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# 1.

2 MOLE CONCEPT

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MATTER

Learning Outcome
At the end of this topic, students should be
able :
(a) Define mole in terms of mass of
(b) Interconvert between moles, mass, number of
particles, molar volume of gas at s.t.p. and
room temperature.
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MATTER

## (c) Determine empirical and molecular

formulae from mass composition or
combustion data.

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MATTER

## (d) Define and perform calculation for each

of the following concentration
measurements :
i) molarity (M)
ii) molality (m)
iii) mole fraction, X
iv) percentage by mass, % w/w
v) percentage by volume, %V/V
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MATTER

## (e) Determine the oxidation number of an

element in a chemical formula.
(f) Write and balance :
i) chemical equation by inspection
method
ii) redox equation by ion-electron
method

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MATTER

## (g) Define limiting reactant and percentage

yield.
(h) Perform stoichiometric calculations
using mole concept including reactant
and percentage yield.

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MATTER

A

## mole is defined as the amount of

substance which contains equal number of
particles (atoms / molecules / ions) as
there are atoms in exactly 12.000g of
carbon-12.

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MATTER

One

## mole of carbon-12 atom has a mass of

exactly 12.000 grams and contains 6.02 x 1023
atoms.

The

Constant.

NA =

## 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

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MATTER

Example
1.0 mole of chlorine atom

= 35.5 g Cl

molecules

## = 6.02 x 1023 chlorine

molecules
= 71.1 g Cl2
= 6.022 x 1023 x 2 chlorine
atoms

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## = 6.02x 1023 molecules

= 6.02 x 1023 x 4 atoms
= 6.02 x 1023 N atom
= 6.02 x 1023 X 3 H atoms
MATTER

Molar Mass
The

## mass of one mole of an element or one

mole of compound is referred as molar mass.

Unit

: g mol-1

Example:

molar mass of Mg
molar mass of CH4

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=
=
=
MATTER

24 g mol-1
(12 + 4) gmol-1
16 g mol-1
10

Number of Mole
Mass
(g)
Mass
(g)
Number
Number of
of mole
mole
-1-1
Molar
Mass
(g
mol
Molar Mass (g mol ))

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MATTER

11

Example 1
In
In 14
14ggof
of N
N22 ,,calculate;
calculate;
-1-1
i.i. Number
of
moles
molecule
if
molar
mass

28
g
mol
Number of moles molecule if molar mass 28 g mol
ii.
ii.Number
Numberof
of molecule
molecule
iii.
iii.Number
Numberof
of atoms
atoms

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MATTER

12

Solution
Solution::
-1-1
i.i. Number
of
moles
molecule
if
molar
mass

28
gmol
Number of moles molecule if molar mass 28 gmol
Mass
(g)
Mass
(g)
Number
of
mole
molecules
N

## Number of mole molecules N22

-1-1
Molar
Mass
(g
mol
Molar Mass (g mol ))
14
gg
14

-1-1
28
g
mol
28 g mol
0.5
0.5mol
mol

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MATTER

13

Example 1 (cont)
ii.
ii.Number
Numberof
ofmolecule
molecule
Number
N
Numberof
of molecules
molecules
N22Number
Numberof
ofmole
mole xxN
NAA
23
0.5
x
6.022
x
10
0.5x 6.022x 1023
23
3.011
x
10
3.011x 1023 molecules
molecules

iii.
of
iii.Number
Number
ofatoms
atoms
11 molecule
moleculeof
ofN
N22 contains
contains22 atoms
atomsof
of N
N
23
23
23moleculeofN contains2 x 3.011
3.011
x
10
x
10
3.011x 10 moleculeofN22 contains2 x 3.011x 1023atoms
atomsof
of N
N
23
6.022
x
10
6.022x 1023 atoms
atoms

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MATTER

14

Example 2
Calculate
33
Calculate the
thenumber
numberH
Hatom
atomin
in11mole
moleof
ofNH
NH
11 mole
33 contains
moleof
ofNH
NH
contains33 moles
molesof
ofH
H atoms
atoms
Number
of
atoms
Number
of
atoms
Number
Numberof
ofmoles
moles
N
NA
A

23
Number
of
atoms

3
x
6.022
x
10
Numberof atoms 3 x 6.022x 1023
24
1.807
x
10
1.807x 1024atoms
atoms

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MATTER

15

Example 3
Calculate
Calculate the
the number
number of
of bromide
bromide ions
ions in
in 22 moles
moles of
of CaBr
CaBr22
11 mole
mole of
of CaBr
CaBr22 contains
contains 22 moles
moles of
of bromide
bromide ions
ions
22 mole
mole of
of CaBr
CaBr22 contains
contains 44 moles
moles of
of bromide
bromide ions
ions
so,
so,
23
Number
of
bromide
ions

4
x
6.022
x
10
Number of bromide ions 4 x 6.022 x 10 23
24
1.2046
x
10
1.2046 x 10 24ions
ions

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MATTER

16

Molar

Where,
T
= 273.15 K
P
= 1 atm

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MATTER

17

## mole of gas has a volume of 22.4 dm3 at s.t.p

At s.t.p,
volume of gas (dm3) = number of mole X 22.4
dm3 mol-1

## mole of gas has a volume of 24.0 dm3 at room

temperature
At room temperature,
volume of gas (dm3) = number of mole X 24.0
dm3 mol-1

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MATTER

18

Example 1
AA balloon
balloon isis filled
filled with
with hydrogen
hydrogen gas
gas atat s.t.p.
s.t.p.
33
IfIf the
volume
of
the
ballon
is
2.24
dm
the volume of the ballon is 2.24 dm ,, calculate
calculate
the
the amount
amount (mole)
(mole) of
of hydrogen
hydrogen gas.
gas.
Solution
Solution 1,
1,
33
22.4
dm
22.4 dm consists
consists 11 mol
mol of
of hydrogen
hydrogen gas
gas
11
33
2.24
xx2.24
2.24dm
dm consists
consists
2.24 mol
mol of
of hydrogen
hydrogen gas
gas
22.4
22.4
so,
so,
Number
Number of
of mole
mole00..11 mol
mol
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MATTER

19

## Cont from example 1

Solution 2,
volume of gas (dm 3 )
Number of mole
3
1
22.4 dm mol
2.24dm 3

3
1
22.4 dm mol
0.1 mol

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MATTER

20

Exercise
A sample of CO2 has a volume of 56 cm3 at STP. Calculate:
a.

0.0025 mol

b.

## The number of molecular

1.506 x 1021 molecules

c.

3.011x1021atoms
Note:
1 dm3 =
1000 cm3
1 dm3 =
1L
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MATTER

21

-

## Empirical formula is a chemical formula

that shows the simplest ratio of all
elements in a molecule.
Molecular formula is a formula that show
the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule.

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MATTER

22

## The relationship between empirical formula and

molecular formula is :
Molecular formula = n ( empirical formula )
Where ;

## relative molecular mass

n
emprical formula mass
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MATTER

23

Example
A sample of hydrocarbon contains 85.7%
carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Its
molar mass is 56. Determine the empirical
formula and molecular formula of the
compound.

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MATTER

24

Solution :
C

85.7

14.3

Number of mol

85.7
12
7.1417

14.3
1
14.3

Simplest ratio

mass

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MATTER

25

## relative molecular mass

n
emprical formula mass
56
14
4

n = 56
14
= 4

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MATTER

26

## 1.2.2 Concentration of Solution

Solution
When an amount of solute dissolved completely in a solvent and
it will form a homogeneous mixture.

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MATTER

27

Exercise
A combustion of 0.202 g of an organic sample that
contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen produce
0.361g carbon dioxide and 0.147 g water. If the
relative molecular mass of the sample is 148,
what is the molecular formula.
Ans : C6H12O4

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MATTER

28

## Units of concentration of a solution:

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Molarity
Molality
Mole Fraction
Percentage by Mass
Percentage byVolume

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MATTER

29

A. Molarity (M)

## The number of moles of solute per cubic decimetre

(dm3) or litre (L) of solution.

moles
of
solute
(mol)
moles
of
solute
(mol)
molarity,
M

molarity, M
33
volume
volume of
of solution
solution (dm
(dm ))
-3-3
-1-1
Unit
:
mol
dm
or
mol
L
Unit : mol dm or mol L or
or molar
molar

Note:
1 dm3 =
1000 cm3
1L
=
1000 mL
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MATTER

30

Example
Calculate
Calculate the
the molarity
molarity of
of aa solution
solution of
of 1.71
1.71gg sucrose
sucrose (C
(C1212HH2222OO1111))
ddissolved
issolved in
in aa 0.5
0.5LL of
of water.
water.
[Ar
[Ar HH1,1, CC12,
12, OO16
16 ]]
Solution,
Solution,
Molar
Molar mass
mass of
of sucrose
sucrose(12x2)
(12x2)22
22(11
(11xx16
16))
1
342
g
mol
342 g mol 1

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MATTER

31

Cont
mass
Number of mole of sucrose
molar mass
1.71 g

342 g mol 1
0.005 mol
mole of sucrose
molarity of solution sucrose
volume of solution
0.005 mol

0.5 L
0.01 mol L-1
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MATTER

32

Exercises
How
How many
many grams
grams of
of potassium
potassium dichromate
dichromate,, KK2Cr
2Cr2O7
2O7 required
required
to
to prepare
prepare aa solution
solution of
of 250
250mL
mL with
with 2.16
2.16M?
M?
[Ar
[Ar KK 39
39.1,
.1, Cr
Cr 52,
52, OO16
16 ]]
Ans
Ans::158
158.87
.87
AA ,,matriculat
ion
prepared
by
matriculat
ionstudent
student
preparedaa solution
solution
by dissolving
dissolving
3
0.586
g
of
sodium
carbonate,
Na
CO
in
250
cm
0.586g of sodiumcarbonate,Na22CO33 in 250 cm3 of
of water.
water.

Calculate
Calculateits
itsmolarity?
molarity?
[Ar
,, CC12,
[Ar Na
Na23
23
12, O
O16
16]]
-3
Ans
:
0
.
0221
moldm
Ans: 0.0221moldm-3

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MATTER

33

B. Molality (m)

## Molality is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1

kg of solvent

moles
of
moles
of
molality,
m

molality, m
mass
mass of
of

solute
solute (mol)
(mol)
solvent
solvent (kg)
(kg)

-1-1

unit
unit :: mol
molkg
kg or
or molal
molal or
or m
m

Note:
Mass of solution
Volume

of solution

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mass of solute +
mass of solvent
volume of solvent
MATTER

34

Example 1
Calculate the molality of sulphuric acid
solution containing 24.4 g of sulphuric acid
in 198 g of water?
[molar mass H 2 SO 4 98.08 g mol ]
-1

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MATTER

35

Solution :
n H SO
2

mass

molar mass
24.4 g

98.08 g mol 1
0.2488 mol

## moles of solute (mol)

Molality of H 2 SO 4
mass of solvent (kg)
0.2488 mol

0.198 kg
1.26 m
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MATTER

36

Example 2
What is the molal concentration of a solution
prepared by dissolving 0.30 mol of CuCl 2 in
40.0 mol of water?
[molar mass H 2 O 18.02 g mol ]
-1

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MATTER

37

Solution :
nH O
2

mass

molar mass

mass of H 2 O

## 40.0 mol x 18.02 gmol 1

720.8 g or 7208 kg

## moles of solute (mol)

Molality of H 2 O
mass of solvent (kg)
0.3 mol

0.7208 kg
0.416 m
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MATTER

38

Exercises
What
What isis the
the molality
molality of
of aa solution
solution containing
containing 7.78
7.78gg
of
of urea
urea [(NH
[(NH22))22CO]
CO] in
in 203
203gg water?
water?
Ans
Ans::00..639
639m
m

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MATTER

39

A
A solution
solution containing
containing 121.8
121.8gg of
of Zn(NO
Zn(NO33))22 per
per litre
litre
has
has aa density
density of
of 1.107
1.107 ggmL
mL .. Calculate
Calculate its
its molal
molal
- -1
- -1

concentrat
concentration.
ion.
Ans
Ans::00..653
653 m
m

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MATTER

40

Mole

## fraction is the ratio of the number of moles

of one component to the total number of moles
of all component present.

moles
of
AA
moles
of
mole
mole fraction
fraction of
of component
component A,
A, XXAA
total
total number
number of
of moles
moles
of
of all
all component
component
nnAA
XXAA
nntotal
total

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MATTER

41

It

The

## total mol fraction in a mixture

(solution) is equal to one.
XA + XB + XC = 1

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MATTER

42

Example 1
What is the mole fraction of CuCl 2 in a solution
prepared by dissolving 0.30 mol of CuCl 2 in
40.0 mol of water?
[molar mass H 2 O 18.02 g mol ]
-1

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MATTER

43

Solution :
nCuCl
X CuCl
n total

0.3

0.3 40
0.007
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MATTER

44

XHO
2

nH O
2

n total

40

0.3 40
0.993
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MATTER

45

XCuCl2 XH2O 1
XH2O 1 0.007
0.093
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MATTER

46

Example 2
A solution is prepared by mixing 55 g of toluene,
C 7 H 8 and 55 g of bromobenzene C 6 H 5 Br.
What is the mole fraction of each component?
[Ar C 12.01, H 1.01, Br 79.9]

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MATTER

47

Step2 :

Step1:
nC7H8

55
7(12.01)
8(1.01)

55
92.15

0.5969mol

Step3 :
XC7H8

0.5969

0.5969 0.3491
0.63

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nC6H5Br

55
6(12.01)
5(1.01)
79.90
55
157.55

0.3491mol

Step4 :
XC 6H5Br

0.3491
0.5969 0.3491

0.37

MATTER

48

## Percentage by mass is defined as the percentage of the

mass of solute per mass of solution.

mass
of
solute
mass
of
solutex100
w
%
% ww mass of solution
x100
w massof solution
note
mass
mass
note:: mass
massof
ofsolution
solution
massof
ofsolute
solute
massof
ofsolvent
solvent

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MATTER

49

Example 1
A sample of 0.892 g of potassium chloride, KCl is
dissolved in 54.3 g of water. What is percentage by
mass in the solution?
Solution
::
Solution
mass
of
solute
mass
of
solutex100
w
%

% ww mass of solution
x100
w mass of solution
00.892
.892 x100

x100
00.892
.3
.89254
54
.3
1.61%
1.61%

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MATTER

50

Example 2
Calculate the amount of water (in grams) that must
be added to 5.00 g of urea in the preparation of a 16.2
percent by mass solution.

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MATTER

51

Solution
::
Solution
mass
massof
ofsolute
solutex100
w
%

w
% w massof solution
x100
w mass of solution
55
16.2

xx100
16.2massof solution
100
massof solution
55
mass
of
solution

mass of solution
16.2xx100
100
16.2
30.86
gg
30.86
mass
mass
mass
massof
ofsolution
solution
massof
ofsolute
solute
massof
ofsolvent
solvent
30.86
5.00
mass
30.86
5.00
massof
ofsolvent
solvent

30.86
--5.00
mass
massof
ofsolvent
solvent
30.86
5.00
25.86
gg
25.86

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MATTER

52

Exercises
1.
1.How
Howmany
many grams
grams of
of NaOH
NaOH and
and water
water are
are needed
needed
to
to prepare
prepare 250.0
250.0gg of
of 1.00%
1.00% NaOH
NaOH solution?
solution?
Ans
Ans::22..50
50gg;; 247.5
247.5gg

2.2.Hydrochlor
Hydrochloricic acid
acid can
canbe
be purchased
purchased as
as aa solution
solution of
of 37%
37%
HCl.
HCl. What
Whatisisthe
themass
mass of
of this
this solution
solution contains
contains 7.5
7.5gg of
of HCl?
HCl?
Ans
Ans::20
20.27
.27 gg

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MATTER

53

## Percentage by volume is defined as the percentage of

volume of solute in milliliter per volume of solution in
milliliter.
volume
of
solute
(mL)
volume
of
solute
(mL) x 100
V
%
% VV
x 100
of
solution
(mL)
V volume
volume of solution (mL)
note
note::
mass
of
solution
mass
of
solution
Density
Density of
of solution
solution
volume
volume of
of solution
solution
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MATTER

54

Example
A 200mL of perfume contains 28 mL of alcohol.
What is the % by volume of alcohol in this solution?
Solution
Solution::
volume of
of alcohol
alcohol (mL)
(mL)x 100
VV volume
%
% V volume of solution (mL) x 100
V volume of solution (mL)
28
28 xx100
100
200
200
14
14%
%

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MATTER

55

A chemical

## equation shows a chemical

reaction using symbols for the reactants
and products.
The formulae of the reactants are written
on the left side of the equation while the
products are on the right.

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MATTER

56

Example:

xA

yB

zC

Reactants

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wD

Products

MATTER

57

## The total number of atoms of each

element is the same on both sides in a
balanced equation.

## The number x, y, z and w, showing the

relative number of molecules reacting,
are called the stoichiometric coefficients.

## The methods to balance an equation:

Inspection Method
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MATTER

58

Inspection Method
a.

## Write down the unbalanced equation. Write the

correct formulae for the reactants and products.

b.

c.

d.

## Check to ensure that the total number of atoms of

each element is the same on both sides of equation.

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MATTER

59

Example
Balance the chemical equation by applying the
inspection method.

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MATTER

60

Exercise
1.

## Balance the chemical equation below by applying

inspection method.
a.

b.

d.

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MATTER

61

Redox

## reaction is a reaction that involves

both reduction and oxidation.

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MATTER

62

Oxidation
The

## substance loses one or more

elactrons.
Increase in oxidation number
Act as an reducing agent (reductant)

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MATTER

63

Reduction
The

## substance gains one or more

elactrons.
decrease in oxidation number
Act as an oxidising agent (oxidant)

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MATTER

64

## Oxidation numbers of any atoms can be

determined by applying the following rules:

1.

## In a free element , as an atom or a molecule the

oxidation number is zero.
Example:
Na
=
0
Cl2
=
0
Br2

Mg

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O2

MATTER

65

2.

## For monoatomic ion, the oxidation

number is equal to the charge on the
ion.
Example:
Na+ =
+1
Mg2+ =
+2
Al3+ =
+3
S2- =
-2

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MATTER

66

3.

## Fluorine and other halogens always have

oxidation number of -1 in its compound.
Only have a positive number when
combine with oxygen.
Example:
Oxidation number of F in NaF =
-1
Oxidation number of Cl in HCl =
-1
Oxidation number of Cl in Cl2O7 =
+7

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MATTER

67

4.

## Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in its

compound except in metal hydrides which hydrogen
has an oxidation number of -1
Example:
Oxidation number of H in HCl
=
+1
Oxidation number of H in NaH
=
-1
Oxidation number of H in MgH2
=
-1

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MATTER

68

5.

## Oxygen has an oxidation number of -2 in

most of its compound.
Example:
Oxidation number of O in MgO
Oxidation number of O in H2O

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MATTER

=
=

-2
-2

69

## However there are two exceptional cases:

- in peroxides, its oxidation number is -1
Example:
Oxidation number of O in H2O2
=
-1
-

## When combine with fluorine, posses a

positive oxidation number
Example:
Oxidation number of O in OF2
=

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MATTER

+2

70

6.

## In neutral molecule, the sum of the

oxidation number of all atoms that
made up the molecule is equal to zero.
Example:
Oxidation number of H2O
=
0
Oxidation number of HCl
Oxidation number of KMnO4

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MATTER

=
=

0
0

71

7.

## For polyatomic ions, the total oxidation

number of all atoms that made up the
polyatomic ion must be equal to the nett
charge of the ion.
Example:
Oxidation number of KMnO4-

-1

-2

## Oxidation number of NO3-

-1

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MATTER

72

Example :
Assign the oxidation number of Cr in Cr2O72-.
Solution :
Cr2O7 = -2
2 Cr + 7 (-2) = -2
2 Cr = + 12
Cr = + 6

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MATTER

73

Exercise
1.

## Assign the oxidation number of Mn in the following

chemical compounds.
i. MnO2
ii.
MnO4-

2.

## Assign the oxidation number of Cl in the following

chemical compounds.
i. KClO3
ii.
Cl2O72-

3.

## Assign the oxidation number of following:

i. Cr in K2Cr2O7
ii. U in UO22+
iii.C in C2O4205/20/16

MATTER

74

Redox

solutions.

Follow

## the steps systematically so that

equations become easier to balance.

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MATTER

75

## Balancing Redox Reaction In Acidic

Solution
Fe2+ + MnO4- Fe3+ + Mn2+
1.

## Divide the equation into two half reactions, one

involving oxidation and the other reduction
i. Fe2+ Fe3+
ii.MnO4- Mn2+

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MATTER

76

2.

## Balance each half-reaction

a.
first, balance the element other
than oxygen and hydrogen
i.
Fe2+ Fe3+
ii. MnO4- Mn2+

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MATTER

77

b.

## second, balance the oxygen atom by adding H2O

i.
Fe2+ Fe3+
ii.
MnO4- + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O

c.

## then, balance the charge by adding electrons to the

side with the greater overall positive charge.
i.
Fe2+ Fe3+ + 1e
ii.
MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O
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MATTER

78

## 3. Multiply each half-reaction by an interger, so that number of electron

lost in one half-reaction equals the number gained in the other.
i.
5 x (Fe2+ Fe3+ + 1e)
5Fe2+ 5Fe3+ + 5e
ii. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O
4. Add the two half-reactions and simplify where possible by canceling
species appearing on both sides of the equation.
i.
5Fe2+ 5Fe3+ + 5e
ii. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O
____________________________________________
5Fe2+ + MnO4- + 8H+ 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O

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MATTER

79

5.

## Check the equation to make sure that there

are the same number of atoms of each kind
and the same total charge on both sides.
5Fe2+ + MnO4- + 8H+
Total charge reactant
= 5(+2) + (-1) + 8(+1)
= + 10 - 1 + 8
= +17

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## Total charge product

= 5(+3) + (+2) + 4(0)
= + 15 + (+2)
= +17

MATTER

80

## Example: In Acidic Solution

C2O42- + MnO4- + H+ CO2 + Mn2+ + H2O
Solution:
1.
i. Oxidation

C2O42- CO2

ii. Reduction

MnO4- Mn2+

2.

i. C2O42- 2CO2
ii. MnO4- + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O

3.

i. C2O42- 2CO2 + 2e
ii. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O
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MATTER

81

4. i.

## 5 x (C2O42- 2CO2 + 2e)

5C2O42- 10CO2 + 10e

ii.

## 2 x (MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O)

2MnO4- + 16H+ + 10e 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

5. i.
ii.

## 5C2O42- 10CO2 + 10e

2MnO4- + 16H+ + 10e 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

_________________________________________________
5C2O42- + 2MnO4- + 16H+ 10CO2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O

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MATTER

82

Solution
1.

2.

## Then, add OH- to both sides of the equation so that it

can be combined with H+ to form H2O.

3.

## The number of hydroxide ions (OH-) added is equal to

the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in the equation.

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MATTER

83

## Example: In Basic Solution

Cr(OH)3 + IO3- + OH- CrO32- + I- + H2O
Solution:
1.
i. Oxidation

Cr(OH)3 CrO32-

ii. Reduction

IO3- I-

2.

## i. Cr(OH)3 CrO32- + 3H+

ii. IO3- + 6H+ I- + 3H2O

3.

## i. Cr(OH)3 CrO32- + 3H+ + 1e

ii. IO3- + 6H+ + 6e I- + 3H2O
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MATTER

84

4.

## i. 6 x (Cr(OH)3 CrO32- + 3H+ + 1e)

6Cr(OH)3 6CrO32- + 18H+ + 6e
ii. IO3- + 6H+ + 6e I- + 3H2O

5.

## i. 6Cr(OH)3 6CrO32- + 18H+ + 6e

ii. IO3- + 6H+ + 6e I- + 3H2O
________________________________________________
6Cr(OH)3 + IO3- 6CrO32- + I- + 12H+ + 3H2O

6.

7.

## 6Cr(OH)3 + IO3- + 12OH- 6CrO32- + I- + 15H2O

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MATTER

85

Exercise
Balance the following redox equations:
a.
In Acidic Solution
i.
Cu + NO3 + H+ Cu2+ + NO2 + H2O

b.

ii.

iii.

## Zn + SO42- + H+ Zn2+ + SO2 + H2O

In Basic Solution
i.
ClO- + S2O32- Cl- + SO42ii.

## Cl2 ClO3- + Cl-

iii.

NO2 NO3 + NO

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MATTER

86

1.2.5 Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry

## is the quantitative study of

reactants and products in a chemical
reaction.

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MATTER

87

Example:
CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

## 1 mole of CaCO3 reacts with 2 moles of HCl to yield 1

mole of CaCl2, 1 mole of CO2 and 1 mole of H2O.

## Stoichiometry can be used for calculating the

species we are interested in during a reaction.

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MATTER

88

Example 1
How many moles of hydrochloric acid, HCl do we need to react
with 0.5 moles of zinc?

## Solution : Zn (s) 2HCl (l) ZnCl 2 (s) H 2 (g)

From the equation,
1 mole of Zn reacts with 2 mol of HCl
0.5 x 2
0.5 mole of Zn react with
mol of HCl
1
1 mol HCl

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MATTER

89

Example 2
How many moles of H2O will be formed when 0.25 moles of
C2H5OH burns in oxygen?
Solution
:
C 2H5OH 3O2 2CO2 3H2O
Fromtheequation,
1mol of C 2H5OH gives 3 molesof H2O
0.25mol of C 2H5OH gives X molesof H2O

0.25x 3
1

## 0.75 mol H2O

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MATTER

90

Exercise 1
A 16.50 mL 0.1327 M KMnO4 solution is needed
to oxidise 20.00mL of a FeSO4 solution in an
acidic medium. What is the concentration of the
FeSO4 solution? The net ionic equation is:
5Fe 2+ + MnO4- +8H+

Mn 2+ +5Fe 3+ +4H2O

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MATTER

91

Exercise 2
How many mililitres of 0.112 M HCl will react
exactly with the sodium carbonate in 21.2 mL of
0.150 M Na2CO3 according to the following
equation?
2HCl(aq)+Na2CO3(aq)

2NaCl(aq)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)

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MATTER

92

A

## limiting reactant is the reactant that is

completely consumed in a reaction and limits
the amount of products formed.

An

## excess reactant is the reactant that is not

completely consumed in a reaction and
remains at the end of the reaction.

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MATTER

93

Example 1
S + 3F2 SF6
If 4 mol of S reacts with 10 mol of F 2 , which of the two reactants is the
limiting reagent?

Solution :
From the equation,
1 mol of S reacts with 3 moles of F2
4 mol of S reacts with X moles of F2
4x3
X
1
12 mol F2
Compare the n F needed (12 mol) with the n F (10 mol) available
2

## in the question. F2 is in limit, F2 is the limiting reactant.

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MATTER

94

Example 2
C is prepared by reacting A and B :
A + 5B C
In one process, 2 mol of A react with 9 mol of B.
a.
Which is the limiting reactant?
b.
Calculate the number of mole(s) of C?
c.
How much of the excess reactant (in mol) is left at the end of
the reaction?

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MATTER

95

Solution A :
Fromtheequation,
1 mol of A reacts with5 molesof B
2 mol of A reacts withX molesof B

2 x5
1

10 mol H2O
Compare thenB needed (10mol) with the nB (9mol) available
in the question.
B is in limit, Bis thelimitingreactant.

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MATTER

96

Solution B :
The amountof product formedreliesof themolesof B,
thelimitingreactant.
Fromtheequation,
5 mol of B produce with1 molesof C
9 mol of B produce withX molesof C

9 x1
5

1.8 mol C

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MATTER

97

Solution C :
A is theexcess reactant.
Fromtheequation,
5 mol of B produce with1 molesof A
9 mol of B produce withX molesof C
9 x1
X
5
1.8 mol A
The amountexcess reactant 2- 1.8 0.2 mol A
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MATTER

98

Percentage yield
The

## percentage yield is the ratio of the

actual yield (obtained from experiment) to
the theoretical yield (obtained from
stoichiometry calculation) multiply by
100%

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MATTER

99

Percentage yield

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actual yield
x 100%
theoretical yield

MATTER

100

Exercise
In a certain experiment, 14.6g of SbF3 was allowed to react
with CCl4 in excess. After the reaction was finished, 8.62g of
CCl2F2 was obtained.
3 CCl4 +

2 SbF3

3 CCl2F2 +

2 SbCl3

## a) What was the theoretical yield of CCl2F2 in grams ?

b) What was the percentage yield of CCl2F2 ?
Ans
: a) 11.6 g
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b) 74.31
%
MATTER

101