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INPEC-PWHT-01

Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

Revision: 1

Page 1 of 10
Date: 20/01/2014

QUALITY CONTROL
PROCEDURE
Industrial Projects Company (INPEC)

POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT


PROCEDURE
Copy No.
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Uncontrolled

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01/09/2012
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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01

Revision: 1

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Date: 20/01/2014

1) Scope
2) Reference Code
3) General Requirements
4) Temperature Control
5) Thermocouples, Thermal Insulation and Recording Instruments
6) Preparation for Heat Treatment
7)

Preheating, Interposes Temp. Monitoring and Out Gassing Heat


Treatment

8) Post Weld Heat Treatment PWHT Parameters


9) Interrupted post weld heat treatments
10)

Calibration

11)

Reporting

Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01

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1 Scope:

1 This procedure has the scope of giving instructions to the


Company's personnel for the performance of Code heat
treatment.
2 The local standards, legal regulations and other suitable
precautions regarding health work and fire protection shall be
observed, also if they are not mentioned herein.
2 Reference Code:
-

ASME Code Sec. I, in the applicable Edition and Addenda,


ASME Code Sec VIII Div. 1, in the applicable Edition and Addenda,
ASME Code Sec B 31.1, in the applicable Edition and Addenda,
National Board Inspection Code "NBIC" for repairs or alterations of
pressure retaining items.
INPEC QC Manual.

In case of any conflicts between client specification and code


requirements, the code requirements shall govern.
3 General Requirements:
1

Preheating, Interpass temperature maintaining and


intermediate heat treatment.
Preheat for welding or thermal cutting, interpass temperature
maintaining and Intermediate heat treatment (out gassing heat
treatment,.etc ) may be done using a resistance system, linear
burner, oxygen torch burner or other suitable system, which
does not harm the base material or any weld metal already
applied, and does not introduce into the welding area foreign
material which is harmful to the weld.
The Preheat temp. and interpass temp. and Intermediate heat
treatment detail shall be limited by the code requirements and
shall be indicated clearly in the welding procedure specification
WPS.
Temperature measurements shall be made near the weld (5 cm
from the weld centerline max.) by suitable temperature
indicating crayons or optical or electrical pyrometers.

Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)

Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01

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3.2.1 Furnace PWHT


- Heat Treatment Furnace can be heated by gas fired burners.
- Care must be taken to prevent direct impingement of the flame
on the part.
3.2.2. Local final PWHT
- Local PWHT may be conducted for items that cannot be placed
in furnace. This shall be performed by an induction or
resistance system, peculiar for- each wall thickness involved.
- In case of particular geometrical uniformity, a number of
thermocouples greater than indicated in par. 4.3.2 shall be
used, in order to check the uniformity of the temperature
gradients.
4 Temperature Control:
1

Number and location of thermocouples shall be according with


Code requirements, standard practice or clients
requirements.

2 The distribution of thermocouples shall be sketched and


attached with the PWHT Report (Exhibit No.38)
3 The following rules shall be applied unless otherwise advised by
par. 4.1
4.3.1 Furnace PWHT
- heat treatment temperatures shall be controlled with at least
one thermocouple in every 3m with minimum of three
thermocouples put on the parts to be treated in such a manner
to detect the maximum foreseen temperature differences.
-.additional two thermocouples shall be added for ASME P-No.
4, 5A and 5B.
- additional two thermocouples in the internal surface of the
pressure retaining items as applicable when it's thickness
exceeds 25mm .
4.3.2 Local PWHT
- for weld joints with NPS > 200mm : at least 3 thermocouples
put nearest the joint.
- for weld joints with NPS < 200mm : at least one
thermocouple put nearest the joint.

Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01
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- thermocouples shall be in direct contact with the heat treated


material to assure that the thermocouples show the exact
temperature of the wall.
4 maximum allowable difference of thermocouple indications
shall be 80 C during heating,100 C during cooling and 40
C during holding (soaking).

5 Thermocouples, Thermal Insulation and Recording Instruments:

1 Thermocouples
a) all thermocouples shall be checked to ensure chromel-alumel
type is used.
b) Thermocouples, and thermocouple wires, shall be purchased
to standard limits of error of not more than 0.75 percent in the
range of 270C or 1200 C. This requirement shall be so stated
in the purchase requisition. Thermocouple wire for capacitor
discharge applications shall be covered with high temperature
(1200C) insulation.
c) thermocouple wire less than 1m in length shall not be used,
and care shall be taken to ensure that the thermocouple
conductor wires do not touch each other, or metallic
components.
d) thermocouples shall be attached at the extremities of the
required heated bandwidth and in the weld metal area.
Attachment shall be by the capacitor discharge method or by
GTAW, if capacitor discharge method is used related WPS
should be followed.
e) Indicated temperatures for each thermocouple shall be
indicated on a recorded chart with increments of 10 C as a
number or color.
f) Copper constantan compensating cable shall be used for
extension of the thermocouple to the recording instrument. The
copper lead (+ve) shall be connected to the Chromel conductor
of the thermocouple (non-magnetic), and the constantan lead
(-ve) shall be connected to the Alumel conductors (magnetic).
2 Thermal Insulation

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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01
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a)Thermal insulation such as nonflammable paper,


nonflammable blankets, mineral wool blocks, or ceramic fiber
blankets shall be wrapped around the outside of the heated
area. When using the quartz halogen lamp heating method,
insulation is not required. Reflective foil may be used to
supplement insulation.
b)The inside of the area being post weld heat-treated should be
sealed to prevent internal air currents from creating excessively
high thermal gradients through the thickness of the piping.
When possible, the pipe should be blocked on both ends. When
it is impossible to block the pipe (e.g., direct connections
between heat exchangers), the QCM shall waive this
requirement.
3 Recording Instruments
a) Multiple-point, temperature-indicating recorders shall be
used. Recorders shall be calibrated in accordance with the
manufacturers standard service instructions at least once
every 12 months.
b) For those cases in which four or more recording
thermocouples are required, the PWHT may be accepted if not
more than one recording channel is lost, provided that:
- the holding temperature has been achieved and maintained
for at least one-half hour before the channel was lost.
- the heating equipment and the control system continue to
function properly.
- the PWHT chart is noted regarding the recording
malfunction and proper heating function and signed by the
PWHT supervisor, the welding engineer or the client
representative.
c) Chart speed preferably be (9 inch per hour).
6 Preparation for Heat Treatment:

1 The materials and welds shall be free of machining fluids or


debris, inspection residues such as couplants liquid
penetrants and magnetic particles examination fluids and
particles and other contaminants which, when heated, may
be detrimental to the base or weld material.

2 The components, or their parts, shall be supported, in such a


way to avoid permanent deformations and maintaining their

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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01

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straightness, roundness, concentricity and geometrical


shape.
7 Preheating, Interpass Temp. Monitoring and Out Gassing Heat
Treatment:
1

Preheating
a) Before welding weld or cutting operations the edge
preparations shall be preheated according to the prescriptions
of par. 3.1.
b) The heat of welding may assist in maintaining preheat
temperature after the start of welding.
c) The extent of application of preheat and the maintaining shall
be recorded if required.

2 Interpass temperature monitoring


a) In welding P-No.5B materials (e.g. SA 213 T91 tubes), the
interpass temperature shall be maintained and monitored below
300 C.
b) After welding, before of every heat treatment (Whether it will
be final or intermediate), the welding shall be cooled in still air
down to a temperature of around 80 C.
3 Out gassing heat treatment
a) After welding of P-No.5B materials (e.g. SA 213 T91 tubes)
and prior to final PWHT an out gassing heat treatment shall be
performed.
b) The weldment shall be held at the minimum specified
preheat temp. or higher for at least one hour).
c) After out gassing, the weldments shall be cooled to below
100 C prior to starting the PWHT cycle.
8 Post Weld Heat Treatment PWHT Parameters:

1 Heating Rate
a) The heating rate above 300 C shall not exceed 222 C /hr
divided by the maximum metal thickness in inches, but in no
case shall the rate exceed 222 C /hr.
b) During the heating period, there shall not be a greater
variation in temperature throughout the portion of the pressure
retaining items being heated than 139 C within any 4.6m
interval of length.
c) Rates of heating and cooling need not be less than 56 C /hr.

Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01

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2 Cooling Rate
a) Cooling should be done with the insulation in place, except
for the quartz lamp method and for those ferritic stainless steels
that require rapid cooling to avoid embitterment.
b) The cooling rate above 427 C shall not exceed 278 C /hr
divided by the maximum metal thickness in inches, but in no
case shall the rate exceed 278 C /hr Cooling
c) From 427 C cooling may be done in still air for any metal
thickness.
d) For P-No. 6 materials, cooling may be done in still air from
the PWHT temperature.
e) For P-No. 7 Group Nos. 1 and 2 materials, the cooling rate
above 650C shall be a maximum of 56 C /hr, after which the
cooling rate shall be sufficiently rapid to prevent embrittlement.
Shut off heat at 650 C and remove insulation, if any, as soon
as possible.
f) For the quartz lamp method, cooling from the post weld heat
treating temperature shall be performed by properly down
sloping the radiant heat input in still air so as not to exceed the
maximum specified cooling rates.
3 Heat Band Width of Local Treatment
a) For local heat treating of circumferential joints of pipe or
tubing, the width on each side of the center line of
circumferential joints in piping or tubing to be heated to the
post weld heat treatment temperature shall be at least three
times the greatest width of the finished weld. The portion
outside the heating device shall be protected so that the
temperature gradient is not harmful.
b) Nozzles or other welded attachments shall be heat treated by
heating a circumferential band around the entire vessel or
header. The heated bank shall extend at least six times the wall
thickness beyond the weld that connects the nozzle or other
attachment. The portion outside the heating device shall be
protected so that the temperature gradient is not harmful.
4 Heat Treatment Temperature and Time Cycle
a) The holding temperatures and the related holding time are
limited by Code requirements and shall be indicated clearly in
the WPS.
b) For dissimilar P-numbers, refer to the WPS and/or the
applicable code. In general, the heat treatment requirements for
the higher P-Number material should be used.

Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure

INPEC-PWHT-01
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c) For ASME P-No.5B (P91) materials, the PWHT holding temp.


shall be within the range of 750:770 C. Holding time shall be
based on 1(hr/in) with a 2hr minimum.
9 Interrupted post weld heat treatments:

a) Interrupted post weld heat treatment is defined as decreasing


below the minimum specified holding temperature or exceeding
the maximum specified cooling rate and may be caused by loss
of power, equipment malfunction, or operator error.
b) For welds in which the post weld heat treatment temperature
has dropped below the minimum holding temperature without
exceeding the specified cooling rate, actions should be initiated
to restart the heat treatment as soon as possible.
c) The weldment shall be reheated at a rate not to exceed that
specified in par. 7.1, and the holding temperature shall be
reestablished. The additional required holding time shall be
calculated by finding time remaining to complete the post weld
heat treatment from the first holding period. The weld shall be
held at temperature for this time period or for one-half hour,
whichever is greater.

d) For welds in which the maximum cooling rate was exceeded,


the post weld heat treatment shall be redone for both the entire
holding period and cool-down rate.
e) Visual inspection (PT or MT for ASME P-No. 5A and 5B) of the
heated surface shall be conducted after final post weld heat
treatment.
f) Interrupted post weld heat treatments shall be noted and
explained on the charts and records.
10Calibration:

1 Heat Treatments equipments and instruments shall be


calibrated in accordance with the manufacturers standard
service instructions at least once every 12 months.
11Reporting :

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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Procedure
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INPEC-PWHT-01

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The PWHT Report (Exhibit No. 38) shall be used to document the
PWHT parameters and the thermocouples location during the
heating cycle.
A unique No. for each recorded chart shall be established to provide a
relevant connection to the reporting form.
The chart and the related reporting form shall be reviewed and
signed by the assigned QCM.
All PWHT charts shall be made available for the AI.