Anda di halaman 1dari 18

Form: "Subject Specific Pedagogy - Multiple Subject"

Created with: Taskstream


Author: Andrew Lopez
Date submitted: 07/11/2015 2:05 pm (PDT)
Before beginning this task, read the complete directions provided in the CTC TPA
Candidate Handbook.
Case Study 1: Subject-Specific and Developmentally-Appropriate Pedagogy
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 1
1. Elements of a Learning Experience in a Unit
Grade: Third
Content Area: Language Arts
Subject Matter: Reading and writing
Time Period for the Learning Experience: Two 30-minute sessions in two
consecutive days
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
Reading: Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level Appropriate Text
2.5 Distinguish the main idea and supporting details in expository text
Writing: Organization and Focus
1.1 Create a single paragraph:
a. Develop a topic sentence
b. Include simple supporting facts and details
Learning Goals for the Learning Experience
Students will be able to do the following with a focus on reading and writing:

Identify the main idea of an expository text

Identify three supporting details from the expository text

Summarize the expository text using the main idea and three supporting
details in one paragraph

Instructional Resources Available


Age-appropriate expository text and writing journals
2. Class Description
Students are in a self-contained third grade class. The school is located in a middlelevel, socio-economic community. It is the middle of the academic year. Most of the
students are eight years old. They particularly need opportunities to learn content in
different ways and to revisit content. Many of the students enjoy the school
environment and like to socialize with each other. Most of the students are active in
after-school activities, including sports, clubs, tutoring, and other community
activities, which leaves little time for homework.
3. Developmental Needs of the Students in Grade 3

Understand connections between the lesson content and life outside of school

Develop advanced thinking and problem-solving skills

Develop socially and handle the intense social peer pressure to conform while
maintaining individuality
B. Questions for Case Study 1:
1.
Given the contextual information for Case Study 1, think about a lesson you
might use with these students that addresses the subject matter learning
goals and the developmental needs of the students described. In the columns
below describe:
o Instructional strategies
o Student activities
o Instructional resources

Instructional strategies are what the teacher does during instruction and student
activities are what the students do during the lesson. Include how you would use the
instructional resources as you describe your strategies and student activities.
(REQUIRED) 1a. and 1b.
Instructional Strategies

Student Activities

In order to address the students subject


matter learning goals and developmental
needs I would have them work
cooperatively. By working in groups
students are developing their social skills.
They will also be required to present their
group work to the rest of their classmates
once completed. This allows them
develop the need of being able to handle
intense social peer pressure but at the
same time maintain individuality.

Day 1:

Before allowing students to group up I


think it would be effective to use the think

Students will be put into groups of


4. Students will be given an expository
text that they will have to read with their
group members. Students will work
cooperatively to decide what they think
the main idea of the expository text they
were provided is. They will be given
highlighters to highlight details they think
support their main idea. Students will use
a graphic organizer to plan out their
thoughts. The graphic organizer they will
use will be a circle thinking map.

pair and share strategy. I would read an


expository text to them and project it
through an Elmo document camera and
projector for them to see and be able to
follow along. Once the passage is read,
the student will be given time to think and
or reread the passage and decided what
they think the main idea is. I will then pair
students up and have them share what
they think the main idea is with one
another. In order to get maximum
participation I will have to lower their
affective filter. In order to do so I will
have students share what their partner
thought the main idea was. This takes
away the pressure from them because they
are sharing what their partner thinks.
I think its important for teacher to show
students examples of what they are
expecting. Therefore, I will use the
modeling strategy to help them
understand what they will need to do. In
order to do I will fill out a graphic
organzier with the help of the students.
The use of graphic organizers is an
effective strategy. At the school I currently
work at we use thinking maps. I would
work on a thinking map about the
expository text we just read with the help
of my students. together we will decide
what we think the main idea and write it
in the middle of our circle map. They will
then write supporting details that help
prove the main idea of the passage.
An expository text is a text that informs
you about or describes, something. I
would have my students make
connections and activate their prior
knowledge by working as a class to
make a list of text that they have read that
has either described something or
informed them about something. When
the list is completed I will put the students
into groups. They will be given an

They will work together to and use


markers to create a circle map on a poster.
They will write the main idea of the
expository text in the middle of their map.
Students will then decide what details
help support the main idea. They will
have to find three supporting details and
write them around the main idea. Finally,
students will present their maps as a group
to their classmates.

Day 2:
Students will use their circle maps to write
a paragraph that states the main idea of
the expository text. They will also include
three sentences that support that main
idea.

expository text that they will read


together. Then they will decide what the
main idea is and find three supporting
details for it. They will be given a
highlighter to highlight supporting details.
On the next day students will use the
circle maps they created to write a
paragraph about the main idea of the
expository text. They will have to include
what they think the main idea is and three
supporting details.

2.
Based on your knowledge of the content and of student development, explain why the
instructional strategies, student activities, and resources you listed in question 1:
(REQUIRED) 2a) are appropriate for this class
I believe these strategies, activities, and resources are appropriate for this 3rd grade class.
According to the class description, most of the students are eight years old. Since the
students are young I think its appropriate to model what is expected of them. It not only
show them how to read through a passage and decide what the main idea is, but also
show them how to find details that support that main idea. I think the think pair share is
also appropriate strategy because it helps break the ice. It lowers the students affective
filter making them more willing to participate and share information. It helps them get
comfortable sharing information with a partner as well as the whole class. These students
need visuals as well. That is why I think it's an effective strategy to display the passage
with a projector. The highlighters also help visually because they allow the students to
highlight important details as they read and easily be able to find when they finish
reading the passage. Having these students work in groups allows them to to develop
their social skills.
(REQUIRED) 2b) address the developmental needs of these students
The strategies, resources, and activities I am using address the developmental needs of
these students. According to the class description these students need opportunities to
learn content in different ways and revisit content. I decided to use modeling strategies in
order to show students what's expected and also revisit the content with teacher support. I
also incorporated cooperative learning because I think students tend to help each other
understand content. I activated the student prior knowledge in order for students to make
connection between the lesson and life outside of school. Having the students work
together to create a graphic organizer helps develop advance think and problem solving
skills. The graphic organizer also allows me to assess their thoughts and help guide them
if they are getting off track. I also incorporated a strategy that would lower their affective

filters so that they are more willing to share their thoughts. I did this because I want the
student to feel comfortable sharing with a group as well as the whole class. These
activities, along with the group work, help students develop socially and handle intense
social peer pressure.
(REQUIRED) 2c) help these students make progress toward achieving the stateadopted academic content standards for students in this content area
The strategies, activities, and resources that I am going to use are going to help the
students make progress toward achieving the state-adopted academic content standards in
this content area. I chose activities that will teach students how to identify a main idea
and find supporting details. Students are going to practice finding supporting details in a
group setting. Once I have modeled how to distinguish the main idea and supporting
details, students will work in groups to find them for another expository text. On the
second day, students will meet the writing standard. They'll use circle maps to work on
their organization. They will use the information from their graphic organizer to create a
paragraph.
END OF CASE STUDY 1
Case Study 2: Assessment Practices
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 2:
1. Elements of a Learning Experience in a Unit
Grade: Second
Content Area: Mathematics
Subject Matter: Money
Time Period for Whole Unit: Three weeks
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
Number Sense
5.0 Students model and solve problems by representing, adding, and subtracting
amounts of money.
5.1 Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills
Mathematical Reasoning
1.0 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem.
1.2 Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems
Learning Goals for Whole Unit
Students will be able to do the following:
o

Identify and describe coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, halfdollar) and bills (one and five dollar)

Add two or more coins of different values

Identify multiple ways to show a specific amount

Use coins and bills or sketches to model addition of two amounts

2. Teacher Reflection on Student Assessment for this Unit


I am not satisfied with the assessment plan I used for the last unit of study. I gave
the students a diagnostic test at the beginning of the unit, two quizzes during the
unit, and a final test, all of which came from the teachers guide. I feel, though, that
I need additional information on what students really know and understand, their
misconceptions, what they learned during the instruction, and their progress toward
achieving the learning goals. I am looking for ways to improve my assessment plan
so I can have a more complete understanding of how well these students learned the
subject matter.
3. Assessment Plan
Day 1

Day 6

Day 11

Day 15

Goals Assessed Identify the


value of coins
and bills

Add two or
Use coins and Identify multiple
more coins of bills or sketches ways to show a
different values to model
specific amount
addition of two
amounts

Type

Formal,
diagnostic test
from
curriculum
guide; multiple
choice;
formative

Formal quiz
from the
textbook;
multiple
choice;
formative

Formal quiz
from the
textbook;
multiple
choice;
formative

Purpose

Assess
previous
knowledge and
skills

Assess
acquired
concepts and
skills

Assess
Assess acquired
acquired skills knowledge and
and concepts skills from
instructional unit

Implementation Individual
assessment;
paper and
pencil; teacher
corrects with
an answer key

Individual
assessment;
paper and
pencil; teacher
corrects with
an answer key

Individual
assessment;
paper and
pencil; teacher
corrects with
an answer key

Feedback
Strategies

Tell students of
scores and
inform student
of correct and
incorrect items

Inform
students of
correct and
incorrect items

Inform
Inform students
students of
of correct and
correct and
incorrect items
incorrect items

Informing
Instruction

To determine
what needs to

To determine
who has

To determine
who has

Formal, final
chapter/unit
exam from
textbook;
multiple choice
and fill in the
blank;
summative

Individual
assessment;
paper and
pencil; teacher
corrects with an
answer key

To determine the
achievement

be reviewed
learned the
learned the
level of each
and where to material
material
student towards
begin teaching presented
presented
the goals
B. Questions for Case Study 2
1. Identifying strengths and weaknesses.
(REQUIRED) 1a) Identify one strength in the assessment plan and explain why it is
a strength in relation to the learning goals of this unit.
One strength in the assessment plan is the Goals Assessed section because it meet the
four learning goals. It is a strength because of the way the goals are arranged. The goal
that it meets first is being able to identify the value of coins and bills, meaning that
students learned each coin or bill and its value and should now be able to differentiate
them from one another. The second goal met is being able to add two or more coins of
different values. This a good second goal because students should've already learned to
identify the coins and bills.
(REQUIRED) 1b) Identify one weakness in the assessment plan and explain why it
is a weakness in relation to the learning goals of this unit.
A weakness in the assessment plan is the type of assessment used. All four assessments
are formal assessments directly from the book. This is a weakness because they aren't
being modified to the students needs. Multiple choice assessments aren't the best way to
assess a students knowledge because they can guess on a question and have a twenty five
percent chance of getting it correct. These types of assessment don't offer any feed back
other than if the answer is right or wrong. If a student answer the question wrong may not
know what they did wrong to get that question incorrect.
2. Suppose you found the additional assessment in a supplementary resource. Think about
how the additional assessment could improve the teachers assessment plan.
Additional Assessment
Each student is given a box of plastic coins and bills. The box contains examples of each
type of coin and bill. Students will use various coins and bills to demonstrate the sum of
two given amounts. In addition, students will use coins and bills to show two different
ways to make a given value.
Explain to the teacher how the additional assessment might be used to improve the
assessment plan by answering the following answering the following questions:
(REQUIRED) 2a) When in the plan would you use this assessment?
If I found this additional assessment, I would make it the final assessment. Students
would have to be able to pass the prior assessments to know how to answer what is being
asked in this assessment.
(REQUIRED) 2b) What goals would be assessed by this assessment?

This assessment is assessing all four goals. In this assessment students use actual coins
and bills. Students need to be able to identify all the coins and bills. They would also
need to be able to add two or more coins. Lastly, students would need to be able to
identify multiple ways to show a different amount.
(REQUIRED) 2c) What type of assessment would it be?
This assessment is a summative assessment. Summative assessments are taken after
students have learned the content on the assessment.
(REQUIRED) 2d) What would be the purpose of the assessment?
The purpose of this assessment would be to see if a student can identify all the coins and
bills, add two or more coins or bills, and identify multiple ways to show a different
amount using coin and bills.
(REQUIRED) 2e) How would you implement the assessment?
At the conclusion of the unit, I would assess students individually. This way I can see
what the student has learned and whether or not they need extra practice with the content.
(REQUIRED) 2f) What feedback strategies would you use?
Since I plan to assess each student individually, I will have the opportunity to conference
with the student. I will give them descriptive feedback. Students will know why they got
the problem wrong and how to fix the error.
(REQUIRED) 2g) How would the results of the assessment inform instruction?
The results of this assessment will allow the teacher to decide if they need to reteach the
content or if the class grasped the content. It will also let the teachers know what goals
the students need extra practice in, if any.
(REQUIRED) 3) Explain how using the additional assessment as you described in
question 2 improves the teachers assessment plan and what specific information
would be gained about what the students really know and understand about the
content area, their misconceptions, and their progress toward achieving the learning
goals
This assessment would improve the assessment plan because it is not a formal
assessment. Students have to be able to show they understand the content when solving
the problems. In the other assessments, students can guess and get the answer correct
without having to show any work.
END OF CASE STUDY 2
Case Study 3: Adaptation of Subject-Specific Pedagogy for English Learners

A. Contextual Information for Case Study 3


1. Elements of a Learning Experience for 2 Days in a Unit
Grade: Fourth
Content Area: Science
Subject Matter: Earth Science
Time Period for Whole Unit: Three weeks
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
Earth Science
4. The properties and minerals reflect the processes that formed them. As a basis for
understanding this concept, students know:
a. how to differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks by referring
to their properties and methods of formation (the rock cycle)
b. how to identify common rock-forming minerals (including quartz, calcite, feldspar,
mica, and hornblende) and ore minerals by using a table of diagnostic properties
c. moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places
and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places (weathering, transport,
and deposition)
Learning Goals for Whole Unit
Students will be able to do the following with a focus on Earth science:
o

Identify and classify igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks

Use diagnostic properties to identify rock-forming minerals

Define the following vocabulary: weathering, transport, and deposition

Describe the process of erosion including weathering, transport, and


deposition

Relationship to Preceding and Subsequent Learning Experiences


Science-process skills are important investigation tools, and opportunities for
developing them are provided throughout the unit. Some of the skills, such as
observation and investigation, have been covered in other scientific units and will
again be used in the next unit on ecosystems and living organisms.
2. Outline of Plans for Days 1 and 2
The following outline addresses some of the academic content standards and unit
goals, but it is not expected that the students will achieve them during the two days.
Instructional Strategies

On Day 1, students will be divided into small cooperative groups.


Each group will be assigned one type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or
metamorphic). Groups will identify defining characteristics of their assigned
rock using the science textbook, Internet, and supplementary library
resources.

On Day 2 students lead a discussion by presenting the defining


characteristics of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. The whole
class will create a chart listing the characteristics of each type of rock.
Cooperative groups will be given ten rocks to sort into categories based on
their characteristics. Students will draw an appropriate picture and write a
corresponding paragraph in their science journals about the characteristics
of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Student Activities
o

Read the textbook about rock characteristics. Use library resources,


encyclopedias, or the Internet to research the characteristics of the assigned
type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic).

Participate in a group discussion. Groups generate a list of defining


characteristics of the assigned type of rock.

Groups share findings with the whole class. The class will generate a
chart comparing their characteristics.

Students will draw and write in individual science journals.

Progress Monitoring
o

Teacher will use class discussions, oral presentations, journal writing,


quizzes on scientific terms, and written test to determine level of learning.

Students will receive written and oral feedback from the teacher and oral
feedback from peers.

3. Student Description
Guillermo is a 10-year-old fourth-grade English learner. He is from Guatemala and
lives with a single mother, three younger brothers, and a younger sister. His mother
works long hours and is often not home when he returns from school. His extended
family in the United States includes aunts, uncles, and cousins. His grandparents
live in Guatemala. Guillermos family immigrated to the United States three years

ago. His oral Spanish is fluent, but he is unable to read or write in Spanish.
Guillermo reads English two years below grade level. He has difficulty using correct
grammar when writing or speaking. Guillermo is somewhat shy socially but is well
liked and works well in small groups. He is seldom absent from school. The CELDT
results indicate an overall score in the early intermediate range, and he has been
identified as an English learner.
Written Response to: What is your favorite family day?
A Special Family Celebration
My grandparents have special celebration. They have married 45 year. My mother,
my brothers and sister and me make long trip to Guatemala to celebrate. We carry a
special gift it is a picture of all family. My tio, tia and primos going to. We like to
visit our grandparents and especial celebration. Our family cooks special food of
Guatemala for celebration. I remember we all had good time together. I miss my
abuelita and abuelito. That is the name we say for grandparent in my country. The
celebration is fun we see friends and play. My grandparents very happy. I want to
stay in Guatemala but my Mom say we come back to America.
Transcript of Oral Response to: Tell me about your soccer game.
I like to play soccer. Saturday I go to field to play with friends. We put uniform on
for games. I play center field and goal. It is fun to hit ball. My brothers play. I like it.
B. Questions for Case Study 3
(REQUIRED) 1) Identify two specific learning needs the student has as an English
learner, based on the student description and the responses.
Based on the description given, the two specific learning needs Guillermo has are in
reading and grammar. The description says that he is reading two years below grade
level. It also states that he has a difficult time using correct grammar when writing and
speaking.
(REQUIRED) 2a) Identify one instructional strategy or student activity from the
outline of plans that could be challenging for the student.
One of the student activities in the outline plans I believe will be difficult for Guillermo is
the reading. He is going to have a difficult time reading his science textbook about rock
characteristics. He may also have a difficult time reading encyclopedias or research from
the Internet about the characteristics of the assigned type of rock.
(REQUIRED) 2b) Explain why the strategy or activity you chose could be
challenging to the student. Use your knowledge of English learners and your
analysis of the students learning needs in your explanation.
The reading student activity is going to be difficult because he is reading two levels
below grade level. The lexile level of the material will be too difficult for him to

comprehend. Since he will have to write about the reading he needs to be able to
understand what he is reading.
(REQUIRED) 3a) Describe how you would adapt the strategy or activity you
identified above to meet the learning needs of the student. Consider specific subject
matter pedagogy when writing your description.
In order for Guillermo to have success with the activity I would have him work in a small
group. The description stated that he works well in groups. I would make sure that the
group reads their books and other resources together. I will provide the group with an
iPad so they can use it to find pictures of the different types of rocks. I will provide
Guillermo with sentence frames to help state complete oral responses during the
discussion time.
(REQUIRED) 3b) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the student in
making progress toward the learning goals of the lesson.
(In your explanation of the adaptation, refer to specific aspects of the student
description and to the samples of proficiency in English.)
My adaptation would be effective for Guillermo because he will be able to hear the
information being read correctly by his peers. Working in groups will allow other
students to explain the information to him. The iPad will help him visualize the
characteristics of each type of rock. Working in groups is effective because it gets the
students to socialize with their peers. The sentence will help him write complete
sentences and state complete oral responses.
(REQUIRED) 3c) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the student in
making progress toward English language development.
(In your explanation of the adaptation, refer to specific aspects of the student
description and to the samples of proficiency in English.)
My adaptations will be effective in his English Language Development because he will
be socializing with his peers when answering the question. He will also be listening to
them reading and learning how to read words correctly. Lastly, correct grammar will be
model for him through the use of sentence frame, which he can use in his writing and
speaking.
(REQUIRED) 4a) Which progress monitoring assessment based on the lesson plan
would you choose to monitor this students progress toward achieving the learning
goal(s)?
In order to monitor Guillermo's progress the assessment I would use would be oral
presentations and class discussions.

(REQUIRED) 4b) Give a rationale for your choice of progress monitoring


assessment. Use knowledge of content in this unit, and this students English
language abilities in your rationale.
When developing students English you want to get the student to talk in English as much
as they can. You need to try to get the student to use as much English as possible. Since
Guillermo is socially shy, class discussion will be effective because I can have him in a
small group. He works well in small groups. He will be willing to socialize with his peers
and use English. Finally, the sentence frames will sample proper English for him.
(REQUIRED) 5) Based on what you learned about this students English
proficiency, what would be your next steps in planning to facilitate his English
language development?
Consider specific information from the student description and his written and oral
language samples when responding.
The next step in his English Language Development would be to work on his phonemic
awareness. This will help him become a better reader. Reading definitely helps English
Learners develop their English skills. The better he gets at reading the more he will be
able to comprehend. He was also having a better understanding of grammar, which will
also improve his writing.
END OF CASE STUDY 3
Case Study 4: Adaptation of Subject-Specific Pedagogy for Students with Special Needs
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 4
1. Elements of a Learning Experience for 3 Days in a Unit
Grade: Fifth
Content Area: History/Social Science
Subject Matter: American Revolution
Time Period for Whole Unit: Three weeks
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
United States History and Geography: Making a New Nation
5.6 Students understand the course and consequences of the American Revolution.
1. Identify and map the majority of military battles, campaigns, and turning points
of the Revolutionary War, the roles of the American and British leaders, and the
Indian leaders alliances on both sides.
4. Understand the personal impact and economic hardship of the war on families,
problems of financing the war, wartime inflation, and laws against hoarding goods
and materials and profiteering.
5. Explain how state constitutions that were established after 1776 embodied the
ideals of the American Revolution and helped serve as models for the United States
Constitution.

Learning Goals for Whole Unit


Students will be able to do the following with a focus on the American Revolution
o

Locate the major military battles on a map of pre-Revolutionary


America

Identify the turning points of the American Revolution

Describe the roles of the American, British, and Indian leaders


involved in the American Revolution

Compare state constitutions created after 1776 to the United States


Constitution

Relationship to Preceding and Subsequent Learning Experiences


The American Revolutionary War will be covered in a manner similar to other
historical events. Events are being studied in chronological order. Map-reading
skills were covered during the study of other historical events. Following this unit,
students will study the United States Constitution more in depth.
2. Outline of Plans for Days 3, 4, and 5
The following outline addresses some of the academic content standards and unit
goals, but it is not expected that the students will achieve them during the three
days.
Instructional Strategies
o

On Day 3 the teacher will present information about what life was like
for a 12-year-old boy or girl during pre-Revolutionary time by reading aloud
text from biographies and other primary sources. As a whole class, students
will create a chart to list the defining characteristics of life during preRevolutionary War time. Students will write a journal entry to compare their
own life with the life of children who lived in the pre-Revolutionary War
time.

On Day 4 the teacher will ask students to work in small cooperative


groups to read biographies and other primary sources about what life was
like for a 12 year-old boy or girl during the Revolutionary War. The small
groups will generate a list of five characteristics that they will then share with
the whole class. The whole class will create a chart that lists the defining
characteristics of life during Revolutionary War time. Then students will use
the class-generated charts to individually complete a Venn diagram
comparing the defining characteristics of life during pre-Revolutionary

On Day 5 students will work in small cooperative groups. Each group


will choose one change in life between pre-Revolutionary War time and
Revolutionary War time. Then the group will use primary resources, the
textbook, the Internet, and other resources to draw conclusions about what
led to this particular change. The groups will then present these causes to the
whole class. Then students will individually write an essay that explains three
causes of lifestyle changes for a 12 year-old boy or girl between preRevolutionary and Revolutionary War times.

Student Activities
o

Students will listen to excerpts from biographies and other primary


sources. They will participate in class discussions and help to create a chart
listing defining characteristics of life during the pre-Revolutionary War
times. Students will individually complete a written journal.

Students will work in small cooperative groups to create a chart


listing defining characteristics of life during Revolutionary War times. Then
students will work as a whole class to generate a complete list of
characteristics. Students will individually complete a Venn diagram
comparing the two lists of characteristics.

Students will work in groups to identify the causes of one change in


lifestyle between the pre-Revolutionary War time and Revolutionary War
time. The cooperative groups will present to the whole class. Students will
individually write an essay that demonstrates their understanding of what
aspects of life changed between pre-Revolutionary and Revolutionary times.

Progress Monitoring
o

To monitor student progress, the teacher will use class discussions,


written reflections, cooperative group work, and presentations.

Students will receive written and oral feedback, peer review, and
feedback on group work, as well as individual conferencing with the teacher
when needed.

3. Student Description
Julie is an 11 year-old girl in the fifth grade. She has difficulty focusing, which has
an impact on her ability to complete course work and classroom activities. In the
first grade, Julie was diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by her

family physician. She receives prescribed medication three times per day for ADHD.
During first grade, an Individualized Education Plan was developed to meet Julies
needs. Since then, Julie has been receiving special education support primarily in
the regular education classroom. She is included and participates in all general
education curriculum. The special education teacher provides two hours of in-class
support. She is able to independently read text at grade level. She struggles with
both written and oral communication skills and is currently performing at a secondgrade level. She often tries to dominate whole-class discussions and group learning
situations. On the playground, she attempts to dominate games, and she struggles
with organization. Her peers are often frustrated by her behavior.
B. Questions for Case Study 4
(REQUIRED) 1a) Identify one instructional strategy or student activity from the
outline of plans that could be challenging for the student, considering the
description of the students learning disability.
One instructional strategy in the outline plans that will be challenging for Julie is working
in a small cooperative group to create a chart listing defining characteristics during
Revolutionary War times.
(REQUIRED) 1b) Explain why the strategy or activity you chose could be
challenging for the student, based on specific aspects of the student description.
According to the description, she struggles with her written and oral communication.
When working in groups, the student has to be able to voice their opinion with their
peers. Her oral communications skills are at a second grade level. It also states that she
tends to try to dominate group-learning situations. In order to for group work to be
effective, she needs to participate cooperatively with her peers. The way she behaves
often frustrates her peers.
(REQUIRED) 1c) Describe how you would adapt the strategy or activity you
identified to meet the needs of the student.
I would adapt this strategy by assigning each student in the group a responsibility. I
would have Julie be the writer. She would get to write out the list for her group. Every
student would have a different responsibility. I would also set expectations on how
students have to behave during group work.
(REQUIRED) 1d) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the student in
making progress toward achieving the learning goal(s) of this unit.
By assigning the student the writing responsibility, the student gets a sense of entitlement.
Julie seems very controlling; having her be the groups writer allows her to be in control
in some part of the group work. She will also realize she has to participate cooperatively
because her peers will help her make the list. It's important those students are given

expectation for their behavior. This way they are given an example of how they are
expected to behave.
(REQUIRED) 2a) Identify one additional instructional strategy or student activity
from the lesson plan that could be challenging for the student, considering the
students other learning needs.
Another student activity that I think will be difficult for Julie will be individually writing
an essay that demonstrates her understanding of what aspects of life changed between
pre-Revolutionary and Revolutionary times.

(REQUIRED) 2b) Explain why the strategy or activity you chose could be
challenging for the student, based on specific aspects of the student description.
This would be a difficult task because she is currently writing at a second grade level.
Although she would be able to read all the text, she would have a difficult time explain
her understandings.
(REQUIRED) 2c) Describe how you would adapt the strategy or activity you
identified to meet the needs of the student.
I would adapt this activity by having her work one on one with her special education
teacher to make a thinking map about what aspects of life changed between preRevolutionary and Revolutionary times. She will then be able to use the map when she
does her writing. I would also provide her with an outline with sentence starters that
guide her in writing her understanding.
(REQUIRED) 2d) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the student in
making progress toward achieving the learning goal(s) of this unit.
These adaptations would be effective because they offer her help with organizing her
thoughts. According to the student description she lacks organization skills. These
adaptation will help her make progress towards achieving the learning goals of the unit
because while she does research about what aspects of life changed between preRevolutionary and Revolutionary times, she will learn about major military battles and
roles of the American, British, and Indian Leaders involved in the American Revolution.
(REQUIRED) 3a) What progress monitoring assessment would you choose to obtain
evidence of the students progress toward one or more learning goal(s)?
The progress monitoring assessment I would use to obtain evidence of Julie's progress
would be cooperative group work.

(REQUIRED) 3b) Give a rationale for your choice of assessment. Use your
knowledge of academic content in this unit, and this students learning needs in your
rationale.
During cooperative group work students have to come to an agreement on the five
characteristics of life during the Revolutionary time period. In order to get their peers to
agree they have to provide reasoning. This would be a good time to see what she
knows. Since Julie has an IEP she has different goals she has to meet. Her goals might
not be the same as the other students. The plan might want her to work on her social skills
during group work. Therefore I think cooperative group work would be a good way to
assess her.
END OF CASE STUDY 4