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ANDREW CHOO EXAM TIPS

SPM 2013 SCIENCE EXTRA NOTE FOR PAPER I


FORM 4

CHAPTER 2 BODY COOERDINATION

2.2 Human Nervous System

4. Synapse
i. to connect two neurones together:
a. sensory neurone to relay neurone
b. relay neurone to motor neurone.
ii. A tiny space that allow impulse to travel
chemically from one neuron to another in
one direction.

7. Voluntary actions
Stimuli

Receptor (nose, ear, skin, eye, tongue)

Sensory neurone

Brain (central nervous system)

Motor neurone

3. Spinal Cord
i. Protected by vertebral column.
ii. Inside is grey matter consists of cell
bodies.
iii. Outside is white matter consists of nerve
fibres (axons).
iv. Spinal Cord
a. Connect the brain with the rest of the
body parts if damage would be
paralyzed.
b. Control reflex actions.

Effectors (muscle / gland)

Response
8. Neurone / nerve cell
- Is the basic functional unit of the nervous
system.
- To receive and transmit nervous impulses.
a.
Sensory neurones SPM 10

9 a. Cell body
- Control and activity of the neuron.
b. Dendrites and Dendrons.
i. Received impulses and
ii. Send impulses to the cell body.
c. Axons
- Carry nerves impulse along the nerve.
d. Myelin Sheath
- Insulates, protect axon and speed up the
transmission rate of nerve impulses along
the nerve fibre.
- Transmit nerve impulses from
receptors to the central nervous
system.
- Has a short axon
b.
Relay neurons

10. Kinaesthesis Sense SPM 08


a. contains proprioceptor / stretch receptors
found in muscle, ligaments, tendons and
joints.
i. To maintain the body balance and
coordination without looking at.
ii. Detect the movement, change of
position, muscle stretching, contraction
or twisting.
b. Example,
i. Walking on rope by an acrobat
ii. Buttoning shirt, cycling.
iii. Tying shoe string
iv. Typing, clapping or walking up stairs.
v. Estimate the weight or length of an
object

- Transmit impulse from sensory


neurone to motor neurone.
- Connect sensory neurons with motor
neurons.
- Found inside the central nervous
system / spinal cord.
c.
Motor neurons

Proprioceptor

2.5 Differences between voluntary actions


and involuntary actions. SPM05/12
Voluntary actions Involuntary actions
- Under conscious
- Not under
control based on our
conscious control
needs.
(automatic).
- Learning is
- No learning is
required.
required.
- The same stimulus
- The same stimulus
may lead to
always produces
different response
the same response.
depending on

- Transmit nerve impulse from the


central nervous system to the
effectors which are muscle or glands.
- Have long axons to send nerve
impulses to the effectors.

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different situations.
- Controlled by the
cerebrum.

- Controlled by the
medulla
oblongata or
spinal cord.
- Can be quickened or - Cant be quickened
slowered down.
or slowered down
- eg: writing,
- eg: heartbeat,
speaking, reading
breathing,
and dancing.
yawning,
respiration
digestion, growing.

b.

Receptor

Sensory neurone

Central neurone (Brain)

Motor neurone

2.6 Human Brain SPM 06/10/11/12

Effectors (Muscle / Glands)


Cerebrum consist of: SPM 06/09
i. Sensory area
Touch, sight, smell,
taste, hearing
ii. Motor Area
Movement of muscle
iii. Association
area

1. Protected by cranium.
2. Outer layer is grey matter which consists of

Thinking, speech
memory, reasoning,
imagination.

c. Cerebellum SPM 11
- Maintaining body posture, equilibrium or
body balancing. Control contraction and
relaxation of muscles.
d. Medulla Oblongata
- Controls in involuntary actions, e.g.
heartbeat, breathing, circulation of blood,
peristalsis, swallowing, growing,
digestion and respiration.
- If injured, the person will die.

cell bodies for the growth of the brain.


3. Inside is white matter which consists of nerve

fibers (axons).
4. The brain is highly folded to increase the

surface area to pack more neurons.


5. Divided into right and left cerebral
hemispheres which control opposite side of
the body movements.
6. a. Cerebrum(biggest part)
- Voluntary actions
eg: Speaking, reading, walking, thinking,
swimming
7.
Body Coordination
Nervous system
Endocrine system
a. SIMILARITY
i. Carry out bodys responses towards stimuli.
ii. Both involve four component; stimulus, receptor, effector and response.
iii. Coordinate all body activities and responses
iv. Ensure survival of life
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i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

b. DIFFERENCES
Consists of the brain, spinal cord and
i. Consists of endocrine / ductless glands and
neurons / nerves.
hormones in blood.
In the form of electric impulses.
ii. In form of chemicals known as hormones.
Comes from inside and outside the body. iii. Comes from inside the body.
Fast and often does not last long.
iv. Most of them are slow and long lasting.
Normally localized like the organs and
v. Normally widespread and covers the whole
glands
body.
No feedback mechanism.
vi. Has feedback mechanism and response.

6. Drug Abuse (Excessive use of drug)


a. Drugs is a chemical substance that can
influence the function of the nervous
system and the mind.
b. Types of drugs:
i. Stimulants
iii. Hallucinogen
ii. Depressants
iv. Opiates

ii. Slow down the nervous system,


coordination and movement slows
down and become clumsy.
iii. Blockage in blood capillaries
resulting in unconsciousness.
iv. Dehydration due to freaquent urine.
v. Malnutrition because of loss of
appetite.
vi. Cause obesity, heart disease, liver/
cirrhosis, gastritis/ulcers.
vii. Retard of foetus or birth defect.

c. Effects of drug abuse on health


i. Poor physical and mental health.
ii. Affect the respiratory system, nervous
system, immune system and internal
organ such as liver and the heart.
iii. Lost of appetite and malnutrition.
iv. High risk at contracting HIV/Hepatitis
B because of sharing contaminated
needles.
v. Suffer of vomiting, disease like
pheumonia, bronchitis and flu as the
immune system become weakened.

8. The importance of avoiding excessive


consumption of alcohol
a. Damage to the health.
b. Causes accidents.
c. Contribute to crimes, suicide or spousal
abuse.
d. Leads to a breakdown in the family unity
and causing social problems.

7. Alcohol SPM 03/06


a. Such as ethanol, a psychoactive substances
which influences the central and peripheral
nervous system.
b. Ethanol is produced by fermentation
process of glucose by yeast.

9. Importance of a sound and healthy mind


a. The mind controls how we think, feel and
react.
b. Healthy mind enables a person to think
rationally, choose between the good and the
bad, fair judgments to solve problems,
generate new ideas and lead a happy and
fulfilling life.
c. Factors that influence the mind :
i. Excessive consumption of alcohol
ii. Drug abuse
iii. Hormonal imbalance
iv. Mental stress(insufficient of sleep,
mental anguish , overwork and sadness)

Glucose Yeast

Ethanol + Carbon dioxide


+ Energy

c. Effect of excessive consumption of


alcohol on body coordination.
i. Effect the brain loss of memory,
poor judgment of distance, double
vision, loss of self-control and slurred
in speech.

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v. Brain injury (cause memory loss, nausea,


giddiness and disability)

FORM 4

vi. Physical health, mental health, emotional


health, spiritual health and social
activities.

CHAPTER 3 HEREDITY AND VARIATION

1. Chromosomes
a. Small thread-like structures exist in pairs which contain genes / DNA.
b. Located in the nucleus of a cell.
c. A human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes) which made of acid (DNA) and
protein.
2. Genes (DNA)
a. are base unit of hereditary materials located on chromosomes, which determine characteristics
of a person.
b. exist in pairs.
c.

Genes / DNA
Dominant
- called dominants traits which show the
characteristic /traits when paired with a
dominant or a recessive gene.
TT = tall
Tt = tall

4. a.

Recessive
- which show recessive traits when both genes
are recessive.
tt = short

Type of chromosomes (46)


Autosomes
22pairs
= 44

5. Sex determination- by the chromosome in


sperm
- The probability of having a male or female
child is the 50% because half of the sperms
carry y chromosome and half of other
sperms carry x chromosome (Ratio 1 : 1)

Sex
1pairs
= x/y

Autosome
Sex
44
+
xy
Male
44
+ xx
Female

=
=

Total
46
46

b. Chromosomes in Gametes
sperm = 22 + x / 22 + y
ovum = 22 + x

c.

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9. Mutation
a. is the sudden change to the structure of genes or number of chromosomes
b. can be caused by mutagen such as
i. chemical substances (e.g. pesticide, nicotine in cigarettes, drugs, nitrogenous acid,
preservatives, colouring or artificial sweetener)
ii. radiation (gamma ray, ultraviolet, x-ray)
iii. temperature (too high or low)
c. Advantages
i. cause variation to enable organism to adapt to the environment (more resistant to diseases,
weather or pollutant)
ii. creation of new species.
d. Disadvantages
- cause diseases (colour blindness, haemophilia, anaemia or klinefelters syndrome, polydactyl
trait)
Hereditary Diseases caused by
e. Mutation Gene
f. Mutation Chromosomes
- change in the structure a gene in - changes in the number of chromosomes by mutagen.
the chromosomes x of the
i. eg. Downs syndrome (has small eyes and square
recessive gene by mutagen.
face) (47 chromosomes) presence of one extra
- eg.
chromosomes at the 21st pair of chromosome.
ii. Klinefelters syndrome (has small testis and
a. albinism
b. haemophilia (blood unable
sterile) (47 chromosomes) presence of one extra x
to clog)
( 44 + xxy) chromosome at the sex chromosome
c. anaemia.
(xxy in the male)
d. colour blindness (unable to
iii. Turners syndrome (45 chromosomes) lacks one
differentiate between red and
x chromosome (xo in the female) (44 + ox).
green)
10. Genetic Engineering is to improve the quantity and quality of Crops / livestock
a. In Medicine - to identify heredity / sex linked disease.
b. In Agriculture- : i. Improve the quality of breeds
ii. Bring in new species with higher resistance to disease or pests or environment
iii. Increase production
11. Medicine
- Most heredity disease like colour blindness, haemophilia and albinism are caused by recessive
genes or sex linked genes (x chromosomes).

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12. Agriculture
a. Selective breeding or cross-bred to produce new varieties which have better characteristics.
Example :
i. Oil palm Pisifera and Dura to produce Tenura which bear more fruits, thinner shell and more
oil content.
ii. Artificial insemination where good semen from male animal is placed into the body of
female animal for fertilization
iii. Embryo transfer of good breed to the uterus of a female animal.
iv. Cloning of produce offspring that similar to its parents.
Genetically modified food
Advantages
Disadvantages
Nutritional value of food
Body Health
- Food containing certain nutrients required by - Genetically modified food may not have
the body can be produced
the same nutritional value
Better quality of crops and livestock
Effects of new genes
- Better quality of crops and livestock can be
- New genes in food may be transferred in
produced. Quantity can be increased
human body. Such genes may affect
- Crop and livestock that grow faster can be
functions of human cell.
produced.
Long term effects
- New species of crops and livestock which
adapt better to the change in the
Conservation of environment
- The use of pesticides can be reduced with the
environment might cause authentic
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production of crops which have high


resistance to disease or pests.

FORM 4

species to become extinct.

CHAPTER 4 MATTER AND SUBSTANCES

1. Matter
- Has mass and occupies space
- Exists in the states of solids, liquids and gases.
2. Kinetic theory of matter states that
a. matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles.
b. particles always moving in random motion and collide against one another (Brownian
movement).
c. the moving energy of particles is called the kinetic energy of particles.
d. kinetic energy influence by the temperature of the matter. (Temperature= kinetic energy )
e. particles in an element are similar
3. SPM 10

SPM 10
Solid
- Particles are arranged closely
and orderly in fixed
positions.
- Cannot be compressed.
- Vibrates at their fixed
positions.
- Attraction forces are very
strong
- Kinetic energy is very low

Liquid
- Particles are not orderly
arranged
- Cannot be compressed.
- Particles keep contact with one
another with spaces between
particles.
- Move freely
- Attraction forces is weak.
- Kinetic energy is higher.

Gas
- Particles are further
apart
- Move freely in random
in all direction.
- Attraction force is very
weak and compressible.
- Kinetic energy is the
highest.

4. Sublimation

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liquids and gases.


- eg: when 50 cm 3 of ethanol and 50 cm 3 of
distilled water are mixed, only 98 cm 3 of
mixture are obtained. This is because the
ethanol and water particles occupy each
other spaces between the particles.
6. Brownian motion
- Is random movement example shown by
smoke particles or pollen grains when
knocked about by air particles.

- process where solid changes to gas or gas


to solid without going through the liquid.
- e.g. iodine, dry ice, ammonium chloride
and naphthalene.
5. Diffusion
- can occur because particles move into the
space in between the particles of solids,
7. Changes in the state of matter SPM 05

Graph about cooling of substance

Graph about heating of substance


7b.

c.

AB

BC

CD
SPM
05

DE
SPM
05

- The particles absorb heat and


vibrate faster. Kinetic energy
increases and the temperature rise.
- Melting point (fix temperature
when solid becomes liquid)
- The solid particles have enough
energy to break away from the
rest. The temperature does not
rise because the energy
absorbed is used to break the
force of attraction between the
solid particles to form liquid
particles.
- Completely melt and the kinetic
energy increase causing the
temperature to rise.
- Boiling point (fix temperature
when liquid becomes gas)
- The liquid particles have enough
energy to break away from the
rest. The temperature does not

PQ

QR

RS

ST

- The particles release heat. The kinetic


energy decrease and the temperature
drop.
- Condensation point
- The gas particles lose energy and
become nearer to form liquid. The
temperature does not drop because
the energy is released to increase
the force of attraction between the
gas particles to form liquid
particles.

- Completely become liquid and the


kinetic energy decrease causing the
temperature to drop.
- Freezing point
- The liquid particles begin to arrange
themselves orderly and turn into
solid.
- The temperature does not drop
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EF

rise because energy is absorbed


to break the force of attraction
between the liquid particles to
form gas particles.
- Completely boiled to become gas.
The kinetic energy increases
cause the temperature to rise.

because the energy is released to


pull the liquid particles together to
form solid particles.
TU

- Completely solidify into solid state,


- The temperature drops to room
temperature because the kinetic
energy decrease.

8. Atom (a basic unit of all matter) SPM 09


- all matter consists of tiny units called atoms
Subatomic
Proton
Neutron
Electron

Charge
+ve
neutral
-ve

Relative mass
1 unit
1 unit
1/1840 unit

9. a. Neutral atom is the number of protons equal to the number of electron


b. Ions are atoms which have charges.
i. Positive ion = atom which losses of electrons (Number of electron < proton)
ii. Negative ion = atom which receives more electrons (Number of electron > proton)

14. a. Characteristic or Properties of Metals and Non-Metals SPM 12

Metal
a. Shinny and lustrous
b. Ductile; can be pulled into a wire.
c. Malleable; can be beaten into thin sheet because atoms in
metal can slide over one another easily.
d. Tensile; very strong because of strong metallic bonding.
e. Good conductor of electricity because of free electrons.
f. Good conductor of heat. SPM 08
g. Very dense because atoms in metal are closely packed.
h. Very high boiling and melting points because of very strong
atomic / metallic bonding.
i. e.g. iron, gold, copper, aluminium, zinc.
j. Aluminium is used as food wrapper .
k. Gold is used to make jewellery because malleable (easily slide
over one another), shinny and non-rusting.

Non-Metal SPM 12
a. Dull
b. Brittle or fragile and breaks
easily
c. Not malleable
d. Weak and snaps easily
e. Insulator
f. Poor conductor of heat
g. Low density
h. Low boiling or melting
points because of weak
Van der Waal force.
i. e.g. sulphur, glass,
chlorine, sulphur.

15. a. Experiment: To study the effect of impurities on the freezing point of distilled water.

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i.

Variables
Manipulated : presence of salt
Constant
: volume of distilled water
Responding : reading of the thermometer / freezing point
ii. Definition of distilled water Distilled water is pure water that freeze at 0 0 C
iii. Definition of impure water Water that contain dissolve substances that freeze at -2 0 C
iv. Inference : Salt can lower the freezing point of distilled water.
v. Conclusion : Impurities can affect the freezing point of distilled water.
vi. Definition of freezing point: is the reading of the thermometer.
b. Pure Substances SPM 03/05
i. Distilled water is pure water because it does not contain any dissolve substance or foreign
matter.
ii. The boiling point of pure water is 100 0 C and melting point is 0 0 C.
iii. However impurities such as salt can increase the boiling point to 102 0 C and lower the
melting / freezing point to -2 0 C.
iv. Ice-cream hawkers add salt into the ice box to lower the melting point of ice to prevent the ice
cream from melting too quickly.
v. Workers add salt on the road during winter to prevent the snow from melting too quickly.
16. Experiment : To study the effect of impurities on the boiling point of distilled water SPM 10

i.

Variables
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Manipulated : presence of salt


Constant
: volume of distilled water
Responding : reading of the thermometer / boiling point
ii. Definition of distilled water Distilled water is pure water that boil at 100 0C
iii. Definition of impure water Water that contain dissolve substances that boil at 102 0 C
iv. Inference : Salt can increase the boiling point of distilled water.
v. Conclusion : Impurities can affect the boiling point of distilled water.
17. a. Purifying Substances
Distillation (to obtain pure liquid)
- Is the process of boiling the liquid and condensing the vapour into pure liquid.

Liquid

Gas

Liquid

Distillation of ethanol
Note: Mixture of water and alcohol can be separated by distillation as they have different boiling
point. (Alcohol has lower boiling point than water)
b. Crystallisation (to obtain pure solid / salt / sugar) SPM 04
- Is forming of pure sugar crystal from a hot saturated solution of a sugar when it is cooled.
- e.g. mining salt (sodium chloride) from sea water / obtaining sugar from sugar solution / solid
copper sulphate.
Obtaining pure salt crystal

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FORM 4

CHAPTER 5 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

1. a. Physical change (changes in


appearances) SPM 05
- No new substance formed
- Chemical property remains the
same
- Reversible
- Little energy is required
- Alters the form / appearance
- Examples:
i. melting, condensation
ii. boiling, sublimation
iii. solubility, freezing
iv. evaporation, dissolving
v. crystalisation
vi. distillation

b. Chemical change (changes in chemical properties)


SPM 05
- Form new substance
- Different from original
- Involves absorption / release of heat
- Irreversible
- Plenty of energy required
- Chemical property changes
- Examples:
i. Burning of paper / petrol / magnesium /
aluminium
ii. Rusting of iron / respiration
iii. Change in colour of sliced apple / digestion
iv. Neutralization, decomposition
v. Heating iron with sulphur
vi. Heating copper carbonate / zinc carbonate
vii. Putting calcium into water

2. Heat change in Chemical Reaction SPM 09


a. Exothermic reaction
(releasing heat to form bond)
- Surrounding temperature increase
- Examples: Temperature of the solution rise when
Sodium hydroxide crystals dissolve into water
i. magnesium ribbon is burned in air
ii. calcium hydroxide or zinc reacts with dilute
hydrochloric acid
iii. concentrated sulphuric acid is dissolved in
water

b. Endothermic reaction
(absorb heat to break bond)
- Absorb heat to break bonds.
- Surrounding temperature lowered
- Examples:
i. solid Ammonium Chloride is
dissolved in water
ii. solid Potassium Nitrate dissolved
in water
iii. reaction of Zinc and Copper
Sulphate

3. Reactivity Series of Metals


a.
Very
reactive

Less
reactive

Potassium
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Zinc
Iron
Lead
Tin
Copper

React with
water
React with
steam

to produce
alkali +
hydrogen
React with oxygen
metal oxide

React with acid


salt + hydrogen

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Nonreactive

Mercury
Silver
Platinum
Gold

Free pure elements

b.

Metal
Water / steam
Alkali
Magnesium
+
Water

Magnesium hydroxide
Aluminium
+
Steam

Aluminium oxide
* more reactive metal produce more hydrogen

c.

Reactivity of metal with acid SPM 03/07/11/12

Metal
Zinc

+
+

Iron

SPM 07
Acid
Sulphuric acid
Hydrochloric
acid

+
+
+

Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen

Relationship:
The volume of gas increase with time.

Salt
Zinc sulphate

+
+

Hydrogen
Hydrogen

Iron chloride

Hydrogen

Extraction of ore by

a. Potassium
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium

Extraction by electrolysis only because these


metals are more reactive than carbon.
Carbon

Zinc
Iron
Lead
Tin
Copper

Extraction by reduction method by carbon


because these metals are less reactive than
carbon. Carbon is chosen because it is cheap,
economical and easily available

b. i. Electrolysis Process
- Metals which are located higher than carbon in the reactivity series can be extracted using the
electrolysis process. These metals are more reactive than carbon therefore cant use reduction
method of carbon.
- e.g. aluminium is extracted from the bauxite ore by electrolysis.
b.ii. Extraction of metal by carbon located below carbon in the reactivity series are extracted by
the reduction method by carbon, such as Zinc, Iron, Tin, Lead, and Copper. SPM 09
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Tin Oxide + Carbon


Tin + Carbon dioxide
(cassiterite)
(coke)
(pure)

Note: Advantages of using carbon is:


i) economical
ii) easily available

Blast Furnace
c. The reactivity can also be used to forecast whether a particular metal can extract another oxide.
For example, aluminium which is located higher than lead in the series is more reactive. Therefore, it
can remove oxygen from the lead oxide
Aluminium + Lead oxide
Aluminium oxide + Lead

Electrolysis

Break compound into its elements using electricity


(Electric energy
Chemical energy)

1 a. Electrolysis of Copper Chloride Solution


Anode
- Chloride gas is produced./turn
damp litmus paper into red
- Chlorine ions release
electrons to become chlorine
atoms
- Cl e Cl
b. Electrolysis used for
i. Extraction of metals
ii. Purification of metals

Cathode
- Copper is deposited.
- Copper ions receive
electrons to become
copper atoms
- Cu + + e Cu

iii. Electroplating of metals

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2a. Extraction of Metals ( Aluminium from bauxite)

Note: Cryolite is added to lower the melting


point of the bauxite.

c. Electroplating of Metals (Electroplating iron nail with copper)

**Note: Copper (ll) sulphate solutions colour unchanged because the copper ions that deposited onto
the cathode is replaced by copper ions that dissolved from the anode.
i. The aims / advantage of electroplating:
a) Prevent the metal from corrosion (rusting)
b) Make the metal look more attractive
ii. The following methods should be taken into consideration to obtain a good quality and
attractive electroplated product.
a) The surface of the metal to be plated must be clean by sand paper beforehand.
b) Electric current supplied should not be too big
c) Dilute electrolyte should be used.
d) The period of electroplating should take a longer time.
e) The nail must be rotated slowly.
iii. The metal used in anode must same with the metal compound solution.
iv. The electrolyte must has same type of metal ion with the anode

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Electrical Energy from Chemical Reaction


1. Simple cell SPM 04
(Chemical energy
Electrical energy)
i. The less reactive metal like copper is
made the positive electrode (anode).
ii. The more reactive metals like zinc is
made the negative electrode (cathode)
because this metal is more likely release
electrons to form ions.
iii. No electricity is produced when both
metals are the same.
iv. The further the metals apart, the higher
the voltage/current is produced.
Cells

2.
Primary
- Non-rechargeable.
- eg:
a. dry alkaline battery (used in torch light)
b. silver-oxide mercury battery (used in
watches/calculators)

Secondary
- Rechargeable.
- eg:
a. lead acid accumulators (used in car)
b. nickel-cadmium battery (used in
handphone)

3. a. Dry Cell/Alkaline bateries used in torch light / portable radio.


iii. Manganese oxide to oxidizes the
hydrogen gas produced into water to
reduce the polarisation of the cell.
b. Advantages of dry cell
- non-spill over
- small light and portable.
c. Disadvantage
- non- rechargeable.
- short life span.
i. Ammonium chloride paste as electrolyte.
ii. Carbon powder to reduce the resistance.
4. Lead - Acid Accumulator (rechargeable) used in car.
Advantages
- produce a stable current
- produce higher voltage
- rechargeable
- last longer
Disadvantage
- can spill over
- it is heavy
c. Electroplating of Metals (Electroplating iron nail with copper) SPM 06
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**Note: Copper (ll) sulphate solutions colour unchanged because the copper ions that deposited onto
the cathode is replaced by copper ions that dissolved from the anode.
i. The aims / advantage of electroplating:
a) Prevent the metal from corrosion (rusting)
b) Make the metal look more attractive
ii. The following methods should be taken into consideration to obtain a good quality and
attractive electroplated product.
a) The surface of the metal to be plated must be clean by sand paper beforehand.
b) Electric current supplied should not be too big
c) Dilute electrolyte should be used.
d) The period of electroplating should take a longer time.
e) The nail must be rotated slowly.
iii. The metal used in anode must same with the metal compound solution.
iv. The electrolyte must has same type of metal ion with the anode
Chemical reaction that occur in the presence of light/Photosynthesis Reaction
1. Photographic paper

Silver(darker) + Bromine gas


Silver bromide
light
Argentum (darker) + Chlorine gas.
Argentum chloride
light

2. Chlorine water

Hydrogen chloride + Oxygen


Chlorine water
light

3. Sodium hypochlorite

Sodium chloride + Oxygen


Sodium hypochlorite solution
light

* Photosensitive chemicals above will decompose when exposed to sunlight.


* Therefore must be stored in dark condition.

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FORM 4

CHAPTER 6 NUCLEAR ENERGY

Nuclear Energy and its uses


5. Producing nuclear energy through
a. Nuclear fission SPM 06
6. Nuclear Fusion
- Combination of two light nuclei to form a
bigger nucleus with the release of energy
- Example: Two hydrogen atoms combine to
form a helium atom with the releasing of
nuclear energy in the core of the Sun.
- A high energy neutron bombards a uranium
- Occur naturally in the core of the Sun.
nuclease to s plit into two lighter nuclei
7. Uses of Nuclear Energy
with the release of three neutrons and heat
- To produce electrical energy in a nuclear
or nuclear energy and radioactive rays.
reactors using uranium.
b. Chain reaction
- To move submarine / carrier
- Is continuous of nuclear fission
- To make nuclear bom

FORM 4

CHAPTER 7 LIGHT, COLOUR AND LIGHT

4. Camera

Image formation in an eye


5.
Type of image
a) Real
b) Virtual
- eye
- microscope
- camera
- telescope
- mirror
- convex lens
- periscope
- magnifying glass
- concave lens
- convex lens

Function
a Diaphragm Control the amount of light
b Aperture
Allow the light to enter
c Shutter
Control the duration of light
exposure
d Focus
Adjust the position of the
adjuster
image on the film./ produce
sharp image.
e Film
Formation of image / capture
image

Formation of Image by Optical Instruments

1. Mirror
- Periscope in submarine, double-decker bus
or too see over the wall.
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2. Convex lens
a. Magnifying glass

b. Telescope the image is at infinity, virtual


and inverted.
fe < f0
e. Camera
- amount of light entering a camera
depends on:
i. The size of the aperture (diagram).
ii. The shutter speed.
- Image formed:
i. real,
ii. upside down (inverted)
iii. smaller size (diminished)
iv. shorter image distance

c. Microscope the final image is virtual,


inverted and enlarged.
- f0 < fe
d. Human eye image formed are real,
inverted, and diminished.
i.

3. Comparison between Human Eyes and


Camera.
Human Eyes
Camera
i. Eye lens
convex lens
ii. Iris
diaphragm
iii. Pupil
aperture
iv. Retina
film
v. Ciliary muscles
focusing ring
4a. Light Dispersion Using Prism SPM 04/10

ii.

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iii. Blue

+ Green

Cyan

6. Colour filter. SPM 05/10/11/12


a. Only allow light colour which is same
colour to pass through.
b. Other colours are absorbed
i. White light disperses because white light
consists of different light colours.
ii. which travel at different velocities
iii. refracted at different angles when
dispersed by a glass prism.
b. When the spectrum is combined, a white light
is produced

c. Natural phenomena of dispersion of light/


spectrum..
i. Rainbow
ii. Soap bubbles

7. Colour object
a. Only reflect light colour which is same
colour with the object
b. Other colours are absorbed

5. Light colour SPM 10/12

a. Primary colours
- Original colour that cant form by any
combination of light colours.
- Red + Blue + Green = White
b. Secondary colours
- consists of two primary colours combined
together.
Primary + Primary Secondary
i. Red
ii. Red

+ Blue
+ Green

Magentha
Yellow
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- The blue, indigo and violet lights are


scattered by air molecules. Only red and
yellow lights reach our eyes make the
sunset / sunrise looked reddish in colour.

8. Phenomenon of Scattering of light SPM 11


a. Sky looked blue
- The blue, indigo and violet lights are
scattered by air molecules to the sky
causing the sky looked blue.

9. Formation of rainbow (light dispersion)


- After raining, the water droplets in the
atmosphere act as glass prism and dispersed
the sunlight to form a spectrum of light called
rainbow.
10. Important of colour
- make peacock has colourful feather to
attract mate
- lizard can camouflage itself same colour as
surrounding colour
- to protect themselves from enemy.

b. Sunrise / sunset looked reddish in colour

FORM 4

CHAPTER 8 CHEMICAL IN INDUSTRY

10. The control of industrial waste can be


carried out by:
i. Law enforcement such as ban on open
burning
ii. Education / Awareness campaigns.
iii. Use of technology in treating industrial
waste such as
a. Fix electrostatic precipitator / air
filter
- To filter smoke / soot / dust in the
chimney/coal ashes
- The filtered coal ashes can be used
to process fertilizer.
b. Scrubber
- A liquid spray to dissolve poisonous
gases such as nitrogen dioxide /
sulphur dioxide.
c. Direct burning

- Agricultural industrial wastes are

directly burned in a heating furnace


and thick smoke is filtered.
- The heat produced can be generated
electrical energy.
d. Biogas technology
- Agricultural wastes like palm oil
wastes are decomposed by
microorganisms. The methane gas
produced is used as fuel / electrical
energy. The sludge left can be used
as fertilizer.
e. Disposal drums
- Made of strontium to keep
radioactive wastes like uranium /
plutonium deep below the soil
surface ocean.
f. Chimney
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- Using tall chimney to disperse

- burn waste products inside

smokes.
g. Incinerator
11.

incinerator to prevent releasing of


toxic gases

Types of pollution
Air pollution

Effect
Lungs cancer
Asthmatic

Water pollution

Cholera

FORM 5

Solving Method
Use electrostatic precipitator in chimney
Ban open burning
Burn in incinerator
Enforcement of laws
Recycling the waste
Love our river campaign

Chapter 1 Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Thing


i. Reproduce by spores like mucor or
budding like yeast.
ii. Do not have chlorophyll / cannot make
food by photosynthesis.
Fungi
Unicellular
Multicellular
- such as mushroom
- such as yeast,
mucor or
penicillium

1.1 5 Groups of Microorganisms / Microbes


1. Bacteria

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

unicellular
with cell wall
do not have nucleus
some can move with flagella.
reproduce by binary fission or
conjugation
vi. when condition unfavourable, it
becomes spore. Spores can only be
destroyed by heat over 120C in an
autoclave.
vii. some bacteria has chlorophyll to make
own food but some are parasites or
saprophytes.
b. 4 types of bacteria according to its shape.
i. Spherical

Fungi
Saprophytic
eg: mucor feeds on
decaying organic
matter.

Parasite
eg: ringworm sucks
nutrients from the
living organism.

3. Protozoa
- unicellular
- eg: amoeba and paramecium.
- Reproduce by binary fission

ii. Rod-shaped
iii. Commashaped

amoeba
4. Viruses

iv. Spiral / Spring


shaped

paramecium

2. Fungi
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a. smallest microorganisms that can pass


through filter.
b. come in many geomical shapes.
c. are living things because they:
i. can reproduce
ii. have nucleic acids
d. are not living things because they:
i. do not respire, feed or excrete
ii. can be crystallized when the condition
is unfavourable.
e. can only reproduce in a living host cell
(parasite)
f. cannot be destroyed by antibiotic.
5. Algae (green plant / producer)

Contain chloroplast and can make own


food by photosynthesis.
Reproduce by binary fission,
fragmentation or conjugation.
Algae
Unicellular
Multicellular
Spirogyra

Euglena

Chlamydomonas
Seaweeds

Hydra

Pleurococcus

1.3 Uses of microorganisms


1. Food digestion
a. protozoa / bacteria that live in the alimentary canal of herbivores such as rabbit / cow produce
cellulose enzyme to digest cellulose.
b. bacteria in human large intestine help to digest food and produce vitamin K / B 12 .
2. Decaying process / putrefaction / decomposition
a. bacteria / fungi decompose dead organisms into simple molecules to be returned to nature / be
recycled (to maintain the carbon-cycle).
b. Bacteria are also used to decompose organic waste such as oil palm / paddy wastes to produce
methane gas.
3. Medicine
a. Bacteria / fungi can produce antibiotics and vaccines.
b. antibiotic from bacteria / fungi can be used to treat diseases caused by bacteria.
Antibiotic
can treat diseases caused by bacteria
Penicillin
gonorrhea, syphilis and pheumonia
Streptomycin
tuberculosis
Tetracycline
respiratory tract, syphilis and acne.
c. However, antibiotics are not effective against viruses or cure diseases caused by virus such as
Aids / Hepatitis, cold and Dengue.
4. Agriculture
a. Putrefying bacteria / fungi adds humus and improves the fertility of the soil.
b. Nitrogen fixing bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants provide the plants with
nitrates.
c. Microorganisms are also used in biological control to eliminate pests, example,
i. Bacterium to destroy beetles.
ii. Virus to destroy rabbits.
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5. Industry
a. Food industry
- Example:
i. Alcoholic drinks
- wine, beer, brandy
ii. Bread, cake

- Yeast carries out fermentation on glucose to produce ethanol.


- Carbon dioxide is produced during fermentation of yeast. These
carbon dioxide bubbles make the dough rise so that the bread is
soft.
- Bacteria / fungi is used to ferment milk into cheese, butter,
yogurt and cream.
- Yeast
-

iii. Cheese, cream,


yogurt & butter
iv. Soy sauce
v. Vinegar
vi. Tea leaves
b. Rope industry
c. Leather industry
d. Cleansing
eg: Purify petroleum and mineral ores (bacteria are used to eat up the impurities)

1.4 Harmful effect of microorganisms


- Are microorganisms that are harmful and cause diseases.
a. Pathogens
- The bacteria in the plaque act on the food residue to produces lactic acid
b. Tooth decay
which corrodes the tooth.
(caries)
- Food that contaminated by microorganisms that produce toxins which
c. Food
cause illness.
poisoning
- Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea
8. Diseases
Pathogen
a. Bacteria

Veneral
disease
b. Fungi

Diseases
Tuberculosis
(T.B)
Cholera
Gonorrphea
Syphilis
Tinea or ringworm

c. Protozoa Malaria
d. Viruses Common cold
(can be
cured by
Dengue fever
antibiotic
or vaccine)
Hepatitis
AIDS (Acquired

Symptoms
Chest pain, cough, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss,
shortness of breath, loss of appetite, coughing up blood.
Vomiting, severe diarrhoea, dehydration of body, stomach
cramps.
Discharge of pus from the genitals, painful urination.
Fever, swollen lymph nodes, lesions throughout the body,
patchy hair loss on the head.
Ring-shaped infection on the skin, red and scaly patches that
itch.
Bouts of high fever, sweating and shivering, nausea, muscle
pain.
Sneezing, runny nose, fever, sore throat, fatique, headache,
general aches and pain.
Headache, high fever, severe pain in joints and muscles, sore
throat, skin rashes.
Fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin), dark-coloured urine,
weight loss
Swollen lymph nodes, infections by bacteria, viruses and fungi,
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Immune Deficiency
Syndrome)

weight loss, skin rashes, fatigue, fever, diarrhoea.

9.
The spread of diseases
a. Infection through air /droplets
- are known as airborne diseases which affect the
respiratory system such as tuberculosis, common cold
and pheumonia.

Ways of prevention
- Covering the nose/mouth when
sneezing/coughing.
- Do not split.
- Avoiding crowded area.
- Home is brightly lit and airy.
- Improving sanitary system.
- Drink boiled water.
- Adding chlorine into tap water.

b. Infection through water


- Waterborne diseases which affect the digestive system
such as cholera, typhoid fever and amoebic dysentery.
- Spread through water that contaminated by faeces of
infected person, carcase or poor sanitation system.
c. Infection through food
- Covering the food.
- Food contaminated by houseflies, cockroaches or dirty - Wash hands after using the
hand.
toilet.
- Cook food thoroughly.
d. Infection through contact
- Maintaining ones personal
- Spread of Aids by HIV viruses through direct contact
hygiene.
such as sexual activities, sharing of syringe, blood
- Avoid sharing personal
transfusion or mother to baby during delivery.
belongings such as towels,
- Tinea/Ringworm and white spot through indirect
shoes.
contact of sharing towels, clothes, shoes or combs.
3. Infection through vectors
- Eliminate the breeding grounds
- Vectors are animals or insects that transfer pathogens.
of vectors.
10. Pathogens microorganisms that cause disease.
11. Vectors insects or animals that carry pathogens that cause disease.
Vectors
Diseases
a. Aedes mosquitoes carry virus
Dengue.
b. Anophelcs mosquitoes carry protozoa
Malaria
c. Culex mosquitoes
Japanese encephalitis (JE)
d. Houseflies and Cockroaches carry
Food poisoning such as cholera, typhoid fever,
bacteria
amoebic dysentery, food poisoning.
e. Fleas
Typhus, bubonic plague.
12. Controlling the breeding of mosquitoes.
Life cycle of mosquitoes
Ways of controlling
a.
- Eliminate these breeding grounds.
Egg
- Mosquitoes lay eggs in stagnant
- Unclogged the drain to clear the
water such as ponds, clogged drains
stagnant water.
and flower pots / old tyres which
- Containers / old tyres which hold
hold water.
water should be buried.

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b.
i.

ii.
c.

d.

e.
f.
g.

Pupae
- Breathe through a pair of breathing
tubes on the water surface.

- Raring guppies / fish to eat up the


larvae or pupae (a biological control
method that never harm the
environment).
- Adding oil onto the water surface to
prevent larvae / pupae from
breathing.

Adult mosquitoes
- Only female mosquitoes suck
human blood.
- It secretes saliva to prevent clotting
of blood.
- The pathogens enter the human
body together with this saliva.

- Cutting down bushes / tall grass to


eliminate the hiding place of
mosquitoes.
- Carry out fogging / spraying
insectides.
- Sleep under a mosquito net or cover
windows / doors with wire gauze.

Larva
- Feeds on algae in the water.
- Breathe through the water surface.

Life cycle of houseflies


Housefly
- Mature female housefly lays eggs
in rubbish dumps / faeces / food
that left exposed.
Egg
- It will hatch within a day to
become larva.
Larva / Maggots
- Within five days turns into pupae.

1.

2.
3.
4.

Ways of controlling
Get rid of breeding grounds such
as rubbish dumps and exposed
faeces / food.
Rubbish bins should be covered.
Build more hygienic toilets with
flush facility.
Food should always be covered.

Pupa
- Undergo metamorphosis and turn
into housefly in three days.

13. Sterilisation
- Ways of sterilization:
Sterilisation
a. Sterilisation by heat
b. Sterilisation by chemicals
c. Sterilisation by radiations
i. Cooking food to kill
i. Antiseptics are chemicals
i. Using gamma rays to
used to kill microorganisms
sterilise drugs, vaccines or
microorganisms.
on the skin / wounds such as
surgical instruments.
ii. Boiling water 100C to
kill microorganisms such
dettol, burnol or iodine which ii. Using ultraviolet to
sterilise mattresses or
as boiling feeding bottle.
do not kill the tissues.
ii. Disinfectants such as chlorox,
pillow.
iii. To kill the spores, an
formalin and chlorine which
autoclave / pressure
are stronger chemical used to
cooker is used to
achieve 120C.
sterilise buildings, toilets,
utensils or clothing.

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14. Treating diseases caused by microorganisms


a. Antibiotic
- Obtained from bacteria / fungi to kill /inhibit the growth of other
(penicillin)
microorganisms.
- Disease caused by bacteria or fungi such as Tuberculosis, Cholera,
Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Tinea or ringworm can be treated by antibiotic.
- However, antibiotic is not affective against diseases caused by virus such
as Cold, Hepatitis, Dengue or Aids.
b. Antifungal drugs - To treat diseases caused by fungi such as athletes foot and ringworm.
c. Vaccine
- Weakened / dead pathogens (bacteria / fungi) that can stimulate the
white blood cells to produce antibodies when injected into the body.
d. Antibodies
- Produced by the white blood cells when the body injected with vaccine=
can fight pathogens
e. Serum
- Animals antibodies which give immediate immunization when injected
into the body. (Artificial Passive Immunization)
f. Chemotherapy
- Can be in the form of lotion to apply on the skin or taken through the
mouth.
g. Radiotherapy
- Using radioactive rays to treat skin diseases, tumours and cancer.
h. Surgery
- To remove seriously infected organs that drugs failed to treat.
i. Vaccination
- Injected the body with vaccine dose.
15. Dangers of using drugs without prescription and medical advice
a. The course of antibiotics taken must be completed to ensure that all the pathogens are killed.
b. Any pathogens that left behind may lead to a reoccurrence of the diseases.
c. The antibiotics may lose its effectiveness as the pathogens has build up resistance.
d. Taking too much / often antibiotics will kill the friendly bacteria in our alimentary tract and affect
our digestive system.
e. Antibiotics may cause allergies to certain people, e.g.: cause rashes, swelling, inflammation, heart
palpitations or death.
f. Some drugs must be taken on an empty stomach and some be taken after meals.

FORM 5

CHAPTER 2 NUTRITION AND FOOD PRODUCTION

NUTRITION AND GOOD EATING HABIT

1 calorie = heat required to rise 1 g of


water to 1C

1. Calorific value.
- Is the energy content of a food / energy
produced when 1 g of food completely
burnt in air.
- Can be measured by using a Bomb
Calorimeter.
2a. Calorific value of
i. Carbohydrates = 17.2kJ g -1
ii. Protein = 22.2kJ g 1
iii. Fats
= 38.5kJ g -1 (2 x carbohydrates)
(highest calorific value)

Vegetables, vitamins, water and minerals


do not contain any energy at all.
b. A pupil takes 20g of bread and 100g of
milk. What is the total energy consumed?
Answer:
Bread: 20 g 17.2kJg 1 = 344 J
Milk : 100 g 22.2kJg 1 = 2220 J
Total = 2564 J

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3.

4.

Food
1.Carbohydrates
- Starch
- Glucose / Sugar
- Cellulose / Fibre
2.Protein (amino acid)
3. Fats

Vitamins
A
B
C
D

E
K
7.

Minerals
Calcium
Phosphorus
Sodium
Iodine
Iron

Function
supply
energy

build tissues
supply heat
energy

Deficiency
Marasmus /
underweight
Coma
constipation
Kwashiorkor
Underweight, Vitamins
such as A, D, E and K
cannot be dissolved.

Function
Maintains healthy skin and eye sight.
Needed in cellular respiration, maintains a
healthy nervous system.
Wound heals faster, healthy skin and gums,
prevents spreading of disease.
Help clotting of blood, help body to absorb
calcium, can be formed by our skin when
expose to ultra violet light.
Maintain the reproductive system.
Clotting of blood.
Function
Formation of bones, teeth and clotting of
blood.
Formation of bones and teeth.
Build up plasma.
Obtain from seaweed and seafood, to prevent
goitre.
Build haemoglobin in red blood cells. Obtain
from liver or spinach.

Excessive
Obesity
Diabetes

Change into urea by liver.


Cholesterol, heart attack,
arteriosclerosis and high
blood pressure.

Deficiency
Night blindness
Lost of appetite, beri-beri,
pellagra.
Scurvy / Gum bleeding
Hemophilia , Rickets , Dental
decay, Osteomalacia,
Osteoporosis
Sterility / infertility
Hemophilia / Blood hard to clot
Deficiency
Hemophilia, rickets, muscle
cramps, dental decay,
osteoporosis.
Rickets , dental decay,
osteoporosis.
Muscle cramps
Goitre
Anaemia

THE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENT OF PLANTS


1.
Nutrients needed by plants
a. Macronutrients
b. Micronutrients
- nutrients that are needed in large quantities
- nutrients that are needed in small
quantities
- etc; carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , nitrogen,
- etc; boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum,
phosphorus, potassium ,calcium, magnesium
and sulphur.
manganese, iron.

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FORM 5

CHAPTER 3 PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF THE


ENVIRONMENT

1. Natural cycles include


a. Nitrogen cycle

b. Carbon cycle

c. Water cycle

2a. Nitrogen cycle


Atmospheric nitrogen
Death
animals / plants
Lightning

Nitrogen fixation
Denitrifying (Nitrogen fixing
bacteria
bacteria in root nodules)

Decomposition
(Putrefaction)
Ammonium compound

Nitrates in the
soil

Nitrifying bacteria

b. Carbon cycle
Atmospheric carbon
dioxide
Respiration

Photosynthesis
Respiration

Combustion
nutrition

Animals

Death

Death

Fossil / wood

Plant
Decomposition
(microorganism)

Decomposes

dead
organisms

c. Water cycle
condensation
Cloud

Water Vapour
Evaporation

Respiration

Transpiration

drink

Animals

Plants

Rain
Pond / river / sea

3. Food Chain - is transfer of energy from the producer to consumers.


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Sunlight
(main source
of energy)
Nitrates
(Simpler
Molecules)

Paddy
(producer)
can make food by
photosynthesis

Worm
(primary
consumers)

Chicken
(secondary
consumers)

Death

Death

Eagle
(tertiary
consumers)
Death

Death

Decomposes (bacteria / fungi)


4.

b. Pyramid number

a. Food web

- is the interaction of a few food chains.

5. Natural disaster disrupts the natural cycles and food web.


Natural disasters
Effects
- Change the physical condition of the earth.
i. Volcanic eruption
- Destroy the organism and their habitats.
ii. Earth quake
- Disrupts the food web.
iii. Drought
- Causes soil erosion and landslides.
iv. Flood
- Destroy buildings, habitats, death.
v. Typhoon
- Destroy habitats.
vi. Forest fire

15. (Euthrophication Process) Excessive


chemical fertillser can dissolve into rain water
and flow into pond cause algae to grow. When
algae dies, it decays and reduces the amount at
oxygen and cause the fish to die.
16. Ways to solve green house effects
- Reforestation/tree replanting
- Ban open burning
- Reduce vehicles on the road / practice carpool system

12. Effects of Greenhouse effect / Global


warming
a. sea levels increase due to iceberg melting
at the poles of the earth
b. droughts which causes low yield of crops
and famine
13. Carbon monoxide
- from exhaust fumes of vehicles can reduce
intake of oxygen to the brain.
14. Sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide can cause acid rain which
carrode buildings and roof-top.

FORM 5

CHAPTERS 4 Carbon Compounds

1. Carbon Compounds
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a. Carbon is a non-metallic element but conduct electric.


b.
Carbon
Diamond
Graphite
hardest form of carbon
soft and slippery
used to make jewellery
Used to make pencils lead
can cut glass
c.

Carbon Compounds
-

Organic SPM 11
Derived from living things (plants / animals)
Contain a lot of carbon atoms
e.g. C6 H 12 O6 .
Dissolve in organic solvents such as ether,
alcohol, petrol or chloroform.
Has low melting or boiling points.
e.g. alcohol, sugar, fats, protein, fossil fuels or
hydrocarbon (petroleum, coal, natural gas).

2. Hydrocarbon SPM 07
a. Consists of hydrogen and carbon
elements only.
b. Natural sources of hydrocarbons are fossil
fuels such as:
i. Coal
ii. Natural gas such as ethane, butane,
propane.
iii. Petroleum

Inorganic
Derived from minerals in the earth.
Contains few carbon atoms
e.g. CO2 .
Dissolve in inorganic solvents such as
water, acids and alkalis.
Generally more stable with high melting
/ boiling points.
e.g. carbon dioxide, copper carbonate,
calcium carbonate / lime stone / marble.

c. Petroleum
i. Contains a mixture of hydrocarbons.
ii. Can be separated by fractional
distillation because each hydrocarbon
has different boiling points.

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iii. Fraction of petroleum and its uses.


Fraction
Main uses
- Fuel for cooking and making plastic.
1. Petroleum gas
- Fuel for motorcycles, cars and
2. Petrol
aeroplanes (vehicles).
- Fuel for airplanes and making
3. Naphtha
synthetic rubbers / candle.
- Fuel for jet planes and kerosene
4. Kerosene
lamps and for making detergents.
- Fuel for diesel engines and boilers.
5. Diesel
6. Lubricating oil - Engine lubricant and to make polish.
7. Fuel oil
8. Paraffin
9. Bitumen

- Fuel for ships and electrical


generators.
- For making wax and polish.
- For covering roads and as a coating
for underground pipes.

7. Uses of alcohol
a. Ethanol is used to make alcoholic drinks
such as beer, wine, brandy and whisky.
b. Organic solvents for shellac, inks,
perfumes, cosmetics, or medicine such as
cough mixture.
c. Disinfectant to kill microorganism e.g. is
rubbed on skin before an injection is given.
d. Antiseptics such as iodine solutions.
e. Ether is used to prepare artificial flavours.
f. As fuels, burn completely without soot.
g. Methanol to prepare formalin for
preservation.
h. To make ethanoic acid / vinegar.
i. Thermometric liquid to measure
temperature.

Earlier fractions
Lower boiling point
Less dense / lighter
Less viscous
Less yellowish
Less carbon / soot
Better fuels
Later fractions
More dense / heavy
More viscous
More brownish
More carbon / soot
Higher boiling points

8. Effects of excessive consumption of alcohol


on health
a. cause nervous system slows down.
b. Become drunk, poor body coordination and
cause accidents.
c. Damage the stomach, liver (cirrhosis),
kidneys and heart.
d. cause addiction and social problems.
e. cause retardation to foetal growth.
9. Fats is molecule of Glycerol and Fatty acid.
-

Consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.


Provide double energy than carbohydrate.
As insulator for our body.
Solvent for vitamins A, D, E and K.
Excessive cause obesity and raise the level
of cholesterol.

SPM 11
Fats
-

Saturated
contains maximum hydrogen atoms.
Mainly animal fats.
Solid in room temperature.
Raise the cholesterol level.
Higher melting point.
e.g. butter, cheese, ghee, meat..

33

Unsaturated
still can receive hydrogen atoms
Mainly plant oil.
Liquid form in room temperature.
Cholesterol free
e.g. palm oil, corn oil, peanut oil, soy oil, olive
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10. Hydrogenation process

19. Natural Rubber / latex


a. Polymer latex is formed from monomer
isoprene
b. Properties of rubber / latex
i. soft, low melting point, not resistant to
heat
ii. elastic, insulator to electricity
iii. dissolves in organic solvents such as
benzene or carbon disulphide
20. Action of Acid on Latex / Rubber

Acid added
H + hydrogen ion

21. When it is kept for a long time, bacteria in


the air can produce lactic acid which
coagulates the latex as well
22. Ammonia or any alkali solution can be
added to latex to prevent coagulation
because negatively charged hydroxial ions of
ammonia solution can
i. neutralize any positively charged hydrogen
ions from acids that presence
ii. prevent the growth of bacteria.
23. Vulcanisation of rubber
a. Natural rubber which is soft, easily
stretched and cannot withstand heat can
be vulcanised with sulphur to be more
hard, elastic, resistant to heat and stronger.
b. Vulcanised rubber is used to make
i. tyres
ii. rubber hose
iii. basket ball
iv. Shoe sole

SPM 09/12
Coagulation of latex
formic
liquid
+
latex / rubber
acid

coagulate
latex / rubber

a. Rubber is consists of polymer molecules


which is surround by a protein membrane
which is negative charged.
b. These negative charged repel one another
and prevent the rubber molecules from
coagulate.
c. When acid (formic acid) is added, positive
charged hydrogen ions from the acids
neutralize the negative charges on the
protein membrane.
d. When the rubber molecules collide one
another, the protein membranes break
e. The rubber molecules are released and
combined to coagulate

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c. Vulcanisation Process

Natural rubber

Sulphur atoms

Vulcanised rubber

- Sulphur atoms crossed-links between


the rubber molecules to prevent it
from sliding over one another.
- Become harder, heat resistant and
more elastic.
- Used to make tyres, rubber hose or
basket ball.

- soft
- not heat resistant

FORM 5

Chapter 5 MOTION

SPEED, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION


1 a. Speed =

Distance
= ms 1
Time

b. Velocity =

Distance with direction


= ms 1
Time taken

c. Acceleration
- is change of velocity per unit time
- Acceleration =

Change of velocity Final velocity - Initial velocity


=
Time taken
Time taken
vu
a =
= ms 1
t

2.
a.

Ticker Tape

Direction of motion

Ticker Timer
Pattern
Interpretation

Uniform distance
between two
consecutive dots

Graph

Uniform speed or
uniform velocity

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b.

Distance between
dots increases
uniformly

Speed or velocity
increases
- increasing
velocity

Direction of motion

c.

Direction of motion

Speed or velocity
decreases
- decreasing
velocity

Distance between
dot decreases
uniformly

MOMENTUM
Momentum = mass velocity
Momentum = m v
= kg ms-1
a. i. ( momentum = mass velocity )
Mass increase
momentum increase
ii. ( momentum = mass velocity )
Velocity increase
momentum increase
iii. Hypothesis
The bigger the mass / velocity, the greater
the momentum.
b. Conservation of momentum
i. During collision the total momentum of
the system remains unchanged.
ii. Total momentum = Total momentum
before collision
after collision
c. Types of collisions
i. Inelastic collision ( bodies stick together
after collision)

m1u1 + m2 u2 = (m1 + m2)v


ii. Elastic collision (bodies separate after
collision)

m1u1 + m2 u2 = m1v1 + m2v2


d. Applications of Momentum
i. Pile driver (has high momentum due to big
mass)
ii. Bullet fired from a gun (has high
momentum due to high velocity)
iii. Steam roller ( has high momentum due to
big mass)
iv. Rocket
- The exhaust gases from the combustion
chamber of a rocket escape from the
back with great force.
- This creates a great momentum
backwards.
- This backward momentum creates an
equally big forward momentum, which
pushes the rocket forward (This uses
the principle that every action creates
an equal and opposite direction)
e. Safety Measures in Motor Vehicles
i. Force = rate of change of momentum
=

36

Change of momentum
Time taken

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ii. F =

i. has front and rear crumple zones to absorb


force.
ii. has soft bumper to increase the time of
collision
iii. has air bags / safety belt to reduce the
impact.
iv. Bumpers Soft to increase the time of
collision to reduce the force

Final momentum - Initial momentum


Time taken
mv - mu
Force F =
t

mv - mu
t

Note: Force is reduced, when time taken is


increased
f. Parts of the motor are specially designed to
increase the time taken in order to reduce
the force.
Motion of Vehicle in Water
Type
Picture
Ship

Hovercraft

Hydrofoil

Characteristic
- A small ship may be driven by a diesel engine.
- A large ship is driven by a steam turbine.
- In a steam turbine, steam under high pressure pushes
the fixed blades and rotates the drive shaft.
- The rotating drive shaft spins the propeller of the
ship. When the propeller spins and pushes the water
backwards, a forward momentum of equal force is
produced. This forward momentum or thrust pushes
the ship forward.
- A ship also has a rudder. This rudder controls the
direction of motion of the ship.
- A hovercraft moves on a cushion of air on the surface
of the sea.
- A powerful engine produces a cushion of air between
the surface of the sea and the bottom of the
hovercraft. This reduces greatly the friction between
the water and the bottom of the hovercraft. This
enables the hovercraft to move forward speedily.
- The large fans on top of the hovercraft produce a
strong backward wind. This creates an equally strong
forward momentum which pushes the hovercraft
forward.
- A hydrofoil has special wing-shaped structures, called
hydrofoils, attached to the lower surface.
- When the boat moves forward at a high speed, the
hydrofoils below the boat are lifted slightly above the
surface of the sea.
- This decreases the friction between the surface of the
sea and the bottom of the boat.
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- With less friction, the boat is able to travel much


faster.
2. Streamlined shape
a. Enable object to move easily in water with little resistance (reduce friction)
b. eg : fish , ship, torpedo and etc.

Archimedes Principle SPM 12


Upthrust force
= weight of the object
= weight of water displaced
= mg
= pvg
Upthrust
= weight weight
on air in water
= 0.8 0.6
= 0.2N
Note: Denser water such as seawater which contain salt produce bigger upthrust.
The denser the water, the greater the upthrust / the lighter the object float.
Application of Archimedes Principle
1. Plimsoll line
- show how much the ship can be safety loaded when sailing in the sea
2. Submarine SPM 08
- A submarine has ballast tanks. The submarine becomes dense and submerged in the sea when
the ballast tanks are filled with the sea water.
- The submarine becomes less dense and rises to the surface when the ballast tanks are emptied.

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Picture
-

Aircraft
-

Hot air
balloon

Characteristics
When an aircraft is in flight, the shape of its
wings causes air to move faster above the
wings than below the wings. This creates
slower pressure above the wings. Air pushing
upwards on the wings produces a lift (upward
force).
When an aircraft is flying with a uniform
velocity at affixed height, then:
Thrust = drag
Lift
= weight
The hot air inside the balloon is less dense
than the atmospheric air.
The weight of air displaced by the balloon is
heavier than the weight of the balloon and its
hot air.

How Jet Engine Work


i. Air is sucked into the compressor
ii. The compressor compresses the air into very hot air
iii. In the combustion chamber the kerosene fuel is

sprayed into the hot air


iv. The mixture of hot air and fuel will burn with

explosive force and produce a great backward


momentum.
v. According to conservation of momentum an equal
forward momentum is produced and pushes the jet
forward.
vi. A jet plane uses oxygen from the atmosphere and
cant fly beyond the atmosphere. It never carries its
own supply of oxygen.

Structure of a jet engine

Rocket Engine
i. A rocket carries liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
ii. They are burned with great explosive force in the
iii.
iv.

v.
vi.

Structure of a rocket engine

combustion chamber.
Hot exhaust gases produce a great momentum
downward.
According to the conservation of momentum, this
produces an equal great momentum upward which push
the rocket upwards.
Rocket can move beyond the atmosphere because it
carries its own supply of fuel and oxygen.
A rocket travels with increasing acceleration because
- air resistance decreases with high and zero at
outerspace.
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- gravitational attraction decrease with height.


- the rockets mass decrease as the rockets body is
shedded by stages
Application of Bernoullis Principle SPM 10
1. Aerofoil

i. The high speed of air moving above the aerofoil produces a low pressure.
ii. The slower speed of air moving below the aerofoil produces higher pressure.
iii. The differentiate of pressure cause an uplift force on the aerofoil.
2. Other apparatus using Bernoullis Principle SPM 10
a. Bunsen burner
b. Filter pump

c. Insecticide spray

Bernoullis Principle
- States that the pressure decreases when the speed of fluid / gas increases.

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Bernoulli Effects
Diagram

FORM 5

Activity and observation


Blow hard across the surface
of a sheet of paper held
horizontally in front of the
mouth. This causes the paper
to rise.

Reason
The air moving across the top of
the paper at a fast speed causes
a region of low air pressure
above the paper. Atmospheric
pressure below the paper pushes
the paper upwards.

Blow air at a fast speed down


the filter funnel. The ping
pong ball does not fall.

The air pressure in the space


above the ball is lowered
because of the fast flowing air.
Atmospheric pressure which is
greater pushes up the ball and
supports it.

Hang a ping pong or


polystyrene ball near a fast
stream of water from a tap.
The ball is attracted towards
the water.

The fast moving stream of


water produces a region of low
air pressure around it.
Atmospheric pressure being
greater, pushes the ball towards
the water.

Chapter 6 Food Technology and Production

1. The purpose of processing food


a. to kill microorganisms. (preserve the
food)
b. extend the shelf life of the food
/making the food last longer
c. adding nutrients to the food.

d. Making the food looked attractive, delicious and


easier to digest.
e. making the food easier to be stored and transported.

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CHAPTER 7

SYNTHETIC MATERIALS IN INDUSTRY

1.a. Polymer is along chain of molecules / monomers that are combined together.
b. Natural polymer are latex (isoprene), starch, protein and cellulose.(from plants/animal)

c.

2. Comparison
Natural rubber

Synthetic rubber

Similarities
- Both are carbon compounds
- Insulator to electricity
- Both exist as polymers
Differences
Very elastic
- Less elastic
Not so airtight / permeable
- Airtight / non-permeable
Low heat tolerance
- High heat tolerance
Good absorber of sound and pressure
- Poor absorber of sounds and pressure
Easy to vulcanize by sulphur atoms
- Difficult to vulcanize by sulphur atoms
Easy to oxidise / unstable
- Difficult to oxidise / stable
eg.: Latex (glove, raincoat)
- eg.: Neoprene, Thiokol, SBR (tyre. Stopper.
hoses)

d. Advantages of satellite communication


i. multicasting of sending message to unlimited end-users.
ii. least disturbance or interference
iii. provide wide coverage and live telecast
iv. low cost of maintenance

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