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Three Moment

Equation
Theory of Structure - I

Department of Civil Engineering


University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan

Lecture Outlines
Introduction
Proof

of Three Moment Equation

Example

Department of

Introduction
Developed

by French Engineer Clapeyron in

1857.
This equation relates the internal moments in
a continuous beam at three points of support
to the loads acting between the supports.
By successive application of this equation to
each span of the beam, one obtains a set of
equations that may be solved simultaneously
for the unknown internal moments at the
support.
Department of

Proof: Real Beam


A

general form of three moment equation can


be developed by considering the span of a
continuous beam.
P1

P2

P3

P4

WL

WR
ML

MC

L
LL

Department of

MC

MR

LR

Conjugate Beam (applied


loads)
The

formulation will be based on the


conjugate-beam method.
Since the real beam is continuous over the
supports, the conjugate-beam has hinges at
L, C and R.
AL /EIL

LL
XL

Department of

CL 1

AR /EIR

CR 1

LR

R
XR

Conjugate Beam (internal


moments)
Using

the principle of superposition, the M /


EI diagram for the internal moments is
shown.
MC /EIL
ML /EIL

Department of

MR /EIR

MC /EIR

LL

CL2

CR2

LR

In

particular AL/EIL and AR/EIR represent the


total area under their representative M / EI
diagrams; and xL and xR locate their centroids.

Since

the slope of real beam is continuous


over the center support, we require the shear
forces for the conjugate beam.

C L1 C L2 (C R1 C R2 )
Department of

Summing

moments about point L for left


span, we have

1 AL
1 1 ML
1 MC
1
2

LL LL
LL
C L1 C L2
(
xL )
LL

LL EI L
LL 2 EI L
2 EI L
3
3

A x
M L
M L
L L L L C L
EI L
6 EI L
3EI L

Summing

moments about point R for the


right span yields

1 AR
1 1 MR
1 MC
1
2

LR LR
LR LR
C R1 C R2
(
xR )

LR EI R
LR 2 EI R
2 EI R
3
3

A x
M L
M L
R R R R C R
EI R
6 EI R
3EI R

Department of

General Equation
Equating

C L1 C L2 (C R1 C R2 )
and

simplifying yields

LL LR M R LR
M L LL
6 AL xL
6 AR xR
2M C

IL
IR
I L LL
I R LR
IL IR
(1)
Department of

Eq. Modification for point load


and uniformly distributed load
Summation

signs have been added to the


terms on the right so that M/EI diagrams for
each type of applied load can be treated
separately.

In

practice the most common types of


loadings encountered are concentrated and
uniform distributed loads.

Department of

10

PL

PR

KLLL

KRLR R

LL

If

the areas and centroidal distances for their


M/EI diagrams are substituted in to 3-Moment
equation,

LL LR M R LR
M L LL
PL
PL
wL
wL
3
3
2M C

L L k L k L R R k R k R L L R R
IL
IR
IL
IR
4I L
4I R
IL IR
2

(2)
Department of

11

Special Case:
If

the moment of inertia is constant for the


entire span, IL = IR.

M L LL 2M C LL LR M R LR PL LL k L k L PR LR k R k R
2

wL LL wR LR

4
4

(3)

Department of

12

Example:
Determine

the reactions at the supports for


the beam shown. The moment of inertia of
span AB is one half that of span BC.
3 k/ft
A
0.5 I
25 ft

Department of

15k
C

I
15 ft

5 ft

13

Data
ML
LL
IL

=0

= 25ft

= 0.5I

MC
LR
IR

= MB

=I

=0

PR

= 15k

wL

= 3k/ft

wR

=0

Department of

=0

= 20ft

PL

kL =

MR

kR =

0.25

14

Substituting

the values in equation 2,

3
15 * 20 2
3
*
25
25 20
0 2M B
0 0
0.25 0.253
0
I
4 * 0.5I
0.5I I
M B 177.5k . ft

Department of

15

For span AB:

F 0; A
M 0;
x

75 k

Ay (25) 177.5 75(12.5) 0

VBL

Ay 30.4k

0;

30.4 75 VBL 0

A
Ay

B
12.5

12.5

177.5k.ft

VBL 44.6k
Department of

16

For span BC:

0;

15 k

C y (20) 177.5 15(15) 0


C y 2.38k

0;

2.38 15 VBR 0

VBR
B
177.5k.ft

C
15 ft

5 ft

Cy

VBR 12.6k
Department of

17

free body diagram of the differential


segment of the beam that passes over roller
at B is shown in figure.

177.5k.ft

177.5k.ft

B y 44.6 12.6 0
B y 57.2k

Department of

44.6 k

By

12.6 k

18

Practice Problems:
Chapter

Example

9-11 to 9-13 and Exercise

Structural

Department of

Analysis by R C Hibbeler

19

Department of

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