Anda di halaman 1dari 8


Study Guide: Semester Exam
SpeedSpeed is a measure of how far something moves in a given amount of
time. In other words, speed measures how quickly or slowly the object
changes position.
We can calculate the speed of an object by dividing the distance
traveled by that object and the amount of time it took the object to
travel that distance.
We may use the following formula:
Speed= Distance / Time
1. A jogger ran 5 miles in 2 hours. What was his speed?
Speed = 5 mi / 2 hours . 2.5 miles per hour

2. A person on a bike travels 5 kilometers in one hour. He then rests

for another hour. After that he travels 8 kilometers the final hour.
What was his average speed.
Speed = 13 kilometers / 3 hours 4.3 Kilometers
per hour

Acceleration is defined as a change in velocity. Therefore, anytime
an object changes its speed or direction it has achieved acceleration. If

an object remains at rest or at a constant speed then that object has

not experienced acceleration. There are 3 types of acceleration:
Positive, Negative, and Centripetal acceleration.
Positive Acceleration: An increase in velocity.
Negative Acceleration: A decrease in velocity.
Centripetal Acceleration: Acceleration in a circular path. Constant
change in direction.
1. Two boys slide down a hill. What type of acceleration did these
boys experience?
Positive Acceleration - Boys will speed will
increase as they slide down hill.
2. An ice skater rounds a curve on a track. What type of
acceleration did the skater experience?
Centripetal Acceleration Skater will
experience circular motion.
3. A parachute on a drag car is deployed as the car nears the end
of the runway. What type of acceleration did the car experience?
Negative Acceleration- Parachute
causes the car to slow down.
4. A horse moving at 10 feet per second runs up a hill. What type of
acceleration will the horse experience as it moves up the hill?
Negative Acceleration- The horse
will slow down as it moves up the
5. A car traveling through the expressway is traveling at 65 miles
per hour. 2 minutes later this car is traveling at 75 miles per
hour. What type of acceleration did the car experience?
Positive Acceleration The cars speed

ForcesA force can be defined as a push or a pull. Without force motion

would not be possible. Usually, more than one force is acting on an
object. The combination of all the forces acting on an object is called
the net force. If forces are acting in the same direction, you must add
the forces to find the net force. If forces are acting in opposite
directions you must subtract the forces to find the net force.
1. Juan and Oscar are trying to move a cabinet from one side of the
room to the door. Juan is pushing with 54 Newtons of force. Oscar
is pulling in the same direction with a force of 36 Newtons. What
is the net force being applied on the cabinet?
90 Newtons Since Juan and Oscar are moving the cabinet in
the same direction you must add the forces to find the Net
Force. ( 54 + 36 = 90 )
2. Two groups of people are playing a game of tug-of-war. One
group(Group A) is pulling is pulling with a net force of 325
Newtons. The other group (Group B) is pulling in the opposite
direction with a net force of 432 Newtons. What is the net force?
Which group wins?
107 Newtons- Group A and Group B are
pulling opposite directions. Thus, you
need to subtract to find the net force
acting on the rope. ( 432- 325 = 107).
In the 1680s, British scientist Sir Isaac Newton came up with
three laws that tried to explain the relationship between force
and motion.
1st Law of Motion
An object at rest will stay at rest, an object in motion will remain
in motion , unless, acted upon by an unbalanced force.

2nd Law of MotionThe acceleration of an object is dependent on the mass of the

object and of the force being exerted onto that object.

3rd Law of MotionFor every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Simple MachinesThere are six types of simple machines: Levers, Wheels and
Axles, Pulleys, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws.


Wheel and Axle__B__
Inclined Plane___C___

A. Simple machine that has a grooved wheel that holds a rope.

B. A Simple machine consisting of two circular objects of different
C. A simple machine that is a straight , slanted surface.
D. A simple machine that has a bar that pivots at a fixed point.
List all five characteristics of a Mineral.
A mineral must have a crystalline structure, it is inorganic, has a
definite chemical composition , occurs naturally on Earth, and are

List the three most important naturally occurring events that allow
for the production of Minerals.
Cooling of Magma and Lava, Metamorphism, and through solutions.
Minerals are divided into two types of categories. List the two
1.__________Silicate Minerals___________

2. ______Non

These minerals compromise 10 % of Earths crust. __________Non

Silicate _____________
These minerals compromise 90% of Earths crust.

1. Earths Layers can be divided into two classifications.

Crust, Mantle, Core
Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere,Outer Core and Inner

2. What physical layer is found between the crust and the

The asthenosphere is the physical layer which is found between
the crust and the mantle.

3. What is the difference between the inner core and outer

The inner core is made of solid iron and nickel. While, the outer core is
made out of liquid iron and nickel.
4. The outermost compositional layer of the Earth is the ?
The crust is the Earths outermost compositional layer.
5. The ______ Mantle___________ is denser than the crust and
contains more magnesium.

6. The __lithosphere__________ is divided into pieces called tectonic


12. The _____Outer core is the liquid layer of Earths core?

1. ________Pangaea________- Supercontinent. existed when all the

continents were joined together.

2. __________Plate Boundaries__________- Location where tectonic

plates meet and cause different geological events on the Earth.
3. _________Alfred Wegener______________- German geologist who in
1912 created the Theory of Continental Drift .
4. ____________Mantle Convection______________- Occurs in the
mantle and is responsible for the movement of Tectonic Plates.
(Hot Rock rising to the top of the mantle while cold denser rock
sinks to the lower mantle)
5. _______________Continental Drift__________- Theory that all
continents were once joined together and eventually separated
over time.

6. ___________Tectonic Plates_______________- Large pieces of rock

that are located on the lithosphere of the Earth.

A) Alfred Wegener

D) Continental Drift

B) Tectonic Plates

E) Pangaea

C) Plate Boundaries

F) Mantle Convection

7. Describe what occurs on a Transform Boundary. How do plates

Tectonic plates that are found on Transform Boundaries will slide
against each other horizontally motion.

8. Describe what occurs on a Divergent Boundary. How do the

plates move?
Tectonic plates on a divergent boundary will move away from
each other. These boundaries are found mainly on the ocean
floor and cause sea-floor spreading.

9. Describe what occurs on a Convergent Boundary. How do the

plates move?
Tectonic plates on a convergent boundary will push and crash
against each other.


What is a Subduction Zone ?

Subduction Zones occur on convergent boundaries. These occur

when one tectonic plates slides under the other.