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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

1. SYNOPSIS
A Power System consists of various electrical components such as Generating units,
transformers (Power and Distribution), transmission lines, isolators, circuit breakers, bus bars,
cables, relays, instrument transformers, distribution feeders, and various types of loads.
Faults may occur in any part of power system such as short circuit & earth fault. Faults may
be of the following types-Single Line to Ground (SLG), Double Line to Ground (DLG), Line to
Line (LL), three phase short circuit etc. This results in flow of heavy fault current through the
system. Fault level also depends on the fault impedance which depends on the location of fault
referred from the source side. To calculate fault level at various points in the power system, fault
analysis is necessary.
The protection system operates and isolates the faulty section. The operation of the protection
system should be fast and selective i.e. it should isolate only the faulty section in the shortest
possible time causing minimum disturbance to the system. Also, if main protection fails to
operate, there should be a backup protection for which proper relay co-ordination is necessary.
The scope of the project is
1. To study and analyze a part of power system in Tata Motors Ltd. with respect to fault
analysis at different fault locations and verifying the short time current withstand capacity of the
protective devices placed in the system.
2. To study and ensure the Relay Co-ordination in the part of power system.
3. To analyze the effect of addition of 54.35 MW captive generation plant on the fault level.

2. INTRODUCTION
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

A power system consists of Generating Units, Transformers (Power and Distribution) and
Transmission lines. The system must be protected against flow of heavy short circuit currents
which cause permanent damage to the equipments if not cleared within sustainable time. For
this purpose circuit breakers and protective relaying is provided to disconnect the faulty section
of the system. Switchgear and protection devices are installed at each voltage level for normal
routine switching, control and monitoring and automatic switching during abnormal conditions
like short circuits, over current etc.
Short circuit currents in ac system are determined mainly by reactance of generators,
transformers and lines up to the point of fault in case of phase to phase faults. In case of circuit
breakers, their rupturing capacities are based on symmetrical short circuit current which is the
most severe amongst all other types of fault currents. So we are going to consider three phase
symmetrical short circuit fault for fault analysis of the power system. [1]
The power system in Tata Motors Ltd. consists of supply from MSEDCL and its own Captive
Power Plant. The Captive Power Plant is run during load shedding exercise to maintain
continuous supply. Captive power is supplied by OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House which in
all consists of 11generators. Out of these 11 generators- 8 generators are of OLD-DG House, of
which 6 are of 2.5 MW and remaining 2 are of 2.2 MW, 3 generators are of MAN-DG House
each of 11.65 MW each. Thus the Captive Power Plant in all contributes 54.35 MW.
For short circuit analysis we assume three phase short circuit faults at different voltage levels
and locations. Three phase short circuit faults are most severe faults and give pessimistic results.
As per IS Standards 10% overvoltage is permitted during normal condition. So while calculating
fault levels we consider that the faults occur at 10% overvoltage, to avoid any risk to the
protective gear as well as the equipment.
Faults in a particular section are cleared by its protective switchgear .i.e. its primary
protective switchgear, failing which the back-up protection should act. The back-up protection
should not act prior to primary protection but also within sustainable time. For achieving this,
proper relay co-ordination is necessary.

3. POWER SYSTEM
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

3.1 Single Line Diagram:A complete diagram of power system representing all the three phases becomes too
complicated and cumbersome for a system of practical size. Hence it is much more practical to
represent a power system by means of simple symbols for each component. This representation
is called a single line diagram.
In this diagram, generator and load are represented by a circle, transformer is represented by a
primary and secondary coil, circuit breaker is represented by a square, transmission line by single
horizontal line and bus-bar by single vertical line. Generator and transformer connections such as
star, delta and neutral earthing are indicated by a symbol drawn by the side of their
representation. Ratings of the generators, transformers and motor are mentioned below the
diagram. [2]
Consider a power system shown in the figure:-

Fig. 1 Typical Single Line Diagram of Power System

3.2 Working of Power System:3.2.1 Normal Condition:3

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Power is generated by generator, acting as a source, within the range of 11kV to 25 kV. This
voltage is stepped-up with the help of step-up transformer (T 1) up to 66 kV to 765 kV or higher
to reduce transmission losses. This power is transmitted over the transmission lines .This voltage
is stepped down to a level, as desired by the load, with help of step-down transformer (T 2). [1]
3.2.2 Abnormal Condition:Abnormal condition or fault is nothing but a defect in electrical circuit of an electrical
equipment due to which current is diverted from intended path. As the fault impedance is low,
fault currents are relatively high. During faults, power flow is diverted towards the fault and the
supply to the neighboring zone is affected. In order to isolate the faulty section from the healthy
part and to maintain continuity of supply, circuit breakers are employed in power system. [1]

3.3 Need for Protection of Power System:Modern power systems are growing with more generators, transformers and large network in
the systems. For system protection, a high degree of reliability is required. In order to protect the
system from damage, due to fault currents and/or abnormal voltages caused by faults, need for
reliable protective devices, such as relays and circuit breakers arises. The most common
electrical hazard against which protection is needed is the short circuit. Also protection is
required against overloads, over-voltage, under-voltage, open-phase, power swings, under and
over-frequency, instability etc. [2]
Faults:A fault in electrical equipment is defined as a defect in the electrical circuit due to which
current is diverted from intended path. The fault impedance is low so fault currents are relatively
high. In an electrical power system comprising of generator, transformer, transmission lines, load
and switchgear, faults are inevitable.
Causes:Sr.

Equipment

Cause of Fault

No.

Percent of Total
Fault

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

1.

Alternators
(Generators)

2.

Transformers

3.

Current Transformers
&
Potential Transformers

4.

Switchgear

--Stator Faults
--Rotor Faults
--Faults in associated equipments
--Faults in protective system
--Insulation Failure
--Faults in tap changer
--Faults in bushing
--Faults in protection circuit
--Overloading, over-voltage
--Over-voltages
--Insulation failures
--Breaking of conductors
--Wrong connections
--Insulation failure
--Mechanical defect
--Leakage of air/oil/gas
--Inadequate ratings
--Lack of maintenance

6-8

10 12

15 20

10 - 12

Table1. Faults and Percent Contribution

Effects:The nature of faults simply implies any abnormal condition which causes a reduction in basic
insulation strength between conductors. Faults in certain important equipment can affect stability
of power system. During fault voltages of three phases become unbalanced. For example, if a
fault occurs in a motor, the motor winding is likely to get damaged. Further if motor is not
disconnected quickly, excessive fault currents can cause damage to starting equipment, supply
connections etc. A fault in bus zone of power station can cause tripping of all generator units in
power station. [1]
To avoid these severe effects due to faults we need to protect the power system with the help
of switchgear protective devices viz. relays, circuit breakers, lightning arrestors etc.

3.4 Types of Fault:3.4.1 Symmetrical Faults:A fault involving all three phases is known as a symmetrical (balanced) fault.
Types of symmetrical faults:A) All three phases to ground (L-L-L-G)
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

B) All three phases short circuited (L-L-L)


This type of fault occurs infrequently. It is an important type of fault with simple calculations
and pessimistic answers .This type of fault imposes the most severe duty on circuit breakers and
therefore used in the determination of circuit breaker ratings.
3.4.2 Unsymmetrical Faults:A fault involving one or two phases is known as an unsymmetrical (unbalanced) fault.
Types of unsymmetrical faults:1) Single phase to ground (L-G)
2) Phase to phase (L-L)
3) Two phases to ground (L-L-G)
4) Phase to phase and third phase to ground
These types of faults occur usually in the power system. [1]

3.5 Protection:Practical power system consists of large number of generators, transformers and load
connected in a complex network. No part of the power system can be left unprotected. For a
system to operate a high degree of reliability is required. In order to protect the system (lines and
equipments) from damage due to fault currents and/or abnormal voltages caused by faults, the
need for reliable protective devices, such as relays and circuit breakers arises. Choice of
protection depends upon type and rating of protected equipment, its importance, location,
probable abnormal conditions, costs etc.
Following are the conditions for which protection is required:A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.

Short Circuit
Overload
Under-voltage and Over-voltage
Open Phase
Unbalanced Phase Currents
Reversal of Power
Under-frequency and Over-frequency
Over-temperature
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

I. Power Swings
J. Instability
The occurrence of short circuits may lead to heavy disturbances in normal operation (damage
to equipment, impermissible drop in voltage etc.). The protective scheme is designed to
disconnect or isolate the faulty section from the system without any delay.
Main functions of protection are to detect the presence of faults and their locations. The
protective devices should initiate the action for quick removal from service of any element in
case of short circuit or in abnormal condition which may hamper the effective operation of the
rest of the system. [2]
The components usually used for protection of system are relays, circuit breakers, isolators,
instrument transformers etc.

Basic circuit diagram of protective scheme:-

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

1- Circuit Breaker
2- Relay
3- Trip Coil of Circuit Breaker
4- Trip Circuit
5- Battery
6- Relay Contacts
7- Potential Transformer
8- Current Transformer
9- Auxiliary Switch Contacts
Fig.2 Basic Circuit Diagram of Protective Scheme
[1]

3.5.1 Working of Protective Scheme:Figure-2 shows basic connections of circuit


breaker control for the opening operation. The protected circuit X is shown by dashed line. When
a fault occurs in the protected circuit the relay (2) connected to CT and PT actuates and closes its
contacts (6).
Current flows from battery (5) in the trip circuit (4). As the trip coil of circuit breaker (3)
is energized, the circuit breaker operating mechanism is actuated and it operates for the opening
operation.
Thus the fault is sensed and the trip circuit is actuated by the relay and the faulty part is
isolated. [1]

3.6 Protective Relaying:The protective relaying of a power system is planned along with the system design.
Protective relaying senses the abnormal condition in a part of power system and gives an alarm
or isolates that part from healthy system. Protective relaying is a team work of CT, PT, protective
relays, time delay relays, trip circuits, circuit breakers etc. Protective relaying plays an important
role in minimizing the faults and also in minimizing the damage in the event of faults.[3]

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

3.6.1 Functions of protective relaying:A) To sound an alarm or to close the trip circuit of a circuit breaker so as to disconnect a
Component during an abnormal condition in the component.
B) To disconnect the abnormally operating part so as to prevent subsequent faults. For e.g.
Overload protection of a machine not only protects the machine but also prevents
Insulation failure.
C) To disconnect the faulty part quickly so as to minimize the damage to the faulty part.
For example - If machine is disconnected immediately after a winding fault, only a few
Coils may need replacement. But if the fault is sustained, the entire winding may get
Damaged and machine may be beyond repairs.
D) To localize the effect of fault by disconnecting the faulty part from healthy part, causing
Least disturbance to the healthy system.
E)
To disconnect the faulty part quickly so as to improve system stability, service continuity
And system performance. Transient stability can be improved by means of improved
Protective relaying. [1]
3.6.2 Desirable qualities of protective relaying:A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Selectivity, Discrimination
Sensitivity, Power consumption
Reliability
Adequateness
Speed, Time

F) Stability
G) System Security

3.7 Primary and Back-up Protection:For attaining higher reliability, quick action and improvements in operating flexibility of the
protection schemes, separate elements of a power system , in addition to main or primary
protection , are provided with a back-up and auxiliary protection.
First in line of defense is main protection which ensures quick action and selective clearing of
faults within the boundary of the circuit section or the element it protects. Main protection is
essentially provided as a rule.
Back up protection gives back up to the main protection, when the main protection fails to
operate or is cut out for repairs etc.
Failure of the main protection may be due to any of the following reasons:A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

D.C supply to the tripping circuit fails


Current or voltage supply to the relay fails
Tripping mechanism of the circuit breaker fails
Circuit breaker fails to operate
Main protective relay fails
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Back up protection may be provided either on the same circuit breakers which will be opened by
the main protection or may use different circuit breakers. Usually, more than the faulty section is
isolated when the backup protection operates. Very often the main protection of a circuit acts as
back up protection for the adjacent circuit. Back up protection is provided where main protection
of the adjacent circuit fails to back up the given circuit. For simplification, back up protection
can have a lower sensitivity factor and be operative over a limited back up zone i.e. be operative
for only part of the protected circuit.
Methods of back up protection can be classified as follows:A)
B)
C)
D)

Relay Back-up
Breaker Back-up
Remote Back-up
Centrally Co-ordinated Back-up

Back-up protection by Time Grading principle:-

Fig.3 Primary and Back-up Protection by Time Grading Principle

In this, current is measured at various points along the current path, for e.g., at source,
intermediate locations, consumers end. The tripping time at these locations are graded in such a
way that the circuit breaker nearest to the faulty section operates first, giving primary protection.
The circuit breaker at the previous section operates only as a back-up.
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

In Fig.3 the tripping time at sections C, B and A are graded such that for a fault beyond C,
breaker at C operates as a primary protection. Relays at A and B also may start operating but they
are provided with enough time lags so that breaker at B operates only if breaker at C does not.
Thus, for a fault beyond C, breaker at C will operate after 0.1 second. If it fails to operate, the
breaker at B will operate after 0.6 second (Back-up for C) and if the breaker at B also fails to
operate, breaker at A will operate after 1 second (Back-up for B and C).[1]

3.8 Instrument Transformers:The values of voltage or current in a power circuit are too high to permit convenient direct
connection of measuring instruments or relays, so coupling is made through instrument
transformers. These instrument transformers are required to produce scale down replica of the
input quantity to the accuracy expected for particular operation. The performance of instrument
transformers during and following large instantaneous changes in input quantity is important, in
that this quantity may depart from sinusoidal waveform. This deviation may persist for an
appreciable period. The resulting effect on instrument performance is usually negligible,
although for precision metering, a persistent change in accuracy of transformer may be
significant.
As many protective systems are required to operate in a time shorter than period of transient
disturbance in the output of instrument transformers following a system fault. The errors in
instrument transformers may abnormally delay the operation of protection or cause unnecessary
operation. So the functioning of these transformers must be examined analytically.
If the primary is energized while the secondary winding is open circuited and transformer will
become, an iron-cored inductor and will present relatively high impedance. A current will flow
and voltage drop will develop across the winding in proportion to its impedance. The current will
be entirely expended in magnetizing the core. The voltage drop in primary winding is because of
11

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

the e.m.f induced due to flux and e.m.f induced in secondary winding. If the circuit of the
secondary winding is closed through impedance, a proportionate current will flow; this current
produces m.m.f which opposes the flux. The tendency of the flux to be reduced by
demagnetizing force combined with corresponding reduction in primary back e.m.f causes
increase in primary current. If primary winding is lossless and the applied voltage is constant, the
flux will be maintained at initial value and increase in primary m.m.f would be identical to that
of secondary winding. [3]

3.8.1 Current Transformers:Current Transformers are connected in AC power circuits for indication and metering
purposes and for protective relays.
Current transformer basically consists of an iron-core on which primary and one or two
secondary windings are wound. Primary winding of CT is connected in series with load and
carries actual power system current (normal and fault) while secondary is connected to
measuring circuit or relay. Primary winding is usually single turn winding and number of turns
on the secondary winding depend upon the current to be carried by power circuit. Larger the
current, more is the number of turns on secondary.
Ratio of primary current to secondary current is known as transformation ratio of CT. Current
ratio of CT is usually high. Secondary current ratings are of order of 5 A, 1A and 0.1A. Primary
current ratings vary from 10A to 3000A or more. The current in secondary winding of CT is
governed by current flowing in the primary winding of CT and not by load impedance on
secondary.
3.8.2 Potential Transformers:Potential transformers are employed for voltages above 380V to feed potential coils of
indicating, measuring instruments and protective relays.
The primary winding of PT is connected directly to power circuits. To the secondary winding
various indicating metering instruments and relays are connected. Primary has large number of
turns while secondary has a much smaller number of turns. The primaries of PT are rated from

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

400 volts to several thousand volts and the secondary always for 110 volts. The ratio of rated
primary voltage to rated secondary voltage is known as transformation ratio. [3]

4. RELAYS AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS


4.1 Relays
In a modern power system to have a normal operation of the system, without electrical
failure and damage to the equipment, there are two alternatives available- one is to design the
system so that faults do not occur; second is to take steps to protect the equipments from the illeffects of faults. As it is impossible to eliminate faults, the latter alternative is the only
alternative. Protective relay functions as a sensing device in a protection scheme, it senses the
fault, then determines its location and finally, sends tripping signal to the circuit breaker and the
circuit breaker disconnects the faulty part. So, the protective relay is the brain behind the
protection scheme and plays a vital role. Lesser the time required for clearing the fault, lesser is
the damage incurred.
To achieve all the above mentioned objectives, proper care should be taken in designing
and selecting an appropriate relay which must be reliable, efficient and fast in operation. The
relay should be sensitive enough to distinguish between normal and abnormal (faulty)
conditions.
4.1.1 Classification of Relays:
A) Attracted Armature
B) Moving Coil
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)

Induction
Thermal
Motor Operated
Mechanical
Magnetic Amplifier
Thermionic
Semiconductor
Photo-electric

4.1.2 Induction Relay:The basic principle of induction motors is applied to relays designed to operate on the
induction principle. The moving conductor is placed in the two magnetic fields, displaced both in
time and phase, and produces the required torque. The two fields are derived from a single
quantity by energizing two electromagnets with the required phase shift. Another arrangement
can be that of energizing two magnets by separate sources. In both the cases, the torque
generated is given by:
T= K 1 2 sin
Where

(i)

T = torque

1, 2 = flux produced in the two electromagnets


Principle of Working:-

14

and = angle between 1 and 2

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 4 Induction Relay

In this arrangement, a U-shaped electromagnet and E-shaped electromagnet are used with a
disc free to rotate in between. A phase displacement between the fluxes produced by two
magnets is obtained by energizing two circuits whose outputs are relatively displaced in-phase.
The E-shaped electromagnet carries two windings; the primary and the secondary. The
primary winding carries relay current I1 while secondary winding is connected to the U-shaped
electromagnet. The primary current induces e.m.f in secondary and so circulates I 2 in it. The flux
2 induced in U-shaped magnet by current in secondary winding of E-shaped magnet will lag
behind flux1 by an angle . The current generates a flux across the air gap which passes through
an aluminum disc placed in the air gap. This phase difference will develop a driving torque on
the disc given by equation (i).
This design is generally applied to over-current and over-voltage relays. The restraining force
is achieved by a spiral spring, the force of which must be overcome by the driving torque before
any operation can begin; this determines the setting or minimum operating current of the relay.
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

The disc is further controlled by a permanent magnet which produces an eddy current braking
torque, this torque being proportional to the speed at which the disc rotates.
Braking:It is important that the motion of the disc shall be limited to correct amount, proportional to
energizing current and its duration; that is, due to kinetic energy, after current cessation must be
as small as possible. The energy is minimized by keeping the disc weight low, using aluminum as
constructional material. In addition the operating and braking torques are made high so that
stored energy is quickly dissipated.
Plug Settings:One of the windings of the upper electromagnet is connected to secondary of CT in the line to
be protected and is tapped at intervals. The tappings are connected to a plug setting bridge by
which the number of turns in use can be adjusted, by giving the desired current settings. The plug
bridge is usually arranged to give seven sections of tappings to give over-current range from 50%
to 200% in steps of 25%. If the relay is required to response for earth fault, steps are arranged to
give a range from 10% to 70% or 20% to 80% in steps of 10%. The value assigned to each tap
are expressed in terms of full-load rating of CT with which the relay is associated and presents a
value above which the disc commences to rotate and finally closes the trip circuit. Thus pick-up
current equals the rated secondary current of CT multiplied by current setting.
For e.g.:- Suppose that an over-current relay having a setting of 50% is connected to a supply
circuit through CT of 500/5 A. The rated secondary current of CT is 5A and therefore pick-up
value will be 1.5 X 5 = 7.5 A. It means that with above current setting, the relay will actually
operate for a relay current equal to or greater than 7.5 A. Similarly for current settings of 50, 100
and 200%, the relay will operate for relay currents of 2.5 A, 5 A and 10 A respectively. The taps
are selected by inserting a single pin plug in appropriate position on a plug setting bridge.
When the pin is withdrawn for the purpose of changing the setting value, relay automatically
adopts higher setting, thus the CTs secondary is not open circuited.
Time Setting Multiplier:16

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

In order to apply the relay in the power system it is necessary to be able to modify the time
scale of time-current characteristic. This can be achieved by control of amount of disc
movement, since operating time is proportional to such movement at any given current value.
The spring torque varies over angle of disc travel, so that the disc speed would vary and the time
characteristic would change in shape for different values of d. To avoid this, disc is given a noncircular shape, so that the radius measured through electromagnet pole increases as the disc is
rotated from start to contact make position. The increase in radius provided disc currents with a
wider path and hence causes the driving torque to increase, the amount of this change is
proportional to spring rate. This compensation makes possible the calibration of time adjustment
as a multiplier for use with a single characteristic curve, over a wide range.
The time multiplier setting (TMS) decides arc length through which disc travels, by reducing
length of travel, operating time is reduced. TMS is calibrated from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.05. These
figures do not represent actual operating time. These are multipliers to be used to convert the
time known from the relay nameplate curve (time-PSM curve) into the actual operating time.
For e.g.:- If time setting is 0.2 and operating time obtained from time-PSM curve of relay is 5
seconds, then actual operating time of relay will be equal to 0.2 X 5 = 1 second.
When the relay picks-up the spring unwinds and the disc rotates to close the contacts. The
time multiplier settings are used to wind and unwind the spring. If more time of operation of
relay is needed, the spring is wound more. More the driving torque, lesser will be the time
required to operate. So the relay has inverse-time characteristics.
A set of typical time-current characteristics of an over-current induction disc relay is shown in
fig4. The horizontal scale is marked in terms of plug setting multiplier. It represents the number
of times the relay current is in excess of current setting. The vertical scale is marked in terms of
the time required for relay operation. The abscissa is taken as multiple of pick-up value so that
the same curves can be used for any value of pick-up i.e. if the curves are known for pick-up
value of 5A then the characteristics remain same for 2.5 A, 6.25 A, 7.5 A, 10 A or any other pickup value.

17

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

These curves are normally plotted on log-log graph papers as shown in fig 4. The advantage
of this is that if the characteristic for one particular pick-up value and one time multiplier setting
is known then characteristics can be obtained for any other pick-up value and time multiplier
setting.
The curves are used to estimate not only the operating time of relay for a given multiple of
pick-up value and time multiplier setting but also it is possible to know how far the relay moving
contacts would have travelled towards fixed contacts within any time interval. This method is
also useful in finding out whether the relay will pick-up and how long it will take for the relay
operation when the actuating activity is changing during the in-rush current period of starting a
motor.[1]

18

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 5 Current-Time Characteristics of an Over-Current Induction Disc Relay

19

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 6 CDG Over-Current Induction Disc Relay (Inverse) Type

20

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

4.1.3 Static relaysA static relay refers to a relay in which there is no armature or other moving element and
response is developed by electronic, magnetic or other components without mechanical motion.
The solid state components used are transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and thyristors etc.
Measurement is carried out by static circuits consisting of comparators, level detectors, filters
etc., while in a conventional electro-magnetic relay it is done by comparing operating torque (or
force) with restraining torque (or force).Static relays can be arranged to respond to electrical
inputs. However, other types of inputs such as heat, light, magnetic field, travelling waves etc.,
can be suitably converted into equivalent analogue or digital signals and then supplied to the
static relay.
Operating Principle:-

Fig. 7 Block Diagram of a Static Relay

Static Relays consists of Input Stage and Output Stage.


Input Stage:The input is derived from line CT and PT. The output of these CT and PT are not suitable for
static components so they are brought down to suitable level by auxiliary CT and PT. Then aux
CT output is given to rectifier, which rectifies the input. This is then smoothened by smoothening
circuit to remove the ripple. The smoothened and ripple free output is given to comparator. The
comparator compares the inputs and generates error signal which is given to level detector. The
level detector determines its input level with respect to its predetermined setting and gives output
only if input is greater than threshold value. The output of level detector is then amplified by

21

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

amplifier to strengthen the weak signal. The amplifier output is then given to output device. Time
delay can be introduced between two level detectors if needed.
Output Stage:Output stage of static relays consists of either permanent magnet moving coil relay (PMMC)
or thyristors in series with trip coil of circuit breaker.
4.1.4 Microprocessor Based Relays & Numerical Relays:-

Fig. 8 Microprocessor based Relay

The increased growth of power system both in size and complexity has brought about the
need for fast and reliable relays to protect major equipments and to maintain system stability.
The conventional protective relays are either electromagnetic or static type. Electromagnetic
relays suffer from high burden on instrument transformers, high operating time, contact problems
etc. Though static relays have certain advantages such as compactness, low burden, less
maintenance and high speed over electromagnetic relays but they do suffer from inflexibility,
inadaptability to changing operating conditions of system and its complexity.
With the development of economically powerful and sophisticated microprocessors, there is a
growing interest in developing microprocessor-based relays which are more flexible as they are
programmable and they are very much superior to static relays and conventional electromagnetic
relays.

22

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Operation:A current signal from CT is converted into proportional voltage signal using I to V converter.
The ac voltage proportional to load current is converted into dc using precision rectifier and is
given to multiplexer (MUX) which accepts more than one input and gives one output.
Microprocessor sends command signal to the multiplexer to switch on desired channel to accept
rectified voltage proportional to current in a desired circuit. Output of MUX is fed to analog to
digital converter (ADC) to obtain signal in digital form. Microprocessor then sends a signal ADC
for start of conversion (SOC), examines whether the conversion is completed and on receipt of
end of conversion (EOC) from ADC, receives the data in digital form. The microprocessor then
compares the data with pick-up value. If the input is greater than pick-up value the
microprocessor send a trip signal to circuit breaker of the desired circuit.
Incase of instantaneous over current relay there is no intentional time delay and circuit
breaker trips instantly. Incase of normal inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse and long inverse
over current relay the inverse current-time characteristics are stored in the memory of
microprocessor in tabular form called as look-up table.
4.1.5 Merits of Microprocessor based, Numerical & Static relays
A) Flexibility- A variety of protection functions can be accomplished with suitable
modifications in the software only either with the same hardware or with slight
modifications in the hardware.
B) Reliability- A significant improvement in the relay reliability is obtained because the use
of fewer components results in less interconnections and reduced component failures.
C) Obtaining different types of relay characteristics- given the system requirements, it is
possible to provide better 0matching of protection characteristics since these
characteristics are stored in the memory of the microprocessor.
D) Digital communication- The microprocessor based relay furnishes easy interface with
digital communication equipments.
E) Modular frame- The relay hardware consists of standard modules resulting in ease of
service.
F) Low burden- The microprocessor based relays impose minimum burden on the
instrument transformers.
23

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

G) Sensitivity - Greater sensitivity and high pickup ratio.


H) Speed- With static relays, tripping time of cycle or even less can be obtained.
I) Resetting is also fast.
However static relays suffer from some limitations as follows:Limitations of static relays:A) Auxiliary voltage requirement.
B) Electrostatic Discharges-These charges are developed by rubbing of two insulating
components. Even small discharges can damage the components which would normally
withstand 100 V.
C) Voltage transients-Static relays are sensitive to voltage transients which are caused by
operation of breaker and isolator in the primary circuit of CTs and PTs.
D) Serious overvoltage is also caused by breaking of control circuit, relay contacts etc. Such
voltage spikes of small duration can damage the semiconductor components and also
cause mal operation of relays.
E) Temperature dependence of static relays- The characteristics of semiconductor devices
are affected by ambient temperature.

24

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

4.2 Circuit Breaker:Circuit Breakers are automatic switches which can interrupt fault currents. During normal
operating conditions the circuit breaker is in closed position. During abnormal or faulty
conditions, relays sense the fault and close the trip circuit of circuit breaker. There after the
circuit breaker opens. So circuit breaker is the device which actually isolates the faulty part and
is final output device of protective scheme. On opening of circuit breaker contacts an arc is
drawn out between them. This arc can be extinguished using different media like SF 6 gas,
vacuum etc.
4.2.1 SF6 Circuit Breaker:Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inert, heavy gas with good dielectric strength and arc
extinguishing properties. The dielectric strength of SF6 gas is greater than that of atmospheric air
and it increases with pressure. SF6 widely used in electrical equipment like high voltage metal
enclosed cables, high voltage metal clad switchgear, bushings, circuit-breakers, current
transformers etc.
Single Puffer Action:Initially the interrupter is in fully closed position. The moving cylinder (1) is coupled with
movable contact (2) against fixed piston (5) and there is a relative motion between moving
cylinder and fixed piston and gas is compressed in cavity (6). This trapped gas is released
through nozzle (4) during arc extinction process. During travel of moving contact and moving
cylinder the gas puffs over arc and reduces arc diameter by axial convection and radial
dissipation. At current zero arc diameter becomes too small to arc gets extinguished. The puffing
action continues for sometime even after arc extinction and contact space is filled with cool,
fresh gas. Due to electro negativity of gas it regains its dielectric strength rapidly after final
current zero.
Several types of SF6 circuit breakers have been developed for rated voltages from 3.6 to 760
kV. SF6 gas insulated metal-clad switchgear comprises factory assembled metal-clad, substation
equipment like circuit breaker, isolators, earth switches, bus-bars etc. These are filled with SF 6
gas. Such substations are compact and are being favored in densely populated urban areas.
25

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 9 Single Puffer Action of SF6 Circuit Breaker

4.2.2 Vacuum Circuit Breaker:-

Fig. 10 Vacuum Interrupter

26

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Vacuum is used as dielectric material. When two contacts are separated in vacuum module arc
is drawn between them. An intensively hotspot is created at the instant of contact separation from
which metal vapors shoot off, constituting plasma. The amount of vapor in plasma is
proportional to the vapor emission from electrodes, hence to the arc current. As contacts separate
contact space is filled with vapor of positive ions liberated from contact material. During
decreasing mode of current the rate of vapor emission reduces and amount of plasma tends to
zero. After natural current zero the remaining metal vapor condenses and medium regains the
dielectric strength rapidly and thus striking of arc is prevented.
Vacuum interrupter is rated up to 36 kV and beyond which two interrupters are required. [1]

5. PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS


5.1 Generator Protection:Protection of generator is complex and elaborate because of following reasons:27

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

A) Generator is costly equipment and one of the major links in power system.
B) Generator is not single equipment but is associated with the unit-transformers, auxiliary
transformers, station bus-bars, excitation system, prime-mover, voltage regulating
equipment, cooling system etc. Therefore the protection of generator is to be coordinated
with the associated equipment.
C) The generator capacity has sharply risen in recent years from 30MW to 500MW with the
result that loss of even a single machine may cause overloading of associated machines in
the system and eventual system instability.
The basic function of protection applied to generators is, therefore, to reduce the outage
period to a minimum by rapid discriminative clearance of faults. Unlike other apparatus, opening
of a breaker to isolate the faulty generator is not sufficient to prevent further damage, since
generator will continue to supply power to a stator winding fault until its field excitation is
suppressed. It is, therefore, necessary that the field is opened, fuel supply to the prime-mover is
stopped and sometimes braking application also becomes imperative.
Overloading of a generator is caused either due to partial breakdown of winding insulation or
due to excessive load on the power supply system. Over current protection for alternators is not
considered necessary; since modern generators are capable of withstanding complete shortcircuit at their terminals for sufficient time without much overheating and damage. On
occurrence of such faults, the generator can be disconnected from the system manually.
In case an overload protection is provided for generators, such a protection might disconnect
generator from system due to momentary troubles outside the power station or temporary
overload on system and thus interfere with continuity of supply. [2]

5.2 Transformer Protection:Power transformers are static devices, totally enclosed and usually oil immersed, and
therefore, chances of fault occurrence on them are very rare. But the consequences of even a rare
fault may be very serious unless the transformer is quickly disconnected from the system. Hence

28

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

automatic protection of transformers against possible faults is essential and of utmost


importance.
The faults occurring in power transformers are open-circuit faults (an open-circuit in one
phase of a three phase transformer), earth faults, phase-to-phase faults, inter-turn faults and
overheating from overloading or from some internal cause such as core-heating.
Interphase (phase-to-phase) short-circuits are most frequent on leads of three phase
transformers, while the interphase short-circuits within the winding are less frequent. Earth faults
and inter-turn faults have the highest probability on the power transformers. Winding shortcircuits, also called the internal faults, generally result from failure of insulation due to
temperature rise or deterioration of transformer oil.
An open-circuit in one phase of a three phase transformer may cause undesirable heating but
this condition is relatively harmless and so no relay protection is required against open-circuits.
On the occurrence of such a fault, the transformer can be disconnected manually from the
system.
The choice of a protective device for a transformer depends upon several factors such as:A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Type of transformer i.e., distribution or power transformer


Size of transformer
Type of cooling
System where used i.e., its electrical location in the network
Importance of service for which it is required.

For distribution transformers employed in rural areas, the normal practice is to use the fuses
for its protection against external faults but for urban distribution network, where discrimination
is absolutely necessary, fuses will not serve the purpose.
For power transformers, the protection is to be provided usually against dangerous overloads
and excessive temperature rise. Dangerous overloads may be due to external faults or the internal
ones. External faults, however, are cleared by the relay system outside the transformer within the
shortest possible time in order to avoid any danger to the transformer due to these faults.
Differential protection is the most important type of protection used for protection against
internal phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth faults. The other protection systems employed for
protection of transformers against internal faults are Buchholz protection, core-balance leakage
protection, combined leakage and overload protection, restricted earth-fault protection. [2]
29

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

6. POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS


6.1 Analysis OF Power System:The power system at TATA Motors Ltd, Pimpri consists of a 220 kV switchyard. This 220 kV
voltage supply from the MSEDCL is then stepped down to 22 kV in the same switchyard with
30

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

help of three step down transformers. The transformers are of 220/22 kV and of 30, 30 and 40
MVA each. For calculation purposes we have considered the transformers to be of 30 MVA.
It consists of four Main Receiving Stations (MRS) of which New MRS forms the ring main
pattern. The remaining three MRS are connected to load through transformers of 2MVA or 1.5
MVA and ratio of step down of 22 kV /415 V.
Ring Main is an electrical distribution scheme in which outgoing feeders are connected to the
main supply through a ring circuit. Here the main supply after stepping down to 22 kV is fed to
the New MRS. From the New MRS it is fed to MRS-I, MRS-II, MRS-III each having two
sections. Also MRS-I and MRS-III are connected via MRS-II to New MRS, this being an
alternate connection, seldom used. The OLD-DG feeds power to MRS-I 22 kV bus. The MANDG feeds power to New MRS. This completes the ring main system. This ensures uninterrupted
power supply to the plant even on occurrence of fault.
The generator houses contribute 54.35 MW to the system. According to the load shedding
schedule, the deficit power is generated by required number of generator units.
The company has maximum connected load of 55 MW. The Generator Houses contribute
54.35 MW to the plant, ensuring continuity of supply to the plant up to 99 percent.
Short circuit analysis is done for MRS-II without considering the effect of addition of OLDDG House and MAN-DG House on the fault level. Similarly, analysis is done initially
considering the effect of addition of only the OLD-DG House and then both OLD-DG House
and MAN-DG House. For both these cases fault levels are calculated. We then compare the fault
levels for all the cases. If there is an increase in fault level in any of the case then we have to
ensure that the switchgear protective devices already installed should be capable of protecting
the equipments for these increased fault levels. If they are not found suitable then we have to
suggest suitable switchgear protective devices.
We are going to co-ordinate the relays of MRS-II up to the 22 kV level. Beyond which the
timings are specified by the MSEDCL. Depending upon the fault levels at various assumed fault
locations in MRS-I, the relays in MRS-II are to be co-ordinated. Co-ordination is done in such a
manner that no art of MRS-II is left unprotected. Also a fault in any part of MRS-II, it should be
cleared in minimum time. This is done so as to reduce the damage to protective gear and the
equipments and also to maintain system stability.

31

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

7. SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS


7.1 Steps Involved in Short Circuit Analysis:For short circuit analysis we consider three phase short circuit as it is the most severe fault
amongst all the faults. We are going to assume three phase short circuit on various locations from
32

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

415V to 22kV level i.e. the New MRS incomer. The impedances of generators, transformers,
cables and motors are contributing to the change in fault level at different locations.
Here we first calculate the fault levels for MRS-II without effect of addition of OLD-DG
House and MAN-DG House for 22 kV. Then we consider that all the eight generators of OLDDG House are run along with main supply. We calculate the contribution of the eight generators
to fault level at 22 kV and add it to the earlier fault level. We consider that all the generators are
run simultaneously to consider the worst case on occurrence of fault.
Secondly, we consider the fault level contribution of the three generators of MAN-DG
connected at 22 kV. The fault level contributions of all the three generators are then added to
fault level at MRS-II along with OLD-DG House. Usually all the three generators are not run at
the same time however we consider this for worst case calculations.
For calculating the contribution of generators to the fault level at 22 kV we require the short
circuit ratio of the generators. From the short circuit ratio we calculate the transient reactance and
sub- transient reactance of the generator. Induction motor and synchronous motor contribute to
fault level as they act as generator for a short period due to inertia of connected load. Generally
we consider motors of rating greater than 30 hp for fault level contribution at 22 kV. As it is only
for few cycles its effect is not reflected on the New MRS 22 kV bus.

Formulae used for calculations of short circuit analysis.


%Z x

Base MVA
Transformer Rating

Base MVA
Z(pu)T
Fault MVA
3 x Voltage

Z Pu =

Fault MVA

Fault Current =

33

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Base MVA = 30 MVA


Base Voltage = 22kV

7.2 Calculations: - (Without considering OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)


Following calculations for 22 kV remain same for every MRSII substation:-

Fig. 11 Impedance Diagram for Faults on 22 kV bus on MRS-II

For Fault Fa:Z (Pu) T =0.039+0.0045+0.0009 0.1x (0.039+0.0045+0.0009)


=0.0444 0.00444
We consider 10% negative tolerance as per IEC Standards
So,
Z (Pu) T =0.03996 Pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.0996)
34

(1)

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=750.75
Fault Current = 750.75 / (3 x22000)
=19.70 kA
For Fault Fb:Z (Pu) T =0.039+0.0045 - 0.1x (0.039+0.0045)
=0.0435 0.00435 = 0.03915 Pu
Fault MVA

from (1)

= 30 / (0.03915)
=766.28

Fault Current = 766.28 / (3 x 22000)


=20.10 kA
For Fault Fc:Z(pu)T

=0.039 - 0.0039
=0.0351 pu

Fault MVA

from(1)

= 30 / (0.0351)
=854.70

Fault Current = 854.70 / (3 x 22000)


=22.43 kA
For Substations:
A) 11-13-16-19-22-50

35

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 12 Impedance Diagram for Substation A

For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.0626 x 30/2
=0.939 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.939+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9834 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9834 - 0.09834
=0.88506 pu

Fault MVA

from(1)

= 30 / (0.88506)
=33.896

Fault Current = 33.896 / (3 x 415)


=47.15 kA
For Fault F2:Zpu

= 0.0654 x 30/2
=0.981 pu
36

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Z(pu)T

=0.981+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0254 0.10254

from (1)

=0.923 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.923)
=32.50

Fault Current =32.5/(3 x 415)


=45.21 kA
For Fault F3:Zpu

= 0.0626 x 30/2
=0.939 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.939+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9834 0.09834
=0.88506 pu from(1)

Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.88506) = 33.896

Fault Current = 33.896 / (3 x 415)


=47.15 kA
For Fault F4:Zpu

= 0.0541 x 30/1.5
=1.082 pu

Z(pu)T

=1.082+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.1264 0.11264

from(1)

=1.01376 pu

Fault MVA

= 30 / (1.01376)
=29.6

Fault Current = 29.6 / (3 x 433)


37

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=39.45 kA
For Fault F5:Zpu

= 0.048 x 30/1.5
=0.96 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.96+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0044 0.10044

from(1)

=0.90396 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.90396)
=33.19

Fault Current = 33.19 / (3 x 433)


=44.25 kA
For Fault F6:Zpu

= 0.0619 x 30/2
=0.9285 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9285+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9729 0.09729

from(1)

=0.87561 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.87561)
=34.26

Fault Current = 34.26 / (3 x 433)


=45.68 kA

B) 8-12-15-21-29-39

38

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 13 Impedance Diagram of Substation B

For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.048 x 30/1.5
=0.96 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.96+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0044 0.10044

from (1)

=0.904 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.904)
=33.18

Fault Current =33.18/(3 x 433)


=44.25 kA
For Fault F2:39

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Zpu

= 0.0568 x 30/1.5
=1.136 pu

Z(pu)T

=1.136+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.1804 0.11804

from (1)

=0.1.0623 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (1.0623)
=28.23

Fault Current =28.23/(3 x 433)


=37.65 kA
For Fault F3:Zpu

= 0.0483 x 30/1.5
=0.966 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.966+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0104 0.10104

from (1)

=0.909 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.909)
=33.00

Fault Current =33.00/(3 x 433)


=43.98 kA
For Fault F4:Zpu

= 0.0587 x 30/1.5
=1.174 pu

Z(pu)T

=1.174+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.2184 0.12184

from (1)

=1.096 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (1.096)
=27.35

Fault Current =27.35/(3 x 433)


40

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=36.47 kA
For Fault F5:Zpu

= 0.0627 x 30/2
=0.9405 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9405+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9849 0.09849

from (1)

=0.8864 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.8864)
=33.84

Fault Current =33.84/(3 x 415)


=47.08 kA
For Fault F6:Zpu

= 0.0514 x 30/1.5
=1.028 pu

Z(pu)T

=1.028+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0724 0.10724

from (1)

=0.9652 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9652)
=31.08

Fault Current =31.08(3 x 433)


=41.44 Ka

C) 41-43-44-55-56-57-58-61
41

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig.14 Impedance Diagram of Substation C

For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.0626 x 30/2
=0.939 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.939+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9834 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9834 - 0.09834

from (1)

=0.88506 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.88506)
=33.896

Fault Current = 33.896 / (3 x 415)


=47.15 kA

42

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

For Fault F2:Zpu

= 0.0625 x 30/2
=0.9375 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9375+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9819 0.09819

from (1)

=0.8837 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.8837)
=33.94

Fault Current =33.94/(3 x 415)


=45.26 kA
For Fault F3:Zpu

= 0.0625 x 30/2
=0.9375 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9375+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9819 0.09819

from (1)

=0.8837 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.8837)
=33.94

Fault Current =33.94/(3 x 415)


=45.26 kA
For Fault F4:Zpu

= 0.0627 x 30/2
=0.9405 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9405+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9849 0.09849

from (1)

=0.8864 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.8864)
43

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=33.84
Fault Current =33.84/(3 x 415)
=47.08 kA

For Fault F5:Zpu

= 0.051 x 30/2
=0.765 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.765+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.8094 0.08094

from (1)

=0.7284 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.7284)
=41.18

Fault Current =41.18/(3 x 415)


=57.29 kA
For Fault F6:Zpu

= 0.051 x 30/2
=0.765 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.765+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.8094 0.08094

from (1)

=0.7284 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.7284)
=41.18

Fault Current =41.18/(3 x 415)


=57.29 kA
For Fault F7:Zpu

= 0.051 x 30/2
=0.765 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.765+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
44

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=0.8094 0.08094

from (1)

=0.7284 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.7284)
=41.18

Fault Current =41.18/(3 x 415)


=57.29 kA
For Fault F8:Zpu

= 0.0653 x 30/2
=0.98 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.98+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0239 0.10239

from (1)

=0.9215 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9215)
=32.55

Fault Current =32.55/(3 x 415)


=45.30 kA

D) 51-52-53-54
45

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 15 Impedance Diagram of Substation D

For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.0652 x 30/2
=0.978 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.978+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0224 0.10244

from (1)

=0.9201 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9201)
=32.60

Fault Current =32.60/(3 x 415)


=45.35 kA
For Fault F2:46

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Zpu

= 0.0661 x 30/2
=0.9915 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9915+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0359 0.10359

from (1)

=0.9323 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9323)
=32.17

Fault Current =32.17/(3 x 415)


=44.76 kA
For Fault F3:Zpu

= 0.0649 x 30/2
=0.9735 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9735+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0179 0.10179

from (1)

=0.9161 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9161)
=32.74

Fault Current =32.74/(3 x 415)


=45.55 kA
For Fault F4:Zpu

= 0.0658 x 30/2
=0.987 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.987+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0314 0.10314

from (1)

=0.9282 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9282)
=32.31

Fault Current =32.31/(3 x 415)


47

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=44.96 kA
E) 32-59

Fig. 16 Impedance Diagram of Substation E

For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.0578 x 30/1.5
=1.156 pu

Z(pu)T

=1.156+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.2004 0.12004

from (1)

=1.08 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (1.08)
=27.76

Fault Current =27.764/(3 x 433)


=37.02 kA
For Fault F2:Zpu

= 0.0654 x 30/2
48

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=0.981 pu
Z(pu)T

=0.981+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0254 0.10254

from (1)

=0.923 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.923)
=32.50

Fault Current =32.5/(3 x 415)


=45.21 kA
F) 33-34-35-37

Fig. 17 Impedance Diagram of Substation F

For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.0646 x 30/2
49

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

=0.969 pu
Z(pu)T

=0.969+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0134 0.10134

from (1)

=0.9121 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.931
=32.89

Fault Current =32.89/(3 x 415)


=45.76 kA
For Fault F2:Zpu

= 0.0652 x 30/2
=0.978 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.978+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0224 0.10244

from (1)

=0.9201 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9201)
=32.60

Fault Current =32.60/(3 x 415)


=45.35 kA
For Fault F3:Zpu

= 0.0652 x 30/2
=0.978 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.978+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0224 0.10244

from (1)

=0.9201 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.9201)
=32.60

Fault Current =32.60/(3 x 415)


=45.35 kA
50

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

For Fault F4:Zpu

= 0.0629 x 30/2
=0.9435 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9435+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9879 0.09879

from (1)

=0.88911 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.88911)
=33.74

Fault Current =33.74/(3 x 433)


=45 kA

G) 17-18-28-40-49

51

Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 18 Impedance Diagram of Substation G

The compressor house consists of 6.6 kV bus to which motor load is connected. The motors
are of different ratings which are greater than 30 HP. Generally motors of 30 HP or more are
considered while calculating the fault levels. When a fault occurs the power to the motor is
interrupted and the motor continuous running due to the inertia of the connected load thus the
motors acts as generator and contributes to fault level.
There are 9 motors connected to the 6.6 kV bus.
The maximum running load = (4 X 522 X 6) + (2 X 900 X 6) + (2 X 315 X 6)
=
29000 kW
(3 X 6.6 X 0.86 X 0.94)
= 3138.10 A this is to be added to the fault level at F2 and F3.
Maximum running load in ampere reflected on the primary of the transformer is
= 138.10 X 6.6
22
= 941.43 A = 0.94 kA this is to be added to the fault level at FA.
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Therefore the new fault level at 22 kV bus at fault FA = 19.7 + 0.94 = 20.64 kA
For Fault F1:Zpu

= 0.0638 x 30/2
=0.957 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.957+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0014 0.10014

from (1)

=0.90126 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.90126)
=33.28

Fault Current =33.28/(3 x 415)


=46.30 kA
For Fault F2:Zpu

= 0.0748 x 30/6.26
=0.3584 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.3584+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.4028 0.04028

from (1)

=0.3625 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.3625)
=82.75

Fault Current =82.75/(3 x 66000)


=7.23 + 3.13 = 10.37 kA
For Fault F3:Zpu

= 0.0762 x 30/6.25
=0.3657 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.3657+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.4101 0.04101

from (1)

=0.3691 pu
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.3691)
=81.36

Fault Current =81.36/(3 x 66000)


=7.11 + 3.13 = 10.25 kA
For Fault F4:Zpu

= 0.0673 x 30/2
=1.0095 pu

Z(pu)T

=1.0095+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=1.0539 0.10539

from (1)

=0.94851 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.94851)
=31.62

Fault Current =31.62/(3 x 433)


=42.17 kA
For Fault F5:Zpu

= 0.0625 x 30/2
=0.9375 pu

Z(pu)T

=0.9375+0.039+0.0045+0.0009
=0.9819 0.09819

from (1)

=0.8837 pu
Fault MVA

= 30 / (0.8837)
=33.94

Fault Current =33.94/(3 x 433)


=45.25 Ka

7.3 Calculations considering OLD DG House:Old generator house consists of eight alternators of which six are of 2.5MW and two are of
2.2MW.It also consists of six transformers. Two are step down transformers of 0.2 MVA, 0.5
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

MVA and 6.6kV/415V which are nothing but station transformers. Remaining four are step up
transformers of 6.6kV/22Kv out of which two are of 8MVA and the other two are of 6.25 MVA.
For fault calculations, we consider only the transformers connected in parallel to the MRS-II.
Even though the generators are not in operation, the transformers have to be kept charged. So,
the equivalent impedance of the transformers has to be taken into consideration for fault
calculation. Here fault current contributed by all eight generators is equal to the fault current
contributed by a single generator multiplied by eight. Hence
Total fault current contributed = (Fault current contributed by single generator) x 8
In OLD-GEN House, all eight generators are generating power at 6.6 kV. Short circuit ratio of
all eight generators is 0.7. Hence synchronous reactance of all eight generators is given by:
Xd

= 1 / 0.7
= 1.4285 pu

Also, subtransient reactance is given by:


Xd

= 0.2 x 1.4285
= 0.2857 pu

MVA rating for all eight generators is 3.125. Hence fault MVA for all eight generators is given
by:
Fault MVA

= 3.125 / 0.2857
= 10.9375

Now fault current contributed by each generator at 6.6 kV is given by:


Fault Current = 10.9375 / (3 x 6.6)
= 0.96 kA
Consider any one generator. It is connected to another 6.6 kV bus through a cable of impedance
0.0009 pu. So total impedance is given by:
Z

= Xd + 0.0009
=0.2857 + 0.0009
= 0.2866 pu

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fault MVA

= 3.125 / 0.2866
= 10.90

Fault Current = 10.90 / (3 x 6.6)


= 0.9538 kA
Now this generator, with cable of 0.0009 pu in series, is connected to 22kV bus through a step up
transformer of 6.6/22 kV. So total impedance is given by:
ZT

= (Xd + 0.0009 +Z transformer)


= (0.2857 + 0.0009 + 0.1097)
= 0.3963 pu

Fault MVA

= 3.125 / 0.3963
= 7.89

Fault Current = 7.89 / (3 x 22)


= 0.21 kA
Total fault current contributed by =

(Fault current contributed by single generator) x 8

eight generators
= 0.21 x 8
= 1.68 kA

For MRS-II:For Fault FA:Fault Current = 19.70 kA (Without OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fault current with OLD-DG House = 19.70 + 1.68


=21.38 kA
For Fault FB:Fault Current = 20.10 kA (Without OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)
Fault current with OLD-DG House = 20.10 + 1.68
=21.78 kA
For Fault FC:Fault Current = 22.43 kA (Without OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)
Fault current with OLD-DG House = 22.43 + 1.68
= 24.11 kA

7.4 Calculations considering OLD DG house and MAN DG House:MAN DG house consists of three alternators 11.65MW. It also consists of five transformers.
Two are step down transformers of 2 MVA and 11kV/415V which are nothing but station
transformers. Remaining three are step up transformers of 11kV/22kV and 22MVA.
Even though the generators are not in operation, the transformers have to be kept charged. So,
the equivalent impedance of the transformers has to be taken into consideration for fault
calculation. Here fault current contributed by all three generators is equal to the fault current
contributed by a single generator multiplied by three. Hence
Total fault current contributed = (Fault current contributed by single generator) x 3
In OLD-GEN House, all three generators are generating power at 11 kV. Short circuit ratio of
all eight generators is 0.447. Hence synchronous reactance of all eight generators is given by:
Xd

= 1 / 0.447
= 2.237 pu

Also, subtransient reactance is given by:


Xd

= 0.2 x 2.237
= 0.4474 pu
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

MVA rating for all eight generators is 3.125. Hence fault MVA for all eight generators is given
by:
Fault MVA

= 14.65 / 0.4474
= 32.74

Now fault current contributed by each generator at 6.6 kV is given by:


Fault Current = 32.74 / (3 x 11)
= 1.72 kA
Consider any one generator. It is connected to another 6.6 kV bus through a cable of impedance
0.0009 pu. So total impedance is given by:
Z

= Xd + 0.0009
=0.4474 + 0.0009
= 0.4484 pu

Fault MVA

= 14.65 / 0.4484
= 32.74

Fault Current = 32.74 / (3 x 11)


= 1.72 kA
Now this generator, with cable of 0.0009 pu in series, is connected to 22kV bus through a step up
transformer of 11/22 kV. So total impedance is given by:
ZT

= (Xd + 0.0009 +Z transformer)


= (0.4474 + 0.0009 + 0.00617)
= 0.4545 pu

Fault MVA

= 14.65 / 0.4545
= 32.24

Fault Current = 32.24 / (3 x 22)


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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

= 0.85 kA
Total fault current contributed by
eight generators

= (Fault current contributed by single generator) x 3


= 0.85 x 3
= 2.54 kA

For MRS-II:For Fault FA:Fault Current = 19.70 kA (Without OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)
New Fault current with OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House

= 19.70 + 1.68 + 2.54


=23.92 kA

For Fault FB:Fault Current = 20.10 kA (Without OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)
New Fault current with OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House

= 20.10 + 1.68 + 2.54


=24.32 kA

For Fault FC:Fault Current = 22.43 kA (Without OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House)
New Fault current with OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House

= 22.43 + 1.68 + 2.54


= 26.65 kA

8. RELAY CO-ORDINATION
8.1 Introduction to Relay Co-ordination:-

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Relay co-ordination plays an important role in the protection of power system. For
proper protection, proper co-ordination of relays with appropriate relay settings is to be
done. Relay settings are done in such a way that proper co-ordination is achieved along
various series network. However the review of Co-ordination is always essential since various
additions / deletion of feeders and equipments will occur after the initial commissioning of
plants. As power can be received from generators of captive power plant, the analysis becomes
complex.
Relay co-ordination can be done by selecting proper plug setting and time multiplication
setting of the relay, considering maximum fault current at the relay location. After selecting the
plug setting and time multiplier setting, the co-ordination can be checked graphically.
When plotting co-ordination curves, certain time intervals must be maintained between the
curves of various protective devices in order to ensure the correct sequential operation of the
devices when co-coordinating inverse time over current relays.
For a given fault current, the operating time of IDMT relay is jointly determined by its plug
and time multiplier settings. Thus this type of relay is most suitable for proper coordination.
Operating characteristics of this relay are usually given in the form of a curve with operating
current of plug setting multiplier along the X axis and operating time along Y axis.

Calculation of relay operating time:


In order to calculate the actual relay operating time, the following things must be known.
A) Time / PSM Curve
B) Plug Setting
C) Time Setting
D) Fault Current
E) Current Transformer Ratio
The procedure for calculating the actual relay operating time is as follows:A) Convert the fault current into the relay coil current by using the current
transformer ratio.

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

B) Express the relay current as a multiple of current setting, i.e. calculate the
PSM.
C) From the Time/PSM curve of the relay, with the calculated PSM the corresponding time
of operation can be obtained.
D) Determine the actual time of operation by multiplying the above time of the
relay by time-setting multiplier in use.
But here we are going to follow the procedure as follows:
A) Fault current is 19.70 kA. We assume PMS=100% i.e. 1 for all relays. For first

level,

we assume TMS=0.1.
B) Calculate Rated C.T. Secondary Current.
C) Calculate Multiple of set current i.e. PSM.
D) Calculate time of operation of relays only for first case.
E) For the remaining levels, follow steps A) to C). For these levels, assume appropriate time
of operation of relays.
F) Calculate TMS for each level except first level using same formula as in step

8.2 Formulae used:k x TMS


(I/I>) -1

Where,
t= Operating time in sec

TMS= Time Multiplier Setting

k ,, = Curve constants
I= Fault Current
I>= Set Current

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Fig. 19 Various Inverse Characteristics of Induction Disc Relays on Log Scale

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Table 2 Table of constants for various curves

Fig. 18 shows various inverse characteristics of induction disc relays. Characteristics are of
four types:
A) Standard or Normal Inverse
B) Very Inverse
C) Extremely Inverse
D) Long Inverse
For Normal inverse over current characteristics, the operation time is inversely proportional to
the applied current.
Very inverse over current characteristics are particularly suitable if there is a substantial
reduction of fault current. The characteristics of this relay are such that its operating time is
approximately doubled for a reduction in current from 7 to 4 times the relay current setting. This
permits the use of the same time multiplier setting for several relays in series.
For Extremely inverse over current characteristics, the operation time is approximately
inversely proportional to the square of the applied current.

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

8.3 Calculations for MRS-I:-

Fig. 20 Relay Co-ordination for MRS-I

We select Normal Inverse Curve initially.


k=0.14
=0.02
=2.97
Plug Setting=100% i.e. 1
Fault Current I =19.70 kA
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

Rated C.T. Secondary Current


PSM

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current

= Fault Current in C.T. Primary / (C.T. Transformation Ratio x Rated C.T.

Secondary Current)
1) C.T Ratio = 200/5
TMS = 0.1
Rated C.T. Secondary Current

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current


=1x5
=5

Multiple of set current (PSM) = 19.7 kA/200 A


= 98.50
t1

= (0.14 x 0.1) / (98.5)0.02 - 1


= 0.15 sec

2) C.T Ratio = 800 / 5


We assume co-ordination time as 0.15 sec.
t2 = 0.15 + 0.15
= 0.30 sec.
Rated C.T. Secondary Current

Multiple of set current


TMS

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current


=1 x 5
=5

= 19.7 kA/800 A
= 24.63
= 0.3 x ((24.63)0.02 - 1) / 0.14
= 0.14

3) C.T Ratio = 1200 / 5


We assume co-ordination time as 0.1 sec.
t 3 = 0.3 + 0.1
= 0.4 sec.
Rated C.T. Secondary Current

Multiple of set current

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current


=1x5
=5

= 19.7 kA / 1200 A
= 16.42
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

TMS
= 0.4 x ((16.42)0.02 - 1) / 0.14
= 0.16
4) C.T Ratio = 1200 / 5
We assume co-ordination time as 0.2 sec.
t 3 = 0.4 + 0.2
= 0.6 sec.
Rated C.T. Secondary Current

Multiple of set current


TMS

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current


= 1x 5
=5

= 19.7 kA / 1200 A
= 16.42
= 0.6 x ((16.42)0.02 - 1) / 0.14
= 0.25

5) C.T Ratio = 600 / 5


We assume co-ordination time as 0.1 sec.
t 3 = 0.6 + 0.1
= 0.7 sec.
Rated C.T. Secondary Current

Multiple of set current


TMS

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current


=1x5
=5

= 19.7 kA / 600 A
= 32.83
= 0.7 x ((32.83)0.02 - 1) / 0.14
= 0.36

6) C.T Ratio = 1500 / 5


We assume co-ordination time as 0.2 sec.
t 3 = 0.7 + 0.2
= 0.9 sec.
Rated C.T. Secondary Current

Multiple of set current

= Plug Setting x C.T. Secondary Current


=1x5
=5

= 19.7 kA / 1500 A
= 13.13
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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

= 0.9 x ((13.13)0.02 - 1) / 0.14


= 0.34

TMS

We know the actual time required for operation of relay will be the time of operation we have
assumed and time multiplier setting.

9. CONCLUSION
1. Analysis of Power System
We studied a part of power system of Tata Motors Ltd., Pimpri and its single line diagram.
From the short circuit analysis carried out on the substations we calculated the fault levels at 415
V to 22 kV levels. The fault current is inversely proportional to fault impedance up to the
location of fault and the voltage level. From incomer of New MRS to outgoing feeder of MRS-II
the fault impedance is increasing while the voltage remains constant resulting in decrease in fault
level. At low voltage side of distribution transformers the voltage level is significantly lower than
high voltage side as the transformation ratio is high. The effect of lower voltage level is more
than the effect of increase in fault impedance which causes the fault level to rise considerably as
compared to the 22 kV level.
2. Relay Co-ordination
We co-ordinated the over current relays from the outgoing feeder of MRS-I to incomer of
New MRS. The actual operating time for the relays at
Outgoing feeder of MRS-I is

0.15 sec

Incomer of MRS-I is

0.30 sec

Outgoing feeder of MAN-DG is

0.40 sec

Incomer of MAN-DG is

0.60 sec

Outgoing of New MRS is

0.70 sec

Incomer of New MRS is

0.90 sec

For a fault on outgoing feeder of MRS-I, where the fault level is 19.7 kA, the relay employed
at that location, i.e. the primary relay, should operate within 0.15 seconds. In case of failure of
primary relay there is a back-up relay provided at the incomer of MRS-I which is set to operate
within 0.30 sec. This relay is set to operate with a time interval so as to avoid its tripping earlier

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Power System Study & Relay Co-ordination

than the primary relay. In a similar way the relays till incomer of New MRS are co-ordinated
such that the maximum time of operation is less than the sustainable time of the circuit breaker.
3. Analysis of effect of addition of captive power plant of 54.35 MW
The OLD-DG House and MAN-DG House contribute 1.68 kA and 2.54 kA respectively to
the fault level at incomer of New MRS. So the changed fault level at the incomer of New MRS is
26.65 kA.

The short time rating of the circuit breaker at incomer of NEW MRS is 26.3 kA for 1 sec.
Therefore the sustainable time of this circuit breaker for 26.65 kA is
26.32 X 1 = 26.652 X t
t = 0.97 sec.
New MRS incomer has the highest fault level amongst all the 22 kV buses. The selected
operating time for this circuit breaker for a fault of 19.7 kA at outgoing feeder of MRS-I is 0.9
sec. Therefore for the changed fault level of 26.65 kA the sustainable time is
19.72 X 0.9 = 26.652X t
t = 0.5 sec.
This time is less than sustainable time of the circuit breaker. Though the fault level is
maximum, fault will be cleared without any damage.
Hence, we conclude that there is no need to change either the switchgear protective devices or
the relay settings as they are capable of clearing the fault for increased fault levels.

68