Vibration analysis

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Vibration analysis

© All Rights Reserved

- Sesam Pipeline 2016
- Vibration Analysis Level- 1 Updated [Compatibility Mode]
- Machine Vibration ( a Beginners Guide)
- Vibrations in Rotating Machinery (7th Int'l Conf.) (IME, 2000) WW
- 5- Wave Fatigue Analysis
- Padeye Calculation For Lifting Analysis
- Vibration Analysis
- JacketFoundations_RAMBOLL
- Submodeling Using ANSYS Workbench
- Ansys Workbench Basics Manual
- SACS-JOINT.xls
- 3 Transporation Analysis
- ANSYS tutorial
- Staad Pro Advanced Topic
- 6 Pushover Analysis
- Ansys Workbench
- 1 Lifting Analysis (SACS)
- Local Buckling Analysis Based on DNV-OS-F101 2000
- Notes on SACS Ring Analysis - For Users
- Sacs Intrams

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Basic Concepts I

Machinery Vibration is Complex

Vibration of a machine is not usually simple

Displacement amplitude is not a direct indicator of vibration severity unless combined with

frequency

Characteristics of Vibration

One cycle of motion consists of

Movement of weight from neutral position to upper limit

Upper limit back through neutral position to lower limit

Lower limit to neutral position

The movement of the weight plotted against time is a sine wave

When a mechanical system is subjected to a sudden impulse, it will vibrate at its natural

frequency.

Eventually, if the system is stable, the vibration will die out

Forced vibration can occur at any frequency, and the response amplitude for a certain force will

be constant

Forces that cause vibration occur at a range of frequencies depending on the malfunctions

present

These act on a bearing or structure causing vibration

However, the response is not uniform at all frequencies. It depends on the Mobility of the of the

structure.

Mobility varies with frequency. For example, it is high at resonances and low where damping is

present

2A = Peak to Peak = Used to measure total displacement of a shaft with respect to available

bearing clearance

RMS = Root Mean Squared amplitude - A measure of energy - used to measure velocity and

acceleration mainly used in Europe

Average value is not used in vibration measurements

Time required to complete one cycle is the PERIOD of vibration

If period is 1 sec then the number of cycles per minute (CPM) is 60

Frequency is the number of cycles per unit time CPM or C/S (Hz)

Peak to peak displacement is the total distance traveled from one extreme limit to the other

extreme limit

Velocity is zero at top and bottom because weight has come to a stop. It is maximum at

neutral position

Acceleration is maximum at top an bottom where weight has come to a stop and must

accelerate to pick up velocity

RMS amplitude will be equal to 0.707 times the Peak amplitude if, and only if, the signal is a

sine wave (single frequency)

If the signal is not a sine wave, then the RMS value using this simple calculation will not be

correct

Velocity describes how rapidly the object is changing position with time

Acceleration describes how fast the velocity changes with time

If Displacement d = x = A sin (wt) , then

Velocity = rate of change of displacement

v = dx / dt = Aw cos wt = Aw sin (wt + 90o)

Acceleration = rate of change of velocity

a = dv /dt = - Aw2 sin wt = Aw2 sin (wt + 180o

Basic Concept II

Concept of Phase

These weights are vibrating in phase

Weight X is at the upper limit and Y is at neutral position moving to lower limit

B is at lower limit

These weights are vibrating 180 deg

out-of-phase

reaches its maximum cycle or 90o before

displacement maximum

Acceleration leads displacement by 180o.

Acceleration leads velocity by 90o

Small yellow circles show this relationship clearly

Displacement

Metric

- Micron

= 1/1000 of mm

English

- Mil

= 1/1000 of Inch

Velocity

Metric

- mm / sec

English

- inch / sec

Acceleration

Metric

- meter / sec2

English

- g = 9.81 m/sec2 =

English Metric Unit Conversion

Displacement

1 Mil = 25.4 Micron

Velocity

1 inch/sec = 25.4 mm/sec

Acceleration

Preferable to measure both in gs because g is directly related to force

Parameters in metric units

D = Displacement in microns (mm/1000)

V = Velocity in mm/sec

A = Acceleration in gs

F = Frequency of vibration in cycles /minute (CPM)

V = D x F / 19,100

A = V x F / 93,650

Therefore, F = V / D x 19,100

Conversion of Vibration Parameters English Units

Parameters in English units

D = Displacement in mils (inch / 1000)

V = Velocity in inch/sec

A = Acceleration in gs

F = Frequency of vibration in cycles /minute (CPM)

V = D x F / 19,100 same as for metric units

A = V x F / 3,690 metric value / 25.4

Relative Amplitude of Parameters

This means that velocity in mm/sec will be equal to displacement in microns at a frequency of

19100 CPM.

At frequencies higher than 19,100 CPM velocity will be higher than displacement

A = V x F / 93,650

This means that acceleration in gs will be equal to velocity in mm/sec at a frequency of 93,650

CPM.

At frequencies higher than 93,650 CPM acceleration will be higher than velocity

Where the frequency content is likely to be low (less than 18,000 CPM) select displacement

Large, low speed, pumps and motors with sleeve bearings

Cooling tower fans and Fin fan cooler fans. Their gear boxes would require a higher frequency

range

For intermediate range frequencies ( say, 18,000 to 180,000 CPM) select Velocity

Most process plant pumps running at 1500 to 3000 RPM

Gear boxes of low speed pumps

For higher frequencies (> 180,000 CPM = 3 KHz) select acceleration.

Gear boxes

Bearing housing vibration of major compressor trains including their drivers

Larger machines would require monitoring more than one parameter to cover the entire

frequency range of vibration components

For example, in large compressor and turbines

displacement probes.

This would cover the frequency range of running speed, low order harmonics and subharmonic

components

To capture higher stator to rotor interactive frequencies such as vane passing, blade passing

and their harmonics, it is necessary to monitor the bearing housing acceleration

Monitoring one parameter for trending is acceptable

However, for detailed analysis, it may be necessary to measure more than one parameter

Amplitude measurement units should be selected based upon the frequencies of interest

Following 3 plots illustrate how measurement unit affects the data displayed. Each of the plots

contain 3 separate component frequencies of 60 Hz, 300 Hz and 950 Hz.

Displacement

This data was taken using displacement. Note how the lower frequency at 60 Hz is accentuated

Velocity

The same data is now displayed using velocity. Note how the 300Hz component is more

apparent

Acceleration

The same data is now displayed using acceleration. Note how the large lower frequency

component is diminished and the higher frequency component accentuated

Basic Concepts III

Forced Vibration

Stiffness

Stiffness is the spring like quality of mechanical elements to deform under load

A certain force of Kgs produces a certain deflection of mm

Shaft, bearing, casing, foundation all have stiffness

Viscous Damping

Encountered by solid bodies moving through a viscous fluid

Force is proportional to the velocity of the moving object

Consider the difference between stirring water versus stirring molasses

Inertial Forces

Inertia is the property of a body to resist acceleration

Mainly weight

Determined by the strength of the shaft

Damping force is proportional to velocity of the moving body and viscosity of the fluid

Damping is provided by lube oil

Inertial forces are similar to those caused by an earthquake when acceleration can be very

high.

Acceleration is related to the weight of the rotor

It can cause distortion of structures

Displacement

Displacement is independent of frequency

If displacement exceeds available clearances, rubbing occurs.

Velocity

Velocity is proportional to frequency

Velocity is related to wear

In machines higher the velocity, higher the wear

Acceleration

Proportional to square of frequency

Acceleration is related to force

Excessive acceleration at the starting block can strain an athletes leg muscle

Acceleration is important for structural strength

Stiffness Influence

Stiffness is measured by the force in Kgs required to produce a deflection of one mm.

Stiffness of a shaft is

Directly proportional Diameter4 and Modulus of Elasticity

Directly proportional to Modulus of Elasticity

Inversely proportional to Length3

Typical Stiffness values in pounds / inch

Oil film bearings 300,000 to 2,000,000

Rolling element bearings 1,000,000 to 4,000,000

Bearing Housing, horizontal 300,000 to 4,000,000

Bearing housing, vertical 400,000 to 6,000,000

Shaft 1 to 4 diameter 100,000 to 4,000,000

Shaft 6 to 15 diameter 400,000 to 20,000,000

Damping Influence

System Damping controls the amplitude of vibration at critical speed.

With low damping there is poor dissipation of energy and amplitude is high

Amplification factor Q through resonance is an indicator of damping

Units)

It predominates the high frequency spectrum

Measure displacement at low frequency, velocity at medium frequencies and acceleration at

high frequencies

asic Concepts IV

Basic Rotor and Stator System

Forces generated in the rotor are transmitted through the bearings and supports to the

foundation

Displacement probe is mounted on the bearing housing which itself is vibrating. Shaft vibration

measured by such a probe is, therefore, relative to the bearing housing

Bearing housing vibration measured by accelerometer or velocity probe is an absolute

measurement

Lateral motion involves displacement from its central position or flexural deformation. Rotation

is about an axis intersecting and normal to the axis of rotation

Axial Motion occurs parallel to the rotors axis of rotation

Torsional Motion involves rotation of rotors transverse sections relative to one another about its

axis of rotation

Vibrations that occur at frequency of rotation of rotor are called synchronous vibrations.

The mobility of the bearings and supports are also frequency dependent. Mobility = Vibration /

Force

Resultant Vibration = Force x Mobility

Relative shaft displacement has limited frequency range but has high amplitude at low

frequencies running speed, subsynchronous and low harmonic components

Accelerometer has high signal at high frequencies rotor to stator interaction frequencies

blade passing, vane passing

Shaft relative is measured by displacement transducer mounted on casing

Shaft Absolute is the sum of Casing Absolute and Shaft Relative.

(Selecting the Right Parameter)

Machines with high stator to rotor weight ratio ( For example in syngas comp the ratio may

exceed 20)

Machines with hydrodynamic sleeve bearings

Almost all high speed compressor trains

Machines with rolling element bearings have no shaft motion relative to bearing housing.

Rolling Element bearings have zero clearance

Shaft vibration is directly transmitted to bearing housing

Shaft absolute displacement

Machines with lightweight casings or soft supports that have significant casing vibration

Machinery protection

Low frequency (up to 120,000 CPM) information for analysis

Many rotor- stator interactions generate high frequency vibrations that are transferred to the

bearing housing

Vane passing frequency in compressors

Blade passing frequency in turbines

These frequencies provide useful information on the condition and cleanliness of blades and

vanes

These vibrations are best measured on the bearing housing using high-frequency

accelerometers.

Periodic measurements with a data collector.

Precession is the locus of the centerline of the shaft around the geometric centerline

Normally direction of precession will be same as direction of rotation

During rubbing shaft may have reverse precession

Velocity is expressed in peak units (not RMS units)

Severity lines are in velocity

Displacement severity can be found only with reference to frequency.

In metric units

Very rough > 16 mm/sec

Rough

> 8 mm/sec

Slightly rough > 4 mm/sec

Fair

- 2 4 mm/sec

Good

- 1 2 mm/sec

Basic Concept V

Vibration Transducers

Microphone - sound (mechanical) to electrical energy

Speaker - electrical to mechanical energy

Thermometer - thermal to electrical energy

Vibration is mechanical energy

It must be converted to electrical signal so that it can easily be measured and analyzed.

Commonly used Vibration Transducers

Noncontact Displacement Transducer

Seismic Velocity Transducer

Piezoelectric Accelerometer

Transducers should be selected depending on the parameter to be measured.

Proximity probes measure the displacement of shaft relative to the bearing housing

They observe the static position and vibration of shaft

By mounting two probes at right angles the actual dynamic motion (orbit) of the shaft can be

observed

(Eddy Current Proximity Probe)

Measures the distance (or lift off) of a conducting surface from the tip of the probe

Measures gap and nothing else.

Coil at probe tip is driven by oscillator at around 1.5 MHz

If there is no conducting surface full voltage is returned

Conducting surface near coil absorbs energy

Therefore, voltage returned is reduced

Proximitor output voltage is proportional to gap

Proximitor has a nonlinear amplifier to make the output linear over a certain voltage range

For a 24 Volt system the output is linear from 2.0 to 18.0 volts

Only probe that can measures shaft position both radial and axial

Good signal response between DC to 90,000 CPM

Flat phase response throughout operating range

Simple calibration

Rugged and reliable construction

Suitable for installation in harsh environments

Available in many configurations

Multiple machinery applications for same transducer vibration, position, phase, speed

Sensitive to measured surface material properties like conductivity, magnetism and finish

Scratch on shaft would be read as vibration

Variation in shaft hardness would be read as vibration

Low response above 90,000 CPM

External power source and electronics required

Probe must be permanently mounted. Not suitable for hand-holding

Machine must be designed to accept probes difficult to install if space has not been provided

Permanent magnet is attached to the case. Provides strong magnetic field around suspended

coil

Coil of fine wire supported by low-stiffness springs

Voltage generated is directly proportional to velocity of vibration

The coil, supported by low stiffness springs, remains stationary in space

So relative motion between coil and magnet is relative motion of vibrating part with respect to

space

Faster the motion higher the voltage

All velocity pick ups have low natural frequency (300 to 600 CPM)

Therefore, cannot measure low frequencies in the resonant range.

It is a linear self generator with a high output

IRD 544 pick up 1080 mv 0-pk / in/sec= 42 mv / mm/sec

Bently pick up 500 mv 0-pk / in/sec = 19.7 mv / mm/sec

High voltage Output

Can be read directly on volt meter or oscilloscope

Since no electronics needed in signal path, signal is clean and undistorted. High signal to noise

ratio

Good frequency response from 600 to 90,000 CPM

Signal can be integrated to provide displacement

Easy external mounting, no special wiring required

Mechanically activated system. Therefore, limited in frequency response 600 to 90,000 CPM

Amplitude and phase errors below 1200 CPM

Frequency response depends on mounting

Large size. Difficult to mount if space is limited

Potential for failure due to spring breakage.

Limited temperature range usually 120oC

High temperature coils available for use in gas turbines but they are expensive

High cost compared to accelerometers

Accelerometer cost dropping velocity pick up increasing

Note - Velocity transducers have largely been replaced by accelerometers in most applications.

Basic Concept VI

Piezoelectric Accelerometers

Preload screw ensures full contact between crystal & mass

When mounted on a vibrating surface seismic mass imposes a force equal to mass x

acceleration

Charge output of piezo crystal is proportional to applied force

Since mass is constant, output charge is proportional to acceleration

Piezoelectric Accelerometers

Converting Charge to Voltage

Electronic charge amplifier is required to convert charge signal to voltage signal

Impedance of accelerometer is high. Cannot be connected directly to low impedance

instruments

Charge amplifier has high input impedance and low output impedance so that long cables can

be used.

Charge amplifier can be external or internal

In bigger accelerometers amplifier can be located inside

Accelerometers Mounting

This causes a reduction in the upper frequency range

Ideal mounting is by threaded stud on flat surface

Maximum stiffness, highest mounted resonance

Resonant frequency 32 KHz. Usable range 10 KHz.

Magnet mounting simpler but lower response

Resonant frequency drops to 7 Khz. Usable range 2 KHz

Handheld probe convenient but very low frequency response

Due to low stiffness of hand resonant frequency < 2 KHz

Frequency response < 1 KHz

Higher the resonance frequency, higher the useful range

Maximum useable frequency range is 1/3rd of resonance

Resonance frequency, however, depends on mounting

Screw mount has the highest resonance and, therefore the highest frequency response

This film of silicon grease improves contact.

Smaller the magnet higher the frequency response

Use the smallest magnet that holds the accelerometer without slipping. Use a machined

surface for the best grip

Response may change with hand pressure

Repeatability is poor when high frequencies are present

Hand holding accelerometers should be avoided except for low frequency work

Any high frequency vibration in the resonant range will be highly amplified.

Amplification can be up to 30 dB or almost 1,000 times

Filtered amplitudes will be highly distorted

By previous example 32 KHz for screw mount. Only 2 KHz for handholding

Therefore, resonance range should be filtered out

For screw mount low pass filter should be set at 10 KHz

For hand holding filter should be set at 1 KHz.

Analyst must know frequency response of accelerometer used for different mounting conditions.

Filtering can be done in FFT Analyzer by setting maximum frequency correctly.

Advantages of Accelerometers

Rugged and reliable construction

Easy to install on machinery, structures, pipelines

Small size, easiest to install in cramped locations

Good signal response from 600 to 600,000 CPM

Low frequency units can measure down to 6 CPM

High freq units can reach 30 KHz (1,800,000 CPM)

Operates below mounted resonance frequency

Flat phase response throughout operating range

Internal electronics can be used to convert acceleration to velocity Bently Velometer

Units available from a cryogenic temperature of minus 200oC to a high temperature of > 600oC

Disadvantages of Accelerometers

Double integration to displacement suffers from low frequency noise should be avoided

Machine With Both Shaft and Bearing Housing Vibration Monitoring

Spectrum Plot-1

Machines can vibrate at many different frequencies simultaneously 1x, 2x, 3x, vane passing

etc.

Timebase and orbit have frequency information but only a couple of harmonics can be

identified impossible to identify nonsynchronous frequencies

Using an analog tunable analyzer the amplitude and phase at each individual frequency can be

identified but only one at a time.

All frequencies cannot be seen simultaneously.

Trend changes in individual frequencies cannot be followed

Each frequency sweep may take one minute during which short duration transient events may

be missed

Spectrum Plot-2

Spectrum plot is the basic display of a Spectrum Analyzer. It the most important plot for

diagnosis

Spectrum plot displays the entire frequency content of complex vibration signals in a

convenient form.

It has frequency on X-axis and amplitude on Y-axis

It is constructed from sampled timebase waveform of a single transducer displacement,

velocity or acceleration

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculates the spectrum from the sample record which contains a

specific number of waveform samples

Spectrum plots can be used to identify harmonics of running frequency, rolling element bearing

defect frequencies, gear mesh frequencies, sidebands

Illustration of how the previous signal can be described in terms of a frequency spectrum.

Left

- Description in time domain

Right

- Description in frequency domain

Fourier transform is equivalent to applying of a series of digital filters

Filtered frequency components are shown as sine waves (blue)

Phase for each signal can be measured with respect to trigger signal

We can see components amplitude, frequency and phase

If we rotate the plot so that the time axis disappears we see a two dimensional spectrum plot of

amplitude v/s frequency

Component signals now appear as series of vertical lines.

Each line represents a single frequency

Unfortunately, the phase of the components is now hidden.

It is not possible to see phase relationships in spectrum plot.

These plots show why it is impossible to guess the frequency content from the waveform.

Vertical lines in top plot show one revolution

It is clear that 2x and higher frequencies are present

But 3x and 6x could not be predicted from the waveform.

A Fourier spectrum shows all the frequencies present

Logarithmic scaling is useful for comparing signals with very large and very small amplitudes.

Will display all signals and the noise floor also

However, when applied to rotating machinery work

Log scale makes it difficult to quickly discriminate between significant and insignificant

components.

Linear scaling shows only the most significant components.

Weak, insignificant and low-level noise components are eliminated or greatly reduced in scale

Most of our work is done with linear scaling

Log scale greatly amplifies low level signals

It is impossible to read 1% signals in linear scale

It is very easy to read 0.1% signals on the log scale

Assumption OK for constant speed machines .

inaccurate if m/c speed or vibration changes suddenly.

FFT calculates spectrum from sample record

Which has specific number of digital waveform samples

FFT algorithm extends sample length by repeatedly wrapping the signal on itself

Unless number of cycles of signal exactly matches length of sample there will be discontinuity

at the junction

This introduces noise or leakage into the spectrum

This problem is reduced by windowing

Forces signal smoothly to zero at end points

Hanning window best compromise for machinery work

Effect of Windowing

Two examples of half spectrum plots are shown below

Without window function the lines are not sharp and widen at the bottom

This leakage is due to discontinuity at sample record ending

When Hanning window is applied to the sample record 1/2x spectral line is narrower and

higher

Noise floor at base is almost gone.

Full Spectrum

Full Spectrum is the spectrum of an ORBIT

Derived from waveforms of two orthogonal probes

These two waveforms provide phase information to determine direction of precession at each

frequency

For phase accuracy they must be sampled at same time

Calculated by performing a FFT on each waveform

These FFTs are subjected to another transform

Data converted to two new spectra one for each direction of precession Forward or Reverse

Two spectra are combined into a single plot

Forward to the right, Reverse to the left

First

Waveform and its half spectrum

Second

Waveform and its half spectrum

Forward Precession

Spectrum on forward side of plot

<--

Reverse Precession

Spectrum on reverse side of plot

Direction of rotation CCW

Spectrum on forward side of plot

Direction of rotation CW

<-- Reverse Precession

Spectrum on reverse side of plot

Direction of rotation - CW

Forward spectrum length is twice the length of forward rotating vector

Reverse spectrum length is twice the length of reverse rotating vector

Major axis of ellipse = a +b

Minor axis of ellipse = a - b

Original orbit cannot be reconstructed from full spectrum because there is no phase

information.

3 possible orbits are shown

components.

components

Therefore, the smaller the difference between components, the more elliptical the

orbit.

Full spectrum clarifies the complex orbit which is a sum of x, 1x and their harmonics.

From the ratio of forward ad reverse components

1x is the largest, forward and mildly elliptical

x and 2x orbits are nearly line orbits

Small component of 3/2 x is third harmonic of x fundamental

Half and full spectrum display of a x rub (red data) and fluid induced instability (blue

data)

Note similarity in appearance of the two half spectrum plots

The full spectrum plots clearly show the difference in the subsynchronous vibration

The x rub orbit is extremely elliptical small difference between forward and reverse

components

The fluid induced instability orbit is forward and nearly circular large difference

between forward and reverse 1x and x components.

The unfiltered orbits are at the bottom

Full Spectrum Cascade Plot of Machine Start Up

Order lines drawn diagonally from the origin show vibration frequencies that are

proportional to running speed

Base of each spectrum is the rotor speed at which the sample was taken

Diagonal lines are Order lines. Usually 1x, 2x and x are plotted

Resonances and critical speed can be seen on 1x diagonal line

Sudden appearance of x indicates rub which can produce harmonics.

Phase relationships cannot be seen on cascade plot.

Many harmonics at low speed usually due to scratches on shaft

Vertical ellipse shows x rub frequency is almost equal to first critical. Slight shift to

right is due to stiffening of rotor system from rub contact.

Time on left and Running Speed on right. Amplitude scale is at extreme right

high (red). 1x component is not shown on plot.

High vibration at mains frequency (60 Hz) during start up (red). 1x is low.

Vibration reduces when normal speed and current are reached (green)

Summary

Conventional spectrum is constructed from the output waveform of a single transducer

Full Spectrum is constructed from the output of a pair of transducers at right angles.

Displays frequency and direction of precession

Forward precession frequencies are shown on right side

Reverse Precession frequencies are shown on left side

Full spectrum is the spectrum of an orbit

Ratio of forward and reverse orbits gives information about ellipticity and direction of

precession

However, there is no information about orientation of orbit

Cascade and Waterfall plots can be be constructed either from half or full spectra

The Orbit

The orbit represents the path of the shaft centerline within the bearing clearance.

Two orthogonal probes are required to observe the complete motion of the shaft within.

The dynamic motion of the shaft can be observed in real time by feeding the output of the two

orthogonal probes to the X and Y of a dual channel oscilloscope

If the Keyphasor output is fed to the Z axis, a phase reference mark can be created on the orbit

itself

The orbit, with the Keyphasor mark, is probably the most powerful plot for machinery diagnosis

Precession

Once a gyroscope starts to spin, it will resist changes in the orientation of its spin axis. For

example, a spinning top resists toppling over, thus keeping its spin axis vertical. If atorque, or

twisting force, is applied to the spin axis, the axis will not turn in the direction of the torque, but

will instead move in a direction perpendicular to it. This motion is called precession. The

wobbling motion of a spinning top is a simple example of precession. The torque that causes

the wobbling is the weight of the top acting about its tapering point. The modern gyroscope was

developed in the first half of the 19th cent. by the

Construction of an Orbit

A notch in the shaft (at a different axial location) is detected by the Keyphasor transducer.

The vibration transducer signals produce two time base plots (middle) which combine into an

orbit plot (right)

On the left side, when the probes are mounted at 0o and 90oR, the orbit plot and oscilloscope

display show the same view.

On the right, when the probes are mounted at 45oL and 45oR, the orbit plots are automatically

rotated

The oscilloscope, however, must be physically rotated 45oCCW to display the correct orbit

orientation

Orbit at left shows subsynchronous fluid-induced instability. Note the multiple keyphasor dots

because the frequency is not a fraction of the running speed

The orbit at right is predominantly 1X. The keyphasor dots appear in a small cluster indicating

dominant 1X behavior

Slow roll vector compensation can considerably change the amplitude and phase of the orbit

Note how compensation makes the orbit (right) much clearer

Not- 1X Compensation of an Orbit

At right is the same orbit with the 1X component removed

The remaining vibration is primarily 1/2X from a rub

X transducer measurement axis is drawn together with perpendicular lines that are tangent to

maximum and minimum points on the orbit

In the orbit plot shaft moves from the blank towards the dot. In the plot on left the inside loop is

forward precession

In the right orbit the shaft has reverse precession for a short time at the outside loop at bottom

Orbits are from two different steam turbines with opposite rotation. Both machines are

experiencing high radial loads

Red arrows indicate the approximate direction of the applied radial load.

Red arcs represent the probable orientation of the bearing wall

When keyphasor dots of simultaneous orbits at various bearings along the length of the rotor

are joined an estimate of the three dimensional deflection shape of the rotor shaft can be

obtained

* This is a rigidly coupled rotor system

Vibration Vector

1x vector is 90 mic pp /220o

Zero reference is at the transducer angular location

Phase angle increases opposite to direction of rotation

Polar Plot

Vector arrow is omitted and the points are connected with a line

1x uncompensated Polar Plot shows location of rotor high spot relative to transducer

This is true for 1x circular orbits and approximately true for 1x elliptical orbits

Bode Plot displays the same vibration vector data as the Polar Plot

Vibration amplitude and phase are plotted separately on two plots

with speed on the

horizontal axis.

Slow roll compensation removes slow roll runout from filtered vibration

What remains is mainly the dynamic response

Compensated vector has zero amplitude at the compensation speed

In a Bode plot balance resonance is indicated by peak amplitude and sharp, significant change

of phase at the frequency of the peak.

On Polar plot rotor modes will produce large, curving loops.Small system resonances are more

easily visible as distinctive small loops

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