the

are

re

the

as

your

opinion
per your

WORDS

herewith
enclosing

are

should

We

be in your district
that he will be able

will
representative

our

slipcovers
Thankingyou for

you

SPECIFIC

like
on

to

to

day,
Monassist

request.

inquiry,we

beg to

remain

Veiy trulyyours,
J. A.

49. CONCRETE

SPECIFIC

WORDS

meaning (denotation)and a suggested


T
he
denotation
or
impliedmeaning (connotation).
be
word fatheris male parent; the connotation
may

Words

of the

AND

Henderson

have

an

exact

playmate of my boyhood,the person who always


allowed
good advice,the stingyfellowwho never
gave me
pending
me
enough spendingmoney, or many other meanings, dereads
upon the experienceof the individual who
hears the word. In addition to their special
connotations
or
for different people,words also have connotations
that are
understood
by nearlyeverybody.For example,both cabin
and hovel are
appliedto a small, rudelybuilt house; but

the kind

cabin may suggest vacations


at the seashore or in the mountains,
whereas
hovel always impliespoverty and dilapidation.
Some

words

fragranceand

are

richer in connotative
for

values than others;

specific
ideas than smell or odor. If you are writingvigorousprose
that seeks some
rich in
in imagination,words
response
connotation
will help.If, however, you are
port
writinga reof a committee
experiment,
activityor a laboratory
the tone should be more
then concerned
You are
objective.
with clarity,
rather than effect.
Concrete
words, however, are important in any kind of
writing.
280

aroma,

instance, suggest

more

SPECIFIC

AND

CONCRETE

49a.

rather
specific

Use

Walk
There

WORDS

is
are

generalwords.

than

definite

generalword. It gives no
ways of saying walk:
many
a

picture.

hobble, stumble, stagger, glide,creep,

strut,

scurry,

stroll,march
words.
specific
these words
way of walking,
generalword walk.
These

Note:

are

Do

use

do

if you

use

more

wish

not

to

call attention

EXERCISE

the specific
words
Identify
house

complain

laugh
freighter

nag

to

the word

the way

(verb)

delay

36
in the

of the words

each

list.
following

boat

dawdle

guffaw
g^^P (verb)

slouch
drink

(verb)
(verb)

37

EXERCISE

For

for walk

walking.

is

person

are

word
like stumble
specific
Walk
what you mean.
is
precisely

not

unless that is
to

they show a special


than the
descriptive

Because

in the

write
list,
following

three

words.
specific

Example: opening
"

window, crevice, peephole

shoes

said

car

went

EXERCISE

On

which

one

of the

you

use

The
A

Final
House

Enter

The

beverage
38

followingtopics,v^ite
words:
specific

Touchdown
on

the Shore

the Ghost
Beach

food

go
old

Blind

paragraphin

Date

An

Old-fashioned

My

First Date

Garden

Party
281

il^^^l^Mi^^^lj^
49b.

words

Use

that express
words

between
Distinguish
related and

or

"fine"

make

sure

whose
are

you

meaning

your

meanings

using the

whiting

exactly.
similar

are

that says

one

often help you


Your dictionary
can
you mean.
these distinctions. If the word
is
you have in mind

what
exactly
make
not

exactlythe

word

list of synonyms

you
with

meaning expressedby
another word
you

under

need, your dictionary


may
of
explanation

an

each

which

such

shade

of

refer you to
list is given.In this way
or

one;

the

offer

it may

learn, for example,that an automobile mechanic


tools,a farmer uses
implements,and a surgeon uses

can

uses

instrmnents.

EXERCISE
is the difference in

What
of the

39

meaning

of the words

in each

followinggroups?
debate, discuss
distaste
dislike,disgust,
feature,characteristic,
peculiarity
color,hue, tinge,shade
argue,

50. "FINE"

"Fine"

writingis writingthat

Avoid

50a.
The

use

writingis

Use

Short
is

the

of

direct,simplewords

mentioned

in Section

to

gain effectiveness

48. Avoid

in

artificiality,
pre-

affectation.

short words.

words

story of
United

usuallyclearer
plumber who once

are
a

States

acid
"The
replied:
282

is affected.

"fine" writing.

dentiousness, and
50b.

WRITING

government

than
wrote

that he

long ones.
to

had

There

agency of
found hydrochloric
an

good for cleaningout pipes. A


of hydrochloric
acid
efficiency

bureaucrat
is

indispu-

WRITING

FINE

table,but the

with metallic
residue is incompatible

corrosive

permanence."
The plumber respondedthat he was
delightedto know
that the agency agreedwith him. After a further exchange
he
what
wrote
of letters,the government official finally
should have written the firsttime: "Don't use
hydrochloric
acid. It eats the inside out of pipes."
Too many
longwords will make a piece of writingseem
heavy or pedantic.A series of long words will also tend
the smooth, even
flow of a sentence.
to interrupt
Compare
the effect of the following
sentences:
Long

words:

his indebtedness,he
liquidating

After

possessionof sufficient funds


commercial
enterprise.
Short

words:

After
to

This
used.

does
A

paying his debts, he

set

not

writer

up

stillhad

small

enough money

small business.

be
long words should never
mature
stylewill,of course, use
he will generally
them only to
use

long words; but


meanings
express particular

many

exist. There

establish

that

mean

with

to

stillin

was

for which

shorter words

may

short words, for

press
example,to exthe exact
or
epilogue,
meanings of jurisdiction,
pendicit
apthe
and
But
meal;
following:
repast
compare
retire and
and letter;ratiocinate and
go to bed; epistle
sequies
think;pulchritudeand beauty;comestibles and food; oband funeral.
In these expressions,
the simplewords
what
the writer
wishes to say and
express quite clearly

not

are

no

in better taste.

are

50c.
Too

modifiers

Use

intelligently.

or
adjectives

adverbs

make

done.
overstyleseem
Notice the overuse
of modifiers in the following
excerpt
from the description
of a wedding:

many

As

she

down
swept gracefully

the flower-bordered

aisle
283

WEITING

FINE

freshly
paintedchurch, the bride smiled
and kindlyinto the eyes of her handsome,
graciously

of the old,

stalwart husband.

50d.

careful in using

Be

bit of Latin

foreignexpressions.

French

or

sometimes

impressive,

seems

be tempted to sprinkle
writer
inexperienced
may
tatious
Actuallythey are ostenwritingwith foreignphrases.

and

the

his

and

should

when

be

there is

avoided

except

in the very

few

stances
in-

Businessmen
Englishequivalent.
talk about per diem
sometimes
a
they mean
pay when
by.
day'spay, or they ship thingsvia when they mean
Other peopletalk of a faux pas when
a mistake.
theymean
no

EXERCISE

Rewrite

this

40

paragraph in simplelanguage:

Yesterdayat high noon


youngest daughterof Mr.

Sinclair,the lovely
Gustav
Ober
Sinclair,was
given in
classmate, Mr. Spencer Horcollege
Miss

Adrienne

marriage to her handsome


ston-Palmer.
The
exquisite,radiant

bride

begowned in
familylace of the
white kid,
spotless
was

with old
shimmeringwhite satin adorned
Her
utmost
hands, envelopedin
delicacy.
bore a white prayer book, symbol of purity,from which showered
lilies of the valley.
bride moved
As the lovely
ward
tofragile
the sanctum
followed closely
sanctorum, she was
by three
stunning attendants wearing pale orchid organdy.The tender
strains of the wedding march
were
presentedby the talented
Eric Feld.
organist,

EXERCISE

41

The

letter of eighty-three
words
following
clear,simplelanguage in thirtywords.

in

that number

to

Dear
We
order

284

you

can

in your

come

can

be written

See

how

close

revision.

Sir:
are

in

receiptof

for five television

your
sets

favor
and

of the tenth

wish

to

instant

advise that

in

re

according

Sid

WORDINESS

records your
Express.In as much

to

order

our

would

end, we
has

been

not

shippedon Oct. 19 via Railway


checked on this
order was
carefully
wait for three days.If the material

was

the

as

ask you

to

in that

received

the card attached hereto and

time,

give us

ask that you


due notice.

would

we

use

51. WORDINESS
is the
Wordiness, or redundancy,

of

use

words

more

than

needed.

are

To

be

effective,
writing should

This
possible.

does

not

that essential words

can

be

that it

mean

economical

as

be

must

as

sketchyor

be omitted.

Wrong: Shippedorder today.

Right:We
51a.

Do
I

shippedyour
not

more

use

regret that you

order

today.

words

than

not

were

are

necessary.

suppliedwith

the necessary

information

requestedby you in order to


of traveling
safest means
to reach

of the

assure

you

Cimarron.

(Verbose; 28 words)
I

regret that you did


the safest
15

Be

Better:

Redundant:
Better:

of

means

receive

information

Cimarron.
reaching

concerning
(Economical;

words)

careful

Redundant:

not

not

He
He

to

say the

same

thingtwice.

operates a large800-acre farm.


operates an 800-acre farm.

The

bonds

were

burned

The

bonds

were

burned.

The

bonds

were

reduced

WORDY

and

reduced

to

to ashes.
BETTER

repeat again

repeat

importantessentials

essentials

in

number

blue in color

many
blue

combined

combined

many

ashes.

together

285

51b

51b.
do

Do

not

not

say

use

for example,
prepositions;

unnecessary

meet

for meet,

with

up

fall off of for

or

fall off.

EXERCISE

the

On

your paper, rewrite


words:
unnecessary
1.

Maybe

the story wrong.


misinterpreted
an
was
adjacent
neighborto the Lukes.
wished

Esmonds

4. I do

sentences, omitting
following

2. Gabriel
3. The

42

wish

not

to

restore

which

one

James II

is square

back

the throne.

to

shape;I

in

want

one

oval in form.
5. The

of the corridor terminates

end

at

small door, green

in color.

this

6. In

resources

day

age any girlwith the necessary financial


keep her hair neat and attractive in appearance.

and

can

7. After his death


8.

Althoughwe
who

he received the award

were

felt close;and

so

other in future years


9. It is
your
10. The
is

286

true
undeniably

decided

we

to

number, there

desire to
to

that

once

company

you
and

express oneself is
all

to

were

few

with
correspond

studyin
mitigated.

start

to

universal

people.
a
completemonopoly in

had

of

us

each

come.

troubles will be lessened

common

11. The

in

many

posthumously.

earnest,

craving which
that

territory,

51

WORDINESS

but there

climatic conditions which

unfavorable

were

vented
pre-

the

12.

from resuming production


again.
factory
there are
of those culprits,
not
In the case
people
many
who
would
judge them solelyand completelyresponsible
for their cruel,thoughtless,
and heinous misdeeds.
should

I think that the check


my opinion,
the bank.

13. In
to

14. Each

15. In

of you must
every one
in this day and age.

learn to

and

departmentstore in
there are alwaysa number
a

16. I refuse to be involved

town

our

of

and

Stieets,

novelties.

new

in his

bility
responsi-

assume

Tenth

on

returned

be

plansin

shape,or

any way,

form.
with
compliance

17. In

your request,we
all the pamphletsthat

separate cover
with agriculture.
wish

18. We

to

that because

state

which

order

you sent, your


herebyreturned.

we

check

EXERCISE

On

your

are

sendingyou

we

have

are

under

in connection

unable

to

in the amount

fillyour
of $50 is

43

paper, reworite these

in

sentences

clear,concise

Enghsh.
1.

Through the
than

more

the Honor
3. The

we

sad misfortune

to

desire

for you if you don't make

Roll.

pioneers struggled
throughthe

the necessities
4. Our

made

we
are
advertising,

afford.

can

it will be

2. I know

of

medium

modern

which

of

trains

with

winter

they needed.
todayhave made

not

even

great improvements

for the comfort

of the passengers.
should like to take this opportunity
to

5. We
on

6.

the

My

congratulate
you

splendidjob.

check

in

the

for the purpose

amount

of

of $75

was

sent

completingpayments

you
on

my

in

January

television

set.

7. Each

game

and every one of you is invited to


which will beginat 1:30 p.m.
on

come

to

the football

Saturdayafternoon.
287

51

WORDINESS

will find it

is enclosed; you
charga-plate

8. Your

will

if you

those

9. For

it when

use

venience
great con-

shopping.
be

believing
ignoranceto

inborn

an

vestigati
in-

trait,an

of facts proves them wrong.


which
encircle my
10. During the course
of events
everyday
able to make
contributions to the activities
I am
activities,
of the
11. The

community.

program

has the aid of

and reputable
distinguished
and preof the causes
explanation
vention

to impart an
physician

of disease.
12. The

the

of

cost

the Civic

above

and

proceedsover

scenery will go

and

costumes

of the show

the expenses
to

and

the treasury of

Opera Company.

happy to comply with your request for a petroleum


for use in your classroom.
relative to the oil industry
display
We
are
gladto report that your order has been forwarded
retail dealer whose
to our
shop is near
you in Kingsville.

13. I

14.

am

15. We

must

Rule

at

report

apple has

this time

been

that

discontinued

disease that attacks this


16. Dear
We

with
utmost

Mr.

varietyof

our

because

of

an

trollable
uncon-

varietyof appletree.

Norris:

are

sorry
order

your

inform you that we


unable to comply
are
for ten hats with 3-inch brims. It is our

to

pleasureto tell you that this model has


by the York hat, which is the productof

research

Golden

and

which

we

are

sure

will

give

our

been

placed
re-

extensive
customers

every satisfaction.

EXERCISE

The

44

are
following
wordy.Rewrite
paragraphs

unnecessary

words.

Some

sentences

may

them,

ting
omit-

plete
requirecom-

rewriting.
I

The
be

grantingof home
forward

step

have
and
population

288

rule

in the art

to

and

in our
municipalities

state

will

of government. Municipalities
the last decade
of
in terms

science

rapidlyin
grown
industries. Therefore

the

act

of

beinggranted

EUPHONY

the

of making their
privilege

charters

own

laws
estabhshing

plicabl
apbetter government. There
is no rhyme nor reason
to a system that allows a state legislature
to spend its time
making small decisions for the government and
to

their needs

is conducive

to

the establishment

of laws for each

when

could handle

these

towns

and

their

own

in the state
every town
afFairs adequately.

II

has become

Tension

life as

have

the Four

much

as

part of the American

way

of

feel it is necessary
and imperativeto keep up with the Joneses,and as a result we
and
times
set high goalswhich
to attain
are
impossible
many
hold. Not

Freedoms.

we

beset by
we
are
goals,
tising
of anxiety and failure. Through the medium
of adverfeelings
and the systems of installment buying we
led to desire
are
more
goodsand satisfactions for a higherstandard of living.
is often
This standard
of living
than we
times more
can
many
reasonably
expect to achieve. As a result we developdiscontent
to

and

beingable

Today

to

these

attain

nervousness.

52. EUPHONY

Euphony is pleasantsound. Good


words carefully
and arrange them so
is euphonious.
sentence
52a.

Avoid
I

repetitionof the

hope that

same

you will like the

writers

choose

that the sound

their
of the

sound.

prizeand that

it is the

right

size.

When

Mr.

money

Edwards
had

been

recovered, he discovered
stolen.

careful of words
particularly
endingin
make
sion. Several of them used together
a sentence
heavy.
Note:

Be

After

that his

the principal
explanation,
Jack's
gave

the

tion

or

sound

problem

careful consideration.
289

9lZl9"C

EUPHONY

different forms

Avoid

52b.
Weak:

The

book

is covered

Better:

The

book

has

Weak:

He

Better:

He

of the

with

green

think his

would
would

consider

the

your paper, rewrite

act

be generous.

to

his

act

generous.

45

EXERCISE

On

cover.

cover.

green

thoughteveryone
thoughteveryone

word.

same

sentences, avoiding
following

faulty
repetition:
1. The

heightof

2. The

room

has

the desk is three feet


not

as

much

as

room

high.

my

former

room

had.

placedthe box in another place.


Slowlythe Indian edged toward the edge of the river.
I do mind
havingyou read my mind.
Tommy received a birthday
present from everyone present.
The man
in front of the bakeryexplained
that he
loafing
had come
to buy a loaf of bread.
He was
likable kind of man,
a
alwayskind to children and
interested in his fellow man.
really

3. She
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

had

the track

9. At
10. If

meet

I met

my

old friend Marshall.

business has

good publicrelations,
peoplenot onlywant
to do business with it but will enjoy doingbusiness
with it
and will not only continue
it but will
to do business with
a

recommend

Avoid

52c.

it to their friends.

alliteration and

Alliteration is the
the

same

attracts

rhyme.

of several words

beginningwith
sound. It is often used in advertising
because it
be avoided in good
attention, but it should usually
use

prose.
He

/oughtfor foreignnations
EXERCISE

Rewrite
1. The
2.

290

The

these

balmy
sun

sentences

winds

rode

to

blew

highin

in

/our wars.

46

make

them

sound

warmly over the bay.


brightblue sky.

better.

53ci-c

LANGUAGE

FIGURATIVE

to learn.
highschool I developeda yearning
The
service built morale
intelligence
by sendingreports
concerningsupport by the home front.
Why should I care if you cut your hair?
In a blind furyhe flew into tlie fray.

3. In
4.

5.
6.

such

7. Scenes

these

as

8. I'm sorry that I


to

be

best

are

sunset.

at

seen

late for the date, but fate

was

justseemed

againstme.
the

9. When

consumed

resumed, we

meetings were

quantities

of refreshments.
10.

Misconceptionsbased

unscientific tradition have

on

of misinformation

in the dissemination

Figuresof speech helpto


effective if theyare
not
are
mixed.

discussed
53a.
are

are

Section

in

simile

writingvivid,but they

make

forced and

many
53a-f are

strained

or

if

they

of speech,but those
figures
the most
important.
among

is the

comparison of two images which


but which are alike in at least
different,
essentially
A

respect. The words

one

to

There

nutrition.

LANGUAGE

53. FIGURATIVE

are

about

resulted

as,

if,like

as

are

used

to

point

the resemblance.
He

Smoke

53b.

like

eats

horse.

hung

over

metaphor

is

Money is
My cousin

the

crime

that

not

The
A

is

great umbrella.

cat.

stage.

committee
investigation

Personification
are

of all evil.

Madeline

for mice

53c.

citylike

suggested comparison.

root

All the world's


The

the

and

find the

was

told

to

ing
stop look-

breedingplace.

gives human

qualitiesto objects

living.

wind

howled.

moon
smiling

looked

down

on

the lovers.
291

53d.

Hyperbole
I

is

I've told you

that

what

times

to

do.

and
sparingly

be used

is the

Metonymy

MISUSED

grief.

thousand

Hyperboleshould
53e.

OFTEN

exaggeration.

from

insane

was

EXPRESSIONS

AND

WORDS

of

use

word

one

cautiously.

very

for another

it suggests.
The

(Water in the ketde boils.)


good table. (Good food)
boils.

ketde

She

sets

figuresof speech,when overdone, makes a


styleflorid. It is important that the figuresbe fresh and
that were
effective have become
once
original.
Many figures
The

of

use

trite. Avoid

these.

53f.

mixed

Avoid

who

Students

figures.
for
striving

are

effect sometimes

metaphors;that is,theystart
a
comparison and finish it with
different from the first.
entirely
similes

or

The

road

to

to

that
the

is

success

By milkingthe

laysthe

a, before
an

ABOUT,
means

292

throughit.

swim

must

man

road; then

it is

with

strewn

river.)

absurd.)

sentence

should

An

and

dry,we are going to kill the goose


makes
goldeneggs. (Mixingthe figures

OF

EXPRESSIONS
AN.

another

ing
by makcomparison

cow

54. GLOSSARY

A,

sentence

straight,
narrow,

the ambitious

rocks, but

(The way

is

success

their

mix

WORDS

OFTEN

be

word

used

AND
MISUSED

before

initial vowel

an

beginningwith

consonant

sound;

sound:

adult, a problem
AROUND.

Ahout

"alongthe

mcans

circumference

around
"approximately";
of"

or

"on

all sides of."

EXPRESSIONS

AND

WORDS

I live about

mile from

around

I walked

MISUSED

OFTEN

school.

the block.

Accept mcans
"to
verb) means

"to

EXCEPT.

ACCEPT,

used

as

He

The

receive";
except (when

exclude."

acceptedthe nomination.
from the assignmentthose
teacher excepted

students

preparingreports.

Colloquialabbreviation for advertisement. In formal


as
ad, exam, phone,
writing,avoid such colloquialisms
and prof.
"to adjustto new
conditions";
ADOPT.
Adapt mcaus
ADAPT,
"to take as your own."
adoptmeans

AD.

could not be adaptedto today's


needs.
building
The Romans
and ideas from the
adoptedmany customs
nations
theyhad conquered.
The

old

give advice."

"To

ADVISE.

Use

that advise is used

(Note

as

for inform
sparingly
a

verb, and advice

or

tell.

is used

as

a noun.

Poor:

beg

We

Better:

to

advise

that

will
representative

our

Kansas

City next

week.

We

happy to

tell you that

are

in Kansas

City next

our

be

in

will be
representative

week.

either (a)
Affcctis alwaysa verb; it means
"to influence or producea changein" or (b ) "to put on or
be a noun
assume." Effectcan
verb. As a noun
it
a
or
EFFECT.

AFFECT,

"a result

means

about

or

The

ALL

to

or

outcome"; as

verb it means

"to

bring

accomplish."

sightof

He

a
affects

No

one

so

much

British

him deeply.
affected
suffering
accent.

could foresee the

The

doctor

READY,

ALREADY.

a
effected

All

effectsof this decision.

miraculous

cure.

ready (two words)

means

"every293

EXPRESSIONS

AND

WORDS

OFTEN

MISUSED

ready";already
thing(or everyone ) ready"or "completely
means
"previously."
I

in that box

looked

have

We

all readyto

was

After

for school.

start

delay,the

some

already.

horses

all

were

ready to

run.

to mean
fightis Overworked
"very
word.
well." Alright
is not an
acceptable
"when
All togethermcaiis
all
ALL
ALTOGETHER.
TOGETHER,
counted" or "everybody(or everything)
in one
are
place
means
(or at one
time)"; altogether
"wholly."
ALL

There

were

That

is

an

eightof us all together.


different problem.
altogether

between
objects;

two

refers

He

distributed the

He

divided

That

is the road

be

cannot

between

thingmatters;

or

number

Fort
is

in

the fi\e winners.

Jack and Joe.


Worth

uscd

Dallas.

and

with

quantitiesthat

where

cases

is used

than

more

onlytwo.

to

between

AmouTit

counted

the relation of

prizesamong

the reward

NUMBER.

AMOUNT,

shows

Amoug

BETWEEN.

AMONG,

All

ALRIGHT.

RIGHT,

with

only the size


that can
quantities

of

be

counted.

AND

surprisingamount

record

ETC.

number

Redundant.

meaning

"and

so

should
ANY

PLACE,

instead

EVERY

of

of

fell this

snow

peopleattended

spring.

the first home

Etc. is the abbreviation

forth."

(In

usuallybe

PLACE,

NO

formal

avoided.

PLACE,

SOME

for

et

game.

cetera,

writing,such
)
PLACE.

breviati
ab-

Faulty.UsC

anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere.


Never
use
anywheres or somewheres.
Bcsidc is a prepositionmeaning "by the
BESIDES.
BESIDE,
adverb
side of"; besides is both a prepositionand an
"in addition."
meaning "moreover,""except,"
294

WORDS

EXPRESSIONS

AND

Correct:

Jane

sits beside

Who

is

me.

going besides Harold?

"to come
Bring means
take
the speakeror hstener)";
(from the speaker)."
away

Bring
Take

the

me

this

want

with

note

to

means

teacher.

your homeroom

hurst. The

Vulgarismsfor

May impliespermissionor
Correct:

He

The

teacher says you

distinction between

The

sanction.

good gradesif he

make

can

principal
incorrectly

mental.
or
physical
suggcstsability,

Can

MIGHT.

MAY,

know

something(toward
"to carry something

parts of burst are burst,burst,burst. Also used


for break, broke,broken.
CAN,

to

morning paper.

BUSTED.

BUST,

BURSTED,

don't

(Adverb)

TAKE.

BRING,

(Preposition)

boy; besides, I

the

I don't know

him.

MISUSED

OFTEN

leave.

may

and

can

tries.

may

is shown

in

this

sentence:

that you

I doubt

also expresses

May

It may

May

Might
a

can,

He

CANNOT

cannot

Correct:

may

and
possibility

try.

wish.

today.(Possibility)
have a good trip!
(Wish)

rain

you

is used

after

verb in the present


He

but you

said that you


says that you
HELP

BUT.

verb

in the

past tense; may,

after

tense.

might go.
may

go.

double

negative {cannot help and

but).
I cannot

the story.
help believing

I cannot

but believe the story.


295

WORDS

can't

can't

hardly,

Avoid:
Correct:

consul,

hardlyhear
hardlyhear

can

"advice"

you.

verb. Council

consul

in

"adviser"

or

negative.
^~

represents his government


means

MISUSED

you.

COUNCIL.

COUNSEL,

OFTEN

double

SCARCELY.

I can't

EXPRESSIONS

AND

as

is

official who

an

foreigncountry. Counsel
noun,

or

"to advise"

body of peopleservingin
or
administrative,
advisorycapacity."
The

"a

means

class secretarywrote
about

counsel

His

legal,

the Italian consul for information

to

Italy.

is worthless

the situation.
The

as

because

he

doesn't understand

(Advice)

The

appointedthe defendant's counsel. (Adviser)


vised)
lawyercounseled againstanswering questions.(Ad-

The

student

state

council is

debatingthe advantagesand

of the honor

Avoid:

We

can

Better:

We

can

system.

Overworked

CONTACTED.

CONTACT,

contact

Mr.

f pet

in touch

business

Myers

with "1
^

continuous

j
Continuul

These

"without

means

y Mr.

1 reach

CONTINUOUS.

continual

terms.

tomorrow.

^7

CONTINUAL,

advantag
dis-

Mvers
^

tomorrow.

often";
"repeated

means

stop."

interruptions
prevent

from

me

doingmy

homework.
The

onlysound
pounding of

CREDIBLE,

hear
you can
the surf.

creditable

nightis

Credible

CREDULOUS.

CREDITABLE,

at

the continuous

means

credulous
"praiseworthy";

means

able";
"believmeans

"gullible."
Correct:

The

story is

You

have

Only a
296

not

made

credible.
a

creditable eflEort.

very credulous

person

would

believe that story.

WORDS

EXPRESSIONS

AND

Device

DEVISE.

DEVICE,

OFTEN

"a

of

apparatus"or
verb meaning "to
This

think out,

take years

there before you


new."
something

Madame

"to

means

create

telephone,

"well known

for

some

"well known"

means

unfavorable

way.

famous explorer.

criminal

7iotorious

the

Notorious

an

Byrd was

somethingthat

radium.

means

achievement."

Admiral

America,

Bell invented

in
also,but generally

The

Invent
along."

Famous

NOTORIOUS.

"to find

means

came

Graham

Alexander

is

invent."

plan,or

discovered

Curie

plan."Devise

or

your heatingbills.
devise a better system,

discovered

Columbus

admirable

to

machine, a piece

"a

cut

Discover

INVENT.

meaning

noun

trick,scheme,

was

FAMOUS,

device will

new

It may
DISCOVER,

is

MISUSED

he

capturedjustas

was

ing
leav-

was

the country.
Do

FEMALE.

Crude:

not

as

use

What

kind

of

female

Polite: What

kind

of

girlis

FEWER,

Fcwer

LESS.

it is used
amount

is used

girl.

or

she?

with

pluralnouns.
it is used
degree;
people attended

Fewer

woman

is she?

that
things

with

or

for

synonym

Less

with

be

can

is used

counted;

to

indicate

nouns.
singular

today'sgame

than

yesterday's

game.
I have

FOLKS.

FORMER,

less money

for
Colloquial
LATTER.

Latter
Grant

and

this year than

relatives

Former

people.
"the firstof the

means

"the second

means

Hayes

former served

or

were

two

last year.

both

of the

two

two

tioned."
men-

mentioned."

RepublicanPresidents.

terms; the latter served

The

one,

297

WORDS

Good

WELL.

GOOD,

as

be

it modifies
usuallyan adjective;

When

adverb.

an
or
adjective
it alwaysrefers
adjective,

may

an

MISUSED

noun.

pie is good.

This

Well

IS

OFTEN

EXPRESSIONS

AND

an

it is used

health.

to

well. (Adjective)
feeling

am

This

doesn't work

mower

I did the
GR.\DUATE

well

assignment as

it used

as

(Adverb)

to.

I could.

as

form.

Incorrcct

SCHOOL.

HIGH

well

as

from
Say "graduate

highschool."
health."

Healthymeans
good health."
The

climate

The

nurse

He

said

has
certainly

humans
To

"beingin good

the mountains

in

healthful.

"characteristic of

means

man";

"compassionate."

or

is human.

err

They

ing
"show-

or

healthy.
perfectly
healthyappetite.

"kind"

means

is

health"

was

Humati

HUMANE.

HUMAN,

"promoting good

Healthful mcaus

HEALTtiY.

HEALTHFUL,

too

were

to

enjoy the bullfight.

ifin Conditional sentences;

Usc

IF, WHETHER.

humane

whether

use

in

or
implied).
statingalternatives (expressed

Correct:

If he

is

in, I

I don't know

IMPLY,

INFER.

whether

inferis

To

circumstances,
a

meaning

Correct:

The

not

to

mean

or

call

he is

to

him.

on

draw

ten

evidence.

years old
conclusion
To

twelve.

or

from

implyis

to

ments,
state-

suggest

stated.
explicitly

detective

of the fingerinferredfrom the position


prints

that the

man

who

had

fired the shot

was

left-

handed.
What

story.
298

you

have

justsaid impliesthat

you

doubt

my

WORDS

IN,

EXPRESSIONS

AND

MISUSED

Verbs

movement
indicating
followed by into.

INTO.

When

he walked

In is used
She

to

the

into

and

into

placeare

he found

room,

within

indicate motion

paced up

us

erally
gen-

ready.

place.

in the classroom.

down

"talented,
inventive,
Ingeniousmeans
"naive."
Ingenuous means

INGENUOUS.

INGENIOUS,

resourceful."

George

INSIDE

OFTEN

ingenious;I'm

is

he'll find

sure

solution.

No

one

to be ingenuous.
expects diplomats

OF,

OFF

OF,

outside

be used

can

is

by themselves

Inside,off,
supcrfluous.
as
prepositions.

inside the house.

It'swarm

John has

fallen

I'm forbidden

when

However,

Of

OF.

OUTSIDE

offthe

to

by

again.

go outside the house.

inside

often followed

horse

or

outside is used

as

noun,

it is

prepositional
phrasebeginningwith

of.

paintedonlythe

the inside of the


spent the morning cleaning
Incorrcct

IRREGARDLESS.

LET,

Leuve

LEAVE.

"Let
me

outside of the house.

alone"

form. Use

means

"I wish

means

regardless.

"to go

means

alone"

me

car.

to

away."Let means
"Stop annoying me."
be here by myself."

"to permit."
"Leave

Liable

impliesexposure to something
means
or
or
likely
"expected
disadvantageous;
unpleasant
"inclined,disposed,"
"fit,
suitable,"
probable";
apt means
or
"quickto learn."

LIABLE,

LIKELY,

APT.

The

motorist

is liable for damages.


responsible

It is

to
likely

rain.

She made
He

is

an

an

apt remark.

apt pupil.
299

WORDS

and

Apt

careful

EXPRESSIONS

AND

OFTEN

MISUSED

often used interchangeably;


are
however,
likely
between
their meanings.
writers distinguish

adverb meaning "perhaps"


is an
or
Mtti/be
May be is a verb form.
"possibly."
MAY

MAYBE,

BE.

Maybe I won't
George may be
Almost

ALMOST.

MOST,

is used

as

number"

or

or

number"

to

form

noun

as

an

the

sold almost

I believe that 7nost

This is the

Nutiseous

felt

"sick

I have

Correct:

not

in

except
used

to
or

should

legaland

refer

to

one

party of young

lodge.

ing
caus"disgusting,

at

the stomach."

odor.

nauseous

not

the

more

nearly.
job.

exact

expression.

and,
group
language,should not be
telephonic

Party impliesa

person. Individual

singleperson. It is
be used only when
of the person

oneness

300

Use

INDIVIDUAL.

PERSON,

PARTY,

heard.

morning.
all morning.

nearlyfinished

Greatlyoverused.

O.K.

ever

all

nauseous

Usc
Colloquial.

NEAR.

honest.

mcaus

means

Right:I have felt nauseated


Right:The chemical gave off
NOWHERE

sold.

all of the tickets.

peopleare

nausea"; nauseated
I have

been

ridiculous story I have

most

NAUSEATED.

Wrong:

an

"nearlyall";it is used as an adverb only


adverb.
or
superlative
degreeof an adjective
18e. )

have

NAUSEOUS,

adverb

Most
meaning "nearly."
meaning "the greatest quantity or
in quantity
adjective
meaning "greatest
is

of the tickets have

Most

president.

or

(See Section
We

go after all.
class
next
our

as

not

synonym

you want
distinct from

peoplewere

refers

on

to
a

to

ular
partic-

for person; it
emphasize the

group.

their way

to

the ski

EXPRESSIONS

AND

WORDS

The

bridgewas
of onlyone

The

person

at

with

the

relations of the

group.

Persecute

PROSECUTE.

suffer,to hunt down."

weight

time.

is studyingthe
sociology

individual

to

that it could bear the

weakened

so

class in

PERSECUTE,

MISUSED

OFTEN

means

Prosecute

"to annoy, to cause


"to carry out
means

legalaction against."
the
persecuted

Nero

The

threatened

company

PLENTY.

As

noun.

be avoided
Incorrect:

Precede

"to go
A

speechor writing.

plentyangry.
dairyhas plentyof

PROCEED.

means

milk.

before";proceed

"to go

means

continue."

or

precedesb

in the

alphabet.

the latecomers

When

plentyshould
adjective,

or

was

The

PRECEDE,

prosecuteall trespassers.

to

adverb

an

in formal

He

Correct:

Christians.

seated,the speakerproceeded

were

with his lecture.

money" or

"chief executive

"chief"

means

"a
PROPOSITION.

used
Principal

PRINCIPLE,

PRINCIPAL,

"main."

or

of

as

is

noun

school" and

is used
Principle

as

as

adjective
ing
mean-

noun

mcans
Respcctfully
"each
means
manner"; respectively
given."

The

letter was
a

SAME,

"in

RESPECTIVELY.

are

SUCH.

spectful
re-

in the order

yours,"
signed"Respectfully

business letter the salutation and

close

SAID,

an

of

"sum

governingrule or truth."
Business jargonfor "proposal."

RESPECTFULLY,

In

followed

Same

by

and

colon and

such

are

the
a

complimentary
comma,

tively.
respec-

Said
adjectives.

is

verb.
301

WORDS

AND

EXPRESSIONS

OFTEN

Objectionable:
Althoughthe said plan was
not
to adopt same.

feasible,I decided

it,that,or this instead of said,same,

Use

is a
Suspicion

SUSPICION.

Do

noun.

not

MISUSED

use

such.

or

it when

mean

you

suspect, a verb.
that he was
suspicioned
suspectedthat he was

Incorrect:

Correct:

Correct:

I had

WAIT

when

used

on

to

the thief.

strong suspicionthat he

Wait

ON.

the thief.

"to attend, to

means

I waited

on

him

Correct:

I waited

an

hour

for

an

hour

for him

1. I wouldn't

except

the

invite to

most

see

nightdances.
I couldn't help but
for

sentences, using
following

her party unless she


not

gized.
apolo-

go without

healthyto

anybody you

feel worried

know

when

at

the

those

Friday

sent
principle

me.

5. You

didn't say you


that you did.

6. There

7.

came.

hat.

3. You're liable to

4.

an

came.

47

folks stillbelieve that it is

2. Some
a

rewrite

your paper,
diction.

before he

before he

EXERCISE

good

serve";it is a localism

"wait for."

mean

Incorrect:

On

the thief.

was

him,
suspicioned

five

but

your

couplesbeside Frances and


there were
twelve of us altogether.
I can't hardlybelieve that Mr. Thompson never
were

ferred
in-

manner

me,

so

that

graduated

high school,
8.

Any individual who


be persecuted.

9. Please
and

302

advise

how

soon

me

you

damages or
whether

defaces school property will

you have the machine


will be able to shipsame.

in

stock

AND

EXPRESSIONS

10. These

continuous

WORDS

I felt so

MISUSED

while
interruptions
effect my

beginningto

are

11.

OFTEN

work
home-

doingmy

am

grades.

thoughtI would

that I

nauseous

most

out

pass

any

minute.

12.

He

in the house

ran

swimming,

and

his mother

asked

but she said it

nowhere

was

discover

I wish

14.

gettingthe tops oflFof glassjars.


Henry wasn't feeling
very good this morning,

someone

he will be
I

time

know

if

to

with

in connection

interested

are

you

to

2. In the

3.

sea

of ruthless

tion
proposi-

in my

sentences, correcting
following

spiteof the favorable factors


in the negative.
answer

1. In

in your

one
competition,

I shall have

case,

can

climb

to

success

onlyby seizingthe goldenflower of opportunity,


with
the degree ot his guilt,
In connection
I am
persuasion that

we

not

are

and

fvJlyconversant

be

may

48

the

your paper, rewrite


the errors
in diction:

but

for

marketingyour product.

EXERCISE

On

device

for the rehearsal.

in
alright

anxious

am

reallygood

go

enough.

warm

near

13.

15.

would

leave him

to

certain

as

acquaintedwith

to

whether

of the
we

are

all the facts of the

case.

4.

The
to

attention
president's

cope

5. Before

with

6.

situation

any
giving the

box of crackers

glassof

arrested

by Mr.
might arise.

that
milk

to

Blaine's

the littlelass,I

ability

placeda

before her.

fellow classmates

My

was

average

in

heighta heightof sixty-

eightinches.
7. In

these respects,laboratory
sciences

are

of

notoriously

trying nature.
8. With

bated

breath

humanitygo
9. As
a

soon

weak

10. Those

as

to

enough room

watched

that miserable

specimen of

his doom.

saw

that sleek roadster in the

coming

moment

who

we

take

rooms

in which

showroom,

I felt

on.

in
to

this house
house

will have

more

than

their appurtenances.
303

AND

WORDS

11. The

sheer force of his

12. In

13.

with

connection

OFTEN

her

other

I should

traits

The

good
but
right,

land in back

unused

benefits

camp
hold

toe

her

mention

empty,

an

cant
va-

of the house.

from

receives

one

laziness has

excess

MISUSED

personahty
beggarsdescription.

which is of a very high order.


pulchritude,
With regardto gardeningfacilities,
there is

pieceof
14.

EXPRESSIONS

all
perfectly

are

the minds

on

of

most

campers.
15. Ellen is the sort of

girlwith

whom

likes

one

to

have

date

with.
16. There

were

of

many

us

who

thoughtthat

he

was

an

tionally
excep-

unique person.
17.

of voters, perhaps more


goodly number
than sinning,wrought havoc by stayingaway

in

sinned

from

against
the

18. Please refer back

to

the minutes

of the last

meeting, where

anglealongthe lines which


you will find a new
been corresponding
with each other about.

EXERCISE

The

we

49

your paper, rev^rite the

in correct, formal

sentences

English,
1. We

have

of the sandwiches.
every one
be in the dorm
then?
et

2. Will

you

3. The

poor

4. He

student
let

never

5. She

was

an

alwaysgets it
he knew

on

about

earthly
angle,but

in the neck.

it.

of gone if I had worked


walked up to the alter and

They

8. What

do

you reckon
had a bad case

9. Dick

10. Please

proceedme

11.

She took

12.

13.

He

never

had

on

when

would
to

he

meant

of the

into

the

without

one

6. I could

304

have

contain
propriet
imfollowingsentences
provincialisms,
colloquialisms,
ing.
vulgarisms,
slang,and misspell-

On

7.

polls

droves.

by

on

wings.

Saturday.

got married.
that?

jitters.
room.

I told her of the accident.

have

accompany

it.
suspicioned
dumb
a
bunny

to

the dance.

WORDS

14.

EXPRESSIONS

AND

The

latch is broken
go of

15. Leave
16.

He

17.

Why

at

me

OFTEN

MISUSED

off the

gait.

once,

but
peacefulordinarily,

was

did you fall for that?


you will have to work

18. Now

his choler

sometimes

rose.

hard.

extra

50

EXERCISE

examples of triteness,
"fine" writing,
wordiness, faulty
repetition,
jargon,mixed figures,
each
and lack of euphony.On
your paper, rewrite
close as
sentence, keeping as
possibleto the intended
meaning.
The

sentences
following

1. Rod

decided

like
2. At

wolf

contain

seize the bit in his teeth and

to

down

come

the fold.

on

the institution

his presence,

of

he

was

which he favored with


higherlearning
ualism.
proud of his rugged individjustly

spendingmuch time preparing to leave, and after


decided to proceedon our journey.
we
many fond good-bys,
liked the succulent bivalve,he picked
Althoughhe ordinarily
fashion and
of the delectable morsels in a gingerly
up one

3. After

4.

devoured
5. Not

it with

all widow

6.

in
Sitting

7. A

with

steam

lovinghands

serious

funds
11. We

followed

to view

prone

by himself,he repeatedher

the

had

we

name

In

this

by
dance
of

storm

edifice

erected.

worn

the crowded

falter on

destroyedthe

soon

on

financial
from

too

school sashes

ahead!

let your hand

10. After

are

apprehension,

again.

the riot of color

9. Full
not

alone

room

Sweetlyscented
to

lot with

alarm.

all
raging conflagration

which
8.

his

again and

over

regardtheir

left with small children

are

with

status

smile.

wry

women

but those who


their

the fair

added

sex

floor.

controversy,you

must

the

plow.
he attemptedto misapproreverses,
priate

the bank.
line
speaker's

of

reasoningto

very great

extent.

12.

Our

warriors
gridiron

were

tendered

banquet at

the

con-

305

AND

WORDS

elusion of their vietorious

EXPRESSIONS

after the

and

season,

OFTEN

spoke a few well-chosen


repast each gladiator
13.

The
is

14.

somethingof

When
of

of the outside

nature

added

an

words.

attraction.
to

be

he replied
in the
position,

sumptuous

readingin Englishcomposition

if he wished

asked

MISUSED

the

of
recipient

our

offer

affirmative.

that your valued order will receive prompt


attention, along the lines which you suggested.
that I was
16. At the groaningtable I forgot
supposedto have
15. We

17.

He

beg to

delicate and
was

reached
18. I may
to

19.

20.

306

state

get

birdlike

appetite.

caughtin the immutable


the goalof his ambition.
have

gone

littletoo

my chest.
those present were

wheels

far,but I

was

of fate and

never

simplyimpelled

it off

onlya paltryfew who


voiced the sentiments
of the players
themselves.
All nature
seemed
engaging, but the sightof the crimson
mountain
orb settingbehind the lofty
ture
feaa
was
delightful
which
beggarsall description.
Among

included

The Sentence

Do

you

write

rambles; it
a

words

ten

uses

is awkward

job;it
As

gobbledygook?This
in

the reader
result,

before he knows

what

is

where

five would

and

structure

do

it three

or

better

unpleasantin

examine

must

type of writingthat

sound.

four times

longago the Air Force


sent to all its employees
a littlepamphletcalled Gobbledygook
Plain Talk? In the pamphletthere are
or
quotations
from an
article on
annual leave and from other military
all written in gobbledygook.
Then the author begs
notices
for clear,simplesentences.
But the clear sentence
is important
forces. It is vital in business.
not onlyto the military
Not

it means.

"

It is effective in

the

club

problemsof writing good


under

three heads:

and

in

social life. The

your

sentences

be

may

considered

(Sections
55-58),Clearness
Effectiveness (Sections68-72).

Correctness

(Sections59-67),and

55. PERIOD

FAULT
of words

that expresses a complete


and put a
thought.Do not write a part of a sentence
periodat the end. Such punctuationis known as the period
A

is

sentence

group

fault.
Wrong:

To

work.

tiapper, a fur
Also the

coat

means

hours

joy and thrillknown

Right:To

trapper,

fur

coat

means

backbreaking

onlyto

(The words

beginningwith also do
thought.
They are only part of

of

not
a

hours

the hunter.

make

plete
com-

sentence.)
of

backbreaking
307

PERIOD

work; but

it

means

also the

joy and thrillknown

FAULT

only

to the hunter.

Wrong:

began to find value in the sport.A value


follows the trail.
who
chiefly
appreciated
by the man
with a value form an appositive,
(The words beginning
not
a
completethought.They are part of a sentence,
After

not

whole

time,

sentence.)

Right:After a time, I began to find value in the sport,a value


who
follows the trail.
chiefly
by the man
appreciated
ing
Wrong: The hunter sees the beautyof the morning sun. Throwa
ning
path of lightacross the lake. (The words beginwith
phrase,not a
throwingform a participial
completethought.They are only part of a sentence.)
ing
Right:The hunter sees the beautyof the morning sun throwthe lake.
a
path of lightacross
in the falland
Wrong: The hunter loves lifeoutdoors. Especially
do not
winter.
(The words beginningwith especially
ginning
beform a completethought.
Be careful of expressions
with
or
for example.They should
especially
often be joinedto the preceding
clause.)
in the fall and
Right:The hunter loves life outdoors, especially
winter.

Don't

Caution:

letter. Your

relax because

you
deserves
correspondent

are

writinga friendly

the courtesy of careful

work.

Wrong:

Was

Right:I

was

happy to hear of your promotion. (No subject)


happy to hear of your promotion.

which
incompletesentences
and fragmentarysentences
sentences
are
permissible,
elliptical
used for stylistic
effect.
In elliptical
sentences, the completethought is implied
Note:

but

not

There

are

kinds of

two

stated.
"Did

you

buy

it?"

"Yes."
"For how
"Five

308

much?"

dollars."

COMMA

FAULT

eflFectsby using
special
but only people
for stylistic
eflPect,
fragmentarysentences
skilled in the use
of languagecan
sentence
use
fragments
of sentence
Poor
use
fragmentsgives the effect of
safely.
High school students, unless they are
illiteracy.
very
talented writers, should avoid the fragment.
Skilled writers

obtain

sometimes

EXERCISE

the
your paper, rewrite
the periodfault. To correct

On

will have
1. The

to

guess what

room

sentences,
following
of these

some

the writer

had

sentences

you

in mind.

of which

filledwith flowers. Some

was

ing
correct-

were

very

expensive.
2. She

of

put

home

at
sitting

3. The

was
airship

could

5. First of

at

to

the movies.

Instead

its

hangar.So

that curious

tors
specta-

not

and

billed you

which
all,the training

told many
all funny.

jokesat

and

9.

dancingon the
While Julius
was

July1,
required.

is

Mainly the clothes.


interesting.
the party. Some
of which were
not

in
fishing

Swimming

for

and

new

8.

10.

into

put

Everythingwas

7. He

went

worrying.

damage it.
shippedyour order

4. Have

6.

her best clothes and

on

boardwalk

the

in

ocean

the

daytime and

night.
he received several academic
in college,
of these beinga scholarship.
honors. One
in oflBcial uniforms
of both governments attending
Dignitaries
medals.

and

56.
Do

not

them.

Wrong:

two

COMMA

FAULT

sentences

punctuation is
that

Sentences
run-on

write

Such

at

are

with
known

only a
as

separatedonly by

between

comma

the
commas

fault.

comma
are

called

sentences.

hope that

it sounds

you

can

get the house that you spokeabout,

great.
309

COMMA

Wrong:

I have

have

we

good news

some

three

won

for you about the


matches.
straight

of these groups of words


thoughtswith onlya comma

Each

is not

strong enough mark

Use
thoughts.

Right:I hope that


Right:I

have

be combined

1. Use
I

in

two

two

plete
com-

comma

complete

get the house that you spokeabout.

for you about the


three straight
matches.

sentence.

one

out

bowlingteam.

Here

are

run-on

sentences

three ways

may
of ing
mak-

of them:

semicolon.

hope that

between

these
related,
closely

are

it sounds

2. Use

them.

good news
won

sentence

one

can

you

some

If the ideas

of

team,

great.

have

We

composed

between
use

bowhng

periodinstead.

It sounds

to

is

FAULT

you

can

get the house

that you

spokeabout;

great.

coordinating
conjunction(and, but, for,or) and

comma.

hope that

you

for it sounds
3. Subordinate
Because

method

you

that you

spokeabout,

idea.

the house

hope that
The

one

get the house


great.
can

can

that you

get

spoke about

sounds

great, I

it.

that you choose depends upon the


If both of the ideas are
to make.

emphasis
that you wish
equally
emphatic,you may use a period,semicolon, or coordinating
The two
ideas will then stand out with equal
conjunction.
The use
of a subordinating
strength.
conjunctionmakes one
idea dependentupon the other. In order to make
your style
and vivid,you must
attention
to the
interesting
give some
impressionthat you wish to make and the type of sentence
that will fitthat impression.
310

COMMA

FAULT

Note:

careful
particularly

Be

if the

clauses

two

joined

are

nevertheless,
by a conjunctiveadverb {however, moreover,
If these words join
thus,then,so, yet, otherwise).
therefore,
two
junctive
independentideas, a semicolon must precedethe conadverb. (See Section 24b.)
Wrong:

did not

You

receive

credit.

no

did not

Right:You

receive

credit.

no

paper, rewrite these run-on


papers. Choose for each sentence

from

sentences

your

dent
stu-

the form

that in your

of you

invite

it best.

opinionsuits
1. Thank

will

completeyour work; consequently


you

EXERCISE

On

will

completeyour work, consequently


you

you

very

much,

it

sweet

was

to

to

me

party.

your

2. This is my own
fault,if I had done
I should not have to go to summer
3. Some

shopsare

using Lucite

boxes

their tops are transparent.


4. You will have to give the chair

at

in the

my work
school.
for

of jewelry,
display

least

winter,

two

of white

coats

paint,otherwise the dark color of the old paint will show.


5. In

South

some

for
sociably

business
6. He

was

cannot

7. Do

at least

countries

businessman

fifteen minutes, then he

can

talk

must

introduce

matter.

his former

dependablein
employ him.
not

this weekend

come

missed

American

the

8. Ten

drivers

9. The

next

to

see

us

evenings we
pleasant
started in the

thingto

work

on

race

in

therefore
position,

our

used

home,

new

to

spend with

Whigs,and

New

have
you.

onlyeightfinished.

is the motor

of the car, this is

the part of the work


that runs
into money.
10. There were
three political
partiesin Burke's

Tories, Old

we

we

day,theywere

Whigs.
311

FUSED

SENTENCES

57. FUSED
Do

write

not

them.

Such

I" the

two

two

questionsor

two

both

are

56 may

Section

however,

Sometimes,

combines

fused sentences.

in this way

in
suggested

correctingthem.

punctuationbetween

no

as

combined

sentences

Then

known

are

the methods

writer

with

sentences

sentences

SENTENCES

be used

in

inexperienced

an

questionand

ments,
state-

ment.
state-

is to end
only way to correct the sentence
of the completeideas with a period,
one
a
questionmark,
exclamation
or
an
point.Be very sure that you have two
completeideas before you use this method of correction.

Wrong:

the

What

kind of

yearbookare

going

you

to

have

will it be

anythinglike ours?
Right:What kind of yearbookare you going to have? Will
anythinglike ours?
Wrong: He is a great lacrosse playerdon't you think so?
Don't you think so?
Right:He is a great lacrosse player.
EXERCISE

On

your

paper,

the

rewrite

periods,
questionmarks,

it be

or

followingsentences, using
exclamation
pointswhere they

needed:

are

2.

the

going so soon I'llwalk to


the candidates
Criticizing
gets you

1. Are

you

3. Turn

out

4. Have

you

the

lights
they will
sister is

every day.
5. On SaturdayI
skirts would

affected much

been

I guess your

see

saw

glad,for
movie

EXERCISE

nowhere
that

by

the

we

are

water

she won't

about the Old

fashionable

become

with you.
you should

corner

have

vote.

here.

shortageif so,
to

South

take

I wish

bath

hoop

again.
4

paper, rewi-ite these sentences, correctingthe


fault,or the fused-sentence fault.
periodfault,the comma
On

(See
312

your

Sections

55-57.)

SENTENCES

FUSED

1. Was
2.

the team.
hear that you made
there
had hved long ago when

gladto

Suppose

we

justthink what
Mexico, the

3. In

the maid
4. When

be

remembered

7. When

8.

house.

seeingJune

you.
the Grand

enjoying the beauty of

and

took

we

were

to

Only

one

not
oflF,

signaledwhen
thingwill make

be

lie detector

emotional
10.

First

does

12.

The

permits each
13.

There

us.

destination,we

our

work

detect

together.
lies,it merely records

the

then
thoroughly,

sugar

because
particularly

it goes

stir in

well

so

suit.

Charter.

Atlantic

knew

before

jump from the plane.


ingness
projectsuccessful. The will-

to

interesting
part

most

spread out

our

and

the butter

new

my

Venice

the music

of the victim.

the eggs and milk.


11. I like all the ties. One
with

Listeningto

to

not

excitement

cream

again, she asked

Randall

Canal.

man

of all the members


9. The

They

to

drifted down

6. We

suited them.

pieceof ground that

much

enjoyedvery

to

never

beautiful ranch

missing.

goes shoppingin the market,


the cleaning,
and the shopping.
the laundry,
mistress

theyfound

built
5. I

does

be

should

we

radios

no

were

of the book

the part
Especially

nation

to

choose

its

has
in

to

with

do

which

the

the Charter

go\'emment.

own

a
my
neighborand
great deal of fun in gardening,
I always ha\"e friendly
arguments about whose
crops are

is

better.
14. At the age of nine, I was
Theater. A drama

enrolled in The

that teaches free

group

15. When

the great day came,


I was
the play,in fact I thought that I

16.

All

quiet,then the

was

hand

and

17. There

18.

There
dark

19.

At
a

another

hair and

Garrison

not

anxious

too

going

was

the

to

mental
Experi-

expression.
to

be

in

be sick.

glassbooth

raised

his

the air.
the

When

crew.

all of

shot burst into die air.

cannon

was

dark

in

on
dropped it,we were
tense
a
feeling
among

was

sudden

man

Children's

girlin

big black

Boulevard

night,and

the

we

whom

he

eyes.
didn't

street

interested,she had

was

see

lighton

the

it
policeman,

the

comer

was

was

out.

313

"

MISUSE

week

memorable

20.

Last

21.

communications
my new
wish I could
I surely
is

22.

was

Last

like David

the crops

When

are

DEPENDENT

CLAUSES

for me,

occasion

purchased

receiver.
in "ham"

get you interested

hobby.
fascinating
Saturdaynightthe

other. One
23.

OF

and

lined up
like Goliath.

teams

two
one

great percent is overhead.

againsteach

all of the
money

sold, not

Such

as

radio, it

is

a
profit,

labor,repairsto

charges.
freight
In the Shakespearean
theater,the poor peoplestood
ground.While the rich sat in boxes on the side

chinery,
ma-

and

24.

the

on

of the

theater.

point,let'sgo back

25. To

prove mv
started
Ford

few

idea
revolutionary

his

years. When

of

Henry

producingcars

in

great numbers.

58.

MISUSE

DEPENDENT

OF

CLAUSES

ject;
simplesentences
beginningwith the subbut as a person's
dependent
stylematures, he uses
clauses to show the relationship
of one
idea to another, and
he varies the structure
of sentences
in order to give strength
of
and rhythm to his writing.
A knowledgeof the proper use
dependent clauses is necessary for the development of a
mature
style.
A

58a.

child writes

Do

not

Adverbial
often used

Wrong:

Right:I

adverbial

clause

as

beginningwith when
clauses.
as
noun
incorrectly
where

the weather

forecaster

clause.

noun

where

and

clauses

I read
was

an

use

said

are

snowstorm

coming.

read

that the weather

forecaster

said

snowstorm

was

coming.

Wrong:

The

it had

Right:The
run

314

why

reason
inin

reason

out

of

out

of

the automobile

stoppedwas

because

gasoline.

why the automobile


gasoline.

stoppedwas

that it had

MISUSE

OF

58b.

DEPENDENT

Do

not

CLAUSES

use

adverbial

an

where

is
Wrong: Plagiarism

pass it oflFas

Wrong:

as

Right:Anemia
red

58c.

Do

of Is

or

is

of another

and

the work

of another

and

passing

the blood

is deficient in red

illness in which

an

there is

corpuscles.
of
deficiency

corpuscles.

not

use

independentclause

an

the

as

subject

was.

Faulty:There

much

is too

That

Better:

noun.

own.

is when

Anemia

own.

your

one's

placeof

the work

take

you

is copying
Right:Plagiarism

it off

clause in

there is

homework

much

too

brother's main

is my

homework

plaint.
com-

is my

brother's main

much

homework.

complaint.

complainsbecause

He

there is

EXERCISE

On

these
your paper, rewrite
of dependentclauses:

misuse

1. I

the paper

in

see

where

too

correctingthe

sentences,

the weather

has been

unusually

cold this winter.


2. The

train

left by

3. In the game

time
daylight

did

5. The

the

to

he failed the

why

was

not

the grass

cut

was

course.

because

its

where

man

to

swears

tell the tiuth and

then

lie.

7. Because

boughta new suit


a
My father was
lawyerwas

9. His

playertries

it.

did

mower

the

it.

dull.

were

Perjuryis
tells

8.

concentrate

reason

blades
6.

not

I missed

of baseball,a strike is when

hit the ball but misses


4. He

why

is

definition

of freedom

the eye.
is where
you

is

why

the

she thinks I have

reason

is when

you

why
can

money.

I studied

law.

look any

man

in
squarely

10. His

home

can

alwayshave

good

time.

315

USING

59. USING

ONLY

order

coherence.

important in

treated in Section
in it

are

Wrong:

13. A

related
closely
1. Bill
Erie

was

High

of obtaining
ways
deal with methods
of making
of pronouns, which is
clear sentence, has been

the

has

sentence

and contribute

basketball

unitywhen all ideas


to a single
impression.

playerand

he is

graduateof

School.

2. Vaslav

was
Nijinsky

world

ever

has

unity and

reference

study of

any

have

must

with

deal

62-67

coherent. Clear

sentence

SENTENCE

IDEAS

sentence

59-61

Sections

IN

SENTENCE

clear, a

unity.Sections

sentence
a

be

to

IDEAS

RELATED

IN
In

RELATED

ONLY

of the greatestdancers the


he was
in a mental hospital

one

known, and

for many

years.
hope that you

3. I

June to

to

me

next

summer

and

be

unity can

subordinate
clear

improvedform
Improved: 1.

of Sentence

Bill is

obtained

idea

was

star

however,

Sometimes,

that
the

1.

graduateof Erie High School, where


basketball player.

tell

me.

by making one
to the other and using a connectinglink
the ideas. See
the relationship
between

Sometimes

makes

write

will visit

the

ideas

are

so

he

related
completelyun-

of them can establish


onlya completeseparation
they should be in another paragraph.
unity.Occasionally
2 and Sentence
3:
See the improvedforms of Sentence
that

Improved:2.

Vaslav

the world
a

mental

the world

Improved:3.

has

ever

his

to

one

known.

for
hospital

hope that

tell June

316

was
Nijinsky

many

of the greatest dancers


he was
in
Unfortunately
years and

could

not

show

art.

you will visit me

write

to

me.

next

summer.

Please

SENTENCES

RAMBLING

EXERCISE

sentences
your paper, rewrite the following
they are unified. If the ideas in any sentence
related,omit one of them.

On

1. We
was

believe that
founded

2. The

3. I made

93

the movies
4. Last

5.

My

Post

favorite among

is my

weekly

in Philadelphia.
published
last history
test, and I decided
of studying.

it is

in the

instead

I went
Saturday,

school

it

years ago.

SaturdayEvening

magazines, and

be

cannot

club is the best in the school, and

our

ten

that

so

on

to

go

I lost my

firstblind date, and

my

to

ring.

sister wants

be

to

and she
florist,

onlytwelve

years

his brother, who

took

is

old.
6. He

is

much

better dancer

than

lessons for several years and works in a grocery


eminent
7. Woodrow
Wilson was
an
statesman, and
prominent chin.
8.

People in

North

Carolina

store.

he had

like hot breads, and

the

largest

cityis Charlotte.
9. The

10.

father of the

having studied
familywas a physician,
Medical
the third
at
Jefferson
Collegein Philadelphia,
city in the United States.
largest
He is a very clever person, his sister havingstudied in Paris

for several years.

SENTENCES

60. RAMBLING

Avoid

which

ramblingsentences

introduce

too

many

details.

Rambling:Beethoven,

who

of music,

he

cook, and

the

was

became

son

of

deaf

of the great

one
a

court

ters
mas-

and

musician

composed some

but
thirty-two,
magnificent
symphonies.

Beethoven, one

of the great

Revised:

is considered

the
he

son

of

became

musician

court

deaf

masters

and

of music,
cook.

was

Although

he composed
thirty-two,
symphonies.
magnificent
at

he

at

some

317

CHOPPY

EXERCISE

On

followingselection

the

paper, rewrite

your

SENTENCES

in unified

sentences:
a
Nijinskywas
great
seemed
to defy gravity,and

dancer.

1.

his mother, who


he

which

3. One
in

dance

of several ballet

Later

over

he danced

companies,in

with

his wife,

Students

who

sometimes

become

afraid

they write
however,

his debut

which

tries.
coun-

York

in New

of

thousands

Hungarian

rose

performed.4.
and

to

came

actress, and

his

dancer.

SENTENCES

been

go

joinany

to

all

part of the repertoire

now

princess,

to

taught not to write rambling


the opposite extreme.
They

ideas in

one

sentence.

As

result,

thoughtas a separate unit. This procedure,


tences
destroyunity as thoroughlyas rambling senhow the
in choppy sentences, you cannot
see

can

related.

are

ment.
They have had bad treatIn our
neighborhood,some
people whitewash
will keep intrunks. They think that whitewash
sects

Choppy: Many
the

trees

away.

die

each

year.

doctors

Tree

the bark.

In

some

will damage
say that whitewash
laws against
there are
states

blossomingtrees
stripping
a

few

people evade

themselves.
the woods.
of
the

tree

the

like

dogwood. Every spring


to
They want
please
thoughtfor the beauty of

law.

They have no
about
tion
the destrucThey are unconcerned
tree.
They break off largebranches. Then

dies.

Their

peopleof pleasure.
318

each

do, for
ideas

have

is also

and

Rome

61. CHOPPY

sentences

slave in love with

the stage as the great dancer


Pavlova
in Paris with the famous

England in 1948
daughterlives in

leaps

probablyinherited from
in Scheherezade, in
dancer, especially

of his greatestsuccesses
was
called Specterof the Rose,

petalsfloated

tremendous

applaudedby throngsof peoplein

be

to

His

his grace,

the part of

danced

him

caused

was

2.

selfishness

deprivesmany

other

INCOMPLETENESS

EXERCISE

On
61

your

by making

idea

choppy paragraphin Section


of one
show the relationship

the

revise

paper,

that

sentences

another.

to

EXERCISE

On

rewrite

paper,

your

followingselection

the

in

fied
uni-

sentences:
1. We

bombarded

are

don't know
in which

to

and

what

to

test

what

on

all sides
have

believe. 3. We
we

hear

by propaganda.2. We
been taughta few ways

the radio

on

who

know

or

in the

read

paper,
news-

the

speakeror writer
4. Some
he knows
about his subject.
is and what
peopletry to
make
emotions. 5. They do not think clearly
act by stirring
us
our
done.
themselves. 6. They expect to make us do what theywant
for acting.8. Some
7. They don't give us logical
reasons
people
and
no
question
present onlyone side of the questiondiscussed,
has onlyone
side;so we suspect those peopleof beingprejudiced
do not put too much
faith in what they say because if
and we
honest, they would tell the whole story,not simply
they were
part of

it is

important to

it. 9. It is

important also

to

know

what

methods

gatherhis facts because


made
and the conclusions
are
carelessly
investigations
speakeror
not

used

writer

valid. 10. In

sometimes

to

democratic

country, it

is

drawn

are

important for people

think.

to

62. INCOMPLETENESS
To

words
he

be coherent, a
are

wants

clear
62a.

to

omitted

sentence

when

be

must

the writer

understands

say that he thinks he


the reader.

Be

to

sure

Doubtful: The

to
lawn

Correct:

The

lawn

Correct:

The

lawn

include
is mowed

complete.Sometimes

has

all necessary
and

made

so

well what

his

meaning

verbs.

the

hedges trimmed.
and
the hedges are
is mowed,
trimmed.
and the fence repaired.
is mowed
319

"*"

the

verb
auxiliary

The

Note:

another

when

it is in

If
expressedin the sentence.
is grammatically
pressed.
necessary, it should be exbe understood
before repaired
in the above

form
Is

be understood

can

that has been

form

same

INCOMPLETENESS

can

sentence.

He

has

never

done

any work

and

Improved:He

has

never

done

any work

and

Doubtful:

Note:

If the verb
be

verb, it must
Doubtful: She

Include

needed

We

needed

built
hour

hour

an

Doubtful:

typist.(Two

and

ositions.
prep-

which

persons)

could

go

ninety miles

pleasedmany people.
automobile
which could go ninety miles
an
and which pleasedmany
people.

neither interested

am

by everybody.

and

built

Improved:He

main

(One person)
typist.

automobile

an

by everybody.

articles,pronouns,

clerk and

liked

auxiliary
liked
was

clerk and

as

times.

girland

necessary

We

an

fine

will do any.

never

and
auxiliary

an

girland

verb

was

Doubtful:He

fine

main

62b.

as

both
expressed

was

Improved:She

be is used

to

will.

never

nor

concerned

about

fare.
his wel-

(Interestedabout his welfare?)

Improved:I

neither interested in his welfare

am

about

62c.

writing,do

of the subordinate

objectof

Informal:1

concerned

it.

In formal

be the

nor

know

clause
the verb

not

omit

that if the

at
might seem
preceding.

the President of the United

subject
first glance to

States must

be

an

the writer seems


by birth. (At first glance,
acquaintedwith the President.)
personally

American
to

Formal:

be

I know

be
See Section
320

an

that the President


American

by

67 for omission

of the United

States must

birth.

of words

in

comparison.

INCOMPLETENESS

62d.

Be

sense

or

Do

to

sure

idea

every

essential

with

begina sentence
it,to another
finishing
not

and

structure

one

have

soon

the

to

structure

before
shift,

structure.

automobile, unless you take good

will

the

to

of the sentence.

structure

clear: An

Not

express

of it,you
verb to complete

care

repairit. (There is no
begun with automobile.)

unless
Improved:An automobile will soon have to be repaired
good care is given to it.
Not clear: With these eleven men
workingtogetheras a team
is the

Improved:With

season.

as
workingtogether

men

successful

successful

our

these eleven

had

we

for

reason

team,

season.
or

these

Because

team,

62e.
so,

we

formal

In

had

eleven
a

worked

men

successful

togetheras

season.

writing, complete the thought after

such, those.

Informal: I
Formal:

was

so

bored.

was

so

bored

Informal: He
Formal:

He

that I left the

is

one

of those eccentric

is

one

of those eccentric

EXERCISE

Complete the sense


by addingthe necessary
not

10

of each
words

of the
or

sentences
following

by rewritingthe

sentence.

spokento Judithabout

your decision,nor will I.


I spent for repairs,
I could have bought a

2. All the money


new

philosophers.
who prefer
philosophers

be alone.

to

1. I have

party.

car.

3. The

secretaryand

treasurer

both

were

so

excited

by

the

election.
4.

It

was

nightthat

if

one

wore

sweater

and

skirt,she

could feel comfortable.


5. He

was

such

man
pleasant

and

so

admired.
universally
321

WORD

6. The

soldier asked

would

us

pleasetell him

we

ORDER

the road

to

Washington.
7. When

she

went

the mail had

the mailbox, she found

to

not

yet arrived.
8.

think

class would
9. I shall
to

10.

Betty

could

who

Anybody

get 100

he

alwaysbe

was

that

on

test, the
history

genius.

and appreciative
of
grateful

so

whole

his kindness

me.

worried

would

heatingsystem

have

we

of the

with

the

ORDER

63. WORD

you have learned


beginningto build a mature

trouble

house.

new

When

much

so

to

use

modifiers

properly,
you

are

the modifier is

Sometimes
style.

adverb, but often in a mature


or
style
singleadjective
it is a phraseor a clause. If these modifiers are
not placed
will lack
the word
which
near
they modify,the sentence
Sometimes
misplaced modifiers make a sentence
clarity.
sound
absurd, as you can see from the following
examples.
a

Vague:

that you received


for your emergency

hope

he

(Was

Vague:

that you
information

Thank
31

at

you
at

tripfrom the

state

essary
nec-

police.

the

policethe

received

from

necessary

for your emergency


trip.
December
to the party on

invitingme

state

o'clock in your club cellar. (What time is


it is ten
o'clock in the club
house when

ten

my
cellar?)

cellar

for

you

it at

Improved:Thank

information

escaping from jail?)

Improved:I hope
road

the road

ten

me
inviting

o'clock

on

to

the

December

party in your club


31.

ing
days of Leeuwenhoek, anyone who was workwith science was
thoughtto be "cracked" by the
placed,
public.(Because the phraseby the publicis mishas a ridiculous meaning.)
the sentence
ing
Improved:In the days of Leeuwenhoek, anyone who was workwith science
was
thoughtby the publicto be

Vague:

In the

for

"cracked."
322

WORD

ORDER

63a.

Do

misplacewords

not

such

only,hardly,and

as

even.

Vague:

Improved:I
Vague:

onlywant

want

to

to

few

say

words.

few

onlya

say

words.

the guarantee
repair of the motor,
Since

on
we

the
only covers
to
replacethe

radio

your

unable

are

case.

the

Improved: Since
of the

guarantee on

only,we

motor

We

were

even

Improved:We

were

victorious

Vague:

your radio
unable to
are

victorious

even

the

covers

repair

replacethe

case.

in

our

game

ern.
againstSouth-

in

our

game

againstSouth-

em.

63b.

Place

the words

Vague:

phrasesand clauses
which they modify.
lived with

Stewart

as

close

friend whom

as

he

possibleto
tiusted in

small

phrase)
apaiiment. (Misplacedprepositional
Improved: Stewart lived in a small apartment with a friend
whom

Vague:

It

he trusted.
to send you
great pleasure

givesme

little souvenir

which I hope you


compliments,
clause)
finduseful.(Misplacedadjective
Improved: It gives me
great pleasureto send you with
complimentsa littlesouvenir, which I hope you
with

my

will

mv

will

finduseful.
63c.
A

Avoid

squintingmodifiers.

modifier

either of

two

Vague:

is said to

be

parts of

sentence.

Students

who

their studies.

cut

squintingwhen

it may

refer

to

classes

(This could

students
Improved:Frequently,

who

fall behind in
frequently
either of two things.)
mean
cut

classes fall behind

in

classes fall behind

in

their work.

Improved: Students

who

cut
frequently

their work.
323

WORD

EXERCISE

On

1. We

onlysupplytwo

can

2. In

eflFortto

an

made

of

5. He

by

preparedfor

shoes I had

by

11. We

13. Your

15.

head

my

entire

tion
vaca-

his head

on

you

blocks

two

to

the

drug

comfortable

most

be

built in

country which

our

will

magazine about

forest fire.

huge baskets
brightflowers.

carried

on

their heads

coat

how

know

to

what

arrange

you

have

to

say in

replyto

previousletters

our

has

not

been

received

the
advertising

side show,

settled himself behind his desk and


manager
the boys how
his fortune after lunch.
he had made
new

Most

be
18. We

have

cars

have

May

distributed
cotton.

above

the windshield, which

on

told

can

shade

about
inquired

in your

15.

In order that the

of

visors

sun

the eyes.
the shirts in stock that you

adjustedto

letter of

324

be

concerning the $48.95 that stillremains unpaid.


One
nightSilas fell into a mysterioussleepduringa prayer
mistaken for death.
meeting which was
The clown was
wearing a brightblue and yellowsign on

16. The

19.

store.

sentences.

his back

17.

held

for my sister with a fur lining.


house that we liked very much
last week.
write a good report of an
experimentin physics

cannot

clear

the

filled with

unless

on

sun.

bought a

saw

12. You

14.

will

the

were

Mother

basket

tripby putting the

of the dancers

which

a
balancing

car

the

story in

9. Some

hat

on.

houses

8. I read

10.

boy was

drives his

heated

put

nurse

ordered.

you

stone.

even

7. New

the

which

Company duringthe
Boys'Department.

small native

down

me,

of the items

for the Sewell

in the

6. I

amuse

followingsentences, placing

towel.

3. I worked

4. A

11

the

your paper, rewrite


modifiers correctly.

ORDER

jobmay

be done

this floor in which

eflSciently,
largebins are
are
placeddifferent kinds

ORDER

WORD

20.

The

manufacturer

sent

to

only use

the four

party

Saturday,two

can

peltswhich

you

patch others.

21.

I sent

22.

She told

invitations
us

to

at nine

to come

on

o'clock,and

at ten

weeks

ago.
she rescinded

the invitation.
three letters in this filewhich

23.

There

24.

refused the information


sorry that you were
requestedby a member of our company.
I

are

poorlywritten.

are

am

25. A

the

is alwayson
representative

show

groundswho

that you

will

gladly

the cottages.

12

EXERCISE

Follow

the directions in Exercise

1. I believe that I could fillthe

11.

job that

you

offer

competently

and
2.

3.

eflBciently.
the night of the blizzard, our
On
representativewas
swamped by inquiriesfrom the members for assistance.
This morning I saw
whose
the man
car
sideswipedyours
in front of the bank.

4. I'm

sure

with

share the

you

the rightcollege
problem of finding

me.

5. Several

weeks

I ordered

ago

five records

from

your

pany
com-

costing $20.70.
6. Thank

you

for

returningthe

tire

for
purchasedrecently

our

examination.

of your
first of each month

7. A

statement

account

you on the
purchasesfor the ceding
pre-

will be mailed

covering your

to

month.
8. The

factories in
such

9. You

will

no

our

as

doubt

manufacture

town

and
airplanes
want

to

mail

articles of great importance


electronic equipment.
us

your check

promptlyfor

$135.
10.

11.

12.

damage was found at the time of the inspection,


which could be repaired
immediately.
have onlyplayedtwo
Since the Clippers
games, it is hard
to tell whether
theyhave a good team.
You should not keep a dog that is used to a steam-heated
apartment in a doghouse.
Only minor

325

WORD

13. The

pioneer familyowned

with
14.

She

door

a
saw

and

15. Please let

16.

her mind

up

of

cave

which

departmentstore

buy.

to

whether

know

me

a
really

was

oxen.

dress in the window

she has made

soon

bony

two

which

house

ORDER

come

can

you

to

the party

as

possible.

as

I should

like

thank

to

you

for the

giftwith
birthday

all

my

heart.
17. We

the

understand

opened

the box

disappointment
you
found

and

the

felt when

that you

camera

you

had

been

waiting for broken.


18.

In

those

The

periodwas

had

broken

their
20.

The

called the Puritan

Era

the Church

of

from

away

said: "Thanks

newspaper

donations

the refreshments

and

which

are

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

wanted

the group
included four

new

of
history
editor

who

helpedto

girlscouts."

13

11.

art, a number

afford

all those who

to

of artists

are

excluded

neglect.
excellent reproductions
of paintingsby
The book contains
of the reader.
artists to the great delight
many
of the freight
The growth of the railroads diverted most
from the rivers on which the steamboat
men
depended.
panied
Jane'sabsence from school was the result of a cold accomby a fever the day before yesterday.
with an estabWe
lished
cannot
stress the advantageof traveling
firm too forcibly.
Driver-education
classes are beingtaughtin high school in
which

7. More

no

can

to

any student may enroll.


animals of the
than a hundred

the attendants

went

residents.
326

to

people

some

England who

extended

the directions in Exercise

1. In this

whom

lated
regu-

devotion

as

because

to

EXERCISE

Follow

which

and purified.
simplified
religion

generously
gave
serve

established

were

the pattern of the people's


lives such
and love of personal
freedom.

home
19.

ideals

days certain

on

cityzoo
strike,roaming the

escapedwhen
streets

and

rifying
ter-

CONSTRUCTIONS

SPLIT

shows that there


studyof these figures
000 peoplein this state that use
chewing gum.
Tests have been developedfor some
jobsthat are
which an individual
of the possibilities
of success
careful

8. A

9.

have

10. We

made
for

enclosed

this man's

and
files,

our

activities in

shall

we

7,500,-

indicative

may have.
the checks you

tracingof the signatureon

are

about

a
warning
publish

bulletin.

our

EXERCISE

14

the following
excerpt from a
paper, rewrite
travel itinerary.
Place the modifiers in the positionsthat
On

make

your

the

1. Cars
9

will call at the hotels indicated when

2. At

A.M.

clear.

sentences

propelled
by

the firststop, the party will embark


in a "canoa"
the natives of the vicinity
with longpoles,
for a
the canals. 3. Then

picturesquetripon

palacebuilt

about

bookingat

1530

in

by

Cortes

will

you

which

is

the famous

see

the

now

seat

of the

local government. 4. You


are
requestedneither to touch
sit in the old chairs. 5. The
nor
shopperwill find
either

to

pleasehimself

6. Each

resident

hundred

dollars' worth

of the

United

of

should
about

this

not

which

verb

phrase.

Awkward:

is entitled to

States

ease.

bringfive

duty home.

be

are

be made

necessary to separatethese parts.In


be followed.
rules can

Avoid

home, with

closelyrelated grammatically
No strict rule
carelessly
separated.

can
principle

64a.

at

CONSTRUCTIONS

sentence

the folks

of articles free of

64. SPLIT
Parts

or

thing
anything
some-

sometimes

however,
general,

separationof

unnecessary

After he made

because

it is

these

the parts of

decision,he would,

no

matter

what

the consequences
might be, stick to his point.
Improved:After he made a decision,he would stick to his point,
no

matter

what

the consequences

might be.
327

"4b-d
Awkward:

SPLIT

This

CONSTRUCTIONS

has, although
you would

tree

think

not

so,

been

here for

thirty
years.
Improved:Althoughyou would not
here for thirty
years.
64b.

Avoid

separation of subject and


object,prepositionand object.

and

He,

in

Improved:In

Keep parts of

smoother

make

an

or

and

use

both

books

and

the

infinitive.It
split
spHtinfinitive makes
a

emphatic sentence,

more

awkward

he threw

defend

constructions

some

and

infinitive together.

an

Many good writers


that in

books

the floor.

on

newspapers

is true

both

the Hoor.

on

sweepingmotion,

one

threw

sweeping motion,

one

newspapers

64c.

has been

tree

unnecessary

verb, verb
Awkward:

think so, this

Clearness and

sentence.

but

it may

naturalness

often
must

be the test.

Permissible: After

had

caughta beautiful rainbow trout, we


home to proudlydisplay
went
our
prize.(Proudly
the sentence
makes
to
to display
or
display
proudly
we

stifiF.)
The
Unnecessary:

radio

told the audience

announcer

applaudwhen

Improved:The radio announcer


when
vigorously
64d.

Keep coordinate

Awkward:

Althoughhe
was

ranked

ously
vigor-

he raised his hand.


told the audience

to

applaud

he raised his hand.

sentence

was

to

among

elements

together.

he never
good tennis player,
the first ten, althoughhe

practiced
daily.
Right:Althoughhe was a good tennis playerand practiced
the
first
ranked
h
e
was
daily, never
among
ten.

328

MODIFIERS

DANGLING

15

EXERCISE

these sentences,

Rewrite
1.

of

had, instead
Shirley

constructions:
avoidingsplit
of the

doingher job,keptlookingout

window.
2. When

the

was

boughta farm, after he

Vincent

over,

had

home.

come

3. In

war

1937

added

we

both

designedto,

in

carefully
top story which was
styleand material,follow the original
new

structure.

4. When

he, instead

Perkins

5. One

buildinga house, built

barn,

Mrs.

rebelled.
in the group

man

life on

of

told,when

he

Corsica,

saw

story of

that island.

65. DANGLING
modifier is

MODIFIERS

danglingwhen

attached to
clearly
the word
which
it refers. Many
of these dangling
to
modifiers appear at the beginning
of a sentence.
They may
be phrasesbeginning
with the present participle
(arriving
the campus), the past participle
late,walking across
hausted
(exovercome
by the trip,
by his trouble ) or the perfect
(having missed his train, having been paid);
participle
theymay be phrasesthat contain a gerund (aftercopying
my schedule,in examining the plans); theymay beginwith
infinitive (to give better service,to finish
the fob) Logian
cally,
should
be
attached
the
of the clause
to
they
subject
A

it is not

that follows.
65a.

Avoid

dangling participial
phrases.(See

Section

6.)

Dangling:Opening the door, the


me

at

once.

the odor did

(The
not

odor of strong perfume struck


subjectof the clause is odor, but

open

Right:Opening the door, I


subjectof the clause
with the word
logically

the

door.)

smelled
is

strong perfume. (The

7; the

which

it

phraseis

connected

modifies.)
329

DANGLING

As

struck
to

the door, the

opened

at

me

odor

MODIFIERS

of strong

(The dangUng phraseis

once.

perfume
changed

clause.)

after the days work,

Dangling:Exhausted

it

difficult for

was

ciple.
Betty to enjoy the evening. (Phrase with past parti)

Right:Exhausted
difficultto

found

was

afterthe day'swork, Betty

exhausted

it difficult to

Dangling:Sung by

enjoy the evening.

thoughtthat

good contralto,we

Right:Sung by a good contralto,the


65b.

the music

beautiful.

sounded

to

it

enjoy the evening.

she

Because

found

day's work, Betty

after the

beautiful

sounded

music

us.

Avoid

dangling gerund phrases.(See

Dangling:On
Right:On

Section

examining the goods,they were

found

examining the goods,we

them

When

the

found

to

be defective.

defective.
found

examined, they were

goods were

6.)

to

be defective.
When

examined

we

the

Dangling:After convincingMr.

found

goods,we
of my

Pressman

them

fective.
de-

he hired
ability,

me.

Right:After convincing Mr.


hired by him.
After

I had

he hired

convinced

Mr.

no

Pressman

I was
ability,

ability,

of my

me.

EXERCISE

On

of my

Pressman

16

sentences
any of the following
your paper, rewrite correctly
that contain
If a sentence
contains
danglingphrases.

write

errors,

beside

the

sentence

number

on

your

paper.
1. After
me

2.

330

parents for

nagging my

learn

to

two

months, theyagreedto let

drive.

Arrivinglate

at

in
night,all the lights

the house

were

out.

MODIFIERS

DANGLING

pulleddown the sails.


planswith care, the one presented

3.

Seeinga

4.

5.

Having examined all the


by the Benders Company seemed
Being Saturdaymorning, the bus

6.

Hoping

coming, we

storm

to

best.

crowded.

was

Isabel

her awkwardness,

overcome

went

ing
danc-

to

school.
7.
8.

9.

the dark road, the driver did not see


me.
Walking across
bad investments, his life
Having lost his fortune in some
seemed
ruined.
completely
Handled
clever propagandist
could make
a
carefully,
great
use

10.

of television.

After

beingtold

announced
11.

to take

my
breakfast in the

morning bath, the clanging


trays

hospital.

Looking inland, the first thingthat

saw

we

church

was

tower.

12.

for

Reserved

we
high dignitaries,

could

not

the

occupy

seats.

13.

14.

of

Instead

return
our
a
on
investment, it is costing
realizing
the department.
to run
us
money
cards accordingto the new
our
By filing
system, another

clerk will have


15. Before
to

16.

to

bed

clothes
arising,
for scorpions.

going to

be examined

Established
Pembroke

be hired.
and

upon

1890, the

in

inn

Pressingthe button, the

18.

Respectedby everybodywho
for governor

candidate

20.

21.

defense

line.

Having

been

called

went

knows

After

by

the

up

to

him,

the tenth floor.


shall have

we

by

Albert

very

in

as

Mr.

chairman

named

interested

helpedme
23.

elevator

forcingall
constitution was
a
new
legislature,
Repelledby our army, the enemy

Being

owned

Jameson Harkness.
opposition groups to vv'ithdraw from

After

was

22.

alwaysbeen

shoes had

family.

17.

19.

has

and

the

drafted.
withdrew

to

form

of the committee,

new

meeting

Delton.

aviation, my

course

in

physicshas

much.

seeing the circus, there

was

alwayspink lemonade

for

the children.
24.

the factoryon
By locating

the third floor and

the

repair
331

65c-cl

DANGLING

departmenton

the second

be

customers.

given to

our

with power,
their leader.

25.

Drunk

Avoid

65c.

Wrong:

dangling

avoid

infinitive phrases.

made

in

car

good condition,it was

greased

Right:In order to keep the car in good condition,we


greased
every 1,000 miles.
Avoid

An

verb

both have

with while

Wrong:

been

stolen

be

was

clothes

Wrong:

the

or
subject
gin
clauses beMany elliptical

in

river

near

by a tramp. (The
swimming.
swimming

was

were

stolen

farm, my

our

clothes

italicizedexpression
means

In this sentence

the clothes

seem

by

in

river

near

our

farm, my

by a tramp.

in

swimming

clothes stolen
When

which

swimming.)

Right:While
Right:While

from

one

omitted.

swimming

while I
to

it

when.

or

While
were

had

dangling elliptical
expressions.

is
elliptical
expression
or

an

1,000 miles.

every

65d.

ment
adjust-

the condenser.

keepthe

In order to

curb

peopleto

scrappingsuch expensivematerial,we

adjustmentin
Wrong:

the

can

in the condenser.

made

was

Right:To

for
impossible

was

convenience

scrappingsuch expensivematerial,an

avoid

To

it

floor,greater

MODIFIERS

river

near

our

farm, I had

my

tramp.

stilla small child,his first appearance

the stage.
Right:When stilla small child,he made

was

made

on

his firstappearance

on

the stage,

17

EXERCISE

On

containing
your paper, rewrite correctly
any sentences
clauses.
danglinginfinitive phrasesor danglingelliptical
If

sentence

your paper.
332

contains

no

error,

write

C beside its number

on

MODIFIERS

DANGLING

1. While
2.
3.
4.

eatinghis lunch

day,land

sighted.
While
mentioned.
was
frequently
walkinghome, her name
When
startled,the animal will fight
fiercely.
of the company,
with the president
In order to communicate
sent.
a cablegram
was

5. Unless desirable,we
6. While

get

7. While

one

do

was

listapartments.

not

to a friend one
talking
day,he
summer
job.
Elaine
studyingbookkeeping,

told

where

me

oflFered a

was

I could

job with

Crandon, Wells and Company.


8. To

serve

customers

our

service has been


9. When

promptly,a

more

information

set

up.
years old, his uncle

ten

new

died

and

left him

small

fortune.
10. As
to

Note:

employeeof

an

Club,

we

expect you

follow the rules.

The

word

due in formal

Some
adjective.

an

the Illinois Motor

due

to

as

preposition.

illness was

His
Adjective:
He
Preposition:

writers

Englishis usuallyconsidered
pression
today,however, use the ex-

due

ill due

was

to

overeating.
overeating.
to

Caution:
1. Final

make

modifiers beginningwith
participial

awkward

Awkward:

We

constructions.

just introduced

have

making everything
easy
Improved:Because
can

2.

The

find

now

He

to

introduced

awkward

filing
system,

new

filing
system, we
easily.

new

(noun

at

thus

find.

more
everything

construction

often

if it contains
Awkward:

have

we

absolute

is
participle)

thus often

and

or

pronoun
the beginningof

tence
sen-

see

Mr.

pronoun.

beinga good salesman, we

sent

him

to

sent

him

Eckels.

Improved:Because
Mr.

he is

good salesman, we

to

see

Eckels.
333

DANGLING

3. The

participle
beingshould not be
should it be used as a conjunction.

nor

Wrong: Being that it is a clear day,we


Wrong: Being it's a clear day.
.

Right:Since

it is

clear

lived

Wrong: Being we

day.

followed

go for

can

hike.

shore all summer,

at the

by that;

MODIFIERS

I could

practice

swimming every day.

Right:Because
When

we

lived

at

the shore all

verbal is used

summer.

specifya generalaction, it
is not considered
a
danglingmodifier: Generallyspeaking,
and
considering
everything,
judgingfrom past experiences,
similar expressions
often used without beingattached to
are
noun.
any specific
Note:

to

EXERCISE

On

your paper, rewrite


modifiers. If the sentence
1.

Passingthe stadium,

18

is correct,

the

containingdangling

sentences

any

its number.

put C beside

placelooked

as

if

football game

in progress.

were

2. When

walkingthe dog,he

muzzled

be

should

or

kept on

leash.
3.

Coming
of

4.

from

interests

to

will

5.

Upon

6.

it was
laundry,
Knowing the

collegeand
change.

gaining

9.

clear that
excellent

great when

because

theyhad

back

came

shrunk

knowledge,my
the

decidedly.

reputationof your linn, my

the suit shrank

from

surprise

in the

cleaning
process.
tor
cooling
system, your radia-

addingantifreeze to your
should be completely
drained.
While searching
througha pileof stage props the other day,
found.
were
strange objects
many
ings
Looking throughthe window of the Waldorf at the tall buildof New

country.
334

further

examining the shirts which

7. Before

8.

held up

was

accident.

an

By going

was

the dressmaker's,the bus

York

made

me

think of the

of
strength

our

MODIFIERS

DANGLING

10. The

other

served
11.

12.

cookies and

some

cream.

summoned,

15.
16.

Having

startingout,

that the

19. While

school

art

While

of road

is well worth

lem
prob-

beliefs are

how

was

conditions
of

take my

to

made.

was

borrowed

tell

customers

our

the difference in

21.

I told your

lookingthrougha magazine
slogancaughtmy eye.
tricky
clerk that while

the information
22. When

from

price.

the adults

driven

needed

was

in this

not

in

in

doctor's office,a

of the A.A.A.,

member

an

emergency.
walls of the tires
the
side
condition,
may

damaged.

Born
to

to

us.

20.

be

of these

transportation,
my

expensive,many

model

new

at

check

stillchildren,
our

around

without

before been

more
Althoughslightly
us

late for him

too

was

duringmy first year


girlto the movies.
17. Before

was

help,
worked
his mind
slowly.
his breath came
rapidly.
struggle,
it

spokento,
Exhausted
by the
never

drink

break.

14. When

24.

ice

making a purchaseat a drug store, a soft


on
spilled
my coat.
If used for pulling
plows and wagons, the nerves

13. When

23.

French

unusual

an

While

fine horses would

18.

friends, the hostess

some
night while visiting

be

into
a

famous

medical

his
family

father wanted

George

doctor.

Sulfanilamide

remained

unknown

until its powers

were

covered
dis-

while

25.

doingresearch on dogs.
By employingprivatedetectives for policework at sporting
and using policewomen as traffic officers,
events
a
large
number
of policemenwould be available for crime detection.

EXERCISE

On

your paper, rewrite


danglingmodifiers. If a
beside its number
1. After

on

19

correctly
any
sentence

sentences

contains

no

containing

error, write

your paper.

the ship,
the
leaving

firstthingthat

we

noticed

was

the

strange birds.
335

MODIFIERS

DANGLING

work, I feel that I am making


beinginteresting
contribution to publichealth.
a
While walkinginto the quiet ofiBce to apply for a job,my
shoes began to squeak.

2. In addition to

3.

4. Skilled in all kinds


to

get

5. When

to

progress, it was

necessary

production.
ceaselessly
searchingthe

12.

Looking

14.

15.

16.

17.

to

go

and
newspapers
found an
finally

sistance
gettingas-

apartment.

back

work,
years of newspaper
the most
stimulating.
decidedly

on

my

my

last

being a beautifully
designedcar, a businessman
with a small business can
cut his delivery
expenses in half.
of our
By teachingan understanding
government, it will be
to developwise
voters.
possible
we
Being that the strike has interfered with production,
Besides

cannot

13.

firstmotion.

for the company

several agents, we
while looking
at the
newspaper,

assignment was

11.

easy for him

my
eyes fell on
in Alaska.
that told of business opportunities

day

page

10.

was

job.
making a golfstroke,the backswingis the

from

9.

it

mass

7. After

8. One

work,

6. In order
into

of executive

fillyour

order

until March.

Lookingat random throughthe many planssubmitted, there


of commerce.
offered by the chamber
is a splendidone
He
being one of our best customers, I should not want to
him.
disappoint
Overcome
problems,his health failed
by his numerous
rapidly.
Acting on the advice of Mr. Sellers,Henry'sreport was
presentedto the board of directors.
hard for him to
Having grown up in the business, it was
leave.
all the

18.

Before

19.

having checked each item against the order, it


packed in cartons and shipped.
She beingour
best stenographer,
we
gave her an increase
salary.
with great care, being sure
not
Eveiythingwas measured

20.

21.

necessary
utensils should be placedwithin reach.
After

make

336

startingto cook,

the smallest mistake.

and
ingredients

is

in

to

MIXED

AND

22.

He

We

'^'^'"

CONSTRUCTIONS

^w

kinds of business,thus
many
business of his own.

to

a
manage
beheve that by

funds
larger
appropriating

for education,

the

in the
would improve instruction
legislature
the tops
on
Huge lights
play like searchlights
heads scamperingto their places.

24.

66. MIXED

the

of

people's

agree with the other parts


if the meaning of the sentence
is to be

sentence

logical
way

some

schools.

CONSTRUCTIONS

ILLOGICAL

AND

Every part of
in

helping

in
experienced

was

him
23.

ILLOGICAL

must

clear.
66a.

Be

that

sure

to

Vague:

the

subjectmakes

in its relationship

sense

the verbs.

The

first case

of

back

smallpoxdates

thousand

than

more

the birth of Christ and

years before
unchecked
until

has

lacks
(This sentence
recently.
has
of smallpox
because it says that the firstcase
logic
until recently.)
gone unchecked
than a
Improved:The first case of smallpoxdates back more
thousand
years before the birth of Christ,but only
has the disease been checked.
recently
Vague: The time will be eighto'clock at my home and will be
gone

informal.

Improved:The party

will be

at

home

my

at

eighto'clock

and

will be informal.

66b.

Every verb

Vague:

With
more

must

have

clear-cut

familyto support

makes

subject.
his decision all the

important.

to support makes
Improved:His havinga family

66c.

the

more

Adjust

the

his decision all

important.
form

of

an

indirect

quotation

to

the

rest of the sentence.

Awkward:

The

Improved:The

boy asked us would


boy asked us if we

we

give him
would

liftto Easton.

give him

lift to

Easton.

337

^^^

66d.

Avoid

AND

MIXED

mixed

ILLOGICAL

CONSTRUCTIONS

constructions.

Despite of what you say, I think you are


spiteof is confused with despite.)
Improved:In spite of what you say, I think you
Mixed:

{In

wrong.

are

wrong.

or

you say, I think you

Despitewhat
Avoid

66e.

Awkward:

double

are

wrong.

negatives.

I can't

hardlysee you.
Improved:I can hardlysee you.
Awkward:
He hasn't scarcely
any money.
Improved:He has scarcely
any money.
EXERCISE

On

your

them
1.

Seeingyoungsters running throughthe


loose shirts has become

The
his

wanted

book

was

tells the story of

dungarees

sight.
and

new

excitingperiod.

in China.

ever

lost his money

who

man

and

struggle
againstpoverty.
hair is blond, and

5. Her

littlenose
6. I

to know

in

streets

familiar

literature was
Eighteenth-century

3. Eleanor
4.

followingsentences, making

logical:
and

2.

the

rewrite

paper,

20

and

don't
really

her eyes
dimpledchin.
how

know

your house.
7. During the strike the

to

are

clear gray with

express the wonderful

time

cute

I had

at

hundred
8. The

and

men

chairman

his

inability
class

9. For

orders

read
to

policeforce

attend

to

day the boys wear

one

prevent violence.

letter from
but

reinforced with

was

the mayor,

"offer the

who

class my

blue suits and

white

regretted
tions."
congratulacarnations

in their buttonholes.

10.

I think the
be

11.

338

game

most

job next
interesting

to

forest ranger would

warden.

whether
By conquering something,
of pride.
skill,
givesone a feeling

it be

an

opponent

or

"7a-b

COMPAEISONS

12. The

peoplein

theydid in
to
It surprised
us
assumed
frequently
cities as

13.

14. Tomorrow

15. With

is

democracyno longerconsist of
the daysof Greek democracy.
find that Napoleon is the person
ill.
by the mentally

modern

sister'sengagement

my

size of
increasing

cars

small

most

party.

is another

why

reason

have

we

parkingproblems.

67. COMPARISONS
to make
logical
ability
comparisonsis often important
in achieving
The rules that follow will
in writing.
clarity
or
comparisons.
help you to avoid making confusing
misleading

The

67a.

Compare only thingsof

Unlike
Illogical:

similar nature.

the food here is very


places,
poor. (Food is comparedto seaside places.)
does not serve
this one
Improved:Unlike most seaside places,
very good food.
In the new
more
school,the teachers were
Illogical:
friendly
most

seaside

than my old school.


Improved:The teachers in the

school

new

were

more

friendly

than those in the old school.


I like Kipling's
Illogical:
poetry better than
Improved:1 like Kipling's
poetry better than

67b.

Avoid

object or
class

or

includingwithin the
term
being compared,

group.

Use

offier or

T. S. Eliot.
S. Eliot's.

T.

class

or

group

the

if it is part of the
else to exclude the object

being compared.
Wrong:

Sanderson's
have read

Animal

Treasure

(Since
recently.

books that I have read, I

is better than

Animal

am

Treasure

sayingthat

any book I
of the
is one

it is better than

itself.)

Right:Sanderson's

Animal

book that I have read

Treasure

is better than

any

other

recently.
339

^*'

67c.

COMPARISONS

all,not

Use

with the

any,

Wrong: Biologyis the

most

Right:Biologyis the

most

67d.

another

of any of
enjoyable
of all my
enjoyable

the elements

Complete

of

my

courses.

courses.

comparison before

one

is introduced.

Awkward:

Colonel

is

Benton

oflBcer in
infantry

Improved: Colonel
our

Ralph is as
Improved:Ralph is as
Be

Vague:

clever

I missed her

Florence

Improved: I

if not
Stanley,

as

Stanley.
clever.

more

is clear.

(More than I missed


than Florence missed her?)
than Florence.

more

her

clever than

more

comparison

more

or

missed

army.
of the finest infantry
oflBcersin

one

clever if not

that every

sure

if not the finest,


finest,

the finest.

if not

army,

of the

one

our

is

Benton

Awkward:

67e.

superlativedegree.

than Florence

more

did.

or

her

I missed

than I missed

more

21

EXERCISE

On

your paper, rewrite

Florence.

these sentences,

making the

parisons
com-

logical:
than
City is larger

1. Salt Lake
2.

3. Unlike
4.

postersare

6. The

number

10.

340

team

in

Richmond

cannot

than any posters in the


prettier

of hotel

the convention

Crop

most

town.

baseball

5. Our

8. Flowers

successful,if not the

most

compare

York, the peopleenjoy watchingit.

New

7. Marianne

Utah.

hotels,the radio receptionis powerful.

most

Although the
with

9.

of the

StanleyMoore is one
successful,lawyerin

cityin

any

from

to

love her

any

nurse

could

offer

for

better than her mother.

are

favorable than last year.


I think that he is funnier than

us

city.

fresher than any floristin


in all parts of the country have been

Kirkwood

conditions

that Boston

than
larger

was

learned

rooms

contest.

anybody I've

ever

seen.

town.
more

COMPARISONS

11.

about

that the Prisoners' Aid Association

tell you

happy to

am

periodof
its history.
enter

to

any in
12. The food of

in the

group

our

merchant

world, but

any country.
settlerknew
13. The early
14. Edith

as

great usefulness
is

seamen
our

the Indians.

no

22

lack coherence
sentences
following
of principles
in Sections
explained

of the

Many

of violations

these sections.
If

number

3.

than
planting

any marine
higherthan

better than any fruit.


desire to learn to playgolf.
interest nor

EXERCISE

2.

are

greaterthan

likes oranges

15. I have

1.

good as

operatingcosts
about

more

as

or

is

on

sentence

Then

on

your

needs

no

correction, write

paper,

as

result

62-67.

view
Re-

the

tences.
sen-

rewrite

C beside its

your paper.

Walking down the hall,my eye was attracted by a painting.


The principal
interested in getting
asked us were
summer
we
jobs.
Jim told me that one day last week he stayedin school until
5:30.

4. Walter
used

5. Her
our

6. The

differed from

Reed's work

peopleinstead

of animals

antique furniture is

more

for his

11.

12.
13.

experiments.

beautiful than any furniture in

of all is Benjamin Franklin.


autobiography
with
the presents you bringinto a hospital

best

fish bowl

care.

at first glance.

onlysaw small fish swimming in a


be
Not
of news
would
being able to read, his only source
throughthe radio and television.
to