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Reservoir Engineering

Course

Petrel 2010

About Petrel*
Development on Petrel seismic-to-simulation software began in 1996
in an attempt to combat the growing trend of increasingly specialized
geoscientists working in increasing isolation. The result was an
integrated workflow tool that allows E&P companies to think critically
and creatively about their reservoir modeling procedures and enables
specialized geoscientists to work together seamlessly. With the
enhanced geophysical tools and the integration of ECLIPSE* reservoir
simulation software and streamline simulation, Petrel is now a
complete seismic-to-simulation application for
3D visualization

3D mapping
3D and 2D seismic interpretation
well correlation
3D grid design for geology and reservoir simulation
depth conversion
3D reservoir modeling
3D well design
upscaling
volume calculation
plotting
post processing
streamline simulation
ECLIPSE

Copyright Notice
2010 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, without the prior written
permission of Schlumberger Information Solutions, 5599 San Felipe,
Suite 1700, Houston, TX 77056-2722.

Disclaimer
Use of this product is governed by the License Agreement.
Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with
respect to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation
any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Schlumberger reserves the right to revise the information in this manual
at any time without notice.

Trademark Information
*Mark of Schlumberger. Certain other products and product names are
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or
organizations.

Table of Contents
About Petrel* ...........................................................................2
Copyright Notice........................................................................3
Disclaimer..................................................................................3
Trademark Information..............................................................3
Module 1 - Introduction...........................................................11
Prerequisites............................................................................11
Learning Objectives.................................................................11
What you will need.................................................................12
What to expect........................................................................12
Icons........................................................................................13
Terminology.............................................................................14
Workflow diagram...................................................................19
Agenda....................................................................................19
One application, seismic to simulation...................................20
Module 2 - The Petrel User Interface...................................23
Introduction.............................................................................23
Lesson 1 The Petrel user interface......................................24
The Petrel user interface.........................................................25
Starting Petrel.........................................................................40
Petrel Interface........................................................................41
Display window.......................................................................42
Object settings........................................................................43
Lesson 2 Making a simple grid with simulation fault.........47
Exercises - Making a simple grid a with simulation fault......59
Making a simple grid...............................................................59
Summary..................................................................................64
Module 3 - Functions...............................................................65
Introduction.............................................................................65
Lesson 1 - Make fluid model...................................................66
Exercises - Make fluid model..................................................81
Make a black oil model from correlations..............................81
Reviewing fluid model settings...............................................83
Import a keyword fluid model..................................................83
Plotting the fluid model...........................................................83
Create multiple viewports Optional.....................................85
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Table of Contents 5

Lesson 2 - Make rock physics functions.................................88


Rock compaction function.......................................................89
Saturation function..................................................................91
Capillary pressure....................................................................95
Exercises Make rock physics functions...............................98
Make a saturation function.....................................................98
Make a rock compaction function.........................................100
Reviewing rock physics functions data.................................102
Import a keyword rock physics function................................104
Summary................................................................................105
Module 4 - Initialize the Model and View 3D
Properties.................................................................................107
Introduction...........................................................................107
Lesson 1 Initialization of the model...................................108
Introduction...........................................................................108
Exercises Initialization of the model..................................120
Exercise Workflow.................................................................120
Exercise Data.........................................................................120
Initialize model......................................................................120
Lesson 2 3D Viewing..........................................................123
Exercises Results viewing..................................................129
3D viewing.............................................................................129
Making filters using a Histogram window............................131
View data on an intersection plane......................................133
Optional Exercise - The multi-value probe............................134
Summary................................................................................135
Module 5 - Upscaling.............................................................137
Introduction...........................................................................137
Lesson 1 Grid Coarsening using the Pillar gridding
process..................................................................................138
Pillar Gridding - Concept.......................................................140
Pillar Gridding - Terminology.................................................141
Exercises Grid coarsening..................................................148
Grid coarsening using the Pillar gridding process................148
Changing the grid orientation...............................................151
Lesson 2 Vertical coarsening the Scale up structure
process..................................................................................153
Exercises Vertical coarsening and grid quality check........159
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The Scale up structure process.............................................159


Grid quality check..................................................................160
Using value filter...................................................................162
Averaging methods...............................................................167
Directional averaging methods for permeability..................169
Exercises Scale up properties............................................170
Exercise Workflow.................................................................171
Exercise Data.........................................................................171
Scale up properties...............................................................171
Apply different methods........................................................173
Review the upscaled properties............................................174
Review upscaled properties in a 3D window.......................175
Summary................................................................................177
Module 6 - Local grid refinements and Aquifers..............179
Introduction...........................................................................179
Lesson 1 Local grid refinements.........................................180
Exercises Local grid refinements........................................190
Import a polygon....................................................................190
Make a local grid set.............................................................190
Inspect the local grid set.......................................................192
Upscale property Optional.................................................193
Lesson 2 Aquifers...............................................................195
Exercises Aquifers..............................................................202
Add an aquifer.......................................................................203
Summary................................................................................206
Module 7 - History development strategies......................207
Introduction...........................................................................207
Lesson 1 History development strategies..........................208
Exercises - Make a history development strategy................217
Import observed data............................................................217
Make a history development strategy..................................220
View the development strategy data....................................221
Add a rule to limit the production pressures........................222
Define and run simulation cases...........................................223
Exercise: Change the line style in function windows...........236
Plot window...........................................................................238
Summary data in a 3D window - Optional............................240
View data on streamlines - Optional....................................241
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Table of Contents 7

Lesson 3 (Optional) History match analysis......................242


Exercises History match analysis.......................................256
Run history match analysis...................................................256
View match data in a map window......................................257
View match data in a function window................................259
Compare cases in a Map window.........................................260
Summary................................................................................262
Module 8 - Well Engineering...............................................263
Introduction...........................................................................263
Lesson 1 Import and Design Well Paths............................264
Well path design...................................................................267
Simple vertical well...............................................................268
Exercises Import well data and design well paths............276
Import well data....................................................................276
Make a vertical well..............................................................278
Setting up the 3D window....................................................279
Well path design...................................................................282
Reference project tool...........................................................285
Lesson 2(Optional) Automatic well placement..................286
Create best fit well................................................................286
Laterals design......................................................................288
Exercises Automatic well placement - optional................291
Lesson 3 Results, reports and quality checking.................295
Well manager and saved searches.......................................303
Well tops and well report.....................................................304
Lesson 5 Well completion design......................................306
Exercises Well completion design.....................................322
Import well completion events..............................................328
Make completions using the Operations tab........................331
Summary................................................................................334
Module 9 - Prediction strategies.........................................335
Introduction...........................................................................335
Lesson 1 - Prediction development strategy.........................336
Exercises Prediction strategies..........................................347
Use a default strategy...........................................................347
Add a new rule to an existing strategy.................................349
Define a prediction case........................................................350
View simulation results.........................................................351
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Make a strategy with a tabular rule - Optional....................352


Lesson 2 Keyword editor....................................................355
Import existing simulation case............................................363
Examples of use of the Keyword editor................................367
Exercises Keyword editor - import a case..........................368
Load a simulation case ........................................................369
Edit the case..........................................................................370
Run the simulation case........................................................371
Convert to Petrel case...........................................................372
Summary................................................................................373
Appendix 1 - Advanced Workflows....................................375
Dual porosity Dual permeability........................................375
Sector modeling....................................................................377
Hysteresis..............................................................................380
Remote job submission.........................................................382
Index.........................................................................................383

Reservoir Engineering

Table of Contents 9

Module 1 - Introduction
The purpose of this course is to introduce you to the reservoir
engineering tools in Petrel. In this course, you will create a simple
simulation grid and upscale a geological grid. You will learn how to
create black oil fluid tables and rock physics functions in Petrel. In
addition, you will import and design wells and add completion items.
Finally, you will combine it all and submit it for simulation before
viewing results inside Petrel.
Traditionally, the engineer had to employ a range of different software
tools, hence, data had to be exported/imported between the different
applications. Also, feedback to the geological model used to be difficult
to implement. The vision for Petrel RE is to make all of these tools
available from the Petrel user interface.

Prerequisites
To successfully complete this course, the user must have knowledge of
the following:
English proficiency
Basic Windows and practical computing skills
Familiarity with reservoir engineering fundamentals

Learning Objectives
In this course, you will prepare black oil simulation cases for ECLIPSE*
and FrontSim* using Petrel. You will learn:
About the Petrel user interface
How to build a simulation grid
How to scale up structure and properties
How to use the correlation library to make black oil fluid tables
and rock physics functions
How to use the well engineering tools in Petrel
How to set up simulation cases and view the results
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Introduction 11

What you will need


In this course, you will need the following hardware and applications in
order to perform the workflow:
A personal computer with a minimum of 2GB of RAM; however,
we recommend 16GB of RAM for optimal performance.
For Petrel 32-bit: Microsoft XP 32. For Petrel 64-bit: Vista 64 and
XP 64.
A graphic card compatible with Petrel
A Petrel license and license key
Petrel Seismic to Simulation Software with the latest updates
Training datasets

What to expect
In this training material, you will encounter the following:
Overview of each module
Prerequisites to the module (if necessary)
Learning objectives
A workflow component
Lesson(s)
Scenario-based exercises
You will also encounter notes, tips and best practices

12 Introduction 

Reservoir Engineering

Icons
Throughout this manual, you will find icons in the margin representing
various kinds of information. These icons serve as at-a-glance
reminders of their associated text. See below for descriptions of what
each icon means.

Tips

Notes

Best Practices

This icon points you to a tip


that will make your work
easier.

This icon indicates that the


following information is
particularly important.

This icon indicates the best


way to perform a given
task when different options
are available.

Warnings

Questions

This icon indicates when


you need to proceed with
extreme caution.

This icon identifies the


questions at the end of
each lesson.

Lessons
This icon identifies a
lesson, which covers a
particular topic.

Prerequisites
This icon identifies any

Procedures
prerequisites that are

required for the course, or


This icon identifies the
for individual modules.
steps required to perform a
given task.

Exercise

Review Questions

This icon indicates that its


your turn to practice the
procedure.

This icon identifies the


review questions at the
end of each module.
.

you need to proceed with


extreme caution.

Prerequisites

Learning Objectives

What you will need

This
identiesany
any
This icon identifies
prerequisites
thatare
are
prerequisites that
required
for the
thecourse,
course,oror
required for
for
modules.
for individual
individual modules.

This
identiesany
any
This icon
icon identifies
learning objective set out
learning objectives set out
for the course, or for the
for the course, or for the
current module.
current module.

This
icon indicates
identiesany
any
This icon
applications, hardware,
applications, hardware,
datasets, or other material
datasets,for
or other
material
required
the course.
required for the course.
.

Reservoir Engineering

Introduction 13

Terminology
Petrel introduces new terms and expressions. Some of the most
frequently used in this manual are briefly explained below.
3D Grid - A network of horizontal and vertical lines used to describe a
three dimensional geological model. Petrel uses the Corner Point 3D
Grid technique.
Boundary for the Pillar grid Defines the extent of the model. You
can use a polygon as input, or you can digitize the boundary. Faults can
be set as part of the boundary.
Cases pane - Shows volumetric cases and simulations cases as set up
in the Define simulation case process.
Cell - The smallest volumetric element in the Pillar grid. Each cell has a
unique I, J, K position in the Pillar Grid. I, J, K positions are zero based
integer locations of cells in a grid. It uses a left-handed orientation I, J
being a horizontal surface and with K increasing downward. The grid
has a number of cells equal to the number of I times the number of J
times the number of K points. I, J, K indexing provides a way of
identifying a cells position in the grid.
Contact level - The level of a Gas-Oil contact or an Oil-Water contact,
normally at a constant depth but a tilted contact can be represented by
a surface.
Corner point grid - A flexible grid structure where the eight corners of
a cell (the nodes) can be moved to form irregular cell geometries.
Directions (in the Pillar gridding process) User defined guidance for
orientation of cells along faults. A fault can be given a direction in
which case the grid is enforced to be aligned with that fault.
Fault - Vertical surface that segments the Pillar grid. It is represented
by a set of pillars that join together to define the fault. An area
enclosed by faults will, by default, make out a segment of the model. A
fault can be given a direction in which case the grid is enforced to be
aligned with that fault.
Filter Petrel can display the whole model (all elements) or selected
parts of it. Powerful filter techniques enable the user to take full control
of the 3D grid and visualize only the elements of interest for quality
control. Filters in Petrel are used both for visualization and for
14 Introduction 

Reservoir Engineering

calculations. There are two basic types of filters in Petrel. The first type
is a simple On/Off type, where an element is either turned on or off.
Other filters are more advanced (for example filtering of properties) and
are based on values set by the user.
Function bar - Also called tool bar (in Microsoft terminology). This is a
group of icons on a horizontal or vertical bar. Only icons that can be
used with the current active process is displayed in the function bar.
Function window - Plot window used to display functions, cross
plots, sample variograms and variogram models.
Histogram window - Plot window used for display of histograms and
cumulative distribution functions.
Horizon - The equivalent of a surface, except that a horizon is a surface
in a 3D grid and an integrated part of the 3D model. A horizon in a
Petrel 3D grid can have multiple Z values at a single XY value whereas
a surface can not.
Input pane - imported data such as lines, wells, fluid models, gridded
surfaces and SEG-Y data is stored here. Also data created by Petrel
process like: Development strategy, Rock physics functions, etc.
Intersection - A cut through a three dimensional model (3D grid).
Intersections can be plane surfaces with arbitrary direction and dip, but
can also be cross sections along one of the main directions of a 3D grid
(I, J, K directions).
Intersection window - Plot window used for generation of scaled
plots of cross sections.
Editor - Allows you to use all functionality of ECLIPSE and FrontSim,
which can not be accessed through the Petrel user interface.
Layers - Fine scale division of 3D grid, which defines the cell thickness.
LGR - Local grid refinement; allows for a finer resolution of the grid in
demanding areas. Local grids are defined using wells, surfaces and
polygons as input.
Map window - Plot window used for generation of scaled plots (2D
maps), and for display of history match values and variogram maps
created in Petrel.
Menu bar - Special tool bar at the top of the screen that contains
Reservoir Engineering

Introduction 15

menus such as File, Edit, and View.


Model - Complete set of data needed to describe a three dimensional
geological model. This includes the 3D grid structure with faults and
horizons, and all cells with different properties. Each project can
contain several models and each model can contain several 3D grids.
Models pane - data connected with a 3D model (such as faults, trends
and 3D grids) is stored here. Velocity models and discrete fracture
network models are also stored here.
Nodes - In a 3D grid, nodes are corner points of the grid cell. In a 2D
grid they are intersection points between grid lines.
Pillar gridding - The process of creating the three-dimensional (3D)
grid. With this process you make the framework of the 3D grid using a
combination of key pillars, trend lines and a boundary. The result is a
three dimensional framework called a skeleton grid.
Pillars Vertical lines connecting the corner points of 3D grid cells.
The shape can be any of the four standards: vertical, straight, listric or
curved. There are two basic types of pillars in a 3D grid: faulted and
non-faulted. After the pillar gridding process, the key pillars are
replaced with faulted pillars. Non-faulted pillars are inserted in the nonfaulted area of the 3D grid.
Polygon - Polygons made in Petrel can be used for many different
purposes. Like digitize contours for structure maps, isochores or
properties. Boundary polygons are used in the Make surface process,
or as a boundary in the Pillar gridding process or the Make aquifer
process.
Processes pane - All the processes that you can apply to you data is
located here. For each Process a new set of tools is available in the
Function bar.
Results pane - the numerical results of volume calculations and
simulations are stored in this pane, such that they can be visualized and
any reports made. Also Observed data for Development strategy is
stored here.
Segments (Regions) Segment in Petrel is an area that is closed by
faults, grid boundary, segment boundaries or any combination of these.
Segment is similar to the term Regions used in ECLIPSE.
16 Introduction 

Reservoir Engineering

Simulation grid - The 3D grid that will be used for flow simulation in
Petrel or exported to other simulation packages. This grid is usually a
coarser, upscaled version of the geological grid.
Skeleton Three 2D grids representing the top middle and base points
of the Key pillars in a pillar grid. These are used to quality check the
pillars and therefore the 3D grid. The skeleton is not related to horizons
in the grid in any way.
Status bar - Information on processes, coordinates, etc. in the rightbottom corner of the user interface.
Surfaces - 2D grids (imported or generated in Petrel). A surface is a
simpler version of a horizon in Petrel, the major difference being that
horizons are held in 3D grids (as opposed to 2D grids) and can therefore
have multiple Z values at each XY point. Surfaces are stored in the
Input pane, while horizons are stored in the Models pane.
Templates - Are linked to objects in Petrel and control globally their
settings for color, units, measurements etc. Petrel comes with several
predefined templates: depth and thickness color tables, property
templates and seismic color tables.
Templates pane - color tables and all the different templates are
stored under this pane.
Title bar - The file name (project name) and location is displayed in the
Title bar on top of the user interface.
Tool bar - Icons for commonly accessed commands in the user
interface. These tools are useful shortcuts for items that also can be
found by accessing the menu bar.
Transmissibility multiplier The transmissibility is a number
assigned to cell faces that describes the ability for a fluid to flow from
one cell to another. A transmissibility multiplier can be assigned to
faults to change the ability for a fluid to flow past the fault.
Trends (in the Pillar gridding process) User defined guidance for the
grid cells orientation in a particular direction (I- and J-directions). Also
segment divider (when no faults).
Weighting Used in several processes to increase or decrease the
importance of some of the data in a computation. For example, in the
Scale up properties process one can decrease the influence of property
Reservoir Engineering

Introduction 17

values from cells with a tiny volume when populating the coarse grid by
using the Volume weighting option.
Well tops Intersection points between well trajectories and
structural surfaces. Sometimes called well points, well picks or tie
points.
Well trajectories - Lines in space representing well paths.
Well section window - Plot window used for display of well sections
used in the Well correlation and the Well completion design processes.
Windows pane - stores all opened and active plots and windows used
in the Petrel project. In addition it holds the Light sources and the
Cursor tracker.
Workflows pane - stores workflows made using the Workflow editor
and/or the Uncertainty and optimization process. In addition it holds a
folder with predefined variables.
Zones - A zone is defined by the volume between a top and a bottom
horizon.

18 Introduction 

Reservoir Engineering

Workflow diagram

Agenda

Reservoir Engineering

Introduction 19

One application, seismic to simulation

Usability
Petrel 2010

Familiar
windows style

Tools from
seismic to
simulation

20 Introduction 

Reservoir Engineering

Traditionally, the geoscientists provided input to the reservoir


simulation model. Since Petrel provides one tool for the entire
workflow, it is easier for the different professionals to work in an
interrelated way.
The building and maintaining of a simulation model is an iterative
process. As the tools for modeling and simulation are available in one
single application, it is easier for the engineer and the geologist to
cooperate.

The engineer used to depend on a number of software products in order


to set up, run and view the results of a simulation.
Petrel now provides one common user interface for workflows from
seismic interpretation to reservoir simulation.

Reservoir Engineering

Introduction 21

The vision of Petrel is to incorporate all of those tools into one common
user interface to avoid challenges and time spent on import/export.
Most of the major workflows in ECLIPSE Office, Schedule, FloGrid, and
FloViz can be accomplished in Petrel 2010.1, but there are still some
gaps.
The main gaps are:
FloGrid Petrel has no unstructured grids; no upgridding (the
workflow to determine where to put the layers based on
property distribution).
Schedule On import, Petrel extracts data from the WELSPECS
and COMPDAT keywords together with dates. But it will not
make any Development strategies. In Petrel, layer shifting is
accomplished by correcting the grid to match the well tops,
rather than moving perforations to match a bad grid.
Compositional fluid properties Petrel offers functionality to
make compositional and thermal PVT models. However, the
equation of state (EOS) of such models cannot be tuned to the
laboratory experiments.

22 Introduction 

Reservoir Engineering

Module 2 - The Petrel User


Interface
Introduction
In this module, you will become familiar with the Petrel user interface.
You will also learn how to make a grid using the Make simple grid
process. This is a process that can be used to make grids for nonfaulted reservoirs. However, it is possible to insert a simulation fault
into the grid to model the effect of a (partially) sealing fault.
Prerequisites
There are no prerequisites for this module
Learning Objectives
In this module, you will learn how to:
Start Petrel with a new or an existing project
Navigate in the user interface
Review and alter settings for Petrel objects
Display data in 2D, 3D, and function windows
Make a simple grid for a non-faulted reservoir
Insert a simulation fault into the simple grid

Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 23

Lesson 1 The Petrel user interface


Petrel RE for newcomers


Menus

24 The Petrel User Interface

Settings

Visualization

File management

Reservoir Engineering

User interface
Menu bar
Tool bar

Function bar

Petrel
explorer
panes

Display
window

Status bar

Object information

The Petrel user interface


The Petrel user interface consists of two main windows, the display
window and the Petrel explorer panes:
Petrel explorer panes: There are eight panes available in Petrel and they
can be put in two separate explorer windows (default). All panes have
free placement and grouping, and can be enabled or disabled from the
View option in the Menu bar.
The Input pane contains all data that is not defined as part of a 3D grid
or a fault model. The Models pane contains all fault models and 3D
grids with grid properties.
The Templates pane contains predefined templates, while the Results
pane is a filter for simulation and volumetric results.
The Processes pane contains a list of the available processes in Petrel
in the order which they are usually performed. The Workflows pane
contains workflows created by the Workflow editor or the
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The Petrel User Interface 25

Uncertainty and Optimization process. The Cases pane stores all


simulation and volumetric cases and the Windows pane stores all
windows (3D window, interpretation window etc.).
Toolbar: General tools related to import and visualization
Menu bar: Familiar Windows menus, such as File > Open, Edit
> Copy, File > Save, Help > Manual.
Function bar: Tools related to the selected process in the
Processes pane.
Object Information: When clicking on an object in the display
window, information about it will appear in the lower right
corner.
Status bar: Shows the status of the last performed action.

Input and Model panes


Input pane
Contains all imported data
and all subjects that are
not a part of the 3D grid.
Models pane
Contains all Fault models
and 3D grids.
Bold item
Click on an object name to
make it active.

Input and Model panes


Bold Item: Note that the name of the active item is printed in a bold
font. It is the active item that Petrel will use in a process. For instance,
if you want to use the Top Tarbert data as input for making a surface,
select it by clicking on it, it becomes bold and Petrel recognizes this as
the object to use and you know which item is active.
26 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

+/- Sign: Data is stored in folders within the Petrel explorer panes. The
folders are expanded by clicking on the plus sign and collapsed by
clicking on the minus sign in front of it.

Cases and Results panes

Cases pane
A new case is added each time
a simulation or volume case is
defined.
Results pane
Used to select lines to view in
function windows.
Used to display 3D properties
in 3D window.

Cases and Results panes


When a simulation case is defined, it is stored on the Cases pane. The
check box in front of the case is used to select to view results from that
particular case. You can plot line vectors (rates, pressures, etc.) in a
function window by specifying which data to view on the Results pane.
The simulation grid results (Static and Dynamic grid properties
computed by the simulator) are also stored on the Results pane. To
visualize it, you can use 3D or 2D window. Use the time player to see
how the properties change during simulation time.

Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 27

Processes pane
Function bar

1. Active Process
A process needs to be
active (bold) to be used.
2. Function Bar
Shows available tools for
the selected process.

Only one process can be


active at the time.

Processes pane and Function bar


The Processes pane contains a list of all available processes in Petrel.
If a process is available, the process name will be colored black. If a
process is not available, it will be grayed out and you cannot select it.
There are various reasons why a process may not be available. The
most common reason is that a previously required process has not been
completed. For example, you dont have access to property modeling
before youve defined horizons. Another reason is licensing. A red
prohibition sign indicates that your license configuration does not
contain that process.
The Function bar is located on the right hand side of the screen and
contains the icons/tools available for the current active process within
the Processes pane. The available tools are active and in color, this
will help you to know which tools to use for each process.

28 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Workflow editor and the Uncertainty and optimization process:


The Workflows pane stores workflows created by the Workflow
editor and the Uncertainty and optimization process. Workflows
provide a programming-like user interface to Petrel. They allow for
automating tasks such as plotting or sensitivity studies. New workflows
are initiated from the Insert option in the Menu bar. Uncertainty, proxy,
and optimization workflows are made using the Uncertainty and
optimization process which is stored in the Utilities folder of the
Processes pane.
Windows pane
All visualization windows in a project are stored on this pane. Even if
you exit a window, it will still be stored in the Windows pane. Use the
Windows pane to organize windows. You can, for example, delete
windows and rename windows for quick access. When plotting the oil
production rate, rename the Function window to Field oil production to
better distinguish it. A checked box in front of a window indicates an
open window. Having many open windows can slow down
performance, thus, it is recommended you keep the number of open
windows to a minimum. Each window is stored as a folder in the
Windows pane. In this folder, icons are stored which are used for
visualizing legend, axis, setting background color, etc. Those tools are
also found in the toolbar.
Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 29

Coordinate systems

Petrel offers the possibility to do


cartographic transformations of
data on export and import.
With 2010, only some data
types are supported, mainly
lattice data such as 3D seismic.
Select Null to disable this
functionality.

Petrel 2010.1 is the first release that offers the possibility of doing
cartographic transforms and conversions on import and export. Well
data is supported, but not 3D grids, hence, it is not yet fully functional
for reservoir engineering purposes. Select Null, to disable the
functionality and to make Petrel perform like pre-Petrel 2010.1.

30 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Project settings and units

Units
Select a Unit system from the dropdown menu (e.g. Metric or Field), or
select Customize to set units from a
mixed unit system.

Note: There is NO unit conversion inside


Petrel; it has to be done on import.

Project settings
Petrel will allow for a mix of different units to be imported into the
project. A typical example is to have well data and production data in
feet, and maps and other data derived from seismic in meters. You must
check to ensure that the data is imported with the correct units. It is
not possible to convert units of data already imported into the project,
but data can be converted on import and export.
The best workflow to ensure common units in a Petrel project is:
1. Check your data before import and decide which units are best
to use as your project units. Petrel will allow you to use local
coordinates, field, metric or a combination, which most
commonly are UTM coordinates in the XY-direction and feet in
the Z-direction.
2. When creating a new Petrel project, open the Project settings
as described on the slide and select the unit system you want
to use in your project.
Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 31

3. For every object you import, check the file before import to
inspect the units of the data. Then, select to apply unit
conversion in the import dialog, if needed.
4. If you discover that the unit of a data object is inconsistent
with the other data in the project, delete it and re-import it
with the correct conversion.
When importing data from ECLIPSE keywords, Petrel is looking for
METRIC or FIELD keywords in the file. If none of this is specified then it
will assume that the data in the import file is in the same unit system
as Petrel project. If it is specified, and the units of the file you import is
different from the units in the project, then the data will be converted
on import.
Also note that Petrel has two different concepts of time units; namely
depth measured as two way traveling time for the seismic waves in
addition to the usual meaning of time.

Object Settings
1. Every object has a
settings window
2. Access settings

2
1

32 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Object settings
To access the settings dialog for objects in Petrel, right-click on the
object and choose Settings, or double-click the object.
The Settings dialog provides information about the object and whether
it is possible to alter the objects. The tabs vary by the object type.

Object Settings
Style tab

Most objects have a Style


tab. Possible to adjust display
parameters.

Style tab
The Settings dialog contains different tabs and information. Depending
on the type of object, additional tabs will be added for more
functionality. However, the settings will always include an Info tab and
a Statistics tab. The Style tab is only active when a display window
related to the Style options is active (for example, 2D vs. 3D display
windows).

Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 33

Object Settings
Info Tab

1. Rename objects by entering a


new name.
2. The Template can be
changed.

1
2

3. The Comments tab is empty


by default; designed for user
input.

3,4

4. The History tab keeps track


of the main events related to the
object (e.g. operations, dates
etc.).

Info tab
On the Info tab, you can rename the object and change the template.
The Comments tab is a white, editable area where you can add any
information such as the source of the data that was imported and its
reliability.
The history of the object is stored on the History tab, including
information about edits and operations performed on the object. By
right-clicking in this field, you can add your own date stamped
comments or clear the history completely. Note that not all objects have
a History tab.

34 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Object Settings
Statistics Tab

The content of each item can be checked


under the Statistics tab. The zones can be
viewed separately.

Lists
The first list gives the X, Y, Z coordinates. If an
attribute is available it will also be shown.
One or all lists can be copied to an output
sheet. Toggle on one of the lists (e.g. List 1)
and click the output icon. The contents of the
list will be written to an output window.

Statistics tab
It is important to quality check (QC) the statistics for accuracy to verify
that the items hold the correct values.
By default, Z values are negative based on a reservoir being below sea
level. If your data is above sea level, select the appropriate options
when importing your data. Remember that this is opposite from
GeoFrame which works in positive Z values.
It is possible to generate a report from the statistics table: Click on the
Copy to output sheet button. A report will be generated and it can be
saved to file or copied and pasted into Excel.

Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 35

Visualization
Windows

Visualization windows
A range of different types of windows are available:
3D window for visualization of data in 3D.
2D window for visualization of data in 2D. This is useful
when working with polygons, and when you want to be certain
that you are viewing from above.
Map window Used for plotting horizons and layers of the 3D
property.
Intersection window plotting window for intersections.
Interpretation window 2D window used for seismic
interpretation.
Histogram window used for plotting histograms.
Function window used for plotting cross plots, variogram,
and line plots.
Stereonet window used for displaying dip and azimuth data.
36 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Well section window used for well correlation, interpreting


logs, and defining well bore completions.
Plot window Multiple viewports can be inserted (for
example, function, intersection, and histograms together). A
viewport is a limited rectangular area where data objects are
displayed.
Tornado plot window to display an organized overview of
analysis results.

Visualization
Display tools

Maneuvering from Function bar

Visualization from Tool bar

Move Left mouse button


View all displayed data
Select/Pick mode Allows for
selecting objects and getting
information about them (in the
status bar)

View from specified position


Target zoom

To move the view in any of the windows, use the left mouse button.
However, to be able to move anything, you must have the View mode
(hand) active. When the View mode is active, a hand is shown instead
of the mouse pointer.
The Select/pick mode (arrow) is used to select an item. When in this
mode, you can click on any object and get information about it in
Petrels lower right corner.
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The Petrel User Interface 37

Note that all windows that show a vertical scale can be set to show
data in either TWT (two way time) or TVD (true vertical depth). The
default is Any, which means that data from different domains can be
mixed in the windows (for example, useful for checking whether the
wells are intersecting with the seismic data cube). However, if the
vertical scale of a window is set to TWT, it is not possible to view depth
data in the window. If you ever have trouble visualizing data in the
selected window, always check that the vertical scale of the window is
set to TVD (or Any).

Visualization
Check boxes

Gray, square boxes select the


check box to display the object in the
active window. Several objects can be
displayed simultaneously.

Gray, radio buttons only ONE object


at a time can be displayed.
Yellow, square boxes Filters. Used
to filter out different parts of a 3D grid.

38 The Petrel User Interface

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Opening and Saving Petrel Projects


1
1. Open Project:
Opens an already saved Petrel
project (.pet).
2. Save Project As:
Saves the Petrel project,
prompting you for a new name.
The .pet file, the .ptd data
folder, and the .sim folder are
saved.

2
3

3. Automatic Save:
Automatically saves the Petrel
project, overwriting the current
saved version. Should be used
with caution.

Petrel File Management

The .pet file contains the


index of all data in your
project.

Note: When making a backup or sending your project to support,


you must include the two associated directories, not just the .pet
file all it contains is the index, none of the data!

Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 39

Petrel File Management

The .sim directory contains a


directory for each case you create,
plus the Cache__ directory for
temporary index files

Each simulation case directory


contains the simulator keyword
input files and result files

Exercises The Petrel user interface


The following exercises give you a general introduction to Petrel.
Exercise Workflow
Starting Petrel
Petrel interface
Display windows
Object settings
Editing of input data
Exercise Data
In this exercise, we use the project Dataset > Completed_2010.pet.

Starting Petrel
Start the Petrel program by double-clicking on the Petrel icon
on
the desktop.
If a bitlock is used, an introduction window to Petrel will open before
the Petrel program window opens up. If you are not using a bitlock
(dongle), you will first see a Net License Modules dialog asking which
module package you want to run. At your location, you may have
several levels of licenses. You should use the license that has the
functionality you need for the work you are doing.
40 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Exercise steps
1. Start Petrel. You can find the data used in this course in a
folder called Dataset. This folder also contains some
completed exercises. These are stored in the 2010 backup
projects folder.
2. Open the training project. Do this by clicking File > Open
project and select the Completed_2010.pet file from the
Dataset directory.
3. Copy the project: Save it to your Student directory by selecting
File > Save as. Give it a new name and click Save.
Online Help Manual
The Online Help Manual is a document that comes with each
installation of Petrel. It is the most extensive documentation on Petrel.
You open it by clicking Help in the menu bar.

Petrel Interface
The Petrel user interface is separated into two main window areas.
These are the Petrel explorer panes and the Display window with the
Function bar on the right hand side. The available tools in the Function
bar depend on which process is active. At the top of the Petrel interface
is a standard menu bar and a toolbar.
All data that is not connected to a 3D grid is stored on the Input pane.
Examples are wells and well top (well picks), rock physics functions,
and fluid models. Data that belongs to a 3D grid is stored together with
the 3D grid on the Models pane. Examples are, surfaces that are
defined as part of the 3D grid (in Petrel called Horizons), grid properties
such as porosity, and fluid contacts. The simulation grid properties (the
output from simulator, for example, pressure, oil saturation (SOIL)) are
stored in the Results pane.
Exercise steps
1. Click on the Input pane. Right-click the Wells folder and
select Expand (recursive) from the menu. The folder with
sub folders is now expanded. Right-click the Wells folder
again, and select Collapse (Recursively).
2. Right-click on different folders to see which options are
available. Select Settings from the list. A window providing
Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 41

If any of the panes


disappear, go to the View tab
in the Menu bar and select
Panes to reopen them.

access to functions and settings for the selected folder opens


up.
The Processes pane contains a list of all available processes in Petrel.
They are sorted in the order which they are typically performed. Some
of the processes can only be run once the process above in the list is
completed. For example, you must create a 3D grid before you can
insert horizons, and you must define a fluid model before you can define
a simulation case. Processes that are grayed out cannot be used until
the process listed above is executed.
Like most PC software, the menu bar has the standard File, Edit, View,
etc. drop-down menus. In addition, on the right hand side of the Petrel
interface there are icons in a toolbar with additional Petrel related
functionality. This toolbar is called the Function bar, and the tools
available depend on which process has been selected in the
Processes pane. All of the icons in the toolbars have a descriptive text
associated with them. The text appears if you move the mouse pointer
over an icon.
Exercise steps
1. Click on each of the items in the menu bar to see the tools
available. You may want to experiment with some of the
options.
2. Slowly move the mouse pointer over the icons in the toolbar.
Text will appear describing the function of each icon.

Display window
A variety of windows can be displayed, examples are 3D and 2D
windows, well section windows, function windows (for plotting), and
interpretation windows (for seismic interpretation).
Exercise steps
In this exercise, you will use a 3D window.
1. Open a 3D window by selecting New 3D window from the
Windows menu in the menu bar.
2. Display an object from the Input pane by selecting the check
box next to it. Click on the Viewing mode
button (at the
top of the function bar) and move your mouse pointer over the
display. A hand should appear instead of the pointer. This
42 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

means you can manipulate the display.


3. Left-click and move the mouse to rotate the object in 3D.
4. Hold the SHIFT or CTRL key down, left-click, and move the
mouse. This will pan the object. With a three button mouse,
you can use the mouse wheel to pan the object.
5. Hold both the SHIFT and CTRL keys down, left-click, and move
the mouse. This will zoom the object. With a three button
mouse, you can use the left and middle button to zoom.
6. Press the ESC key. The hand now changes back to the regular
mouse pointer. You can also use the Select/pick mode
button to do this (on the Function bar).
7. Click on an item in the display, using the mouse pointer. Note
the information that is displayed in the status bar at the bottom
of the window.

Object settings
Whether you are importing files, building a new project, or reviewing
someone elses project, the Statistics tab of the object settings
provides you with valuable information.
Exercise steps
1. In the Models pane, right-click the 3D grid named Fine grid
and select Settings.
2. Go to the Statistics tab and check the size of the 3D grid. You
can check the minimum and maximum values for X, Y, and Z.
You can also find the number of cells and the average
increment in all spatial dimensions.
3. Go to the Properties folder of the 3D grid, and check the
statistics for a grid property. For instance, check the range of
the permeability or porosity.
4. Check the statistics of the Properties folder or of another file
folder.
The Statistics tab is read-only and is used for information and quality
checking (QC). To change the appearance of an object, you need to use
the Style and Info tabs.
Exercise steps
1. In the Models pane, right-click a property in the Properties
folder under the 3D grid Fine. Select Settings and go to the
Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 43

Info tab. Note that you can change the name of the property by
entering a new name and clicking Apply. The name of any
object can be changed in its Info tab.
2. From the Info tab, the template can also be changed. Click on
the arrow alongside the template name to see the list of
available templates to choose from.

3. Open a 3D window, and clear it of all items (Window > Clear


all visualizations) and select to view one of the Horizons
under the Fine grid.
4. Right-click the Horizons folder, select Settings, and go to the
Style tab. Here you can specify display options.
5. Open the Grid lines tab and select the check box Show to
view grid lines. Click Apply and observe that you can now
view the grid lines on the horizon.
6. Deselect to view the grid lines, and open the Contour lines
tab instead. Select the check box Show, then click Apply and
observe the changes. You can also specify the thickness and
the color of the contour/grid lines in the Style tab.
7. Select to view the faults in the 3D window along with the
horizon by select the check box in front of the Faults folder
under the 3D grid.
8. Right-click the Faults folder, select Settings and go to the
Edges and intersections style tab. In the Lines sub-tab, you
can select whether to display pillars on the fault. The pillars
define the mesh cell edges in the Z-direction.
44 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Exercise steps
1. Right-click the Porosity property under the Properties folder
of the Fine grid, and select Settings. Open the Histogram tab
to view the distribution of values.
2. Similarly, go to the Histogram tab in the Settings of
Permeability. View the distribution of the 3D grid property.
3. Insert a New histogram window from the Window menu.
Select to display the Porosity property from the Fine grid.
You can use function windows to view simulation results. The next
exercise will show you how to select the data for display in a function
window.

Reservoir Engineering

All objects have an


Info and a Statistics tab in
the Settings dialog. Some
objects have more tabs. For
3D grid properties, you will
probably find the Histogram
tab useful.

The Petrel User Interface 45

Exercise steps
1. Open a New function window.
2. Select vector to view:
a. Go to the Cases pane, and select the case Aquifer.
b. Go to the Results pane, and select the check boxes in
front of Oil production rate under the folder Dynamic
results data > Rates.
c. Under the Identifier folder in the Results pane, expand
the Well folder and select P06. Thus, we will only view
results for well P06.
d. Further down in the Results pane, you can find the folder
Source data type. Expand this folder to select which
source data you want to display. Select Observed data.
Now, both simulated and observed data will be displayed.
You should see oil production rate as a function of time for
well P06 in the function window. With the default settings,
simulated and observed data are shown as a solid line and
circles respectively.
e. Go to the Cases pane and select Aquifer_RESTART. This
is the simulation case containing the strategy on how to
operate the field in the future, and display prediction for
well P06.
46 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

3. Change the display options for the function window:


a. Your function window is stored in the Windows pane.
Expand the folder Function window, and then expand
the Function 1 folder.
b. Turn the Symbol legend and the Header on and off.
c. Right-click Axis, and select Settings. Go to the Ticks tab
to specify the increment in x and y in the function window.
Go to the Annotation tab to change the size and
alignment of x- and y- axes labels.
d. Go to the Plot tab. In the Line style tab, you can change
the thickness of the lines in the Function window.

Lesson 2 Making a simple grid with simulation


fault

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The Petrel User Interface 47

Make simple grid


Make a grid without faults

The Make simple grid process, which is located under Utilities,


makes it easy to create a grid without faults. The geometry of the grid
is defined by the input to the process.
A project boundary can be added, or minimum and maximum values
from x, y, and z can be used.
Surfaces can be inserted to define horizons in the 3D grid

48 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Make simple grid


Result

Skeleton

A top, mid, and base skeleton


grid is generated. Further
subdivision in the vertical
direction is needed.

If the process is run without using surfaces to define horizons, the result
is a skeleton grid.
A skeleton grid is a Petrel term for the framework that is made as the
first step towards defining a 3D grid. A skeleton grid consists of a top,
mid, and bottom mesh defined by pillars. The pillars define the lateral
position of the corners in the three meshes, and the z-position is
defined as the bottom, mid point, and the top of the pillars. After the
skeleton grid is generated, it needs to be further subdivided in the
vertical direction. This is done by inserting surfaces. The topmost and
the bottommost surface that are inserted define the top and the bottom
of the final 3D grid, hence, the top and the bottom skeleton grid are
usually outside the final 3D grid.
The reason why 3D grids are generated this way in Petrel is that the
gridding process starts with modeling the faults, which are defined
using pillars. Those pillars are then used to define the geometry of the
3D grid. The processes used to make grids based on fault modeling are
Fault modeling and Pillar gridding.
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The Petrel User Interface 49

Make simple grid


With Insert Horizons

Skeleton with horizons


If you have surfaces that describe
the horizons, you can enter them
as input.

If you have surface data in the Input pane that describes the horizons,
you can drop them into the Input data tab of the Make simple grid
process. The result will be a skeleton grid with horizons.

50 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Make simple grid


Vertical subdivision
Make Horizons
Insert a horizon in the grid to
define different zones.
Layering
Further subdivision is done by
employing the Layering process.

Vertical subdivision
The Make horizons, Make zones, and Layering processes are used
to perform further vertical subdivision.
Make Horizons - This process usually defines the main depositional
units of the 3D grid and are, in most cases, the layers identified and
interpreted on seismic data. The Make horizons process samples input
surfaces into the 3D Grid. Note that a Horizon in Petrel is a surface
that is a part of the 3D grid.
Make zones This process defines the sub-units of the 3D grid. The
process inserts additional horizons (and zones) into the 3D grid by
inserting isochores up or down from the previously input horizons. The
isochores can be gridded thickness maps or calculated directly from
well tops. Zones can also be defined as specific thickness intervals or
percentages of the main zone.
Layering The final step is to make the final vertical resolution of the
3D grid.
To keep the modeling simple, we will not perform the Make zones
process. That is, we assume that the stratigraphic layering is defined by
the surfaces that we insert. Then we will do layering to obtain a
suitable resolution for simulation.
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The Petrel User Interface 51

Make Horizons
1. Append desired number of horizons in the table.
2. Drop in interpretations or surfaces using the blue arrow.

The Make Horizons process


Double-click on the Make horizons process to open its process dialog
and select the Horizon tab. In the table that appears, insert the number
of horizons to be generated.
The Multiple drop option allows you to insert a list of items in one go
into the Input#1 column: Make sure your input horizons are sorted in
the correct stratigraphic order in the Input pane, then select the first
item, and click on the first blue arrow under Input#1. All of the input
horizons will then be inserted in the same order as they appear in the
Input pane. Horizon names are updated according to input names, but
can be overwritten if desired.
Horizon Type:
You should specify whether the horizon is an Erosional, General,
Discontinuous or a Base surface.
Erosional surfaces will erode surfaces below
Surfaces above a Base surface will be on lapped to the Base.
Surfaces above a Discontinuous surface will be on lapped on it
and surfaces below will be truncated by it.
A general surface will be truncated by any other surface.
52 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Make horizons
Result

The horizons appear in


the Models pane. Select
the check box to view in a
3D window.

Available for displaying:


1.
Edges - to see
zone division
2.
Zone filter - to
view selected
layers

Make Horizons Output


Horizons folder The layers added in the Make horizons and Make
zones process will be stored in the Horizons folder.
Fault filter The fault filter will allow you to visualize the fault throw
for just one horizon at a time and is mainly used for mapping purposes.
Zone filter A zone in Petrel is defined as the thickness between two
horizons, and is created in either Make horizon or in the Make zones
process. The zone filter allows you to visualize the edges and the I- and
J- intersections of the 3D grid zone by zone. The zone filter is also
applicable for properties when we generate these in the 3D grid.

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The Petrel User Interface 53

Layering
1. Specify the Zone division.
2. Specify number of layers (Proportional), cell
thickness (Follow top/Base) or Fractions.

Proportional
Follow Base
Follow Top
Fractions
Follow Base
with Reference

The Layering process


After the Make horizons (and the Make zones) process is run, further
layering is inserted by running the Layering process. You can select
four different ways of doing the layering:
Proportional: The zone will be divided into Number of
layers, equally thick layers
Follow base: The zone will be divided into layers with
thickness Cell thickness, starting to build from the horizon
below.
Follow top: The zone will be divided into layers with thickness
Cell thickness, starting to build from the horizon above.
Fractions: The zone will be divided into a number of layers
with relative thickness as given in the input. Example: If the
input is 1, 2, 2, the zone is divided into three layers where the
two last layers are twice as thick as the first one.

54 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

The illustration above shows three different ways of specifying the


layering; Follow base, Fractions and Proportional.
Note that the zone division should reflect the horizon type. If, for
instance, a horizon is of type Base, the zone above should be of type
Follow base, Proportional, or Fractions.
Proportional and Fractions give the least pinched out layers and
are usually best for simulation grids.

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The Petrel User Interface 55

Model a fault
Digitizing

Employ the Make/edit polygons


process to digitize a line that
defines the fault plane.
The new polygon appears at the
bottom of the Input pane.

A simulation fault can be inserted into the simple grid at the position of
existing grid nodes. To approximately give the geometry of the new
fault, you can draw a polygon within the simple grid.
The Make/edit polygons process is placed under Utilities on the
Processes pane. When the process is active, tools for digitizing
polygons appear in the function bar at the right of the display window.
Use the process to digitize a line that defines the geometry of the fault.
The new polygon is stored at the bottom of the Input pane.

56 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

Model a fault
Convert to fault

The polygon can be converted into a


fault in the active grid

To insert the fault into the grid, make sure that the grid is selected in
the Models pane. Then right-click the polygon you just made, and
select Convert to fault. The polygon is then converted into a fault in
the active grid. The new fault is stored on the Faults sub-folder of the
3D grid.

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The Petrel User Interface 57

Model a fault

Define transmissibility

Use the Fault analysis process to


assign transmissibility to the fault

You need to assign a transmissibility multiplier to the fault in order to


use it in a simulation. The transmissibility multiplier defines to which
degree the fault is a barrier to flow. A multiplier of zero means that no
flow goes through the fault.
To assign a transmissibility multiplier to a fault, make sure that the fault
is active, then open the Fault analysis process. In the dialog that
opens, select to assign a constant multiplier, or to define a multiplier
based on standard equations. A new property is created and stored
under the Fault properties folder in the Models pane. Details of how
to define the transmissibility multiplier will be provided later in the
course.

58 The Petrel User Interface

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Exercises - Making a simple grid a with


simulation fault
In this exercise, you will make a simple simulation model of a twophase black oil case. You will start by defining a simple grid with a
vertical fault. You will then go through all of the steps required until you
have a model ready for running a simulation. And finally, you will run
the simulation and view the results.
Exercise Workflow
Make a simple grid
Insert a simulation fault
Exercise Data
In this exercise, we use the Start_2010.pet.

Making a simple grid


Exercise steps
1. Open the Start_2010.pet project.
2. Open the Make simple grid process located under Utilities
in the Processes pane.
3. Select a name for the new grid, for example Simple.
4. On the Input data tab, select the Insert surface option.
5. Drop in the surfaces Top reservoir, Mid, and Base from the
Surfaces folder on the Input pane by clicking the Append
item in the table button
.

Reservoir Engineering

The Petrel User Interface 59

6. Drop in the Project boundary from the Input pane into the
Boundary field by clicking the blue arrow.
7. Select the Geometry tab, and click the Get limits from
selected button. As the project boundary is selected on the
Input pane, Petrel will use that as a boundary for the grid.

8. Select a Grid increment of 350 m in both the X and Y


direction. Click OK.
60 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

9. Your new grid is stored in the Models pane. Select to view


the skeleton grid in a 3D window.
10. We will now define the vertical sub-division of the 3D grid.
Open the Layering process under Corner point gridding.
Divide Zone 1 into 7 layers and Zone 2 into 3 layers. Press
OK. Select to view Edges under the 3D grid in the Models
pane to see the result of the layering.

Making a simulation fault


In this exercise, you will add a Simulation fault to the model. If you
want to add a fault with throw, you need to use a more advanced
gridding processes in Petrel. That is, you will have to use the Fault
modeling and the Pillar gridding process.
Exercise steps
1. Open a 3D window and select to view both the Top reservoir
horizon and the faults from the Fine grid.
2. Observe that the faults have a throw. For example, across
Fault5 the throw is so large that there is no communication
across. We will now insert a simulation fault in the simple grid
to model this behavior.
3. Open a new 2D window and display the Base horizon from
the Simple grid and the Project boundary from the Input
pane along with Fault5 from the Fine grid.
4. If you cannot see the fault, open the Settings of the Faults
folder of the Fine grid, and make sure the option Show
horizon-fault lines is selected.
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The Petrel User Interface 61

5. Digitize a line that will be used to define the fault plane by first
selecting the Make/edit polygons process in the Utilities
folder in the Processes pane. Then:
a. Activate the Make/edit polygons
tool in the function
bar. Select the Add new points tool .
b. Digitize a line that follows Fault5 by pointing in the
display and left-clicking. Add a point in the grid cell closest
to the project boundary to make sure the fault is extended
all the way to the boundary.

6. The polygon is stored at the bottom of the Input pane. Rename


it to Fault polygon by opening the Settings for it and
changing the name in the Info tab.
62 The Petrel User Interface

Reservoir Engineering

7. Make sure the Simple grid is selected on the Models pane.


8. Right-click on the polygon you just made, and select Create
simulation (grid) fault from the drop-down menu. The new
fault is stored in the Faults folder under the simple grid on the
Models pane.

Exercise steps
1. Open a 3D window and select to view your new fault.
2. Open the Fault analysis process that is located in the
Property modeling folder.
3. Enter a constant transmissibility multiplier of 0 (sealing fault)
Click OK.
4. Save the project.

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The Petrel User Interface 63

Summary
The basics of the Petrel user interface were presented in this
module. In particular, how to open and use windows and how to
access and alter the settings of objects. Also introduced were the
eight different panes in Petrel which store and provide access to
data, processes, windows, workflows and simulation results.
In addition, how to make a simple simulation grid with layering
based on surface information was presented along with how to add
a fault to such a grid and how to assign properties to the fault.

64 The Petrel User Interface

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Module 3 - Functions
Introduction
In this module, how to make fluid models (PVT), saturation functions
(relative permeability and capillary pressure), and rock compaction
functions in Petrel, will be covered.
Prerequisites
No prerequisites are required for this module.
Learning Objectives
In this module you will learn:
How to create a correlation based black oil fluid model
How to define the initial contact depths and pressure
How to create correlation based saturation functions
How to create rock compaction functions based on correlations
How to import fluid models and rock physics functions from
keyword files
How to edit and visualize the functions in Petrel

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Functions 65

Lesson 1 - Make fluid model

Make fluid model

The Make fluid model process allows you to create black oil models
from correlations and to create compositional and thermal models. In
this course, we will only use black oil models, but we will briefly
explained how to create compositional models.
Correlation library
The correlation library we use incorporates many published
correlations, some of which use the separator conditions as input. All of
the correlations have been tested against an extensive database of
actual PVT (pressure-volume-temperature) experiments at the
Schlumberger Reservoir Fluids Center in Edmonton, Canada. Petrel
selects which correlation to use based on the input data you provide
the API gravity, the reservoir pressure, etc.
The library contains about 70 black-oil correlations - including the ones
most commonly used in the industry.
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Black Oil and Compositional Models


ECLIPSE Blackoil and FrontSim
Black oil simulators
One component of gas and one
of oil in both vapor and liquid
phase

ECLIPSE Compositional
Compositional simulator
Both the vapor and the liquid
phase consists of several
components

Rv

Rs

There will always be two, or frequently three, phases present in the


reservoir during its producing life (oil, gas, water). The proportions, the
composition and the physical properties of the phases may change as
production proceeds, and pressures change. All of the phases are
considered compressible, although to different degrees.
In a black oil model, the temperature is assumed to be constant.
Typical temperatures at reservoir conditions are 350K~77C~171F. Also,
since both the liquid hydrocarbon phase and the vapor phase are
assumed to consist of mainly one component, it is customary to name
them the oil and gas phase, respectively. The compositional behavior is
modeled by allowing some of the gas component to be dissolved in oil
and some of the oil component to be vaporized in gas.
A compositional fluid model represents the hydrocarbon fluid by a
set of components (typically 6-12 for reservoir simulation). An equation
of state is then used to determine the physical properties of mixtures of
these components as a function of pressure and temperature and the
properties of the individual components.

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Functions 67

Appropriate Black Oil Models


Fits the Black Oil model.

Pressure

Unsuited for black oil simulation


(use Compositional simulation).

G: Near Critical
Fluid

F: Wet Gas,
Retrograde

A: Dead Oil
C: Live Oil,
Saturated

Approximated by Black Oil


varying gas/oil and oil/gas ratios
to mimic small compositional
changes.
B: Live Oil,
Initially
Undersaturated

D: Dry Gas

E: Wet Gas

Temperature

Phase diagrams
The hydrocarbon behavior in a reservoir is often described in terms of a
phase diagram as showed in the illustration above. The phase diagram
relates the fluid state to pressure and temperature in the reservoir. The
upper line of the phase envelope represents the lowest pressure and
temperature limit for the existence of a liquid phase. This line is called
the bubble point line. The lower line represents the upper limit for
pressure and temperature for the existence of a vapor phase. This line
is called the dew point line. The area between the two lines is pressure
and temperature conditions where both a liquid and a vapor phase is
present simultaneously. The point where the bubble point line and the
dew point line meet, is called the critical point. At this pressure and
temperature condition, the vapor and the liquid properties are equal.
Pressure-temperature conditions close to the critical point cannot be
modelled using a black-oil model.

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Make a Fluid Model


1. Select Create new
to define a new fluid
model.

1
2

2. Specify Model type.

Note : All fluid models


will be stored in the
Input pane.

In the process dialog, you need to specify whether to make a black oil,
compositional or thermal fluid model.

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Functions 69

Compositional Model
1. Select equation of state
from the General tab.

Note: There is no
support for tuning an
equation of state to
match laboratory
measurements.

2. Append a row for each


component.

You can select pre-defined


components from the drop-down
menu.
2

3. Go to the Interactions tab


to give interactions and to the
Samples tab to give samples.
3

When you make a compositional model, you must first select an


equation of state at the General tab. Note that there is no support for
tuning the equation of state to laboratory measurements. For that, you
will have to use PVTi and import the resulting matched equation of
state.
When you add a new component on the Components tab, you need to
type in the molecular weight and then click the Fill table button to fill
in the rest of the table according to the equation of state. Note that if
you later change the equation of state, you must return to the
Components tab and click the Fill table button again.

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Make a default Compositional Model


1. Select model type
Compositional.
2

2. Use the drop-down


menu to specify
default model.
All sub-tabs are filled
with preset values.

Make a default Black Oil Model

1
3
2

1. Select Black oil as Model type.


2. On the General tab, specify which
phases are required (enter required
properties in the following tabs).
3. Or use one of the defaults.
4. Specify an initial condition.

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There are four default black oil models to select from:


Dead oil. Two phases, oil and water. Bubble point pressure lower
than minimum reservoir pressure, hence no gas will boil out of
the oil.
Heavy oil+gas. Three fluid phases, oil, gas, and water. The oil has
API gravity of 26.
Light oil+gas. Three phases, oil, gas, and water. A lighter oil with
API gravity of 45.
Dry gas. Two fluid phases, gas and water.
To make a default model, select one of the models from the drop-down
list and go to the Initial conditions tab to specify the initial fluid
contacts.

Make a model using the settings


General tab
Select phases.
Enter pressure and temperature
in the reservoir.

In addition to the four default fluid models, you can make black oil
models by filling in the settings in the process dialog. Based on the
settings, Petrel will select a model based on correlations.
The General tab
In the General tab, you specify which fluid phases that are present and
also the reservoir pressure and temperature.
Reservoir conditions. This is where the minimum and the maximum
pressure in the reservoir is specified. In addition, you must enter the
temperature in the reservoir.
Separator conditions. Here you can specify the pressure and the
temperature at separator conditions. Some of the correlations need
information on separator conditions.
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The Gas tab


Gas
Information on the gas phase
composition entered here is
used to select correlations.

Correlations
Leave as Default to allow Petrel
to select correlations based on
your input.

Gas properties. Enter the density or the gravity of the gas phase. If
you are defining a dry gas, you must type in the vaporized gas/oil ratio.
You can also select which correlations to use or you can make Petrel
select, based on the input you give.
If you have information on the concentration of each component of the
gas phase, this can be entered here. Note that this option is only used
to select which correlations to use, it does not mean that you are
defining a compositional model.

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The Oil tab


Specify gravity and bubble
point pressure.
Correlations are reported on the Statistics
tab of the fluid model

Oil properties. Here, you need to specify the oil density or the oil
gravity (API gravity: The usual range starts with water density at 10
degrees and rises to volatile oils and straw colored condensate liquids
around 60-70 degrees). In addition, you must enter the Bubble point
pressure or the Solution gas/oil ratio at the oil/gas contact. Note
that if the bubble point pressure you supply is lower than the minimum
reservoir pressure, then no gas will boil out of the oil. Consequently,
you get dead oil. Also, notice that unless you plan to give a depth
dependent Solution gas/oil ratio, the bubble point pressure must be
equal to the pressure at the gas/oil contact as specified in the Initial
conditions tab.
You can either select correlations, or leave it to Petrel to select based
on the input you give. Notice that the correlations that are used to make
the fluid model are listed on the Statistics tab of the settings dialog
for the fluid model.

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Initial conditions tab

1
1. From contact set.

2. Define in the table.


3. Add columns to the
table to add initial
condition regions.

Initial conditions tab


In the Initial conditions tab, you can give the initial fluid contacts as
well as the pressure and the capillary pressure at those contacts. This
information is used in the simulator to calculate the initial pressure and
phase saturations in every grid block.
For each fluid region, you must specify a reference depth (datum) and a
corresponding pressure, gas-oil contact depth, and water contact depth
(depending on which phases you have). In the Define simulation case
process you will have the opportunity to associate each of these initial
condition regions with a region of the grid.
There are two ways you can define your initial conditions:
Contact set: If you have an existing contact set, you can select the
Use contact set option and drop in the contact set from the
Petrel explorer. The option Target number of initial
conditions will control how many regions to make from a
contact set (for example, if a tilted surface is made in the
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Functions 75

To keep the fluids


in a stair step condition, you
will need to define the model
as such (with an active
aquifer, capillary pressure,
etc). If you just put a tilted
surface for the contact, and
then run the simulator, the
fluid will gradually slump
down to a flat contact.

Make contacts process). This algorithm is iterative and


cannot guarantee to get exactly the number of targets
specified. For example, if you enter 10, but there are only two
distinct values in the surface, you will only get two regions.
Table: If you not using contact set, you can enter the details of
each initial condition in a table. The table consists of a column
for each initial condition region; columns can be added or
removed using the usual Petrel table manipulation buttons.
By default, the gas-oil contact is set as Datum. Also, the pressure at
Datum is defaulted using a pressure gradient of 0.0981 bar/m over the
depth given by (surface elevation - datum depth). To enter a specific
pressure or datum depth, select the check box.
Note that unless you plan to give a depth table for solution gas/oil ratio
and bubble point pressure, the pressure at the gas-oil contact must be
equal to the bubble point pressure input, specified on the General tab.

Make contacts
Make contacts is the process
where the contacts to be used in
the Volume calculation and
Simulation processes are made

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To use contacts as input to the Make fluid model processes, you must
define them in a separate process in Petrel, called Make contacts.
The purpose of this is to be able to enter different types of contacts,
such as constant values, dipping contacts and surfaces, and you can
choose to use different contacts for each zone and each segment or the
same contacts for the entire 3D model.
Another purpose of contacts is to visualize them together with one of
the horizons. This will show the contact contour on the surface together
with colored intervals for each hydrocarbon interval. This is useful when
displaying the aerial extent of the hydrocarbon intervals.

Make contacts

Define fluid contacts

1. Append the number of contacts.

2. Define the contact type and name.


3. Define the contact level.

Can be a different value/surface for


each segment and zone.

Make contacts - Procedure


1. Open the Make contact process.
2. Choose to Create new contact set.
3. Enter the type of contacts to be created, and change the name
(if other than default).
4. Enter the contact level.

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Functions 77

Contact level
Can be a constant value or a surface. To enter a constant
value, type the value directly into the cell. If it is a surface,
select the little check box and use the blue arrow to copy the
surface that represents the contact into the cell.
To use different contacts for each segment and zone, clear the
options Same for all zones and Same for all segments.

Fluid variations with depth


Vertical variations in PVT must be given in a
spreadsheet.
Right-click an Initial condition and select
Spreadsheet to enter a depth table.

Specify the bubble point or the Rs value at


each depth. If you specify one, then the
other is calculated using the correlations.

Composition of oil is frequently a function of depth


Solution gas/oil ratio (Rs) or Bubble point pressure (Pb
Vaporized oil/gas ratio (Rv) or dew point (Pd)
(No correlations available to create vaporized oil PVT input
manually or import)
To model the variation with depth, you have to fill in the Spreadsheet
located under the Initial condition sub-folder of the fluid model folder.
You can specify the bubble point or the Rs value at each depth. If you
specify Pb, then Rs will automatically be calculated and vice-versa,
using the correlations the fluid model is based on.
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Entering a depth table is optional. If a table is not entered, the


dissolved gas concentration in under-saturated oil is set equal to the
saturated Rs value at the gas-oil contact everywhere. This is the Rs
value that you specified on the General tab when you made the fluid
model.
If the bubble point pressure (specified on the General tab of the Make
fluid model process) is not equal to the pressure at the gas-oil contact
(as specified on the Initial conditions tab), a depth table is required.
At any position in the reservoir, the Rs value derived from an Rs or Pb
versus depth table, is subject to an upper limit equal to the saturated
value at the local pressure, since the Rs value cannot exceed this.

Spreadsheets
You can view/edit a fluid model
in spreadsheet format.
You can copy and paste to/from
existing tables.

By right-clicking the oil or gas phase of the fluid model, you can access
the data in a spreadsheet format. Data can be copied/pasted from/to
those spreadsheets from Excel.

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Functions 79

Plotting
Fluids data can be
plotted in a
function window.

Import
Black oil models exported
from PVTi can be imported.
The status of the import is
reported in the message log.

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You can import fluid models generated in PVTi, or you can import Eclipse
keyword files.

Exercises Make fluid model


There are several ways to create a fluid model in Petrel. You can use
the Make fluid model process to generate a fluid model from
correlations, you can import data or you can define a fluid model by
using spreadsheets.
Exercise Workflow
Make a black oil fluid model
Reviewing fluid model settings
Import a keyword fluid model
Plot the fluid model
Exercise Data
In this exercise, we will continue to use the project from the previous
exercise.

Make a black oil model from correlations


In this exercise, we will create a black oil fluid model based on
correlations using the Make fluid model process in Petrel. The output
from the process is a fluid model that can be used by the simulator.
Exercise steps
1. From the Processes pane, open the Simulation folder and
open the Make fluid model process.
2. Select Create new fluid model.
3. Click on the Use presets button and select Light oil + gas
from the drop-down menu. Observe that the process window is
filled with default values.
4. On the General tab, change the Maximum pressure to 460
bar.

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Functions 81

5. Inspect the Gas tab, accept the default settings.


6. Select the Oil tab. Change the Bubble point pressure to 200
bar.
7. Go to the Initial conditions tab. To specify the initial
reservoir conditions for the model, you can either drop in a
contact set or you can enter a table of contact depths and
pressures. In this exercise, we will use the table and enter a
value for the gas-oil contact to -1600m and the water contact
to -2600 m.
8. Enter a pressure at datum (the gas-oil contact) of 200 bar.

If the datum depth


lies above the gas-oil
contact, the pressure refers
to the gas phase.
If the datum depth lies below
the water-oil contact, the
pressure refers to the water
phase. Otherwise, the
pressure refers to the oil
phase.

9. Click OK in the Make fluid model process dialog.


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Reviewing fluid model settings


In this exercise, we will inspect the settings for the fluid model we just
created to see how we can edit and change the model.
Exercise steps
1. In the Input pane you can now see that a Fluids folder has
been added. This is where the fluid models are stored.
2. Expand your fluid model inside the Fluids folder and then
right-click on Oil and select Spreadsheet from the context
menu. This opens a spreadsheet view of the oil properties that
vary with pressure.

Import a keyword fluid model


In this exercise, we will import a fluid model from a keyword file. This
file can be an included file to the simulation deck, or the main .DATA file
of the simulation deck.
Exercise steps
1. Right-click on the Fluids folder and select Import (on
selection). Navigate to the ImportData > Functions >
FLUID.INC file, and click Open to do the import.
2. On import, you may get a message that some keywords were
not imported. You can find those keywords in the Message
log. These keywords do not contain PVT data.
3. After importing, a new fluid model is added to the Fluids
folder in the Input pane. Check the imported data by using the
Settings panel and the spreadsheets.
4. The fluid you imported does not have an initial condition,
hence, an initial condition must be added before the fluid can
be used in a simulation model.

Plotting the fluid model


In this exercise, we will plot the fluid model in a function window.
Exercise steps
1. Insert a New function window from the Window menu,
and select the check box next to Oil formation volume
factor in the Oil folder of the imported Black oil model 1.
2. Use the Select/pick mode tool
Reservoir Engineering

and click anywhere on


Functions 83

any of the curves. The property name and value appear in the
status bar. If you cannot see the status bar, enable it with the
View > Status bar command.
3. Deselect to view the Oil formation volume factor and select
the check box next to Oil viscosity instead.
4. Any changes made in any of the settings panels and
spreadsheets will be reflected in what you see in the function
window.

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Create multiple viewports Optional


In this exercise, we will set up a new plot window with four function
viewports so we can make a report of the fluid model and inspect more
data in one view.
Exercise steps
1. Insert a New plot window from the Window menu.
2. There are two ways to create multiple viewports in the plot
window:
a. Go to the Windows pane and find the inserted plot
window. Open the settings for Plot window 1 [Any] and
go to the Setup multiple viewports tab.
Or,
b. From the toolbar, click on the New object in window
button on the toolbar and select Create/align multiple
viewports.

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Functions 85

3. In the settings for Plot window 1 [Any] dialog, select


Function viewport(s) from the New viewport type dropdown menu. Define Number of rows: 2 and Number of
columns: 2. Then click the Setup viewports button
and close the settings window by
clicking OK.
4. You should now have four function viewports ready to use for
plotting the line data. The active viewport is shown with a red
border. Click inside a function viewport to make it active.
5. As an example, select the following data to plot from the Light
oil + gas fluid model:
a. Top left viewport: Oil formation volume factor.
b. Top right viewport: Oil viscosity.
c. Bottom left viewport: Pressure and the fluid contacts from
Initial condition 1.
d. Bottom right viewport: Gas formation volume factor.
6. You should have a plot window similar to the one shown
below:
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Functions 87

Lesson 2

Make rock physics functions

Make rock physics functions

Capillary pressure curves

Relative permeability

Rock compaction

The Make rock physics functions process is used to create functions


that represent the physics of the rock and the interaction between rock
and fluids, or saturation functions and rock compaction functions.

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Rock compaction function


Rock compaction function
Used to make rock compaction tables
from a choice of correlations to model
compaction drive.

Rock compaction functions are tables showing pore volume multipliers


versus pressure, or a single rock compressibility value used by the
simulator to calculate the pore volume change. The compaction can be
thought of as the reduction in the pore volume as a function of
pressure. Creating rock compaction functions using the Make rock
physics functions process will also create a transmissibility multiplier
versus pressure curves. These are set to 1.0, by default.

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Functions 89

Rock compaction function


Use presets
There are three preset compaction
functions to select from.

Or specify
1. Correlation
2. Rock type
3. Number of table entries
Then give:
1. Porosity, constant or property
2. Pressures

By clicking the Use presets button, you will be given three compaction
functions to select from. Alternatively, you can manually fill in the fields.
If you select the correlation User defined, you need to supply a
compressibility and a reference pressure (equivalent to using the ROCK
keyword). Otherwise, the compressibility is computed using the
correlation you select from the drop-down menu (the ROCKTAB keyword
is used). In both cases, the result of the process is a curve showing pore
volume multipliers as a function of reservoir pressure. The multiplier is
always one for the reference pressure, meaning that at this pressure
the pore volume is equal to the initial pore volume.
Note that when adding a rock compaction function to your simulation
case, the simulator will no longer compute the (initial) pore volume
taking only the porosity property that you supply on the Grid tab of the
Define simulation case process as input. Now the simulator is also
using the rock compaction curve. That is, for each grid block a pore
volume is assigned by multiplying, the original grid pore volume with
the pore volume multiplier. Consequently, if the pressure for a grid block
is equal to the reference pressure, the volume is unaltered. If the
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pressure is lower, the volume is reduced. However, if you want to model


a reservoir that is already compacted at the beginning of the simulation,
you need to define a reference pressure that is accordingly higher than
the initial cell pressures.
If you want to use the pore volumes as given by the porosity property to
initialize your model, you have to use the Keyword Editor and change
the second entry of the ROCKOPTS keyword to STORE.

Saturation function

Saturation function

Make relative permeability curves based


on Corey correlations

Used to calculate initial


saturation in each cell
Used to calculate the
phase mobility

When two or more immiscible fluids (for example, oil and water) are
present in the formation, their flows interfere. Therefore, the effective
permeability to oil flow (ko) or water flow (kw) is reduced. Furthermore,
the summation of effective permeability is always less than or equal to
the absolute permeability (k). The effective permeability depends not
only on the rock itself but also on the relative amounts and properties
of the different fluids in the pores. In a given rock, ko and kw will vary
as oil and water saturations, So and Sw, vary.
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Functions 91

Relative permeability is the ratio of the effective permeability to the


absolute (single homogeneous fluid) permeability, thus, for an oil-water
system the relative permeability to water, krw, is equal to kw/k.
Similarly, the relative permeability for oil, kro, is equal to ko/k. Relative
permeability is usually expressed in percent or fractions and never
exceed the unity (1 or 100%).
In Petrel, you can use the Make rock physics process to make
relative permeability curves as functions of saturation based on Corey
correlations.

Saturation function

1. Preset values are available for


sand, shaly sand and fracture
(for dual permeability models).
2. The number of table entries
controls the size of the tables
passed to the simulator.

The input to the Corey correlations depends on the fluid phases you
select to include in the model.
For gas:
- Sgcr: the critical gas saturation.
- Corey Gas: Corey gas exponent for values between the minimum
water saturation and (1 Sorg).
- Krg@Swmin: Relative permeability value of gas at the minimum
water saturation.
- Krg@Sorg: Relative permeability value of gas at the residual oil
saturation.
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For oil:
- Sorw: Residual oil saturation to water. Note that (1 Sorw) >
Swcr
- Sorg: Residual oil saturation to gas. Note that (1 Sorg) > Swcr
- Corey O/W: Corey oil exponent for values between the minimum
water saturation and (1 Sorw).
- Corey O/G: Corey oil exponent for values between minimum
water saturation and (1 Sorg).
- Kro@Somax: Relative permeability of oil at the maximum value
of oil saturation.
For water:
- Swmin: Minimum water saturation.
- Swcr: Critical water saturation. This must be greater than or
equal the minimum water saturation.
- Corey Water: Corey water exponent for values between Swcr and
(1 Sorw).
- Krw@Sorw: Relative permeability of water at the residual oil
saturation value.
- Krw@S=1: Relative permeability of water at a saturation value of
unity.
Oil-water capillary pressure:
Notice that in the lower part of the process dialog you can enter input
to generate a curve for oil-water capillary pressure. You need to
provide:
- maximum capillary pressure
- water saturation when the capillary pressure is zero.

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Functions 93

The figure shows relative permeability curves for a water-wet formation


containing only oil and water. The values of krw and kro vary with the
saturation. The curves illustrate that at high oil saturation, kro is large
and krw is small; the oil flows easily and little water flows. At high
water saturations, kro is small and krw is large; now the water flows
easily and little oil flows.
Irreducible saturations
When the Kro value reaches zero, the oil remaining in the pore space is
immovable; the corresponding value of oil saturation at which this
occurs is the residual oil saturation (Sorw).
The Krw curve becomes zero at an Sw value indicated on the figures as
Swcr. At this saturation, only oil flows in the formation and the residual
water is immobile. In a water-wet formation, there is always a certain
amount of water held in the pores by capillary forces. This water cannot
be displaced by oil at pressures encountered in formations, so the
water saturation does not reach zero.
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Spreadsheets
You can view/edit rock
physics functions in a
spreadsheet.
Right-click on the Rock
physics functions
folder and select
Spreadsheet

Spreadsheets for rock physics functions


The spreadsheet for rock physics functions has some basic validation
triggers. In the case of saturation functions, the saturation values must
increase down the column, and the relative permeabilities must be level
and increase or decrease down the columns. In the case of rock
compaction functions, the pressure must increase down the column,
and the pore volume and transmissibility multipliers must be level and
increase or decrease down the columns.
The simulator will also run a validation on the data ranges in the tables,
and will issue a warning if the end point in the tables exceeds 100%
(1.0)

Capillary pressure
In a thick reservoir that contains both water and hydrocarbon columns,
the saturation may vary from 100% water at the bottom of the zone, to
a maximum oil saturation (and irreducible water saturation) at the top.
There is a gradual transition between these two extremes in saturation.
The transition interval may be very short for porous and permeable
formations, or it may be quite long in formations of low permeability.
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Functions 95

Capillary pressure is a function of the elevation above the free water


level (FWL) and the difference between densities of the wetting (water)
and non wetting (oil) phases.

Capillary pressure data


Oil-water

You can make oil-water capillary


pressure curves using correlations.

Capillary pressure data


Gas-oil

Petrel does not have a correlation


for gas-oil capillary pressure data.
The data can be entered in the
spreadsheet.
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Plotting

Import from keywords

Import rock physics functions

Functions can be imported to the


Rock physics function folder.
The status of the import is reported
in the message log.

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Functions 97

You can insert


sub-folders to the Rock
physics functions folder to
organize the fluid models.
This way you can use Petrel
as a repository for the rock
physics functions you
regularly use.

Rock physics functions can also be inserted manually into Petrel by


right-clicking on the Rock physics functions folder in the Input pane
and selecting the option Insert rock compaction function or Insert
saturation function. An empty function will appear in the folder. In
turn, this can be right-clicked and you can select the option to open a
spreadsheet for editing the function. The function tables can then be
entered manually, or copied from an external application.

Exercises Make rock physics functions


There are several ways of creating rock physics functions in Petrel. You
can use the Make rock physics functions process to generate
functions from correlations, you can import data, or you can define the
functions using spreadsheets.
Exercise Workflow
Make a saturation function
Make a rock compaction function
Reviewing rock physics functions data
Import a keyword rock physics function
Plotting the rock physics functions
Exercise Data
In this exercise, continue to use the project you used in the previous
exercise.

Make a saturation function


In this exercise, we will create saturation functions based on Corey
correlations using the Make rock physics functions process. The
output from the process will be tables that can be exported for use by
the simulator.
Exercise steps
1. From the Processes pane, expand the Simulation folder and
open the Make rock physics functions process.
2. Select Saturation function from the Function type dropdown menu.
3. Select Create new function, then select Sand from the Use
presets drop-down menu.
4. Click Apply in the Make rock physics functions process
dialog.
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5. Expand the new Rock physics functions folder on the Input


pane. This is where your saturation function is stored.
6. Open a Function window, and select to display the saturation
function.

Exercise steps
The shape of the relative permeability curve and the number of points
in the table is set in the process dialog.
1. Open the Make rock physics functions process again.
2. Select Edit existing function, and then make sure the Sand
function is selected from the drop-down list.
3. Change the number of Table entries to 8.
4. Change the Corey O/W to 1 and the Corey water to 2.
5. Change Sorw to 0.15.
6. Click OK.
7. Display the new function in the Function window.
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Functions 99

Make a rock compaction function


In this exercise, we will create rock compaction functions based on
correlations using the Make rock physics functions process. The
output from this process will be rock compressibility tables that can be
used by the simulator.
Exercise steps
1. Open the Make rock physics functions dialog.
2. Select to create a new function.
3. Select Rock Compaction Function from the Function type
drop-down menu.
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4. All the necessary fields on the dialog can be filled in with


default values by selecting an option from the Use presets
list. Click on Use presets and select Consolidated
sandstone from the drop-down menu.
5. Click OK in the Make rock physics functions process
dialog.

6. The rock compaction function is stored in the Rock physics


functions folder in the Input pane.
You can also make a rock compaction function based on constant
compressibility.
Exercise steps
1. Open the Make rock physics functions dialog.
2. Select Rock Compaction Function from the Function type
drop-down menu.
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Functions 101

3. Select Create new function and give the new function the
name Constant.
4. Select to use 8 table entries.
5. From the Correlation drop-down menu, select User defined.

6. Enter a Compressibility of 0.00001.


7. Click OK.
8. Display both compaction functions in a function window.

Reviewing rock physics functions data


In this exercise, we will inspect the settings for the rock physics
functions we just created to see how we can edit and change the
functions. We will also plot the functions in a function window and do
some graphical editing directly on the curves.
Exercise steps
1. Right-click on the Rock physics functions folder and select
Spreadsheet from the drop-down menu. This will give you a
spreadsheet view of the rock functions.
2. You can select which function to view by using the drop-down
menu at the top of the panel. Similarly, you can change
between the relative permeability tables and the capillary
pressure table by using the drop-down menus.
3. Click Cancel to close the spreadsheet.

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4. Insert a function window from the Window menu and click in


the check box in front of one of the saturation functions to plot
the curve for that function.
5. There are two ways to edit the functions. You can either make
edits in the spreadsheet, or directly on the curves in the
function window using graphical tools. There is no undo, so
make a copy of a function before you start editing.
6. Click on the Select/pick mode tool
in the function bar
and click on a point on one of the curves. Information on this
point is displayed in the status bar.

7. Click on the Select and edit/add points tool


in the
function bar. Click on one of the points and drag this to another
position to update the function. Note that there is no undo for
this operation!
8. Move the mouse pointer a little bit beyond a point on the curve
and click on the line itself. Hold the left mouse button and
drag. A new point is added to the function. You can move the
point, and the function table are updated accordingly.
9. Finally, click on the Selected and edit line tool
. Click on
one of the points and you will now be allowed to move this up
or down, but not horizontally.

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Functions 103

Import a keyword rock physics function


In this exercise, we will import rock physics functions from keyword
files. The file can be an include file to the simulation deck, or the
keywords can be in the main .DATA file of the simulation deck. Note
that the path to include files must be reachable.
Exercise steps
1. We will import both types of rock physics functions in one
operation. Right-click on the Rock physics functions folder
in the Input pane and select Import (on selection).
2. Navigate to and select ImportData > Functions >
ROCKPHYSICS.INC and click Open to start the import. If
there are any keywords that are not imported, they will be
listed in the Petrel message log.
3. View the imported data by using both the spreadsheets and the
function window.

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Summary
How to create a fluid model and rock physics functions using the Make
fluid model and Make rock physics functions in Petrel was covered
in this module. How to edit the functions in a spreadsheet and to plot
the functions in function window was also covered. Finally, you have
learned how to import functions from keyword files and how the
functions are stored and organized in Petrel.

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Functions 105

Module 4 - Initialize the


Model and View 3D
Properties
Introduction
In this module, you will learn how to use the Define simulation case
process to initialize the model. We will also explore the 3D viewing
options in Petrel.
Prerequisites
No prerequisites are required for this module.
Learning Objectives
In this module you will learn:
How to initialize the model
To use 3D visualization windows
How to define and use filters

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Initializing the model 107

Lesson 1 Initialization of the model


Introduction
The Define simulation case process allows the engineer to pull
together the 3D grid with the fluid and rock physics functions to
initialize the model, that is, to compute initial saturations, pressure and
transmissibilities. The process is also used to select which simulator to
run, and which development strategy to use.

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Define simulation case


Grid properties

Porosity and Permeability


is set on the Grid tab of the
Define simulation case
process.

Porosity and Permeability is


automatically inserted on the
Grid tab when you select a
3D grid.

Additional Grid Properties


Add a row by clicking
Select template
Drop in the 3D property
For example, insert a water
saturation to apply end point
scaling.

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Initializing the model 109

In addition to permeability and porosity (required input), you can drop in


other properties that are defined in the 3D grid. For example, you can
select to use a local grid set, fault transmissibility multiplier, or
endpoint scaling for saturation functions.

Three ways of Initializing


Equilibration
The simulator computes
initial saturation and
pressure using the Fluid
model and the Saturation
function that is inserted on
the Functions tab.

Enumeration (Black oil)


The user inserts initial
saturation and pressure as
3D grid properties on the
Grid tab.
Restart
Initial saturation and
pressure is read from a
restart file.

Initial gas, oil, and water pressure distribution and initial saturation
distributions must be defined in the reservoir model. Pressure data is
usually given with reference to a datum depth. In Petrel, the datum
depth is mean sea level by default.
There are three initialization options:
Equilibration Initial phase pressures and saturation are
computed by the simulator, using the fluid model. The
equilibration facility is a means of calculating the initial
conditions on the basis of hydrostatic equilibrium. If necessary,
the reservoir can be divided into separate equilibration
regions in which hydrostatic equilibrium exists independently
of the other regions. The number of equilibration regions is
specified in the Make fluid model process. Within each
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equilibration region, all grid blocks must use the same pressure
table for their PVT properties, but they can use different rock
physics functions tables as specified in the Make rock
physics functions process.
Enumeration The initial value of pressure, saturation, and
bubble point pressure is set explicitly in each grid block by the
user. The 3D grid property must be dropped into the Grid tab of
the Define simulation case process.
Restart The initial conditions are read from a restart file of a
previous run.

Functions

Black oil (PVT)


Left-click the Black oil
fluid model (PVT).
Drop in the initial
condition of the fluid
model.
Deselect Initialize by
equilibration if you use
enumeration.

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Initializing the model 111

Functions

Black oil regions

Different fluid models can be


assigned to different regions.
Any discrete property (such as
segments) can be used as a region
index property.

Fluid model: Spatial variations


Initially, the fluid model in reservoirs may vary vertically and aerially.
This can be modeled by assigning separate fluid models to separate
regions of the model. It is important to understand how the fluid model
is used in a simulator with fluid movement. When fluid moves from one
region to another, the simulator will change the fluid model used, such
as the viscosity and formation volume factor, as the fluids cross into the
separate regions. Unless mixing between different oils has occurred or
the pressure has changed, the fluid properties will remain the same as
they move through the 3D grid.

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Functions

Rock physics
Drop in:
Relative permeability curves
Rock compaction function
Select Region index property
to assign different functions to
different rock types.

Initialize by equilibration
Given the fluid densities, the equilibration procedure sets up saturation
against depth curves so that in the transition zone, when two phases
are mobile, the hydrostatic pressure variation is balanced by the
capillary pressure between the phases.

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Separate rock
physics functions should be
used for each significant rock
type.

Initializing the model 113

Equilibration

Compute phase pressures


The contacts in the Fluid model
are used.
Phase pressure is computed
using the fluid density as input.

Within each equilibration region, the calculation is performed in two


stages. In the first stage, an internal table of phase pressures and Rs
and Rv against depth is set up. In the second stage, the fluid conditions
in each grid block in the region is computed using interpolated values
from the table.

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Equilibration

Saturation in the water, oil, and gas zone


Oil zone: So = 1-Swmin
Gas zone: Sg = 1-Swmin

In the second stage of the equilibration calculation, the local fluid


conditions are determined in each grid block in the equilibration region.
The internal table is interpolated to obtain the values of Po, Pw, Pg, Rs
and Rv at the grid block center depth. The water saturation is
determined by inverse look-up of the water capillary pressure table.

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Initializing the model 115

Equilibration

Saturation in the transition zones

Calculate Pcog and Pcow


in the transition zone.
Find Sg and Sw by
inverse lookup from the
capillary pressure curves.

Strategies
The Strategies tab can be left
blank when initializing the model.
Development strategies and
Well segmentation will be described
later in the course.

You can use a global


permeability log to compute
the KH term of the
connection transmissibility
factor. For every well, Petrel
will check if it has a
permeability log that will be
used for computing KH.
Otherwise, the grid
properties will be used as
usual.
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Results

3D initial properties
Request to write out initial
saturation and pressure.
Non standard 3D properties can
be added using Additional
Properties (e.g., bubble point
for each cell).

Advanced

Select grid type


The Editor gives access to all
simulator keywords including
those not supported from Petrel.

Select:
Grid export type (OPF default)
Simulator version
Which queue to send the job to

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Initializing the model 117

A choice of formats for exporting grid data from the Models pane has
always been available in Petrel. However, you can also select these
formats from the Advanced tab in the Define simulation case
process.
The considerations in choosing which format to use are:
Pillar geometry: Petrel supports vertical, straight, listric and
curved pillar geometry. Several of the export formats only
support vertical and straight pillars. If your grid contains curved
or listric pillars and you use a format that does not support it,
the grid will be distorted on export. Check this in the
Statistics tab of the grid settings.
ASCII or Binary: This is important if you are planning to edit the
data outside Petrel. In that case, you need to export the data in
ASCII format.
Properties: Some of the formats do not include the properties on
export. In that case, you need to export them separately.
Compatibility: Not all formats are supported by all simulators or
third party applications. Check the available formats in the
other application before exporting.
File size: Some of the formats provide a higher efficiency
compared to others, resulting in much smaller files. This will
minimize both disc space requirements and the time needed to
move files between systems (if you are running remotely).
By default, the OPF (Open Petrel Format) format is used for all
simulation runs. It supports curved and listric pillars, is binary and
includes the properties. Note that ECLIPSE has to be 2005a version or
later in order to read this format.

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Advanced

Transmissibilities tab
Use the Transmissibilities tab to:
Set a minimum pore volume
Compute transmissibility in Petrel
and export to the simulator

Transmissibility and pore volume


multipliers are written to the
simulator deck.

Typically, the individual simulators have calculated the pore volume of


cells, fluid transmissibility and thermal conductivity between them.
These are straightforward calculations, dependent upon the grid
geometry and properties and need only be calculated once prior to the
first simulation step. The advantage of sending these to the simulator is
that the set of connections and their strengths will be the same
whichever simulator is being used. The transmissibility and pore volume
values are sent from Petrel to the simulator as keywords or inside the
GSG file when the option Calculate and export transm. and pore
volumes is selected. FrontSim does not support this feature.

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Initializing the model 119

Exercises Initialization of the model


The next exercises show you how to initialize the model.

Exercise Workflow

Initialize the model

Exercise Data
In the following exercises, we will continue with the project we have
made earlier. Alternatively, you may load the project Mod_3_
Completed.pet from Backup Projects folder.

Initialize model
In this exercise, we will initialize the 3D model with fluid and rock
physics functions. We will leave the development strategy field empty.
Exercise steps
1. In the Processes pane, expand the Simulation folder and
open the Define simulation case process.
2. Select Create new case and name the new case Simple.
3. Make sure the Simulator is set to ECLIPSE 100, and the Grid
is set to Simple.
4. In the Grid tab, deselect the check boxes in front of
Permeability and Porosity.
5. Enter a permeability of 1000 in the I- and the J- direction and
of 50 in the K-direction.
6. Type in a porosity of 0.12.

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7. Go to the Functions tab and select the Drainage relative


permeabilities in the left panel by left-clicking it.

8. Drop in the saturation function Saturation function 1 that


you imported in the Input pane (by selecting it) and clicking
the blue arrow in the dialog.

9. Still in the Functions tab, select the Black oil fluid model
from the list in the left panel.
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Initializing the model 121

10. Ensure that the Initialize by equilibration option is selected.


11. Drop in the Initial condition 1 of the black oil model, Light
oil + gas, that you created earlier. As you only have one
region, there is no reason to use a region index property.
12. Select the Rock compaction function from the list in the left
panel. Drop in the Rock compaction function 1 from the
Rock physics functions folder in the Input pane.
13. The Strategies tab should be left empty as you are only
initializing. If there is an empty row, delete it by selecting the
row and clicking the Delete selected row(s) in table button
14. Click Apply to save the case. The case is saved to the Cases
pane.
15. Click Run. ECLIPSE 100 is launched. Wait for the initialization
of the case to finish.
Once the run is finished, go to the Cases pane, right-click on the
simulation case (ECLIPSE 100) and select Show print file. This will
open the print file in your default text editor.


At the bottom of this file, you will find the initial fluid in place report.
You can view the initial properties that are stored in the Simulation
grid results folder on the Results pane. The next lesson explains how
to view 3D data.
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Lesson 2 3D Viewing
3D Viewing
The simulator loads the results,
and a folder Simulation grid
results is added to the Results
pane
Three sub-folders :
- Composite results
- Static
- Dynamic
Use the Cases pane to select
which simulation case to view

3D Viewing
Time step animation
Set current date and time of
display.
You can use the report steps
available for the property. To
view report steps, select to
step by - Displayed

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You can use the report steps


from another property. Select
to step by - Selection

You can specify the report


steps. Select to step by
- User Interval

Initializing the model 123

3D results from simulation are accessible from the Results pane.


The time player
speed can be changed from
the Project settings menu.

To display simulation results, you must select a property and a


simulation case. If the property is time dependant, the time player is
used to animate the display through time.
In the folder Composite results, properties are stored as ternary
properties (saturation), vectors, and tensors. The Static folder stores
static input data to the simulators (INIT file). The Dynamic folder
contains data from the restart file and these typically change with time.

3D Viewing
1D filters
Right-click the property and select
Create 1D filter...
A 1D filter can be used to limit the
range of cells displayed for any
property.

Use the property from relevant


case.
Select the relevant report step.

The simulation grid


results properties can be
converted to grid properties,
and will be stored in the
Properties folder on the
Models pane.
This can be done to access
more property operations, for
example, map creation.
124 Initializing the model

Right-click on a property in the Simulation grid results folder and


select Create 1D filter. In the dialog that opens, you can drag the
sliders to select the range of values you want to filter out. Here, you
specify which simulation case the property is referring to and also
which report step the filter should be applied to. The filter is stored on
the Input pane under the Filters folder, and can be turned on and off.

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3D Viewing
I, J, K layer filter
You can view all cells with
the same I, J, or K index by
pressing the filter symbol in
the function bar.

The filter tools are available


in the function bar when any
of the property modeling
processes are active.

3D Viewing
Well filter
Right-click on the Well filters
folder and select Insert new
well filter.

Reservoir Engineering

Specify top and base of the


filter.

Initializing the model 125

Right-click on the Well filters folder under the Wells folder on the
Input pane to insert a new filter. In the dialog that opens, you can
select which interval of the well trace you want to display. The filter
applies to both well logs and traces.
The new filter takes effect when the check box in front of it is selected.

User filters

Schlumberger Private

You can make filters interactively from function and histogram


windows.
In a histogram window, you can drag a section along the x-axis to
specify the filter. The new filter will appear on the Input pane and can
be applied to other properties. In the illustration above, the histogram
window is used to make a filter for high values of porosity. This filter is
applied in a 3D window to show oil saturation in high porosity cells.
It is also possible to create a filter from a function window. For
example, a cloud of data points can be selected from a cross-plot of
two properties.
126 Initializing the model

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3D Viewing
Ternary property display
Select Saturation from the
Simulation grid results
(Composite results sub-folder).
Activate Show/hide auto legend
from the toolbar.

General intersection

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Initializing the model 127

Right-click on the Intersections folder on the Models pane and select


Insert general intersection. An intersection plane is added to the
folder.
When the general intersection is displayed in the 3D window, the
intersection toolbar appears.
Click the Toggle visualisation on plane tool button
to enable
visualization on the intersection plane. Once this tool is activated,
subjects with blue check boxes can be displayed on the intersection.
Use the Manipulate plane
plane.

tool from the function bar to drag the

Intersection window

The intersection plane can be


turned into an intersection window.

Right-click the general intersection and select Create intersection


window to display your general intersection in an intersection window.
Select the check box in front of the subjects to put them into view. If
you drag the general intersection in the 3D window, the intersection
window is automatically updated.
128 Initializing the model

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Exercises Results viewing


In the previous exercise, you initialized the 3D grid. This exercise will
show you how to display 3D properties.
Exercise Workflow
View 3D simulation data
Use filters
Use of general intersection planes
The multi-value probe
Exercise Data
For this exercise, continue to use the project you used in the previous
exercise.

3D viewing
Your simple grid is now initialized and the initial properties are stored
in the sub-folders of Simulation grid results on the Results pane.
You can view any of the initial properties, such as saturation or
pressure in a 3D window. The exercises demonstrate how to apply
different filters for a better view.
Exercise steps
1. Open a new 3D window.
2. Go to the Cases pane and select the relevant case.
3. Go to the Results pane, and expand the Simulation grid
results folder. Then, expand the Dynamic sub-folder. Select
to display Water saturation (SWAT).
4. Click the Show/hide grid lines
button in the function bar
to display the grid lines. If the icon is not on the function bar,
activate the Define simulation case process on the
Processes pane.
5. Click the Show/hide axis
display the coordinate axis.

button in the menu bar to

6. Click the Show/hide auto legend


button in the menu bar
to add the legend to view.
7. To get a better view, you can apply filters. Right-click on Water
saturation, and select Create 1D filter.
8. In the dialog, use the slider to select a minimum water
saturation of 0.35. Click Apply, and observe the change in the
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Initializing the model 129

3D window. Click OK to close the dialog.


9. Go to the Input pane, open the Filters folder and turn off the
filter you just made.

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Using I, J, and K filters in a 3D window


There is a wide range of available filters you can use when you are
viewing data in 3D.
Exercise steps
1. Continue to work with the 3D window displaying the water
saturation.
2. To make the I, J, and K filters available, activate the Define
simulation case process from the Processes pane.
3. Click the Display the cells with same K button
to view
one K-layer at a time.
4. You can use the Step property forward/backward buttons
/ to go to another K-layer.
5. Click
once more to cancel the K-layer filter.
6. Click the Toggle simbox view button
to change to a view
that flattens the model.

Making filters using a Histogram window


You can make a filter based on data displayed in a histogram or a
function window. The filter can be applied to data displayed in a 2D or
3D window.
Exercise steps
1. Open a histogram window, and display the initial pressure
2. Click the Select using 1D range on x-axis button
in the
function bar.
3. Left-click in the histogram window and drag to select the
values that should define the filter. Select only the largest
pressure values to create a filter that exclusively displays the
cells with high pressure.
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Initializing the model 131

4. Go back to the 3D window that displays the water saturation.


5. Go to the Input pane and expand the folder Filter folder >
User.
6. Select the Pressure filter, and observe the effect in the 3D
window.

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View data on an intersection plane


You can insert a general intersection into the model and select to view
data on it. The plane can be moved and tilted.
Exercise steps
1. Use the 3D window displaying the water saturation, but turn
off all filters.
2. Right-click the Intersections folder under your 3D grid
(Simple) and select Insert general intersection.
3. Click the Clip in front of plane button
in the General
intersection player toolbar at the bottom of the user
interface.
4. To view data on the plane, click the Toggle visualization on
plane button
on the intersection plane toolbar.
5. Items that you can display on the plane now have a blue box or
a radio button. Select the box in front of Water saturation to
view the saturation on the plane.
6. Click the Manipulate plane button
in the function bar to
move the plane to a different position.
7. Right-click the General intersection on the Models pane
and select Create intersection window.
8. Select to display the water saturation in the intersection
window.
9. Select to tile the intersection window and the 3D window by
selecting Tile vertical from the Windows menu.
10. Move the intersection plane in the 3D window and notice how
the intersection window is updated simultaneously.

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Initializing the model 133

Optional Exercise - The multi-value probe


Sometimes it is useful to be able to view several property values in the
same grid cell. The Multi-value probe gives you a tabular view of the
grid properties.
Exercise steps
1. Return to your 3D window that displays the water saturation
and select to view the pressure.
2. Now you have an access to the Multi-value probe mode
button
in the function bar.
3. In the dialog that opens, add four rows by clicking the Append
item in the table button
.
4. Use the blue arrow in front of each row to drop the property
into the dialog. Start with porosity from the fine grid.
5. In order to use the grid properties from the simulation results,
simulation case need to be provided (see Input part of the
dialog). Drop in the Simple case from the Cases pane as
shown in the picture below. In the Results part of the dialog,
drop in Porosity (PORO) from the Static sub-folder of the
Simulation grid results. Then, from the Dynamic sub-folder
drop in Water saturation (SWAT) and Pressure
(PRESSURE). Note: these properties were taken from the first
time step.

6. Left-click on any cell in the 3D window and observe how the


table is updated to show the property values in that cell. Note
that you can compare the property values between different
grids by using this tool.
134 Initializing the model

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Summary
In this module, it was demonstrated how to initialize a simulation case
and how to inspect the initial 3D grid properties.

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Initializing the model 135

Module 5 - Upscaling
Introduction
In this module we will briefly cover how to convert a geological grid into
a simulation grid. Geological grids can contain tens of millions of grid
cells; however, a model that is suitable for simulation usually consists
of 100.000 to one million cells, depending on the computer the
simulations are run on. Consequently, a coarser, less detailed model is
required. In addition, since the simulators are designed to work on
orthogonal grids, the coarse simulation grid should be as close to
orthogonal as possible.
The first step is to coarsen the fine scale grid. To do this, you must first
define the resolution in the x-and y-directions using the Pillar gridding
process. Afterwards, the subdivision in the z-direction will be made
using the Scale up structure process.
Once the geometry of the coarse grid is defined, we will use the
Geometrical modeling process to quality check geometrical
properties of the coarse grid, such as grid cell volumes and angles.
Finally, the properties from the fine grid will be re-sampled into the
coarser simulation grid using the Scale up properties process.
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of Petrel is required.
Learning Objectives
In this module you will learn how to:
Make a coarse simulation grid based on a fine scale grid using
the Pillar gridding and Scale up structure processes.
Compute geometrical properties such as cell angles and
volumes for a 3D grid
Scale up properties from a fine to a coarse grid using the Scale
up properties process
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Upscaling 137

Lesson 1 Grid Coarsening using the Pillar


gridding process

Upscaling
Workflow

1. Coarsen the fine grid in the x- and y-direction


2. Make a vertical subdivision of the coarse grid
3. Quality check the resulting 3D grid (cell angles)
4. Sample properties from the fine grid into the coarse

Coarsen the grid in the x- and y-direction


Simulation considerations
Cell size and shape

Sufficient detail to describe flow


Number of cells small enough to run
simulation

Grid orientation

Permeability anisotropy
Fault directions
Wells
Enough cells between wells

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You may find that there are conflicts between the different
requirements of the simulation model. A description of the reservoir in
sufficient detail, describing changes in saturation and pressure, may
conflict with the maximum number of cells a simulator can do
computations on in a reasonable amount of time. While a geological
model can consist of tens of millions of cells, a typical desktop
computer cannot perform simulations on models with much more than a
million cells.

Making the Coarse Grid


Two methods

Make simple grid

Simple and fast


For models without faults
Can insert simulation faults

Pillar gridding

Used to make 3D grids that adapt to


faults

There are two ways to make a simulation grid using Petrel, the Make
simple grid process and the Pillar Gridding process.
Previously, we made a grid using the Make simple grid process, and
were then able to insert vertical simulation faults at the position of
existing grid nodes. Simulation faults can be barriers to flow, but do not
have throw, so they do not create communication between layers. You
can introduce throw along simulation faults using the Edit 3D Grid
process, but this is not recommended as the editing process is very time
consuming and can be difficult to quality control. Use the Pillar
Gridding approach if you have faults with throw, non-vertical faults or
if you want the faults to define segments in your grid.
The result of both of these processes will be a skeleton framework of
the 3D grid that is ready to insert surfaces into.
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Pillar gridding
Overview

1. Create a grid adjusted to the mid-points


of the Key Pillars.

2. Extrapolate the pillars to the top and


base shape points. This will create a
3D grid of pillars, represented by the
top, mid and base skeleton grids.
Pillars will be
created at
every corner of
every grid cell.

Pillar Gridding - Concept


Pillar Gridding is the process of making the Skeleton Framework of a
3D grid that incorporates faults. The Skeleton is a grid consisting of a
Top, a Mid, and a Base grid. Besides the three skeleton grids, there are
pillars connecting every corner of every grid cell to each other. In the
above slide, the figure to the right shows an example of the three
skeleton grids and one intersection through the grid that shows the
Pillars connecting grid cells together.
When creating the Pillar Grid, you will work with the Mid Skeleton grid.
The Mid Skeleton grid is the grid attached to the mid-point of the Key
Pillars, which defines the fault planes (left figure). The purpose is to
create a grid that has good geometrical properties at the Mid point
level, with respect to grid cell size, orientation and appearance of the
cells. The next step is to extrapolate this Mid Skeleton upwards and
downwards in order to create the Top and the Base skeletons. This is
done when you click OK in the Pillar gridding process dialog.

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Pillar gridding
Terminology

Pillar Gridding - Terminology


Boundary:
Polygon, boundary segment or part of
boundary
Trends:
Guidance for the grid and used as
segment divider (where no faults)
Faults and directions:
Guidance for the grid (optional to set no
fault or set no boundary)
Segments (Regions):
Compartment closed by faults or trends

Segments (fault compartments) are areas that are enclosed by


faults, grid boundary, trends or any combination of these. Segments are
used in several processes in Petrel. For instance, different settings and
filtering can be applied to segments, and volumes will be reported by
segment when running the Volume calculation process. Segments are
similar to the term Regions used in ECLIPSE. Segments can be used to
create different Fluid in Place Regions with different contact levels and
fluid properties.
Boundary The boundary defines the extent of the model. You can use
a polygon as input, or you can digitize the boundary. Faults can be set
as part of the boundary.
Trends Trends can be used to orient the grid cells in a particular
direction. Trends can be set outside of the grid to give an overall
direction for the grid cells. The trends can define both I and J directions.
Trends can also be used to connect one fault to another or they can be
inserted between faults. Trends cannot cross faults. Trends can be used
inside the model to separate areas into different segments.
Faults An area enclosed by faults will, by default, make out a
segment of the model. If a direction is assigned to a fault, the grid is
forced to be aligned with that fault.
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Pillar gridding
Cell shape

Make zig-zag type faults


Gives a grid with cell angles close to
90.
Simulators assume right angles at cell
corners.

Pillar Gridding - Settings


Give a name to the model or overwrite an existing model.
Enter the increment in I and J. The increment is given in
project units.
If you are making a simulation grid, define zig-zag type of
faults. As a general rule, the deviation from 90 should be less
than 25 30, and the average less than 15.
Once all of the settings are entered, click Apply. This will
create the Mid skeleton grid.
When the Mid skeleton grid looks good, click OK and the
pillars will be extrapolated upwards and downwards in order
to create a Top and a Base skeleton grid.

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Pillar gridding

Cell shape and orientation


To create a simulation grid with
orthogonal cells, the number of trends
and directed faults in the grid should
be kept to a minimum.
Use zig-zag faults
Use trends OUTSIDE the boundary to
get zig-zag faults AND the correct
grid orientation, or set the orientation
in the process dialog.

You must choose whether some faults should define a direction in the
grid. For a simulation grid, the fewer the better, as this will allow the
algorithm to make orthogonal cells. The default grid orientation is
North-South. To change this without making a fault into a directional
trend, create a trend outside the area of the grid. By doing this, you can
give a direction to the grid, and still ensure that all faults are zig-zag.
Alternatively, go to the Expert tab on the Pillar gridding process
dialog and specify the rotation angle.

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Pillar gridding
Cell size

I and J increment
Gives the average cell size, and hence
the model size
The cell size specified is an average
cells will vary in size as the gridding
honors faults

One of the many aspects to consider when setting cell size is the effect
of numerical dispersion. Numerical dispersion is due to the
discretization of the volume into cells with properties at the center.
Water is injected into Cell 1 and as soon as the critical water saturation
is reached, water will be able to move to Cell 2. Once water is mobile,
it will advance in every time step, no matter the length of the time step.
This creates a smeared out water saturation front, instead of the
correct sharp displacement front. One way to reduce the effect is to
have smaller cells.
If the model contains cells with a small volume, this could cause the
time required for the simulator to increase. It is possible to select to set
such cells inactive. If the total volume of all such cells is significant,
consider redoing the gridding.

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Throughput related problems

You can set a threshold value for pore


volume. Cells with a smaller pore
volume will be set inactive.

Once your simulation case is initialized, the pore volume property is


stored in the Static sub-folder of the Simulation grid results folder
on the Results pane. If this property shows that you only have a few
cells with a small pore volume, you can select to set those cells inactive
to avoid throughput problems and increased simulation time.
Select the Advanced>Transmissibilities tab of the Define
simulation case process and type in the minimum pore volume. On
this tab, you can also set max pinch-out thickness for no-neighbor
connections to be generated.
Notice that the export of transmissibilites and minimum pore volumes
from the Define simulation case process is not supported by
FrontSim.

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Pillar gridding
Faults tab

You can select to remove faults

In the Faults tab:


1. Select Selected faults/trends
2. Deselect All faults
3. Select/deselect faults in list
4. Click Update visible from lists

Faults can be excluded from the Pillar Gridding process by turning


them off on the Faults tab of the process dialog. You must click the
Update visible from lists button to see the effect in the 2D window.

Pillar gridding

Pillar geometry and grid formats


Select a simple pillar geometry for
simulation grids
Five types of geometry files can be created
for simulation:
.OPF most flexible, incl. curved faults,
binary
.GRID incl. curved faults, binary
.EGRID straight line faults, binary
.GRDECL straight line faults, ASCII
.GSG incl. curved faults, binary

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The more complex the pillar geometry, the more accurately the cells
will honor volumes on either side of faults. However, the cells will be
less orthogonal. Notice that the grid formats GRDECL and EGRID (uses
the ZCORN and COORD keywords) only supports vertical and linear
faults. If you use listric or curved faults in your Petrel project and export
the grid to the simulator in one of these formats, the grid will be
distorted.
Refer to the Initialization lesson in Module 4 for more information on
the grid formats.

Pillar gridding
Result

The result of the Pillar gridding is a skeleton grid. The skeleton grid
consists of a top, a mid, and a base skeleton, representing the top, mid
and base shape points of the Key pillars, respectively.
Along and between all of the faults are a set of pillars, evenly
distributed based on the given increment in the I and J direction. This
defines the framework, including the faults and the cell size, that the
surfaces can be inserted into. As no surfaces are inserted yet, there are
no 3D grid cells at this stage.
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Exercises Grid coarsening


You are provided with a 3D geological scale grid with properties, which
should be coarsened for simulation purposes.
The Pillar gridding process is a key part of building a 3D grid. This is
where the size and geometry of each cell will be set. The steps outlined
below do not cover all the functionality available in Pillar gridding.
Further information is available in the Online Help.
Exercise Workflow
Make the coarse grid using the Pillar gridding process
Change grid orientation
Exercise Data
In this exercise, continue to use your project from the previous exercise.

Grid coarsening using the Pillar gridding process


Exercise steps
1. Open a 3D window, go to Petrel RE 2010 folder in the
Models pane and display the Fault model.

2. Single-click on the Petrel RE 2010 model (remember to


always click on the icon of an object) to make it active bold.
Operations in Petrel are done on the active item, not on
items displayed in a window.
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3. Double-click on the Pillar gridding process under Corner


point gridding in the Processes pane. Ensure the top border
of the Pillar gridding process dialog reads Pillar gridding
with PetrelRE2010/Fault model. You will be prompted with
a 2D window displaying the faults from the fault model as
illustrated below. Inspect the Models pane and make sure
that only objects from the active model are visualized.
4. You need to specify a boundary for your reservoir. In this
exercise, we will use the boundary that was made for the fine
model. Expand the Fault model and notice that it has a
boundary.

5. In the Settings tab of the Pillar gridding process dialog,


select Create new. Name the grid Upscaled. Change the
Increments to 350x350 m, and select Make zig-zag type
faults.

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6. On the More tab, select the Vector field method (utilizes


FloGrid algorithms for I/J assignment).
7. In the Geometry tab, make sure Listric and Curved faults are
deselected, both in Non faulted pillar geometry and in
Faulted pillar geometry. This ensures that the final grid will
only have linear pillars.
8. In the process dialog, click Apply. Petrel will attempt to build
the mid skeleton grid with the parameters you have specified
as illustrated below. Note that there is a direction assigned to
one of the faults causing the grid to be directed along that
fault.

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Changing the grid orientation


Often a specific grid orientation is thought to be better for simulation
purposes. In this exercise, you will learn how to set the grid orientation.
Exercise steps
1. To remove the direction from the fault, first select the fault that
is colored green by left-clicking it. Then click the Set arbitrary
direction
button in the function bar.
2. Click Apply to see the effect. The grid should now have the
default north-south direction.
3. To change the orientation of the grid, simply insert an I or J
trend line outside the grid using the New I-trend
or the
New J-trend
button (left-click to start and double-click to
end the trend line). Trends can be deleted by selecting them
and pressing Delete on the keyboard. Click Apply to see the
effect once you have added a trend.
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4. When you are happy with the mid skeleton grid, click OK in the
process dialog. Accept the generation of lower and upper
skeleton grids by clicking Yes. Examine these in the 3D
window.
5. Save the project.
It is possible to only use a sub-set of the faults in the simulation grid
without removing any data from the original Fault model. You can
remove faults from the simulation model in two ways:

a. Turn them off in the Faults folder under the Fault model in
the Models pane.
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b. In the Faults tab of the Pillar gridding dialog, select Grid


with selected faults/trends. Then, deselect the All
Faults check box. You can now specify which of the faults
in the list you want to include in the 3D grid. Click the
Update visible from lists button to update the 2D
window.

Lesson 2 Vertical coarsening the Scale up


structure process

Vertical subdivision

Stratigraphic
Model

Simulation results will be different!


Sim Model 3

Sim Model 2

Sim Model 1

Permeability, mD

1000

A fine scale geological model can be represented by models of different


resolution for simulation. It is important for the simulation models to
keep the main characteristics, such as horizontal flow barriers, of the
original model.

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Vertical subdivision
Two methods

Based on input data


Use the Make horizons, Make zones,
and the Layering processes
Based on the fine model
Use the Scale up structure process

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There are two ways to subdivide the simulation grid in the vertical
direction.
Based on input data Use the Make horizons, Make zones,
and the Layering processes to do the subdivision based on the
available input data such as surfaces, seismic interpretations,
and isochore data. This type of vertical subdivision is usually
done as part of the geological structural modeling process;
further details are covered in the Structural modeling course.
Based on the fine model Use the Scale up structure process
as shown in the illustration on the slide. In this case, a fine grid
is given as input to the process and then the layering of the
simulation grid is done by using information on the layering of
the fine grid. This procedure will be explained in the following
slides.

Scale up structure
Settings for each zone

Specify the type of layering in each


zone.
Specify the number of layers in each
zone.
You can combine two zones into
one by clicking
Remember to update the Top and
Base horizon of your new zones.

Settings for each zone - Once a fine scale model is inserted into this
interface, the bottom panel is populated with the vertical layering
scheme of the fine model. You must then do the required edits to
produce a coarser vertical layering. Select the settings with great care
to make sure that important features of the fine model are captured,
such as a sealing layer.
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In this panel, you also specify the zonation of the coarse grid. It is
possible to combine two zones in the fine grid into one zone in the
coarse grid. To do so, delete one of the rows in the table. Then, insert
the correct top and bottom horizon on the remaining zones by selecting
them in the Input pane and dropping them into the table by using the
blue arrow. For each zone, you must select the type of zone division;
proportional, follow base, follow top, or fractions. Finally, specify the
number of layers or layer thickness within each zone.

After the grid is built, and before the properties are upscaled, the grid
geometry should be checked. Cells which deviate considerably from
orthogonal, have small volume cells next to large volume cells and
badly distorted cells, can have a negative impact on the simulation. If
errors are encountered as a result of poor grid geometry, the simulation
time may increase considerably or may not complete at all.
Use the simulation report to identify problems related to cell geometry.
Cells which cause problems can be set as inactive (ACTNUM=0). If
problems are severe, the grid should be rebuilt.

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Cell angles

Cell angles - Where faults have been set as I or J trends, the grid may
become distorted and cells deviate considerably from being orthogonal.
Compute the geometrical property Cell Angle and use the property filter
to identify cells with angles that are far off from 90 degrees. The values
calculated are angles representing the maximum deviation from 90
degrees at each corner. As a rule of thumb, values less than 15 are
good for simulation. Higher values can result in errors when used in a
typical five-point difference scheme. However, distorted cells may not
be so important in regions that are not significant for flow (e.g. inactive
cells or aquifer regions).
Create 1D filters - To get a better view of where a property takes on
values in a particular range, right-click on the property and select
Create 1D filter. Use the sliders to specify the values you want to filter
out. The new filter is stored in the Filter folder of the Input pane.
Reservoir Engineering

Remember to select
Create new property if you
are running the
Geometrical Modeling
process to create several
new properties. Petrel will,
by default, select to
overwrite an existing
property.
Upscaling 157

Cell inside-out

Cells close to faults may become so distorted that they sometimes can
turn inside out, where one axis is pushed through a different face.
These generally do not visualize well, but can be isolated by using the
property filter to remove the cells which deviate from 0 (normal). The
cell inside-out check just gives a flag to indicate errors. If it is zero
everywhere, the grid is OK.

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Exercises Vertical coarsening and grid quality


check
In the previous exercise, you specified the coarse grid layout in the
x- and the y-direction. The next step in the coarsening process is to
specify the vertical subdivision. In this exercise, the layering of the
coarse grid is done based on the layering in the fine grid using the
Scale up structure process.
After the grid has been subdivided in the vertical direction, you can
check the geometry of the grid cells by computing cell angels and
volumes.
Exercise Workflow
Use the Scale up structure process to specify the layering of
the coarse simulation grid based on the layering of the fine
grid.
Check the geometry of the resulting grid, in particular check for
bad cell angles and twisted cells.
Exercise Data
In this exercise, continue to use the project from the previous exercise.

The Scale up structure process


The layering should be done with care. Do barrier layers in the fine
model need to be kept as separate barrier layers in the upscaled model,
or can you combine these into a thick layer together with other layers?
How can you preserve the lateral and vertical heterogeneities?
It is important to keep the fine model (the geology) characteristics. This
is done by keeping more of the layers separate. However, it will always
be a compromise between fewer cells and keeping the level of detail.
Exercise steps
1. Make sure the upscaled grid you created in the Pillar
gridding process is active (bold) by clicking on its name.
2. Double-click the Scale up structure process in the
Upscaling folder of the Processes pane.
3. Expand the Petrel RE 2010 model and click on Fine grid.
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4. Click on the blue arrow in the Scale up structure process


dialog to insert this grid as the Input grid. When this is done,
the layering in the fine scale model is displayed in the lower
part of the window.
5. There are three zones in the input grid. We are going to specify
two zones in the coarse grid. Left-click on the symbol in front
of Zone 1, then click the Delete selected row
button.

6. Rename the two remaining zones Top and Base, respectively.


7. Go to the Models pane, select the Top reservoir horizon
under the Horizons folder of the Fine grid, and drop it in as
the Top horizon of the zone Top.
8. Select proportional layering for both zones.
9. Select to use 5 layers in the Top zone, and 3 layers in the Base
zone.
10. Press OK to run the process.
11. Select to view the Edges of your Upscaled grid in a 3D
window to see the resulting layering. Save the project.

Grid quality check


Quality checking of the grid should be a continuous process during the
upscaling process. This includes checking the grid for cells with small
volume or with angles that deviate too much from 90 degrees.
Exercise steps
1. Activate the upscaled grid (make it bold). Petrel processes
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apply to the highlighted grid, which may not necessarily be the


same as the one displayed in the 3D window.
2. In the Processes pane, open the Property modeling folder
and double-click on Geometrical modeling. The process
dialog header (at the top of the process dialog) shows which
3D grid you are working on.
3. Ensure Create new property is selected.
4. Use the drop-down list Select method to select the method
Cell Volume. Accept the default property template.

5. Click Apply. You now have a new property called Bulk


volume in the properties folder in your active 3D grid. The
property gives the bulk volume for each individual cell.
Right-click on the Bulk volume property, select Settings and
inspect the Statistics tab to check for negative/small cell
volumes.
6. Repeat the two steps above with Cell Angle and Cell Inside
Out as the method. Remember to select Create new
property each time and to select an appropriate template. The
Cell Angle property gives the deviation from angles of 90
degrees for each cell. If the Cell inside out property is
different from zero, the cell is twisted.
7. Examine the new properties located in the Properties folder
in a 3D window. You may need to reset the color scale. First
select to view the color legend by clicking the Show/hide
auto legend button
in the top tool bar. Then, click on the
Adjust color table on selected button
.

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Using value filter


You can filter the grid on properties to see only cells with extreme
values for each of the geometrical properties.
Exercise steps
1. Display the Cell angle property in a 3D window.
2. To create a value filter, right-click the Cell angle property and
select Create 1D filters.
3. Use the sliders to make a filter where you only see the largest
values.

4. Click Apply.
5. Go to the Input pane. Note that you can turn the filter on and
off from the Filters folder. Save the project.

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Lesson 3 The Scale up properties process

Upscaling
Workflow

1. Coarsen the fine grid in the x- and y-direction


2. Make a vertical subdivision of the coarse grid
3. Quality check the resulting 3D grid (cell volumes, cell angles)
4. Sample properties from the fine grid into the coarse

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Scale up properties
Select the property or the folder of
properties to scale up by leftclicking in the Models pane.
Click the blue arrow in the Scale
up properties process dialog to
drop in the selected property.

You need to select the properties to scale up. You can select any
property from a Properties folder on the Models pane, not only from
the grid that was used for the structural upscaling. Multiple properties
can be scaled up in one run.

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Scale up properties
Expand the fine grid inside the Scale up
properties process dialog.
You can scale up many properties in one go.

Once you have selected the properties to scale up, a folder for each
input grid is add to the process dialog. To access the settings for each
property, you need to expand the folder for the 3D grid, and then
left-click the property.
The coarse grid cells to populate can also be restricted by enabling the
Upscale to filtered cells only option. This will restrict upscaling to
those output grid cells, which are included in the currently active filter.

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Scale up properties

Select algorithm for each property


Left-click one of the properties from the fine
grid to access the settings available.

An algorithm must be selected for each property. Left-click each of the


properties to make it active. Then, select an algorithm from the
drop-down menu.
For scalar properties there are three algorithms to select from:
Averaging (volume-weighted) This algorithm computes an
average of the property value of the fine grid cells, using the volume of
each cell as weight.
Averaging (cell count) This algorithm computes an average of the
property in the fine grid cells with the same weight on each input cell
no matter its size.
Summation Computes the sum of the property value in all fine grid
cells that contribute to the value of a coarse cell. This method should
only be used to scale up volumes.
In addition to those three algorithms, there are two more available to
scale up permeability:
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Directional averaging Gives the user the possibility to use different


averaging methods in different axis directions.
Flow-based upscaling This is an algorithm where a flow simulation
is run over all fine cells making out each coarse cell to estimate the
total permeability in each axis-direction of the coarse cell.

Scale up properties

Several methods available for each algorithm

Averaging methods
For all continuous properties, select between the methods:
Arithmetic mean - Used for additive properties such as
porosity, saturation, and net/gross. x a =

1 n
xi
n i =1

Geometric mean Normally a good estimate for permeability.


It is sensitive to lower values: x g = n in=1 xi
Harmonic mean Gives the effective vertical permeability if
the reservoir is layered with constant value in each layer. It is
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sensitive to lower values: x h =

i =1

RMS (quadratic mean) -

xr =

xi .

1 n 2
xi
n i =1 .

Minimum selects the lowest value.


Maximum select the highest value.
Power The user must specify the power p. If p=-1, this
method is equal to harmonic mean, if p=2 it is equal to RMS.

xr =

1 n p
xi
n i =1

For discrete properties, the choice of algorithms is different:


Most of. Assigns the value that occurs the largest number of
times.
Minimum. Assigns the minimum value.
Maximum. Assigns the maximum value.
Arithmetic. Computes the arithmetic mean.

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Algorithm

Permeability directional averaging


Input: Specify each of the input
components. Those can all be the same.
Output: Three permeability components.

Directional averaging methods for permeability


Permeability is different from other grid properties in the way that the
value in a cell is dependent on the value in neighboring cells. Therefore,
there are more methods available for permeability than for other
properties.
Arithmetic-harmonic for each coarse grid cell, the fine cells
in each plane perpendicular to one of the axis direction are
arithmetically averaged to give an approximate permeability
for that plane. The plane permeabilities are then harmonically
averaged to give the permeability for the coarse grid cell in
that axis direction. This is repeated for each of the I, J and K
directions to produce the three different output permeability
properties.
Harmonic-arithmetic This method works in the same manner,
only in this case the harmonic averaging is computed first, then
arithmetic.
There is also Arithmetic-Power, and Power arithmetic. These
methods work as the two methods explained above, only
power averaging is used instead of harmonic.
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Note that harmonic mean gives more cells with low values than
arithmetic mean does. Therefore, harmonic mean is commonly used to
upscale permeability for which it is important to capture cells with low
values.

Exercises Scale up properties


In the previous exercise, you completed the 3D grid. In this exercise,
you are going to sample properties from the fine grid into the coarse
grid. To do so, you need to instruct Petrel on which fine grid to sample
properties from. You also need to specify which properties to re-sample
and by which upscaling method. There are several averaging methods
available in Petrel. Each method gives you a slightly different result. For
instance, a harmonic mean puts more weight on small values than an
arithmetic mean does. Flow based upscaling will assign permeability in
the upscaled grid that reflects the flow in the fine grid.
Finally, you must tell Petrel which of the layers in the fine grid should
contribute to each of the layers in the coarse grid.
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Exercise Workflow

Select which grid to sample properties from


Specify which layers in the fine grid should contribute to each
of the coarse grid layers when properties are upscaled
Select which properties to scale up and by which method
Quality check the results

Exercise Data
In this exercise, continue to use the dataset from the previous exercise.

Scale up properties
Exercise steps
1. Make sure the Upscaled[U] 3D grid you created is active
(bold).
2. Open the Scale up properties process which is located
under Upscaling in the Processes pane.
3. You need to specify which properties to scale up. Select
Permeability and Porosity from the Properties folder of
Fine grid in the Models pane and drop them into the process
dialog by clicking the blue arrow.

4. Select the Porosity property by left-clicking it.


5. Use Averaging (volume weighted) as algorithm.
6. Select Arithmetic as Method.

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7. Left-click the permeability property, and select to use


Directional averaging as algorithm.
8. Select Arithmetic-Harmonic as the averaging method.

9. Notice that the permeability property has now turned into a


folder in the list in the process dialog. Expand the folder.

10. Select either of the components of Permeability by leftclicking it.


11. Select the correct input for each of the permeability
components. Use Permeability for the I- and J-direction and
PermK for the K-direction.
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12. Click OK to scale up permeability and porosity.

Apply different methods


Exercise steps
1. Open the Scale up properties process again.
2. Notice how the settings for the properties that you have
already upscaled are preserved and listed in the process
dialog.
3. Also, notice how the Calculate setting is deselected. This
means that as you add new properties to the dialog and click
Apply, only the new ones will be computed.
4. Select Permeability and Facies from the Fine grid on the
Models pane and drop them into the process dialog.

5. Left-click on the Permeability property that you just added to


the process dialog.
6. Select to use Averaging (volume weighted) as the
algorithm, and Harmonic as the Averaging method.
7. Enter a name for the new permeability property.
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Upscaling 173

8. Left-click the Facies property.


9. Select to use Averaging (volume weighted) as algorithm,
and Most of as Averaging method.
10. Click OK to scale up the properties.

Review the upscaled properties


Exercise steps
1. Open a function window.

2. Select Permeability_I (arithmetic-harmonic) and Perm_


harmonic (harmonic). Harmonic average will usually honor the
lower values more than arithmetic-harmonic. Observe this
trend in your plot.
3. Open a histogram window and select to view the upscaled
permeability properties along with the fine grid property.
174 Upscaling

Reservoir Engineering

4. When you work with histograms, note that you can toggle
between comparing the number of cells or percentage of cells
by clicking the Use percentage in Y-axis button
in the
function bar. It is useful to compare percentage of cells when
you compare values from the fine grid with values in the
coarse grid.
5. Also you can select to volume weight the cells you are viewing
by pressing the Weight histogram with volume button
.

Review upscaled properties in a 3D window


Exercise steps
1. Open a 3D window.
2. Select to view the facies property on your upscaled grid.
3. Click the Multi-value probe mode button
in the function
bar.
4. In the dialog that opens, drop in porosity from both your fine
and your upscaled grid along with the facies property from
your upscaled grid.
5. Left-click both in the channel and floodplain cells and compare
porosity values.

You can make a CDF


-curve (cumulative
distribution function - curve)
by pressing the Show
cdf-curve icon
or you
can display a line between
the histogram bars by
pressing the Show lines
between the columns icon
. Both tools are in the
Function bar.

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Upscaling 175

176 Upscaling

Reservoir Engineering

Summary
In this module we have upscaled a model from geological scale to a
simulation grid. First, we did the coarsening in the horizontal direction
using the Pillar gridding process. Next, we specified the layering of
the coarse model using the fine grid layers as input. Using
Geometrical modeling, we checked the coarse grid for poorly shaped
and small cells. Finally, properties were scaled up to the coarse grid
from the fine grid.

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Upscaling 177

Module 6 - Local grid


refinements and Aquifers
Introduction
In this module, you will learn how to add local grid refinements and
aquifers to your simulation model. Aquifers are used to model the
pressure support from water or gas on the edge of a model. In Petrel,
such processes are modeled using the Make aquifer process. It is
useful to refine the grid in areas of fast flow, and this feature is
available through the Make local grids process.
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of Petrel is required for this module.
Learning Objectives
In this module, you will learn how to:
Add local grid refinements
Model aquifers

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 179

Lesson 1 Local grid refinements

Local grid refinements

To better model fluid flow behavior, local grid refinements allow for a
finer resolution of parts of the 3D grid. Transmissibility between the
local grids and the global model are computed automatically by
ECLIPSE/FrontSim. The properties of the cells in the refined grid cells
can be inherited from the global grid or specified explicitly for the
refined cells.
The Make local grids process is available from the Corner point
gridding folder in the Processes pane. Local grids are defined using
wells, surfaces, and polygons as input.

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Local Grid Refinements

Choose to create a new LGR set or


edit an existing LGR set.

A set contains a number of local


grids.
Each set is stored as a folder on
the Models pane.

The areas that should be refined can be selected using:


Wells: You must specify a radius. All cells that have their center closer
to a well than the specified radius are refined.
Polygons: Petrel computes the vertical Z-projection of the polygon with
the host grid and selects all of the cells in the uppermost layer whose
centers lie within the polygon. The polygon must be closed. This set of
cells is then projected down through the layers (K-index) to produce a
cell set.
Surfaces: When surfaces are used as input to the Make local grids
process, the cells that are refined are found by examining the distances
between the cell-centers and the surface in a direction normal to the
surface and around the edges. If the distance is less than the source
influence distance, the host cell is added to the set.

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 181

Specify host cells from sources

Host cells
Select the sources:
Wells: Make a refinement around the
well.
Polygons: Make a refinement inside
the polygon.
Surfaces: Make refinements above or
below.
Click the blue arrow to add sources to
the gridding process.

Refinement Method
Select a source or folder of sources in the
source list, and then select refinement
method.
Cartesian : Give number of fine cells inside
each coarse cell
Cartesian Gradual : The coarse cells are
refined gradually. Finest resolution in the
middle. Give number of levels.

Illustration: Cartesian gradual refinement


with 2 levels.

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Cartesian Nx,Ny,Nz: You specify the number of subdivisions required


in each grid direction (Nx, Ny, Nz) and each host cell in the host cell set
is sub-divided equally.
Cartesian Dx,Dy,Dz: You specify the maximum size of the subdivisions
required in each grid direction (Dx, Dy, Dz). Each host cell in the host
cell set is sub-divided equally using the closest value to that requested.
Cartesian Gradual Nx,Ny,Nz: Similar to the Cartesian Nx,Ny,Nz
method, except that Petrel gradually increases the refinement degree
towards the local-grid source over a number of levels specified in
Levels. The parameters Nx, Ny, Nz thus represent the target number of
subdivisions (in each grid direction) within the highest-refinement level
(i.e., closest to the source). The method is available when surfaces or
wells are given as input.
Cartesian Gradual Dx,Dy,Dz: Similar to the Cartesian Dx,Dy,Dz
method except that Petrel gradually increases the refinement degree
towards the local-grid source over a number of levels specified in
Levels.

Set source parameters


Select a source or folder of sources in the
source pane, and then set the selection
parameters.
Zone and Segment filters: Limit the
refinements to some zones/segments.
Grid separate zones: Creates a separate
local grid in each zone.
Source influence distance: Distance from
well or surface that is refined.

Click the Display host cells button to see


the cells in the 3D viewer that will be selected
for local gridding.

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 183

Zone filter: You can select which zones should be included for grid
refinement. This selection is also used when Grid separate zones is
selected. Similarly, you can use the Segment filter to only generate
grid refinements inside some of the segments.
Grid separate zones: Non-gradual refinement methods only. Select
this if you want to create separate local grid sets for each zone.
Use active filter: Select this if you want to restrict the local grids to
the host grid cells that are currently displayed.

Extending host cell along I, J, K


The local grid can be made more or
less regular in shape by extending it
along the I, J, or K direction

No extension

An extended grid may have:


Fewer surface cells thus, fewer
connections to the coarse grid.
Less work for the simulator.
More cells in it the more cells,
the more work for the simulator

Extended in K

When local grids are exported to the ECLIPSE simulators, they are
decomposed into cuboids (in I,J,K). You can reduce the number of
cuboids by extending a host cell set in any, or all of the I, J or K grid
directions. This will generate larger host cell sets, but fewer cuboids in
their decompositions. You must choose between these issues so that it
generates an acceptable simulation.

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Grid to well connections

Only cells with connections are refined

Choose this option for a selected well if you want to restrict the active
source to open wellgrid connections only (for example, perforations
and open-hole sections).

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 185

Set different parameters for different sources


By default, cell selection and
gridding parameters are the same
for all sources.

To change settings:
Select a source
Deselect Use default
Specify individual settings

186 Local grid refinements and Aquifers

The source panel displays a


summary of the parameters for
each source.

Reservoir Engineering

The two images above illustrate that a local grid cell gets the same
property value as the coarse cell. This does not apply for geometrical
properties such as cell volume or cell angle.

Upscale properties
If the Use property filter option
is on, Petrel will only upscale
onto the grids that are visible.

Select property in the fine grid


Display only the local grid
Use property filter
Deselect Ensure all cells get values

You can use the Scale up properties process to scale up a property


onto the local grid set. To do so:
Display a property in a 3D window
In the Models pane, deselect to view the Global grid so that
only the local grid set is displayed
Open the Scale up properties process and select which of
the fine grid properties to scale up
Select Use property filter and deselect Ensure value in all
cells

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 187

Grid coarsening
1.
2.
3.

Use polygon
Select generation method Coarsen
Specify settings

Cells can be amalgamated to reduce the total number of active cells in


the global grid. Coarsening sets must not overlap one another, but they
can be joined together.
Local grid refinements cannot be placed within or adjacent to a grid
coarsening; that is, the local grids can only be applied to non-coarsened
cells.
Petrel sends the original fine model to the simulator together with the
generated geometry for grid coarsening (COARSEN keywords).

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LGR - Export
1.
2.

Make the local grid set active (bold)


by clicking on its name.
Right click the global grid set and
select Export

By default, properties do not get exported


with LGRs. ECLIPSE will apply host cell
properties to LGRs.

To export a local grid set, it must be highlighted (bold). It is not


necessary to display the local grid set.
Local grid properties are not exported explicitly; ECLIPSE will read the
local grid keywords and apply the host cell properties.
The export formats that support local grid refinements are:
Open Petrel Format (OPF) (Binary)
GSG (Generic Simulation Grid)
ECLIPSE Grid keywords (grdecl) (ASCII)
VIP Grid keywords (grdecl) (ASCII)
The CARFIN keyword is exported to set up a Cartesian local grid
refinement. It specifies a cell or a box of cells identified by its global
grid coordinates I1-I2, J1-J2, K1-K2 to be replaced by refined cells. The
dimensions of the refined grid within this box are specified as NX, NY,
NZ.

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 189

Exercises Local grid refinements


Local grid refinements allow for a finer grid resolution near wells or in a
region to better model fluid flow behavior. The Petrel workflow permits
you to create local grid sets inside polygons, around wells, and close to
a surface. The Define simulation case process only allows you to
include one Local grid set, so all local grids required for the simulation
need to be within this set. You can return to the Make local grids
process and add or remove local grid definitions as required.
Exercise Workflow
Import a polygon
Make a local grid set
Inspect the local grid set
Optional Upscale property to the refined grid
Exercise Data
In the following exercise, we will continue with the project we made in
the previous exercises. Or you can use backup project Module_5_
Completed.pet.

Import a polygon
Exercise steps
1. Right-click in the Input pane and select Import(on tree) and
import the file ImportData>Local grid>LGRpolygon. Make sure
the file type General lines/points (ASCII) is selected.
2. Click OK in the dialog.
3. In the Input data dialog: select Generic boundary polygon
as Line type, then click OK. The polygon appears at the
bottom of the Input pane.

Make a local grid set


Exercise steps
1. Activate your upscaled 3D grid.
2. Expand the Corner point gridding folder in the Processes
pane.
3. Double-click on the Make local grids process.
4. Make sure Create new is selected.
5. In the Input pane, expand the Wells folder, then expand the
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Reservoir Engineering

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Producers folder. Select the wells P03, P04, and P05 and drop
them into the process dialog by clicking the blue arrow .
Click the polygon you imported (in the Input pane) and drop it
into the process dialog by clicking the blue arrow .
Select the Polygons folder in the Make local grids process
dialog.
Select the method Cartesian Dx, Dy, Dz and set Dx/Dy to
100. Set Dz to 10.
Select the Wells folder in the Make local grids process
dialog. Select the Cartesian Gradual Nx, Ny, Nz method.
Enter a refinement of 3x3x1 and type in 2 Levels for the wells.
Select a Source influence distance of 600.

12. Open a 3D window and display the wells, the polygon you
imported, and the porosity property from the upscaled grid.
Select to show the grid lines by clicking the Show/hide grid
lines button
in the function bar.

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 191

13. Press the Display host cells button


in the
process dialog. The grid cells that will be refined are displayed
in the 3D window.
14. Increase the Well influence radius to 800 and click on Display
host cells again to see the effect.
15. You do not create any refinements until you clcik Apply or OK.
You can continue to experiment with the settings.

16. Select well P05 in the Source name list of the process dialog
and then deselect the Use default check box. Now, you can
adjust the settings for this particular oil producer. Change the
method to Cartesian Nx, Ny, Nz and the Source influence
distance to 500.
17. Click OK to generate the local grid set.

Inspect the local grid set

The local grids have


a yellow tick box. This means
they can be used as a filter in
Petrel similar to the Zone,
Fault and Segment filters
under the 3D grid. The filter
can also be used with the
Property calculator.

Exercise steps
1. In the Models pane, under the active 3D grid, you will now
have a folder called Local grids.
2. Expand the Local grids folder. Right-click on Local grid set 1
and select Settings. Change the name on the Info tab to
Wells and Polygon.
3. Click on different properties in the model; note that the local
grids have inherited the host cell properties, with the exception
of geometric properties and simulation results. Geometrical
properties must be computed for the local grid cells, and
simulated properties are only available if the simulation was
run with local grid refinements.

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4. Save the project.


Normally, when you are using the Property calculator, turn off any
local grids under the active grid or turn off the Use filter option in the
Property calculator. Local grid cells will then inherit the properties
from host cells. The local grid cells will display a grey color if they have
not inherited the host cell properties (which is the case if they have
been included in the filter settings in some way).

Upscale property Optional


In this exercise, you will upscale a property onto the local grid that you
have created without re-upscaling the entire grid. As a result, any
corrections that may have been made to the global grid will not be
changed by this new upscaling run. It is always wise to make a copy of
the properties you intend to update.
Exercise steps
1. Click on the porosity property in the Properties folder of your
coarse (upscaled) grid, then use the copy and paste
functionality on the toolbar.
2. Give the new porosity property the name Porosity_lgr.
3. Ensure the property Porosity_lgr is displayed in the 3D
window.
4. Deselect to view the Global grid under the Local grids
folder.
5. To scale up the porosity to the local grids, open the Scale up
properties process under Upscaling.
6. Left-click the Fine grid in the process dialog.
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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 193

7. In the Target cells part of the dialog, select the check box in
front of Upscale to filtered cells only.

8. Left-click the Porosity property in the process dialog.


9. Select Porosity_lgr from the Edit existing drop-down menu.

10. Make sure that Calculate is selected for Porosity_lgr and


that Ensure all cells get value is deselected.
11. For all the other properties make sure Calculate is deselected.
(See tool-tip for more information).

If you do not want to


upscale all of the properties
from the fine grid to the local
grid (for example, you only
want the Porosity to be
upscaled) be sure that No is
selected in the Calculate
column of the Scale up
properties dialog. In this
case, you will upscale only
the Porosity. Compare both
of the porosity properties by
toggling between them. The
only difference should be
between the properties on
the local grids.
194 Local grid refinements and Aquifers

12. Click OK to scale up porosity to the local grid cells.


13. When the process is completed, select the check box in front
of the Global grid in the Local grids folder on the Models
pane.
Reservoir Engineering

Lesson 2 Aquifers

The illustration shows cells that are connected to an aquifer. In this


case, the aquifer is placed underneath the reservoir and along the grid
edges to simulate pressure support from water.

Reservoir Engineering

Make a folder of
aquifers in order to use
multiple aquifers in the
simulation run. The Define
simulation case process
has only one place for
aquifer input.

Local grid refinements and Aquifers 195

Make aquifer
Choose to create a new aquifer or edit an
existing aquifer.
Select type of aquifer model
Numerical
Carter Tracy
Fetkovich
Constant flux
Constant pressure gas
Constant pressure/head water
Rainfall
Each aquifer model is stored in the
Aquifers folder on the Models pane
under the parent grid.

The Make aquifer process is located under Simulation in the


Processes pane.

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Connections
Select model.
Enter area of interest:
Use the Make/edit polygons
process to define the boundary
polygon.

First, specify which model to use. Then, specify the area that should be
influenced by the aquifer. This is done by supplying a closed polygon.
The polygon can be made using the Make/edit polygons process.
You can drop in multiple polygons defining the connection areas of
interest. Each of the polygons have individual settings for creating a
unique drive direction for each area of interest.

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 197

Independent polygon areas and drive direction

Use the compass to define drive


directions, the connections the
aquifer will have to the grid.
The direction of the aquifer can be:
Top down
Bottom up
Grid edges
Fault edges

Fault edges
connection

Bottom up
connection

After the area of interest is specified, you must select the drive
direction and the vertical extent.
If Bottom up is selected, the aquifer is connected to the bottom edge
at the bottom of the reservoir for all cells within the area of interest. In
addition, it is possible to specify the vertical extent.

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Use the compass to specify which cells should be connected to the


aquifer.

Aquifer modeling
Numerical

Numerical aquifer - A set of cells in the


simulation grid is used to represent the aquifer.
Their position in the model is irrelevant.

The properties of the aquifer grid cells are set on


the Cell settings tab. Hence the properties of an
aquifer grid cell is independent of its actual
position in the grid.
E.g., when Number of cells is 2 - the aquifer is
modeled using two grid cells.
Numerical aquifers do not connect to local grid
cells.
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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 199

You can select to use between one to five cells to model a numerical
aquifer. To be able to include a numerical aquifer, Petrel needs the same
number of grid cells that are undefined (for example, outside the grid) or
have zero volume, porosity, or ACTNUM value. These cells cannot be
part of a local grid set.
The properties of the aquifer grid cells are set on the Cell settings tab,
hence, the properties of the grid cells that are used to model the aquifer
do not depend on the position those cells have in the 3D grid.
If the numerical aquifer is modeled using one cell, it is the properties of
this single cell that is used to represent the aquifer. All cells with a
connection to the aquifer is consequently given boundary conditions
depending on those properties. If more than one cell is used, all cells
with connections to the aquifer are given boundary conditions using the
properties of aquifer cell number one, while aquifer cell number one is
attached to aquifer cell number two, and so on.

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Reservoir Engineering

Fetkovich aquifers can effectively represent a wide range of aquifer


types from the steady state infinite aquifer which provides constant
pressure support to the pot aquifer, which is small compared to the
reservoir and whose behavior is determined by the reservoir influx.
The aquifer properties (compressibility, porosity, initial pressure, depth,
productivity index etc.) are set on the Properties tab, and the aquifer
connections to one or more faces of the reservoir are specified on the
Connections tab.

The Carter Tracy aquifer model is a simplified approximation to time


dependent model.
The influence function of a Carter Tracy model is given as tables of
dimensionless time versus a dimensionless pressure, hence, this
aquifer model can be used to model changes in pressure with time. The
default table models an infinite aquifer with constant terminal rate as
given by van Everdingen and Hurst. To supply alternative tables, use
Import (on selection) or Create new function and drop it into
Properties tab of the Carter Tracy model.
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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 201

Make aquifer
Properties tab

Required input depends


on the selected aquifer
model.

The different aquifer models require different input. Refer to the Online
Help manual for details.

Exercises Aquifers
In this exercise, we will add an aquifer to see whether a better match
can be achieved.
Exercise Workflow
Use the Make/edit polygons process to draw a polygon that
specifies the area that is influenced by the aquifer
Use the Make aquifer process to add an aquifer to the model
Exercise Data
In this exercise, continue to use the project from the previous exercise.

202 Local grid refinements and Aquifers

Reservoir Engineering

Add an aquifer
Exercise steps
1. Open a 2D window and display one of the horizons along with
the faults of your upscaled grid from the Models pane.
2. Activate the Make/edit polygons process from Utilities
folder in the Processes pane.
3. Use the Start new set of polygons (deactivate old) tool
. Draw a polygon which encloses the eastern part of the
model. Use the Close selected polygon
tool to close the
polygon.

4. The new polygon is stored on the Input pane. Rename it to


Aquifer boundary.
5. Make sure the Upscaled grid is active on the Models pane.
6. Go to the Processes pane, and open the Make aquifer
process located under Simulation.
7. Select Create a new aquifer, and define aquifer model:
Carter Tracy.
8. Rename Aquifer 1 to Carter Tracy.
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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 203

9. In the Connections tab, select the Aquifer boundary


polygon on the Input pane, and drop it into the Area of
interest field by clicking the blue arrow .
10. Select Grid edges as Drive direction. Make the compass
connecting to the cell faces from all directions.

11. Under Vertical extent, select a Top limit of -2600 m (the


oil-water contact).
12. Go to the Properties tab, and then select the fluid model
Light oil + gas from the Input pane. Drop it into the process
dialog using the blue arrow.
13. Type in a datum of -1600 m.
14. Click OK to save the aquifer model, leave the dialog open.
15. Display the grid in a 3D window now.
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Reservoir Engineering

16. Go to the Models pane, you will find newly created aquifer
under the Upscaled grid > Aquifer folder. Toggle the new
aquifer on. The cell faces connected to the aquifer are
displayed in the 3D Window.
17. Now go back to the Make aquifer process, and deselect the
directions between E and S in the compass (see picture
below), then click Apply. Only the cell faces in the greyed
parts of the compass are taken into account for the aquifer
connection. This allows you to filter out the unwished aquifer
cell connections.

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Local grid refinements and Aquifers 205

Summary
The Make aquifer process was used to model the presence of water
at the edge of the reservoir. How to use The Make local grids
process, which allows you to refine the simulation grid, was also
demonstrated.

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Module 7 - History
development strategies
Introduction
In this module, you will learn how to set up a development strategy
based on imported observed data. We will also look at how to import
the historically observed production data.
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of Petrel is required.
Learning Objectives
Import observed data
View observed data in a function window
Make a history strategy
View line data
Optional: Use the History match analysis tool to view results

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History development strategies 207

Lesson 1 History development strategies


Development strategies describe to the simulator how a field will be
developed that is, which wells will produce or inject, at what rates
and pressures they will flow in, what operations will be carried out on
the wells over time, and so forth.
Development strategies make it easy to keep track of how the control
of a field evolves with time. For example, as new wells are drilled, the
target field rates change, wells are converted from producer to injector,
new platforms and manifolds are added and so on.
Furthermore, development strategies make it easy to apply the same
constraint to many wells by using well folders or different values of a
particular constraint to individual wells.

The simulation is normally run in two phases: history match and


prediction.
By using the history match we try to match actual production history
with the simulated history. We use geological, geophysical and
petrophysical input to build a reservoir description, and from those, we
build a simulation model.
Next, we import actual production and pressure information, run the
model, and compare the simulated results with the actual history.
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Reservoir Engineering

Sensitivity runs are used to identify which properties have the greatest
effect on the simulation results.
Tuning runs are used to modify the properties of the model to improve
the match between simulated results and the actual production history.

This loop can be run


many times.

When we have an acceptable match, we switch to prediction mode.


This is where we use our calibrated model to predict the production
response to new wells, new recovery techniques or changes to existing
well operations.
The focus of this lesson is History strategies.

History-Prediction
History:

Done to validate the


model against history
Use observed rates as
well control data
Use historic events;
dates for perforations

Prediction:

Used to predict future


behavior
Give the rates or
pressures that the wells
should be operated at
forward in time

The simulator needs the well paths (deviation surveys) in order to know
where the wells are located in the simulation model.
The well bore history is a record of the location and dates of
perforations, squeezes, plugs, hydraulic fractures, etc. Normally, this
information is put into an events file that is read into Petrel.
The production history, or vol file, can be exported from OFM or Finder
and imported into Petrel.
Reservoir Engineering

The *.vol format is


the format Petrel reads when
loading historical production/
injection data. For simulation
results or historical data, the
export is on the Results
pane. You can export
simulated or historical data
from an imported or existing
simulation case as well as
imported observed data in
the *.vol format.
History development strategies 209

Import observed data


Observed data are imported
using the Well observed data
format

Match the well name in the file


to wells in your project

To import Observed data (historical data), right-click the Global


observed data folder and select Import (on selection). Select the
Well observed data file format. The imported data can be used in the
Make development strategy process.

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Import observed data


Go to the Data tab to match
properties on file with a
property identifier in Petrel

On the Data tab, you need to specify the type of data in each of the
columns of the file you are importing. In the illustration, column three
contains the bottom hole pressure (BHP).

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Once the observed data vectors are imported, they can be viewed in a
function window. To display observed data, you must select a vector (for
example, oil rate), a well, and the observed dataset on the Results
pane.

User interface

To make a history strategy, you can use the default strategies as a


starting point and then add the features (rules) needed.

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Use defaults

A history strategy
Two rules are added:
Reporting frequency
History rate control

To create a history strategy using the Use presets button:


1. Make sure that you have loaded the necessary data into the
project wells, completion events and observed data.
2. Open the Make development strategy process.
3. In the dialog, click on the Use defaults button and select
History strategy from the drop-down menu.
The history strategy you just made contains:
The start and end dates from the first observed data in the
project. These are shown in the strategy tree.
All the wells in the project. Do not worry if some of them did
not produce or inject in the history this will be detected on
export to the simulator and the wells are ignored. The wells
are all added to the default group. If you want group reporting,
you will need to reorganize them.
The history rate control rule has been set up with the
recommended defaults for history matching. If needed, change
these in the Rules table. This refers to the first observed data
set found in the project. If you have multiple observed data
sets, and want to use a different one, simply drop the required
set into the rule.
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The report frequency rule has been set to monthly reports, as it


is the most common choice; however, this can be changed.

History strategy
Edit default rules

Drop in the
observed
data
Edit control
modes

Selecting Oil here, will


make oil the target
rate for the simulation

Edit time
stepping

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In between control changes, regular reports can be output from the


simulator by changing the settings in the reporting frequency rule. By
default, this is added to the first date of every strategy. However, it can
be removed and can be copied to later dates if you want to change the
settings, for example, to report yearly in the early part of a history
match, and monthly in the most recent year.

Plot the observed data versus the development strategy in a function


window.

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Data averaging

Imported data is often densly


sampled.
The data is averaged within the
report step in the Development
strategy.

The imported data is averaged over the report step length selected in
the Make development strategy process. Plot the observed data and
the development strategy to see how the averaged data matches the
observed data.

Define a history case


Drop the strategy into the Strategies tab
of the Define simulation case process
dialog.

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Go to the Strategies tab of the Define simulation case process to


drop in a development strategy. Multiple strategies can be inserted by
first adding a row to the table.

Exercises - Make a history development strategy


Exercise Workflow
Import observed data
View the imported data
Make a history development strategy
View the development strategy data
Define a simulation case
Exercise Data
In this exercise, continue to use the project from the previous exercise.

Import observed data


In this exercise, you will import observed production and injection data
for the wells in the project.
Exercise steps
1. Right-click the Global observed data folder under the Wells
folder in the Input pane and select Import (on selection).
2. In the dialog that opens, select the file ImportData>Well_
Engineering>HistoryInj.vol then click Open.
3. In the Import observed data dialog that opens, make sure the
well names in the file matches the correct well in your project.
4. Go to the Data tab.
5. Check that the Column number is correct for the data you are
importing and that an appropriate Property identifier is
selected.

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6. After you have selected a Property identifier for all the


vectors you are importing, make sure that you select Create
new in the Global observed data column to add a subject to
the Global observed data folder.
7. Click OK to import the observed water injection data.
8. Right-click the Global observed data folder under the Wells
folder again and select Import (on selection).
9. In the dialog that opens, select the file ImportData>Well_
Engineering>HistoryProd.vol to import the production data
then click Open.
10. In the Import observed data dialog that opens, select the
Merge with radio button to make one observed data set
containing both injection and production data.
11. Go to the Data tab.
12. Again, check that the Column numbers and the Property
identifier are correct.
13. Observe that the bottom hole pressure is attached to the
existing Global observed data subject. Click OK to import.

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Exercise steps - Visualize the observed data


1. Open a function window.
2. Go to the Results pane, expand the Results folder and then
the Dynamic results data folder. Expand the Source data
type folder. Select the check box in front of Observed data.
3. Expand the Identifier folder and then the Wells folder to see
all of the wells. Select to view well P04.
4. Select the check box in front of Oil production rate in the
Rates folder along with Bottom hole pressure in the
Pressures folder. Leave the Function window open.

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Make a history development strategy


In this exercise, you will create a history strategy using the Make
development strategy process. You will see that the process
automatically selects the imported observed dataset you imported.
Exercise steps
1. Expand the Simulation folder in the Processes pane and
open the Make development strategy process.

All dates are entered


in the format YYYY-MM-DD,
as recommended by the SPE
standard.

220 History development strategies

2. Select Create new development strategy.


3. Click the Use presets button, and select History strategy
from the drop-down menu.
4. Name the new strategy History.
5. On the Strategy tree, set the start date and the end date for
simulation, 2005-02-01 and 2009-02-01, respectively.
6. Find the Rules folder in the Strategy tree (the left pane of the
Make development strategy process dialog) and click the
History rate control (Wells folder) rule. Note that the
observed data set and the wells have been inserted
automatically.
7. Make sure the Production control mode is set to Reservoir
volume.
For the Reporting frequency rule, leave the report frequency to the
default every (1) month.

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8. To save the history development strategy, click OK.


9. You will find the new Development strategies folder at the
bottom of the Input pane.

View the development strategy data


In this exercise, we will examine and compare the history development
strategy to the observed data in a function window.
Exercise steps
1. Return to the function window and make sure you have
selected the following from the Results pane: well P04, Oil
production rate, and the Observed data.
2. Add Development strategies in the Source data type
folder to view in the window. You should now see your
development strategy data and your observed data. Since they
both are monthly, there should be no difference.
3. Reopen the Make development strategy process, and
change the Reporting frequency rule to every three months
and click OK. You can now see a difference between the
averaged development strategy data and the observed data.
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Add a rule to limit the production pressures


It is possible to add a rule to the history strategy to limit the allowed
bottom hole pressures.
Exercise steps
1. Open the Make development strategy process.
2. Select your History strategy in the Edit existing
development strategy drop-down menu.
3. Click the Open Add rules dialog button .
4. In the dialog that opens, left-click the History pressure limit
rule, then click Add rule.
5. Use the arrow
to drop the Wells Folder from the strategy
tree (not from the Input pane) into the new rule. Enter a
Minimum production BHP limit of 110 bar and a Maximum
injection BHP limit of 380 bar.

6. Click OK to save the changes and to close the dialog.


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Define and run simulation cases


In this exercise, we will define and run simulation cases using the
history development strategy we just created. We start by running a
case on the simple 3D grid that we initialized earlier.
Exercise steps
1. Open the Define simulation case process and select to edit
the Simple case.
2. Open the Strategies tab, and add a line to the table by
clicking the Append item in the table button . Drop in the
History development strategy that you just made by selecting
it in the Input pane and clicking the blue arrow.
3. Click Apply to save the changes and then Run to run the case.
We will now define and run a case based on the Upscaled 3D grid that
we made in the upscaling exercises.

A message log will


be shown while the
simulation is running.
Information on completion
thresholds is printed on the
message log. The completion
threshold can be changed in
the Settings for global
completions. This will be
covered in the chapter on
completions.

Exercise steps
1. Open the Define simulation case process and select to
create new case and give it name, Basic.
2. Change the grid from Simple to Upscaled. Make sure the
Simulator is set to ECLIPSE 100.

3. Go to the Grid tab. Make sure you insert the properties you
want to use for simulation. Expand Upscaled grid [U] under
Models pane. Open the Properties folder and drop
Permeability and Porosity into the Grid tab. To be able to
use the blue arrow, you have to select the check box in front of
it

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Five types of
geometry files can be
created for simulation:
.OPF most flexible, incl.
curved faults, binary
.GRID incl. curved faults,
binary
.EGRID straight line faults,
binary
.GRDECL straight line
faults, ASCII
.GSG incl. curved faults,
binary

4. Go to the Advanced tab. Make sure GRDECL export format is


selected on the Advanced grid sub-tab. (See tool tip for more
information). Click Apply to save the changes.
5. You are now ready to run your simulation case. Click Run.
Exercise steps
In this exercise we will create a case, which include local grid
refinements.
1. Open the Define simulation case process and select to
create new case and give it name: NoAquifer.

2. Go to the Grid tab. Drop in the local grid set (Wells and
Polygon) from the Models pane.

3. Click Apply to save the changes, and Run to run the case.
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Next, you will define a simulation case where an aquifer is used in


addition to the local grid refinements.
Exercise steps
1. Open the Define simulation case process.
2. Select the case NoAquifer that you made in the previous
exercise from the drop-down menu.
3. Select Create new case, and name the new case Aquifer.
Note that all settings from your case are preserved.
4. Go to the Grid tab. Add a row to the table
.
5. Use the drop-down menu to select Aquifer. It is located at the
bottom of the list.

6. Select the Aquifer (Carter Tracy) from the Models pane and
drop it into the process dialog.
7. Click Apply to save the changes and Run to run the case.
The next lesson will focus on viewing line data.
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Lesson 2 Plotting data

Plotting data
Open a New function
window
Select line data and
identifier from the Results
pane
Select case from the Cases
pane

To display simulation results in a Function window, you need to make a


selection of Vectors (rates, ratios, pressure) and Identifiers (Field or
some of the wells) from the Results pane, and afterwards, select one
or more cases from the Cases pane.
The Results pane contains results from volume calculations,
simulations, and history matching runs.

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Function window - settings


Customize plot display

1. Go to the settings
for Function 1 (of
Function
window 1) in the
Windows pane
or,
double-click on a
line.
2. Adjust settings
under the Plot tab.

Line Styles Color, Width and Type


Petrel is set up to help you color the lines in an informative manner. You
can select to colour the lines from the Settings panel of the function
viewport. To access the settings, double-click on the line you are
plotting in the function window or navigate to the settings of the
function viewport in the Windows pane.
The settings for the axis, the header, and legend are contained on the
tabs of the dashboard as well as the Plot tab which displays the style
settings for the lines plotted.
Please, refer to the online help documentation for details.

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Function window - settings


Customize axis display

Adjust settings in the Axis


tab to get the desired plot
layout.

Navigate to the Axis sub-tab of the Settings dialog of the function


viewport to change the appearance of the axis. Here, you can specify
the size of the annotations, the number of ticks, and axis labels.
Similarly, you can open the settings for the Header or the Legend and
do your edits.

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Results pane

Categorize results
Right-click on Dynamic data and
select Categorize results.

Use the Reset categorize to get


back to the default configuration.

The Results pane can be organized in different ways. Right-click the


Dynamic data folder and select Categorize results to change to
another layout. Select the Categorize results option again. This will
sort the data by phase.

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Results pane
Filter results

Right-click a vector, an identifier or a source


type and select Filter results tree. Now, only
data relevant to your selection is shown.
Right-click the Dynamic data folder and
select Cancel tree filter to cancel the
filter.

The Results pane can contain a large number of vectors. If you only
want to list vectors that contain data for a specific well or a particular
simulation case you can right-click this subject and select Filter
results tree.

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Results pane

Export simulation results


Select :
Result vectors
Identifiers
Case

Right-click the Dynamic data folder and select Export to export line
vectors. In the Export dialog that opens, you must specify a file name
and format. The only format available is Petrel Summary Data where
the columns are separated by tabs.
In the next dialog that opens, you can make a selection of result
vectors, identifiers, and cases for export.

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Plot window
A plot window can be used to
combine several view-ports.

A plot window is opened by selecting New plot window under


Window on the menu bar.
Use the New object in window
tool to add new view-ports. You
can combine several view-ports of the same type, or as in the
illustration, you can combine different types.

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Well section window

You can display a simulated


property (such as oil
saturation) through time for a
selected well.
If you hold your mouse over a
well section, the value of that
property will appear.

3D Viewing
Summary data
1. Display relevant wells from the Input pane.
2. Go to settings for Dynamic data.

3. Select : Disc, Sphere, Stack or Bars0


4. Specify vectors to display from Dynamic
results data.
5. Check the proper Identifier.
Use the time player

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The user can display summary data, for example Oil production rate in
3D and 2D windows. The summary vector can be displayed as a disc,
stack, bar or sphere and the size represent the magnitude of the vector.
The display can be animated through time.

Bubble maps

Time varying data

Display time varying data such as


production rates as bubble maps
Insert new map window
Select result vectors from the
Results pane
Select simulation case from
Cases pane
Play time with the time player
toolbar

Bubble plots can be displayed for observed data, development


strategies, and simulation data. Use the time player at the bottom of
the user interface to go to the time step of interest.

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3D Viewing
Streamlines

Streamlines are stored in the


Streamlines folder at the bottom of the
Models pane.
In the settings panel of the streamlines,
you can change the color and the
thickness of the streamlines.

If FrontSim was selected as simulator, a Streamlines folder is added


to the grid folder on the Models pane when the simulation is finished.
Different attributes can be visualized on the streamlines, such as
saturations, pressure, and travel times.

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3D Viewing
Streamline filters
Use the Startwell or
Endwell filters to view
streamlines from/to
particular wells.

The Startwell filter is useful for displaying all of the wells that are
supported by an injector. Similarly, the Endwell filter is used to display
all of the injectors that support one producer.

Exercise: Change the line style in function


windows
By default, simulated data is plotted with a solid line, development
strategies are plotted with a solid line with points, and observed data is
plotted as circles. The line color is selected automatically, however, you
can override those defaults.
Exercise steps
1. Continue to work with the function window that you used in
the previous exercise. Or display any plot data from the
Results pane.
2. Double-click on any of the lines in the plot to open the
Settings panel for the line data.
3. To access the settings for one of the lines, select the line in the
list at the left of the Settings panel by left-clicking it.

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4. You can now edit the line and point styles by using the bottom
right part of the settings panel. Select a line with of 8 pt, and
click Apply to see the change.

5. Make sure that Auto line styles is selected, then select a


different line color for one of your simulation cases. As you hit
Apply, this color is assigned to that simulation case and will
also be used in later plots.
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6. Deselect Auto line styles and then change the color of one of
the simulation cases. Click Apply. The corresponding line
changes color in the active function window, but the simulation
case still has the same color on its settings panel.
7. Select the Axis tab of the Settings panel for the function
window, then select the Annotation sub-tab.

8. Use the Annotation font drop-down menu to select another


font size, and click the B button if you want to display the axis
annotation in bold face. Click Apply to see the changes.
9. Select the Legend tab to customize the automatic legend.
Select to use four rows in the legend. Click OK to apply the
change and close the dialog.

Plot window
It is possible to combine several view-ports in one plot window.
Exercise steps
1. Open a New plot window.
2. Click the New object in window
icon and select New
function viewport.
3. Click and drag to insert the new function viewport.
4. Select one of your cases in the Cases pane. Select Oil and
Water production rate from the Dynamic results data
folder on the Results pane. Select Field in the Identifier
folder.
5. Click the New object in window
button again, but this
time select New map viewport.
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6. Click and drag to insert a new map viewport.


7. Select the radio button in front of the Dynamic data subfolder of the Views folder on the Results pane.
8. Select to view Oil and Water production rate for all
producers.
9. In addition, select to view a horizon from your upscaled grid on
the Models pane. You should now see a bubble map of the
production in the map window. Use the time player to go to the
time steps of interest.
10. If you want to change the size of the bubbles, right-click the
Dynamic data in the Views folder on the Results pane and
select Settings. Use the sliders under in the Chart scale
section of the Settings panel to set a new bubble radius..
11. Go to a 3D window, and select to display water saturation at
the last time step. Click the Copy bitmap
icon. Then click
the Paste bitmap
button. The bitmap is stored on the
Input pane.
12. Go back to your plot window and add the bitmap to view by
selecting it from the Input pane.
13. You can drag the bitmap into another position and rescale it
when you are in Select/pick mode

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Summary data in a 3D window - Optional


You can visualize production data with multiple of other data types. The
summary vector is displayed as disc, stack, bar, or sphere and the size
represent the magnitude.
Exercise steps
1. Open the 3D window, display the Producers from the Input
pane.
2. Go to the settings of Dynamic data under the Views folder in
the Results pane.
3. Select Chart type as Disc, click OK.
4. Under Dynamic results data, select Oil production rate
and Water production rate.
5. Remember to activate the proper Identifier (select the check
box in front of Producers under Identifier folder on the
Results pane).
6. Use the time player to play production data in time.

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View data on streamlines - Optional


By rerunning one of your cases using the FrontSim simulator, you can
view the results along streamlines.
Exercise steps
1. Open the Define simulation case process, and select the
Basic case from the Edit existing drop-down list.
2. Select Create new case, and name the new case Basic_FS.
3. Select FrontSim from the Simulator drop-down menu.
4. Click Apply to save, and Run to run the case. Then close the
process dialog.
5. Open a 3D window and go to the Input pane, and select to
view the Injectors and the Producers wells. Then, expand
the Streamlines folder under the Upscaled grid in the
Models pane and select to view your case Basic_FS. By
default, the water saturation at the first time step is displayed.
You can use the time player to view the saturation at later time
steps.
6. Expand the Attributes folder and observe the other properties
that can be viewed on streamlines.
7. Select only well I02 from the Startwell filter folder to only
view streamlines starting in well I02.

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Lesson 3 (Optional) History match analysis

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Match values are computed for all wells with observed data. In the
expression on the slide:
M is the match value that will be reported
N is the number of points used to compute M, that is the number of
time steps in the simulation or the number of observed data points. You
select which of those to use in the History match analysis process
dialog.
S is the simulated value. S is a vector containing the simulated value
for a specific well at each point in time. Hence, S is a vector of length
N.
O is the observed value, that is, O is a vector containing the observed
value for a specific well at each point in time. O has length N.
s is a normalization parameter that can be used to make sure all the
match values are in the same order of magnitude.

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Remember, that since the water cut is the ratio of water to liquid
hydrocarbons produced in a well, it will always have values between
zero and one. Therefore, a well with a large production is not
distinguished from a well with a small production. Consequently, it is
more reliable to use rates when computing the history match data.

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History match analysis


Select the Observed data set you
wish to compare your simulation
results to.
Select settings:
the sample frequency
zero data filtering
normalization

The settings apply to all vectors by default.


To change the settings for a vector:
1. Select the vector
2. Clear the Use default check box
3. Specify the settings

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History match analysis


Sampling

Sampling controls the times at


which comparisons are made.

For infrequent observed data such


as bottom hole pressure, use
Observed frequency to compare
only where observed data is
available.

Remember, the expression for the match value M given in slide 4. The
number N is determined by the sample frequency. If Observed
frequency is chosen, the simulated data is compared to the observed
data only when observed data is available. Consequently, N is the
number of samples of the observed data. The simulated data will be
sampled backwards. That is, at a time where there is observed data this
value will be compared to the first simulated value backwards in time.

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If Simulated frequency is selected, the simulated and the observed


data will be compared at all simulation time steps. For each simulated
time, the observed data are sampled forward in time, meaning that the
observed data is treated as a constant from each measured point to the
next. The average observed data value over one simulation time step is
compared to the simulated value.

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Zero data filtering should be turned on for the rates that were used to
set the rules in the Development strategy process. If one of those
rates is zero for a well, you would get a perfect match only because the
well is closed for flow.

Note that the normalization parameter s can be used to give one


vector, or a selection of the vectors, more weight than the others in a
combined match.
That is, if a large normalization parameter is used for some of the
vectors, the match value for those vectors will be relatively small
compared to vectors that were assigned a small parameter.
If you select to use Absolute normalization, you must select the size of
the normalization parameter carefully.

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History match analysis


Results viewing

The history match set is


stored in the Results pane
You can use the data to:
Compare wells and
vectors for a case
Compare wells and
vectors between cases

There are several options to view match data:


Function window. Crossplots of two vectors or a vector and a well
can be displayed in a function window. Also a vector or combination of
vectors can be plotted for several different cases.
Map window. In a map window, the match values can be plotted at
the well position. The data can be viewed together with a surface or a
horizon. Either two cases can be compared at each well, or the match
value for the different wells can be displayed for a single case.

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In a map window, you can select to view data in either a qualitative or


in a quantitative mode.
Qualitative mode: The results are grouped into five bins, ranging from
poor to perfect match.
Quantitative mode: The actual match values, M, are displayed.
When viewing match values in the quantitative mode, be aware that
the maximum value depends on the normalization parameter you have
selected. Also, the maximum value may have great variations between
the different vectors.

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In the settings panel for the History match set, you can set the
Threshold limits and the Equality number. Updating these values does
not require re-sampling of the data, it only changes the appearance of
the plots.
Threshold: The settings are used to visualize match results in the
qualitative mode. All vectors with a match value lower than Min will
be reported as Match. All vectors with a match value greater than
Max will be reported as Poor. Note that the size of the parameters
Min and Max must be chosen depending on how you select to
normalize the match.
Equality+/-:The number you enter here is used to visualize the
difference between two cases. Vectors with a match value less than
this number will be displayed as being equal.

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Match values in Map window


Single case

A bubble map
shows the match
statistic for one or
more vectors at
each well.
Here, the well
P04 has the worst
oil production
match.

In the above illustration, the match values are displayed in a


quantitative mode, which means the actual match values are displayed.
If a qualitative mode was selected, the results would be lumped into
five categories from Match to Poor.

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Match values in Map window


Case compare

Switch on Case
compare mode
Select vectors and
wells in the Results
pane.
Select two cases to
compare in the
Cases pane.

In the above illustration, two cases are compared. The values are
lumped into three categories: Case 1 is displayed as better, equal, or
worse than Case 2.

Function window

History match statistics settings


You can select the color for:
The best match
The worst match
The remaining match values
You can select to view:
A combined match value for all
vectors
A separate match value for
each vector

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If you compare several cases in a function window, you can select to


assign the best and the worst match-value a specific color.
If you select to view the match for several vectors simultaneously, you
have two choices. You can either view one combined match value for
all the vectors for each case, or you can view a separate match value
for each vector for each case.

Function window
Cross plot two vectors

Cross plots can highlight if improving


one match makes another better or
worse.

To make a crossplot:
1. Use the right mouse to select which vector to plot on the
x-axis. Then select a second vector for the y-axis.
2. Select the cases you want to compare in the Cases pane.
A trend to the origin indicates both matches improve together, while a
trend to the ends of the axes indicates improving one match worsens
the other. You can crossplot two wells in a similar way.

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Function window

Single vector versus case number

In the illustration, you can see the match values for a single vector,
water production rate, for all wells in several cases. In this example,
the user has selected to give the best match the color green and the
worst match the color red. The remaining matches are in black.

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Exercises History match analysis


In this exercise, you will run the History match analysis process on
the history cases we set up previously. The resulting match-vectors will
be used to explore whether the simulated results reproduce the
observed production data.
Exercise Workflow
Run the History match analysis process
View results in function and map windows for a single case
Adjust settings to improve the visualization
Exercise Data
In the following exercise, we will continue with the project we made in
the previous exercises.

Run history match analysis


Exercise steps
1. Open the History match analysis process from the
Simulation folder on the Processes pane.

2. Select to Create new match. Make sure that your historical


data set is selected as the observed data set.
3. Select Water cut, deselect Use default and select Absolute
Normalization. Enter 1 as the normalization parameter.
4. Select the Bottom hole pressure, and deselect Use default.
Then, select Observed frequency.
5. Click OK to compute the math vectors.
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View match data in a map window


Exercise steps
1. Open a New map window.
2. Select your Aquifer case in the Cases pane.
3. Select to view the Base horizon by selecting the check box in
front of it under your Upscaled grid on the Models pane.
4. For only viewing the contour lines, right-click in the Horizons
folder under the Upscaled grid and select Settings.
5. Go to the Solid tab and deselect Show. Click OK to close the
settings.
6. Go to the Results pane and select the new match set. Also
select Bottom hole pressure from the Vector matches
folder. Select all the producers in the Identifier folder.

7. If you do not see the wells, click the View all in viewport
button .
8. Open the settings for History match statistics by rightclicking the folder and then selecting Settings.
9. Go to the Map window tab and select the radio button
Quantitative.
10. Still on the Map window tab, select the check box Enable
bubble plots. Click Apply.
11. Go to the General tab and click
to change the range of the
color legend. In the dialog that opens, click Max
and Min
to get the range of your pressure match vector. Click
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History development strategies 257

Apply. Notice how well P01 has the poorest match in bottom
hole pressure.

12. Turn off the Bottom hole pressure, and select to view the
Oil production rate instead.
13. Switch to Qualitative mode in the Map tab of the Settings
panel for the History match statistics, then click Apply.
14. Open the settings for your New match set and enter the
threshold for the match values that should be considered good
and bad. Select Min =0.1 and Max=3. You should now see a
qualitative match of the oil production rates. Notice that well
P04 has a poor match in oil production rate.

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View match data in a function window


Exercise steps
1. Open a function window.
2. Select all of your cases on the Cases pane.
3. Open the settings dialog for the History match statistics
folder and go to the Function window tab.
4. Select the check boxes Color best match and Color worst
match, then check the box Combine. Click OK to close the
dialog.

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History development strategies 259

5. Select your New match set, Bottom hole pressure, Oil


production rate and well P04 from the History match
statistics folder on the Results pane.
6. You should now see the match values in the function window.

Compare cases in a Map window


Exercise steps
1. Open a Map window.
2. Select to view all wells and the Bottom hole pressure from
the History match statistics folder on the Results pane.
3. Activate the Case compare button
in the function bar. It
should now have an orange background color.
4. Then, select to view both the Aquifer case and the Simple
case.
5. Right-click the New match set folder on the Results pane
and select Settings.
6. On the settings panel, select the Bottom hole pressure, then
set Equality to 0.3.

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7. You should now see that the Aquifer case has the best match
for most of the wells.

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History development strategies 261

Summary
In this module, you learned how to use the Make development
strategy process to set up a simulation case using observed well data
as input. You also learned how to import observed data. Finally, it was
demonstrated how to use the History match analysis process to
compare simulated results to observed data.

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Module 8 - Well Engineering


Introduction
In this module, we will import well data, digitize a new well in Petrel
using the Well path design process, and complete the well with
completions using the Well completion design process. We will use
various Petrel windows and tools to create, quality check and inspect
the well data.
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of Petrel is required.
Learning Objectives
In this module, you will learn:
How to import well data into your Petrel project
How to design a well path using the Well path design and
the Laterals design processes
How to use the well completion design process to insert
completions for your wells
How to QC wells trajectories and completions.

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Well Engineering 263

Lesson 1 Import and Design Well Paths

When you import a well header, make sure to select the correct file
format. In the import dialog that appears, notice that there is a capture
of the file you are importing at the bottom. View the data in the file
capture, and fill in the column number for the x and y coordinate and the
depth data into the Columns part of the dialog.
To import well header data:
Right-click the Wells folder and select Import(on selection)
from the drop-down menu
Select Well heads (ASCII)(*.*) as the file format

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Import well paths


Use the Well
path/deviation(ASCII) format
to import the well trajectory.
Match file name to
existing well name.

Import well path / deviation file


If the well is not vertical, it is necessary to import the corresponding
deviation file. The deviation file will be attached to the well header
already imported.
Select a well path input file by right-clicking on the Wells folder and
selecting Import (on selection). In the window that opens up, select
the files defining the well paths for one, some, or all of the wells and
select the appropriate format (for example, Well paths/deviations
(ASCII)(*.*)).
Associate each well path with a well
The illustration above shows the window that will open up while
importing. The window displays the well names in the file in the left
column. Use the right column to match the deviation data on file to the
correct well in your project
Link the field types with the files columns
As for the well heads file, an Import well deviation window will
open up where you will have to specify which column in the file
corresponds to each of the attributes, such as MD, Inclination and
Azimuth; X, Y and TVD.
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A well created by
Create well (vertical well) or
imported into Petrel using
well deviation format is
created by the minimum
curvature interpolation
method. This method is very
different from the advanced
drilling trajectory algorithm
available in Well path
design, both in objective and
mathematics.
Well Engineering 265

To import branching wells, you need to use the Multiple well paths/
deviations file format. Notice that if Well B is branching off from Well
A, then it needs to be named Well A%Well B on the file you are
importing.

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Well path design


We will now focus on how to make new well traces in Petrel. The
simplest way to add a new well, is to make a new vertical well. The
Well path design process which is located in the Well engineering
folder in the Processes pane allows you to digitize new well traces,
and the Laterals design process makes it easy to add laterals to an
existing well.

Well path design


Make vertical wells
Digitize well paths
Make wells using the Well
path design process

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Well Engineering 267

Simple vertical well

A well created by the


Create well is created in the
DxDyTVD domain, and is not
intended to be modified by
the Well path design
process. Therefore these are
the only editable values on
the spreadsheet.

268 Well Engineering

To insert a new vertical well into the project:


1. Decide where in your 3D model you want to locate the new
well.
2. Click the location in a window using the Select/pick mode.
The status bar will display the X and Y surface coordinates.
3. Right-click the Wells folder in the Input pane and choose
New well from the drop-down menu.
4. In the Create new well dialog, enter a name for the well,
select a well symbol and enter the X and Y coordinates. You
can also enter a top measured depth and a bottom measured
depth to specify the depth interval of the well.

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Well path design


Trajectory

A well path is generated between the


design points.
The path is a combination of straight and
curved sections; an approximation of how
wells are drilled in the real world.

Petrel algorithm - Advanced Design


Trajectory - will attempt to restrict
curvature to a specified dog leg severity
(DLS).

The well path design process


Well path design lets you create paths for wells either manually by
point-and-click, or automatically using the Create best fit well and
Well optimizer methods.
When designing a well manually, the first step is to start digitizing the
well path and edit the well points into position. This can be done in
several ways, and will be described on the following pages.
Petrel makes well traces through the design point which is a
combination of straight lines and curved sections. Petrel will use a J
curve between points 1 and 2 (straight section then curve), a straight
section between points 2 and 3 and r curves between subsequent
points (curve then straight section).

You may want to


change vertical exaggeration
to 2 instead of the default of
5. This should give a better
understanding of the well
geometry

The DLS settings


play an important role in
generating the well path
using the ADT algorithm. If
you are not happy with the
generated well path then he
can change these settings, or
edit the well interactively.

The Well path design process is creating wells according to the


drilling constraints. Therefore, there is additional data associated with
the well traces exposed in the spreadsheet for each well. The well is
created in the XYZ domain (design points). Consequently, these are the
only values that can be edited in the spreadsheet.
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Well Engineering 269

Dog leg severity (DLS)

The algorithm will attempt to design a well that passes through all of
the design points with a curvature which is smaller than the requested
upper dog leg severity (DLS) set by the user. This is done by using a
series of straight sections and curves of the requested DLS.

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Dog leg severity (DLS)


DLS is the deviation from a straight
path in degrees per 30m (100 ft).

The illustration shows the result of using different DLS constraints on


the well path. In the picture at the top, a maximum DLS of 5 was
allowed, while in the bottom picture the highest DLS is set equal to the
requested DLS of 3.
The method for computing a trace between the design points, needs
input to decide to what degree the path is allowed to deviate from a
straight line. You need to specify the Dog leg severity (DLS) of the
resulting well trace. The DLS is the deviation from a straight line
measured in degrees per 30 m (or 100 ft ).
Requested - this is the dog leg severity which will be used on the
curved sections of the well path if possible.
Maximum - the maximum dog leg severity which can be used in
the well path. If the requested DLS can not be achieved
because of the positioning of the design points (the points are
too close together and at a too severe angle), then the
algorithm will use the highest DLS required without exceeding
its maximum.
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Well Engineering 271

Digitize well path


A) Digitize on a General Intersection
Display all the data of
interest:
Property
Horizons
Faults
Seismic etc.
B) Digitize on a filtered property

Well design walkthrough


A new well path is digitized in the Well path design process by using
the Add new points button. Later, the digitized points can be edited
and deleted, and additional points can be added.

It is also possible to
first create a polygon (that
can consist of several
straight line segments joined
together), create a vertical
section along the polygon,
display data on the section
and then digitize.

272 Well Engineering

There are several ways of digitizing the well path, depending on the
available data.
Digitize on a General intersection (GI) - You can create a GI
and position it in the place where you want to digitize the new
path. Any type of data can be displayed on the intersection. It
is possible to perform detailed editing at any time, for instance,
if you do not want your well along a straight line.
Digitize on a filtered property - Use the value filter in the
property filter to filter on, for example, high porosity values,
and use the zone filter to view the different zone(s) you want.
Digitize in 3D view and attach the digitized points to the cells
that are left after filtering.
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Create a STOIIP map from volume calculation - This map


shows the density for each cell. The STOIIP map can be draped
across the surface representing the top reservoir. The surface
used to digitize the new well should be placed below the top of
the reservoir to make sure that the well trace is always inside
the reservoir.

Digitize well path


1. Activate the Well path design process
2. Continue digitizing on an existing (active;
bold) well

Tip: Use these two


options to increase
or decrease point
size.

3. ... or Start new well (Deactivate the old)


4. The new well trajectory is stored in the
Proposed wells folder under the main
Wells folder.

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Well Engineering 273

Well type

Simple

Side
track

Stand
alone

You have the possibility to extend the proposed well trajectory to the
surface by selecting one of the Advanced algorithm options:
Simple : The well head is assumed to be vertical above the
uppermost design point.
Standalone : The well head, KB and MD need to be provided by
the user.
Side track : User must specify the main well to which Petrel will
connect proposed trajectory.
The Simulation trajectory algorithm is available only for imported wells
from simulation deck. The algorithm joins the design points with
straight lines.

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Edit well path


1. Activate the Select/pick mode from function bar
2. Pick a node (yellow) and move by depressing the left
mouse button
3. Depending on the Move options in function bar (A), you can
move along the Line tangent (B) only, in Vertical plane (C)
only or Free movement

3C

3B

3A

Edit well path


1. Move tangent select cylinder part of widget (turns
yellow) and move up or down. Pressing CTRL shifts direction
2. Active the Z-value selector icon and enter a depth for the
node (press =); moves along tangent vertically

3. Move vector arrow (turns yellow). This will not move the
node but changes the curvature (A)
1

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3A

Well Engineering 275

Exercises Import well data and design well


paths
In this exercise, we will import a deviation file which contains a
multi-lateral well. We will also make a vertical well and digitize a
horizontal well trajectory. We will use the Reference project tool to
transfer a well between projects.
Exercise Workflow
Import well deviation
Make vertical well
Make a horizontal/deviated well and edit the proposed
trajectory
Reference project tool.
Exercise Data
In this exercise, you will continue on the project you have been working
on in the previous modules and exercises.
If you do not have X,
Y data (well head
X-coordinate, well head
Y-coordinate) in your
deviation file (.dev), you must
first import well header (file
of type: Well heads (*.*))

You can also import


directly into sub folders
instead of having to move
the well after import.

Import well data


Exercise steps - Import the well path deviation
1. Right-click the Wells folder and select Import (on selection)
from the drop-down menu. Use the file of type: Multiple well
paths/deviations(*.*).
2. Select the file ImportData > Well_Engineering >
ImportWells.dev and click Open.
3. In the Import multiple well paths dialog that opens, select
X,Y,TVD as Column input data.

4. Look at the file capture at the bottom of the import dialog and
enter the correct column number for X, Y, and TVD.
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5. Under Other settings, select the button Name as part of


header.
6. In the Name prefix field, enter the characters that precede
the well name in the file you are importing.

7. In the Data format field, enter a N for all columns containing


a number and an S for all columns containing a text string.

8. Click OK to do the import.


9. Add a new sub-folder to the Wells folder and name it
Imported.
10. Move the imported wells P07 and P07%P08 into the Imported
folder that you just added.
11. Select to display the new well in a 3D window.

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Well Engineering 277

Make a vertical well


Exercise steps
1. Right-click the Wells folder and select New well. In the
dialog that opens, give the new well the name P09, and place
it at (x,y)=(4500, 11500) m.
2. Select an appropriate well symbol.
3. Select the check box Specify vertical trace, then enter a
bottom MD of 2900 m.
4. Click OK to make the well.
5. Drag and drop the new well into the Producers folder.

.
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Setting up the 3D window


This exercise will walk you through how to display relevant data when
digitizing wells, such as oil saturation at the end of history. Also, it is
useful to display the other wells and the faults so you can see the
proximity and avoid hitting them when designing the well.
Exercise steps
1. Open a 3D window.
2. Go to the Cases pane and select the Aquifer case.
3. On the Results pane, expand the Dynamic folder under
Simulation grid results, and select to visualize Oil
saturation (SOIL).
4. Display the last time step 2009-02-01, using time player at the
bottom.
5. Right-click the Oil saturation (SOIL) property and select
Create 1D filter.
6. Select to filter out all values below 50% of oil saturation. Click
Apply.

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Be aware of vertical
exaggeration, which by
default is set to 5. You may
want to change Z-scale to 2
from Petrel Tool bar.

Well Engineering 279

7. Expand the Filter folder on the Input pane. Then, expand the
User sub-folder in which your new filter is stored. Select the
check box in front of it to turn it on or off.
8. Next, click once on the Define simulation case in the
Simulation folder in the Processes pane making it the active
process. This enables the property function toolbar to the right
of the 3D window which we will use.

If you do not have any


properties to move along,
you may also use a surface
or horizon. Shift the surface
up and down a short interval
using the Operation tab in
the settings for the surface.
Then you can digitize on that
surface to trace the well.

9. Use the Display the cells with same K button and the
property player buttons to move through the grid in K layers. In
this way, when you digitize on the grid, you can move through
the reservoir. You can also use the I- and J-direction filters
10. Turn on all existing wells from the Input pane, to avoid
collisions.
This is one way out of many to set up the 3D window ready for
digitizing new well trajectories.
Exercise steps
1. Alternatively, you can use a General intersection as a target
when digitizing the well trajectory in combination with the
saturation property.
2. Go to the Input pane and turn off the User filter for saturation
you have made in the previous exercise Oil saturation (SOIL)
1 - Aquifer. Deselect filtering along K-direction as well.
3. Insert a new General intersection by right-clicking the
Intersection folder located in the Models pane under
Upscaled grid. Next, select Insert general intersection
4. Use the Manipulate plane button
and the general
intersection player toolbar to move the general intersection
into the location you want to digitize the well.

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5. When the general intersection is in the position you want, turn


off the Oil saturation (SOIL) property from Simulation grid
results in the Results pane.
6. Toggle on Visualization on plane
and then select to
display a property on the plane, for example, Oil saturation
(SOIL) property. The property will now be displayed only on
the intersection.

Open the settings for


the General intersection
plane and set the
transparency very high
(90%). Also, from the
function toolbar, select to
Make the point size bigger
so that the well points are
more easily seen.

From the General


intersection player toolbar,
use either the Clip in front
of plane or the Clip behind
plane buttons
to filter out
the cells that covers the
plane.

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Well Engineering 281

Well path design


Best practice: Now that the 3D window has been set up to start
digitizing a well path, be cautious. Start off simple and only add more
complexity if it is necessary. Using the digitizer and the widget
functionality in Petrel is tempting, but you can easily compromise a well
with a well point that is off.
Exercise steps
1. Activate the Well path design process found in the Well
engineering folder on the Processes pane by clicking it
once. This enables the well path design function toolbar that
we will be using.
2. Use the Add new points button
in the well path design
function toolbar and start to digitize (click) on the general
intersection plane.

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3. To move a well point interactively in the 3D window, use the


Select/pick mode
and click on the well point. The well
point turns into a widget that can be moved around. Petrel will
observe the dog leg severity constraints at all times and give
you a warning if it is exceeded.

The new well will automatically be named Proposed 1 and will be


saved in a new Proposed wells folder under the Wells folder in the
Input pane. Right-click on the well and open its settings. Now, you can
define if the well should be a simple well, a standalone well, or a side
track well that tie into one of the existing wells in the project.
4. For our project, we will state that the well is a standalone. We
need to specify a well header location and a kick-off measured
depth. Enter some reasonable values that will not break the
dog leg severity for the well.

It is often easier to
delete a well point, or the
entire well, and start the
well design again, than to
spend time adjusting and
fixing.

To resize, select or
move the well design points
you will have to either turn
off the general intersection
plane or move the plane
slightly.
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Well Engineering 283

5. Remember to change the well symbol for the well, and to


rename the well into something in accordance with the other
wells (P10). The well will be stored in the Proposed wells
folder.

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Reference project tool


This exercise will show you how to use the Reference project tool,
which is useful when sharing data with others.
Exercise steps
1. Go to the File menu and select the Reference project tool.

.
2. Click the Open project button
in the Background
project part of the dialog that opens.

3. In the file browser that opens, select the RE_


Reference_2010.pet file, then click Open.
4. Expand the Wells folder for this project and select the check
box in front of the P08 well.

5. Click the left arrow to copy the well into your project.
6. Close the Reference project tool, and save your project.
7. Display the well you just copied.
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Well Engineering 285

Lesson 2(Optional) Automatic well placement


This lesson shows an automatic way of creating wells using the Well
path design process :

Best fit method


1. Open Well path design.
2. Select method.

This method will place the well in the


geological body defined by the user.

Create best fit well


The Best fit well method will place a well in the discrete 3D property
defined by the user.
The well spacing, length, and orientation are controlled by the property
that is used as input.

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Best fit method


1. Define the target
area for the new well.
2. Drop it into the
process.
3. Give the new well a
name.
3. Select wellhead or
attach to an existing
well.
In the process
settings, you can turn
on the active filter to
be applied together
with the target body.

Best fit method

Advanced well placement considerations

Shifting offset
a) Multilaterals
b) Limiting surfaces as constrain
c) Collision detection
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Click Make run before you close


the dialog.

Well Engineering 287

The algorithm will place a well through the target body, honoring the
constraint given by the user. The topology of the selected target area
(body) can lead to multilateral solution. On the process dialog, you can
allow for laterals and also limit their lengths.
You can select to constrain the well(s) target points between an upper
and a lower surface. Notice that you cannot use a horizon from the 3D
grid, only surfaces from the Input pane are accepted as input. If the
same surface is inserted for both Upper and Lower, Petrel will shift
the well target points to that surface. Alternatively, you can enter the
maximum and the minimum depth where you want the well path to be
placed in between.
It is possible to shift the wells in the X and Y direction relative to the
input target by entering the desired offset. Notice that by doing so, the
resulting wells may not hit the input target.
If a collision is
detected, a warning message
will be logged.

If you turn on Collision detection , you have to specify a well or a


group of wells that the new well should avoid.

Laterals
design
Laterals
design

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The process allows you to create complex multilateral trajectories


based on existing well(s). There are two types of laterals: Fishbone and
Fork laterals.

Laterals design

You need to supply the depth (reference MD) that the first new lateral
should branch off from the mother bore. Either drop in a surface, in
which case the reference MD is calculated as the intersection of the
main well with that surface. Or else, enter the depth (in TVD).

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Well Engineering 289

Laterals design

On the Laterals template tab, you can select the laterals type : Fork or
Fishbone. There are several settings for both templates:
Offset MD This value will define the starting point MD of the
first lateral and is an offset to the reference MD provided on
the general tab.
Spacing specify the distance (MD) between the starting points
of two consecutive laterals.
Relative azimuth is the angle between the first target point of
the lateral and the starting point of the main well. In cases
where there are more then one lateral, the first will use the
relative azimuth, the second will use the opposite of the
relative azimuth and so on.
Use the Advanced settings if you want to use different settings for
different laterals to the same main well.

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Laterals design

You can constrain the well target points (computed by algorithm)


between two surfaces. If the same is used for upper and lower Petrel
will place well target points directly onto that surface.

Exercises Automatic well placement - optional


Exercise Workflow
Convert simulation results to grid property
Use grid calculator to define a discrete property
Well path design - Create best fit well
Laterals design
In this exercise, we will place a well in the target geobody.
Exercise steps - Make a well target
1. Display the Oil saturation (SOIL) property from the Results
pane. Use the Aquifer case from Cases pane. Set the time
player to display the last report step.
2. Expand the Grid filter under Simulation grid results in the
Results pane and deselect all segments except Segment 4.
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Well Engineering 291

3. The part of the reservoir that has high oil saturation and only
one producer is now displayed.
4. Right-click Oil saturation (SOIL) and select Convert
simulation results to grid properties. Click OK in the dialog
that opens up.
5. Go to the Models pane. Under the Upscaled grid you will
find the AQUIFER folder (name of the case/ run from which
the property originated).
6. Expand the AQUIFER folder and find the SOIL[0] [Feb
01.2009] property. Right-click and select Calculator.
7. In the Calculator window, select to Use filter. The filter that
is applied is the same as the ones applied in the active 3D
window, hence, in this case, we will only compute a property
for Segment 4.
8. Use the Attach new to template drop-down menu to select
the General discrete template.
9. Enter P11_target=, then left-click the SOIL property in the
Select property variable pane to obtain the expression as
shown in the illustration below.

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10. Click ENTER in the calculator dialog.


11. The new property is stored in the Properties folder of the
upscaled grid. Display it in the 3D window.
Exercise steps - Create best fit wells
1. Open the Well path design process from the Processes
pane.
2. Select method the Create best fit well.
3. Drop the new P11_target property into the process window
using the blue arrow.
4. To specify the well head location, there is a pre-made
Wellhead P11 point set stored in the Input pane. Drop it in to
the process dialog.
5. Change the maximum length of the new well to bee 4000 m.
6. Leave the other settings default.

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Well Engineering 293

7. Click Make run. Find the new Optimized wells folder in the
Input pane and visualize the new wells in your 3D window.

The reference MD is
the MD value of the input
well that corresponds to the
TVD given as input to the
process. You can left-click
the main well in a 3D
window at which point
where you want the first
lateral to branch off. The
depth value is then reported
in the status bar.

294 Well Engineering

Exercise steps Laterals design


In this exercise, we will make a multilateral well using the Laterals
design process. We will use the horizontal well we digitized in the 3D
window as the input main well. We will add laterals using the Fork
type. .
Exercise steps
1. Display well P10 from the Input pane.
2. Open the Laterals design process from the Processes pane.
3. On the General, tab drop in well P10 as a main well. As
Reference MD, enter a positive number. This is the point (in
total vertical depth) where the first lateral branches off P10.
Leave the DLS settings default.
4. On the Laterals template tab, select Laterals type: Fork.
Set the Number of laterals to 2 and enter Laterals length :
3000 m.

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5. Click OK. The new Laterals folder is added to the Wells


folder in the Input pane. Display the new laterals together
with P10.

You can adjust


different parameters
including DLS to obtain a
suitable laterals.

Lesson 3 Results, reports and quality checking

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Well manager
Well manager is a tool
that displays and
allows to edit well data
in a spreadsheet

Well attributes:
Default attributes
User attributes
Check shots
Well log
Well completions

The Well manager gives you an overview of all wells in your project. It
allows you to sort and filter on well names.

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The well paths can be viewed and edited in a spreadsheet. To access


the spreadsheet, right-click the well and select Spreadsheet from the
drop-down menu.

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Intersection with Horizons


Report

From the Settings dialog of a well, you can select to create a well
report that can be handed over to the driller. You can either create a
report that tells you all the exits and entries of every zone, or you could
enter the spreadsheet for the well and get a listing of the well points,
with different types of attributes.

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Intersection with Horizons


Make well tops

Also on the Settings dialog for the wells, you can select to add
synthetic well tops to the active well tops folder at the positions where
your new wells intersects the horizons of your 3D grid. Those can be
useful later when placing completion items.

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There are many options in Petrel to quality check and report the
resulting well path. Both the dog leg severity and the error propagation
cone can be displayed along the well path. It is also possible to make
synthetic logs from grid properties and to view properties on a vertical
well section along the well path. The designed wells can be reviewed
and edited in a spreadsheet.

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Display the Dog leg severity

Click the button

to display the DLS.

Synthetic logs
1. Open the Make logs tab in the settings for
the new well and select a property.
Click the Make logs button.
2. Click the Make logs button.
3. Open the Style settings for the property
from the Global well log, and select the
Draw log as 3D pipe option.

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Synthetic log curves - can be created from the properties in the


active 3D grid or from the zones in the 3D grid. Synthetic logs can be
displayed in 2D or in 3D as a cylinder along the well path where the
thickness of the cylinder represents the value of the log.
To quality check a new well, you can create a vertical well intersection
and display different types of data on it. Also, it is possible to create
synthetic logs along the well path, based on input from the 3D grid. This
could be synthetic property logs (Phi, Perm, Sw, etc) or zone logs. The
synthetic logs can be displayed in the well section window like any
other type of log.
Vertical well intersection right-click on the new well to insert
a vertical well intersection. The blue button allows you to display
data on the intersection. The data available for display will show a
blue check box. Examples are seismic, properties, horizons, faults,
and polygons.

Vertical well intersection


1. Right-click the well and select
Create vertical well
intersection.
2. Use the blue button (A)
to display on the plane (B)

2B
1

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Exercises Results, reports and quality checking


In this exercise, we will quality check and report resulting well
trajectories.
Exercise Workflow
Well manager
Well tops and well report

Well manager and saved searches


The Well manager gives an overview of all wells with their attributes,
well logs and completion items. It also allows you to edit and change
the well data.

You can view the


completion items in the 3D
window. Click in the Global
completions folder in the
Input pane to view the
completions for the wells.

Exercise steps
1. Right-click on the Wells folder in the Input pane and select
Well manager from the drop-down menu. The well manager
window opens.

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Do not delete any


wells from your project,
there is no undo! For some
functions, you need to select
a well first (click on the row
number in front of the well
names)

Saved searches let


you display and access wells
based on specific search
criteria. This helps organizing
well data into place holders
without the need for
duplication. Several types of
search criteria can be
applied. Each search can be
used in isolation or in
combination with other
searches.

2. Hover the mouse pointer over the icons at the top toolbar to
get a tool tip for what functionality they provide. Try a few of
them. Warning: .
3. Click on the Show button
to get a drop-down
menu with attributes that you can view. Deselect the default
attributes and select to show Well completions.
4. Next to the Show button is a Filter button
. This filters
the Well manager based on any saved searches defined in
your project. See the tip for more information.
5. Show the default attributes again in the well manager, and
click on the Edit points button
at the bottom
of the well manager window. Select to edit the total depth TD
(MD), and notice that the column now has a white background
and the values can now be edited.

Well tops and well report


Petrel has all the information required to make a detailed well report
and well tops for our new well.
Exercise steps
1. Drag-and-drop well P08 into the Imported folder.
2. Open the settings for the well P08 and go to the Report tab
3. Select the options Make well report and Iconize points as
Horizon in active well tops.
4. Make sure the upscaled grid is active, then click the Insert
active 3D grid (in Petrel explorer) button.
5. Click the Run button to generate the report and to make well
tops where the new well penetrates one of the horizons in the
grid.

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6. A well report will open in a spreadsheet, and well tops have


been added to the Well tops folder on the Input pane. We
will use this information when we insert completion items.

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Lesson 5 Well completion design

Well completion design

The Well completion design process allows you to create or edit


well completion objects for the wells in your project. All completions
have their own settings panel that contain the physical properties of the
completion and the date at which the completion is introduced to
Petrel.
Most of the completion components can be utilized with both ECLIPSE
and FrontSim for simulation.
Casing - The well is closed for the depth interval of the
casing.
Liner - The well is closed for the depth interval of the liner.
Perforation - The well is open to flow for the depth interval of
the perforation.
Squeeze - The well is closed to flow.
Stimulation - The transmissibility factor for the connection
between the well bore and the cells it penetrates is altered
according to the skin value the user selects.
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Plug - The well is closed at the position of the plug and


downwards.
Well test - The well test completion items can all be used
with the standard well model.
Hydraulic fracture-The well connection factor is altered
based on the settings of the hydraulic fracture.

Define well segmentation

There are two ways of computing the inflow to wells with ECLIPSE;
namely the standard and multi-segment well model. The multisegment well model is a special extension to ECLIPSE.
The following items are exported to ECLIPSE only if they are used with
multi-segmented wells settings - Inflow control devices (ICDs), Flow
control valves (FCVs), Gas lift valve, Gauges, and Pumps. The
Heater can only be used with ECLIPSE 300.
The standard well models treat the entire well bore as a single entity,
with constant or averaged fluid properties throughout the well. Such
models neglect pressure drops due to friction and inter-phase slip. This
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is a reasonable approximation for vertical wells producing from only


one zone. However, in a horizontal well, friction is very important. When
you have one zone producing gas and another producing oil, the
difference in fluid properties (density and viscosity) is important.

VFP (vertical flow


performance) tables give the
BHP as a function of the flow
rate, the THP, the water and
gas fractions.
VFP tables cannot be made
in Petrel, but they can be
imported into the Input pane
and used in the Define well
segmentation process.

The multi-segmented well model in Petrel and ECLIPSE divides the


entire well bore into segments, similar to how a reservoir is divided into
cells when making the grid. Petrel gives each well segment the physical
properties of the casing or tubing that it contains, allowing ECLIPSE to
accurately model the fluid physics throughout the well bore.
The Petrel Define well segmentation process allows you control of
the length of the segments, what angles they cross, and how the
perforated zones connect to them.
Multi-segmented wells is not within the scope of this class.

FrontSim does not


support the segregated or
multi-segmented well
models. Multi-lateral or
horizontal wells, or wells
with large amounts of cross
flow, are likely to give
different results from
FrontSim than from ECLIPSE
100 or ECLIPSE 300. FrontSim
does have a simpler well
bore friction model for use
with horizontal wells, but
Petrel does not generate
data for this option.

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Completion items
Input pane

Completions appear on the Input


pane in a folder for each well
Edit completion data:
in the Well section window
from the Completions manager
on the Settings panel
using the Operations tab on the
process dialog

Insert a completion item

Click the Add/edit a


perforation
icon from the
function bar.
Left-click in the Completions
track panel to insert a new
perforation.

Enter a date for the perforation.

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To insert a new completion item, select one of the icons in the Function
bar (Perforation, Casing, Liner...), and left-click in the Completions
track of the well section window. You are prompted with a dialog in
which you need to specify the start date for the new item. Once you
have entered a date and closed the dialog box, the new item is added.

The completion items can be edited in the well section window. To do


so, hover the mouse pointer over a completion item.
When the pointer looks like a hand, you can drag the item up
or down
When the pointer looks like a double arrow you can stretch or
squeeze the item
You can also zoom and squeeze the well section display. To do so, hover
the cursor above the depth panel. When the cursor looks like a hand,
you can pane the view. When it looks like a double arrow, you can zoom
or squeeze.
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Flow path display


Activate the Flow path
display icon
to display the
flow.
If the well flows in both the
tubing and the annulus, it will
be modelled as two wells
when exported for simulation.

By clicking the Toggle flow path display button in the function bar,
you can turn on a flow path display.

Completions manager
Completions

You can edit completion items from


the Completions manager.
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You can view and edit completion items in a tabular view. To do so,
either right-click the Global completions folder and select
Completions manager, or click the Open completions manager
button in the Well completion design process dialog. To sort the
data, simply left-click one of the column headings. To reverse the order,
click once more.

To organize the completions data in this tabular view, you have several
options. You can grab a column header and drag it into the position you
like. Alternatively, you can grab a column header into the dark grey area
to group data by that column. Use the Columns drop-down menu to
select which columns to display.

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Completions manager
Equipment tab

Use this tab to define equipment.


The equipment defined here can be used by
one or more completion items.

On the Equipment tab, you can define the equipment settings that can
be used by several completion items in the project. For each equipment
type, you must assign a name, outer diameter (OD), inner diameter (ID),
inner roughness (IR), and outer roughness (OR). By clicking the
Columns tab, you can add additional columns to specify more settings,
such as drift diameter.

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You can also edit the Completion data by opening the settings panel.
You can do so by either right-clicking the completion item in the Input
pane, or by right-clicking it in the well section window and then
selecting Settings from the drop-down menu.
On the settings panel for Casings, Tubings, Pumps, Chokes, Gas lift
valves, and Inflow valves, you can select which equipment setting you
want to assign.

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Settings

Perforations

Give a depth
directly or relative
to a well

Give a start date

The connected
cells within the
perforation will
be reported as
single entry

Depth. If you want to place a completion item at the depth of a well


top, you must put the Well top into the Depth field and then enter the
number 0 into the box to the left of the drop field. This is because the
depth entered here is the offset to the well top.
Diameter. The diameter you enter here is in inches.

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Depth interval

Place completions relative to well tops

Remember, for a designed well, you can make artificial well tops at the
position where the well penetrates one of the horizons in the 3D grid.
This is further explained in the Well path design lesson.

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Event shifting

Global completion items


Allows you to give a default
direction of event shifting for
each completion type.

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Open hole default values


Global completion settings

The default diameter for an open


hole well is 7.5 inches.
Change the number, or use a
Calliper log to give a new default
value.

Well completion design


Operations

You can use the Operations tab to


modify and make completion items.

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You can use the Operations tab on the Well completions design
process dialog to edit existing items or to add new completions.

One way to modify existing items is by changing the radius. New items
can be added either for the whole well, or according to a well log.
Discrete well logs with the correct template must be used as input for
Petrel to understand which intervals to complete with which equipment.

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Event data can be imported from file. Select between the formats Well
event data to import perforations, stimulations and work-overs, and
Well tubing data to import casings and tubings. You can also import
completion logs and then use the Operations tab on the Well
completion design process dialog to convert them into completion
items.

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Notice that if you are only importing perforations, you should select the
check box Add casing to all wells with events. Otherwise, you will
add perforation to a well which is open hole by default, and it will then
be treated as open hole.

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The previous slide shows the format of an events file with information
on which data is required. For instance, if the well has been perforated,
the event file should contain the top and bottom depth of the
perforation. Petrel will translate the depth of events into the I, J, and K
cell location, and the simulator will calculate the transmissibility
between the well and the cell.

Completion items
Time player

Use the Time player buttons to


see the completions change
through time.

Exercises Well completion design


In this exercise, we will complete the well we imported earlier with a
casing and a perforation. We will use the Well completion design
process in Petrel. We will also import well completion items.
Exercise Workflow
Use the completions manager to define new equipment
Set up a well section window
Insert casing
Edit casing
Insert perforation

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Exercise Data
In this exercise, you will continue the project you have been working on
in the previous modules and exercises.
Exercise steps - Define equipment
1. Open the Completions manager dialog. You can access the
Completions manager by right-clicking on the Global
completions folder and selecting it from drop-down menu.

2. In the dialog that opens, go to the Equipment tab.


3. Click the Add a new row button
, then select Casing and
enter 1 as the number of equipment to be created.
4. Give the casing the name New equipment. Then, specify an
outer diameter (OD) of 6.0 inches and an inner diameter (ID) of
5.5 inches.

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5. Click Close to save the settings and to close the dialog.


Exercise steps Insert casing
1. Insert a new well section window with the Window > New
well section window command.
2. Accept to create the new Well section template 2.
3. Now you see an empty well section window. Select the check
box in front of well P08 in the Input pane, to display it in the
window. This is the well we imported using the Reference
project tool. We will use the well section window and the
Well completion design process to create completion items
for P08.
4. At the top of the well section window, select to show the
depth track in measured depth (MD) and not in sub-sea true
vertical depth (SSTVD).

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5. Go to the Input pane and then expand the Global


completions sub-folder located under the Wells folder.
Select to view Casing and Perforation.

6. Next, select the check box in front the Well tops folder to
display the well tops.
7. Activate the Well completion design process in the Well
engineering folder on the Processes pane by clicking it
once. The function toolbar appears with icons (tools) relevant
to the completion design process.

Click the Add/edit casing icon


and click inside the Completions
track for well P08, Petrel will prompt you for a start date. Enter
2007-01-01.

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Exercise steps Edit casing


1. Hover the mouse pointer over the casing and see that it
changes shape into a double arrow when you cross the base of
the casing.

2. You can now click and drag the casing base up and down in
the well section window.
3. Right-click inside the casing in the completion track and select
Settings from the drop down menu. This opens the settings
window for the casing.
4. In the settings window, go to the Properties tab.
5. Use the Equipment name drop-down menu to assign the
New equipment to this well.

6. Select well P08 in the Input pane and drop it into the Bot.
MD(m) field of the Properties tab. Then, type 0 in the field to
the left to case the well all the way to the bottom. Click OK
and observe how the casing is extended all the way to the
bottom of the well.

Exercise steps Insert perforation


1. From the well section window function toolbar, click the Add/
edit a perforation button
. We will now insert a
perforation that runs from the top of the reservoir to the
bottom of the well.
2. Click in the well section track somewhere below the well top
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representing the top of the reservoir. Petrel will ask for the
start date for the perforation type in 2007-01-01 and click
OK.
3. Display porosity from the upscaled grid along with the
completion track. Drag the perforation to a depth with good
porosity. You can also extend the perforation using the
up-and-down cursor when hovering over the perforation at the
very edge (top or bottom).
4. We will place the perforation relative to the nearest well top.
Open up the Completions folder for the well P08 in the Input
pane, right-click Perforation and select Place completions
relative nearest top from the drop-down menu.

5. The perforation changes color to indicate that it is placed


relative to the depth of the well top.
6. Right-click the perforation and open the settings. Go to the
Depth / date tab and notice the top and bottom of the
perforation interval has been set relative to the nearest well
top.
7. In the Settings window, set the top interval depth to 0 to
place the perforation exactly at the well top position. Click OK.
Observe the change in the well section window.

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8. Leave the well section window open.

Import well completion events


The Global completions folder contains all of the completion items
that exist for at least one of the wells, and is used as a filter when you
are working with completions in a well section window, or to quickly
see the types of completions that exist in the project.
Exercise steps
1. Right-click on the Global completions folder and select
Import (on selection). Set the file format to import to Well
event data (Ascii) (*.ev).

2. In the Import file dialog, select the file Dataset >


ImportData > Well_engineering > ImportWells.ev. This is
the well event data file for the P07 and the P07%P08 branch.
Click Open.
3. In the Import event data window, check that the Flow name
in file are set to match the Petrel well traces.
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4. Go to the Import settings tab, and enable the options Add to


existing events and Add casing to all wells with events.
Now, the import will not overwrite any existing events and the
well will get a casing completion.
5. Select the Custom date format radio button, and specify the
date format that you find in the file you are importing.

6. Inspect the third tab, Unknown data, to verify that there is no


unknown data in the input file. Click OK to import the well
completions for P07 and P07%P08.
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The completion items are added to the wells in a sub folder named
Completions. Expand this folder to see which completions exist for the
well.

At the bottom of the


Petrel user interface there is
a Time player toolbar. Click
the First time step button to
go to the first date.
Step forward in time to see
when each of the completion
items are added.

Exercise steps - Examine the imported data:


You should now quality check that Petrel has imported the well
completions correctly. We will do this in a well section window.
1. In the active well section window, select to view the wells P07
and P07%P08 from the Input pane, deselect well P08.
2. Expand the Completions folder for both wells to see all of the
completion items that were imported.
3. Select to view the completion items by selecting the check box
in front of the Global completions folder.
4. Go to the Windows pane and expand the folder for the Well
section window. Open the settings for the Well section
window and under the Definition tab, set the Domain to
measured depth (MD).Click Apply.
5. Select to view porosity together with the completions items to
check that the perforations are in good porosity zones.

You can view the


completion items in the 3D
window. Click on the Global
completions folder in the
Input pane to view the
completions for the wells.

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Make completions using the Operations tab


Exercise steps
1. Right-click the well P09, and select Import(on selection...).
2. Select to import a file of type Well logs (ASCII) .
3. Select to import the file Dataset>ImportData>WEll_
Engineering>P09perforation.txt.
4. In the import dialog that opens, make sure to match the
column numbers correctly, then click OK.

5. Go to the Global well logs folder and rename the new log to
Perf.
6. Open a well section window, accept to create a new well
section template 3.
7. From the Input pane, expand the Global completions folder
select Casing and Perforation. From the Global well logs
select to view Perf.

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8. Select to display well P09. You will see the Perf log that you
just imported. Go to the Models pane and select to view
porosity from the upscaled grid.
9. Open the Well completion design process, select the
operation Create simple completions.
10. Drop the P09 well into the Wells field.
11. Change the date to 01/01/2012.
12. Select the options Create casing and Whole well.
13. Select the option Create perforation and From log. Drop in
the Perf log you imported.
14. Deselect the options Create liner and Create completion
string.
15. Click Apply to create the completions. Observe the new
completion items in the well section window.

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Well Engineering 333

Summary
In this section you learned how to add and import wells to the project.
You first inserted a simple, vertical well, then looked into the process of
digitizing well traces. Finally you learned how to place well into targets
given as a discrete grid property automatically. Once the wells are in
place in the project, they need to be completed. You learned how to use
Petrel to add completions to the simulation case. We also looked into
how to edit and manage different completion items both using the Well
section window and the Completions manager.

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Module 9 - Prediction
strategies
Introduction
In this module, how to make prediction development strategies will be
covered. It is also demonstrated how to use the Keyword editor to
include features of ECLIPSE that are not yet available through the Petrel
user interface.
Prerequisites
Basic knowledge of Petrel is required.
Learning Objectives
In this module you will learn how to:
Use the development strategy process
Insert and modify rules to an existing development strategy
Make a prediction strategy
Use restart runs to continue a simulation
Use the Keyword editor to modify cases

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Lesson 1 - Prediction development strategy


In this lesson, you will make a prediction development strategy.
Furthermore, you will define a simulation case, using the end results
after the history case, as your starting conditions.

History-Prediction
History:

Done to validate the


model against history
Use observed rates as
well control data
Use historic events;
dates for perforations

Prediction:

Used to predict future


behavior
Gives the rates or
pressures that the wells
should be operated at
forward in time

Make a strategy
Use the toolbar to:
Add times
Add wells
Add rules

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Default strategies
The Use presets drop-down menu offers four template strategies.
Note that these are intended as starting points for creating a strategy,
and in most cases they require further editing in order to work.
History strategy: Utilizes the first observed data set that is
listed in the Global observed data folder. All wells in the
project are added to the strategy. In many cases, no further
editing is required to make a strategy for reproducing reservoir
volume rates for all wells with observed data.
Empty prediction strategy: This will give you a blank
strategy, the same as when the process is opened for the first
time.
Prediction depletion strategy: This sets up a field for
production with no injection. All wells are added to the
strategy and placed under production group control. You must
set field group production target, and start and end dates. It is
recommended to set the minimum bottom hole pressure, and
optionally, the maximum rate limits.
Prediction water flood strategy: This sets up a field for
production with water injection. Group and well rules are
setup for group production control and full voidage
replacement. Petrel cannot detect which wells are producers
and which are injectors. Therefore, you must drag producers to
the PROD folder, and injectors to the INJ folder. In addition,
you must set the field group production target and start and
end dates. It is recommended to set bottom hole pressure
limits, and optionally, maximum rate limits on both producers
and injectors.

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Prediction Strategies 337

Add times

Add times if you want to


specify different settings
for different time periods.

You can add new times to the strategy, and then add new wells or new
rules to existing wells from that time.

Add wells

You add a new well to the project by selecting it on the Input pane and
clicking the blue arrow in the Make development strategy process
dialog. Similarly, you can add a folder of wells.
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Add wells

Linked folders

If you drop in a folder


of wells from the Input
pane, changes to that
folder is going to take
effect in the strategy.

Folders of wells are used to apply the same rule to numerous wells at a
time. There are two types of folders:
1. Linked folders are added by dropping a wells folder from
the Input pane into the process dialog. The content is
synchronized with the Input pane you cannot edit those
folders within the Make development strategy process, only
delete the whole folder. This means that if you add a well to
the folder on the Input pane, it will be included the next time
the development strategy is exported to the simulator, without
you having to rerun the process.
2. User folders are added by clicking on the Add a new user
defined folder button on the tool bar, and wells are added to
the folders by dropping in the well from the Input pane, or by
copy/paste or drag/drop within the strategy tree in the process
window.
To delete a well or a user folder of wells from the strategy tree, simply
select it in the strategy tree and click the Delete key.

Reservoir Engineering

When you add wells


to the strategy tree, their
flow path is analyzed. If the
well cannot flow at all that
is it is cased but has no
perforations it will not be
added. If the well flows up
both the tubing and the
annulus, two well flows are
added to the strategy tree.

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Add new rules

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Rules provide the simulator control parameters, and can generate one
or more keywords.
You can add rules with the Open Add rules dialog button from the
toolbar. This opens the rule selector dialog in which you can select one
or more rules from a folder, adding them to the strategy tree. Right-click
on the rules folder in the rule selector dialog to select alternative
categorizations of the rules selector tree.
The rule selector only shows rules valid for the current strategy type
history or prediction and the currently enabled simulator(s). These
choices are made by using the options at the top of the Make
development strategy process dialog. Once a rule is added to the
strategy, select it and it appears in the rule table. Enter numeric values,
and select between the choices from the drop-down menus. Note that
there are two types of blue arrows for dropping in. The conventional
arrow is used just like the normal Petrel drop arrows and drop in data
from the Input pane observed data, well flow performance (VFP)
tables, etc. The other arrow is used to drop items from within the
strategy tree, such as wells, well folders and groups.

For more information


on rules or rule validation,
please refer to the Help
Manual

Tabular rules

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Sometimes, you need to set a parameter individually for several wells.


For example, when you add a Well pressure production control, you may
want to specify a different pressure for some of the wells.
Start by creating a rule as usual, and drop in a folder containing all the
wells into that rule. Enter all of the parameters. These will be the same
for all the wells in the folder. Now right-click the rule and select
Convert to tabular rule from the context menu.
The tabular rule will show up as a folder of rules on the strategy tree.
When you have selected the tabular rule, it will show one column per
well in the rule table, allowing you to set individual values for each
well.

Rules

Validation

Rules can be valid, invalid, partially valid, unsupported, or inactive.


A valid rule has all required parameters set.
A valid rule (with warning) is valid for all selected simulator
but has at least one parameter set that is not supported for
one of the simulators. Those are shown in blue on the strategy
tree.
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An invalid rule has one or more required parameters missing.


These are shown with a cross overlaid on their icon in the
strategy tree.
A partially valid rule has all of its required parameters set, but
is not supported by all enabled simulators. These are shown
with an exclamation mark over their icon in the strategy tree.
Inactive rules are either not supported by any of the enabled
simulators or the user has de-activated the rule by using the
right-click menu. These are shown grayed out in the strategy
tree.

Inactive or invalid
rules will not be written to
the simulation dataset when
a case is exported.

The validation status and the icons are updated when you click Apply
or OK, or for the active rule when you click Validate active rule.
Select the report validation check box to have all validation messages
copied to the Petrel message log once Apply or OK have been clicked.
Note that a valid rule will not necessarily create a valid simulation. For
example, many rules have several optional parameters and the
simulator requires at least one of these to be set, but Petrel does not
enforce this. Future versions of Petrel will enhance the validation logic.

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Move the mouse over


the rules icon in the strategy
tree to see a pop-up with its
validation report.

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Group control

Right-click the Groups folder to


add new group.
Drag and drop wells between the
groups.

The group structure


can be changed at a later
date for example, to move
a well from the producers
group to the injectors group.
Simply add the new control
date, copy the groups folder
to the new date, and edit the
group structure accordingly.

Groups are used to tell the simulator how to control several wells at a
time. Often, a group will correspond to a physical structure in the field,
like a platform or a manifold but it might as well just be a logical
grouping for example, all the wells producing from Zone 2.
Petrel automatically adds wells to the default (first) group when they
are added to the development strategy. You can then add groups using
the Add new group button, and organize wells into groups by dragging
and dropping between groups.
To rename a group, select the group, right-click it and select Rename.
It is important to distinguish between well folders and groups:
Well folders can be dropped in Wells parameters of rules.
When exporting to the simulator, Petrel exports the rule to the
simulator for every well in the folder. For example: set each
well in a folder to produce 1,000 bbl/day.
Groups can be dropped in Groups parameters of rules. Upon
exporting to the simulator, Petrel exports the rule to the
simulator once for the group. The simulator works out how to
apportion the rule to the members of the group. For example,

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make the field produce 10,000 bbl/day from 10 wells but it is


up to the simulator to determine how much each well should
contribute to the field target.

Groups

Membership changing with time


Add a new time
Add two groups
Add a group control rule for both
time intervals
Assign the rule to one of the
groups in each time interval

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Prediction Strategies 345

Edit and use


The strategy is stored on the Input pane.
Copy/Paste on the Input pane.
Drop into the Strategies tab of the
Define simulation case process.

You can copy and paste a development strategy on the Input pane and
then open the copy in the Make development strategy process to
quickly recreate a similar strategy.

Use the solution at the end of a


history case as start condition
for a prediction run.
Saves time as you do not
recalculate pressure and
saturation for the history period.

Field Production Rate

Restart runs
Cell
Saturations &
Pressures
recorded
History Period

(Base Run)

Prediction Period

(Restart Run)

Time

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Restart runs
1. Right-click on case that
has been run, and select
Insert restart case.

2. In the Define simulation


case, select the restart
case for edit.

Exercises Prediction strategies


In these exercises, we will create prediction development strategies
using the Make development strategy process in Petrel.
Exercise Workflow
Use a default strategy
Add a new rule to an existing strategy
Define a prediction case
View simulation results
Exercise Data
In the following exercise, we will continue on the project we created in
the previously. Or you can use backup project Mod_8_Completed.pet.

Use a default strategy


Exercise steps
1. Open the Make development strategy process.
2. Select Create new development strategy.
3. Click the Use presets button, and select Prediction water
flood strategy.
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Prediction Strategies 347

4. In the strategy tree of the process window, drag the producers


into the PROD FOLDER and the injectors into the INJ folder.
5. At the top of the left panel, you find the start date. Doubleclick it and change the start date to 2009-02-01
.
6. Similarly, at the bottom of the left panel, there is a date
subject. Double-click it to edit and select to run the simulation
case for 5 years.
7. Click on the Group rate production control item in the Rules
folder. Enter a Reservoir volume rate of 150000 m3/d, then
use the drop-down menu to specify this rate as a target.

8. Click on the Group voidage replacement injection rule,


and enter a Voidage replacement fraction of 1.
9. Next, click on the Well rate production control rule. Make
sure that the PROD FOLDER is dropped in as Wells, and that
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the control mode is Group control. Leave the remaining fields


blank.
10. Click on the Well pressure production control. Again, the
PROD FOLDER should be dropped in at the Wells field. Select
Limits as Control mode from the drop-down menu. Specify a
Bottom hole pressure limit of 100 bar. Leave the remaining
fields blank.

11. Click on the Well water injection control rule. Check that
the INJ FOLDER is dropped into the Wells field and that
Control mode is set to Group control. Also, enter a Bottom
hole pressure limit of 400 bar.
12. Finally, click on the Reporting frequency rule and select to
report every sixth month.
13. Click Apply to save the development strategy.

Add a new rule to an existing strategy


Exercise steps
1. If closed, open the Make development strategy process,
and select Edit existing.
2. Select the water flood strategy you made in the previous
exercise from the drop down list.
3. Click the Open Add rules dialog button
.
4. In the dialog that opens, left-click on the Well water cut rule
located in the Wells folder. Click the Add rule button. Click
Close.
5. In the new water cut rule, drop the PROD FOLDER into the
Wells field.
6. Type in a Water cut limit of 0.9.
7. Select Close well as Water cut action by using the dropdown menu.
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Prediction Strategies 349

8. Click the Validate active rule button to check the validity of


your new rule.
9. Click OK to save your development strategy and to close down
the process dialog.

Define a prediction case


Exercise steps
1. Go to the Cases tab. Right-click the Aquifer case, and select
Insert restart case.
2. Open the Define simulation case process from the
Processes pane.
3. Select Edit existing case, and then select your restart case
from the drop-down menu. Note that the settings under the
Grid, Functions, Strategies tabs were preserved and that
these settings are not editable.
4. Go to the Strategies tab.
5. Add a row to the table by clicking the Append item in the
table button .
6. Select the Prediction waterflood strategy 1 on the Input
pane, and drop it into the table by pressing the blue arrow .
7. Select 1st of February 2009 as Restart date.
8. Click Apply to save your case, then click Run to run the
simulation.

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View simulation results


Exercise steps
1. Open a function window.
2. Go to the Cases pane and select both the aquifer case that
you used to restart from and your new prediction case.
3. Go to the Results pane and select to view Pressure for the
Field.

4. Use the same function window and deselect to view Pressure


and select Oil production rate.
5. Deselect Filed identifier and select to view the Wells P05 and
P09.
6. Notice how P09 starts to produce between 2011 and 2012.
This is the reason of small pressure draw down in the previous
plot.

Reservoir Engineering

If you want P09 to


start producing when the
perforations open for this
well in 2012. Go to Event
shifting under the Settings
for Perforations>Depth/date
tab>select Even
shifting>Specify Date.

Prediction Strategies 351

Make a strategy with a tabular rule - Optional


Exercise steps
1. Open the Make development strategy process.
2. Select the radio button Create new development strategy.
3. Select Empty prediction strategy from the Use presets
drop-down menu.
4. Give the new strategy a name, for instance Tabular rule.
5. Double-click on the start date and change it to 2009-02-01.
6. Double-click on the end-date and change it to 2014-02-01.
7. Click on the Report frequency rule, and select a Report
frequency of 6 months.
8. Insert the Injectors, the Producers, and the Imported folder
of wells from the Input pane.
9. Right-click the Wells folder inside the process dialog, and
select Add new user folder.

10. Name the new folder All producers, then drag and drop the
Producers and the Imported folders into it.

11. Right-click on both the Producers and the Imported folder


(you can select both by pressing down CTRL) and select the
Merge with parent folder.
12. Click the Add rules button to open the rules dialog.
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13. Select to add a Group voidage replacement injection, a


Well water injection control, a Well rate production
control, and a Well pressure production control rule.
Close the Add rules dialog.
14. Left-click on the Group voidage replacement injection rule
and drop the group Field into the rule and select a Voidage
replacement fraction of 1.

15. Left-click the Well water injection control rule and drop the
Injectors folder into the Wells drop-field. Select Group
control as control mode.
16. Left-click on the Well rate production control rule. Drop in the
All producers folder into the Wells drop-field, select
Reservoir rate as the Control mode, then type in a oil rate
of 10000 m3/d.

17. Right-click the new Well rate production control rule in the
Rules folder and select Convert to tabular rule from the
drop-down menu.

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Prediction Strategies 353

18. In the tabular rule, change the Reservoir volume rate for
wells P02, P05, P08, and P09 to 20000 m3/d.

19. Left-click on the Well pressure production control rule, and


then drop in the All producers folder in the Wells field, then
select Limit as the Control mode.
20. Enter a Bottom hole pressure limit of 100 bar.
21. Click OK to save the new strategy.
Exercise steps
1. Go to the Cases tab. Right-click the aquifer case , and select
Insert restart case. A new case, Aquifer_RESTART_1,
appears on the Cases pane.
2. Open the Define simulation case process and select to edit
the restart case you just created.
3. Go to the Strategies tab.
4. Add a row to the table by clicking the Append item in the
table button .
5. On the Strategies tab, drop in your new strategy Tabular
rule.

6. Click Apply to save the case, and Run to run it.


7. Open a function window, and examine the results. In particular,
notice the rates of the producers.
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Lesson 2 Keyword editor

Keyword editor
Some functionality is
not yet available from
the Petrel user
interface and must
be accessed by
manually inserting
keywords.
In some cases,
Petrel generates a
keyword but the
user want to do
manual editing, e.g.,
conversion of
ECLIPSE to Petrel
project.

There are still some ECLIPSE and FRONTSIM functionalities that cannot
be accessed through the Petrel user interface and hence the required
keywords are not exported by Petrel. In such case, it is possible to add
and edit the keyword as user keyword via the Editor.
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Prediction Strategies 355

Keyword editor
Examples are:
Thermal simulations
Simulator tuning
Output additional summary
vectors

As an example, you can use the Keyword editor to report the elapsed
time of a simulation run.

Keyword editor
The Keyword editor is accessed from:
Advanced tab of the Define simulation
case process, or
Cases pane. Right click a case and
select Editor

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Keyword editor
Sort by section

Sort by section:
Keywords listed to the right
belong to the
ECLIPSE/FrontSim section
selected to the left

When Sort by section is selected, the keyword editor shows:


Left: All keywords in the simulation deck sorted by section
Right: All available keywords. When a section heading is
selected, the list is filtered so that only keywords belonging to
that section are listed.

Keyword editor
Sort by include file
Sort by include files:
the list on the left side
shows the include files
that can be edited

Expand by using the +


besides the file name to
list the keywords
contained in the file.

When Sort by include files is selected, the left side of the Keyword
editor shows the include files that can be edited. Double-click a file to
open it in an editor.
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Prediction Strategies 357

Keyword editor
Inserting keywords
The list on the right hand
side contains all keywords
for the highlighted section

Keywords can be inserted


or removed using the Insert
and Remove buttons.

To insert a new keyword:


Highlight the section where you want to insert the keyword
Select the keyword from the list to the right
Click Insert
Edit the new keyword in the editor that opens up
Move the keywords into the correct position in the section by
clicking the Up or Down buttons.

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Keyword editor
Editing keywords

Right mouse select any


keyword and select Edit to open
the keyword in an editor.
Double-clicking a keyword will
also bring up that keyword in an
editor.

You can either double-click or right-click a keyword and select Edit to


open it in your default editor.

Keyword editor

Preserving keyword edits


User keywords (black) Edits to
these keywords are preserved.
Petrel keywords (blue) Petrel is
allowed to overwrite. Can be
made into user keywords.
Petrel keywords (red) Cannot
be made into user keywords.

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Prediction Strategies 359

Petrel tags keywords and files to indicate how the keyword was
created. The keywords are displayed in red, blue or black:
Blue: a Petrel generated keyword which is part of a file that
can be edited by the user.
Black: a keyword that has been edited/inserted by the user.
Petrel is not allowed to overwrite it, even if the settings are
changed from the Petrel user interface.
Red: a file which is generated by Petrel that cannot be edited
by the user. Petrel will overwrite the contents of this file
regardless of whether the keywords contained in the file are
marked as black or blue. In addition, section head keywords
are shown in red.
When Petrel creates a keyword it adds the following comment
-- Generated : Petrel

This indicates that Petrel will overwrite this file and not preserve
any changes made by the user. If you remove this comment, Petrel
will not do any changes to the keyword it contains even if new
input is given from the Petrel user interface.
--!!! Generated file. Any edits to this file will be lost on next export
from Petrel.

This indicates that Petrel will overwrite this file and not preserve any
changes made by the user. If you remove this comment, Petrel will not
do any changes to the keyword it contains even if new input is given
from the Petrel user interface.

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Keyword editor

Preserving keyword edits


To make a Petrel keyword into a
user keyword, blue to black:
Right-click the keyword and
select User keyword
OR,
Delete the comment line above
the keyword.

Preserving keyword edits

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Prediction Strategies 361

You will notice that if you make a new simulation case by opening an
existing case in the Define simulation case process and selecting
Create new case, then all keywords that were inserted manually are
lost. To make a new case containing all the new keywords, select the
case on the Cases pane and press CTRL and C/CTRL and V to copy/
paste it. The copy can then be opened in the Define simulation case
process for further edits.

Keyword documentation
Right-click any keyword in the
tree and select Documentation.

Right-click on any keyword in the Keyword editor and select


Documentation to open the Eclipse/FrontSim manual for that
keyword.

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Import existing simulation case

Import a case - Select file


Right-click in the Cases pane
and select Import (on tree)

1. Set Files of type to be


ECLIPSE/FrontSim data
and results.
2. Select .DATA, or .EGRID etc.
and Petrel will locate the
other files, if available.

A simulation data file, with or without results, can be loaded to Petrel


in the Cases tab.

Import a case - Selection of files


The Simulator is auto selected
based on the data file.
Make sure it is correct as it
cannot be changed after import.

Petrel will locate all necessary


files, if available. You can also
make your own selection.

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Assuming all the files have a common root name and are in the same
directory, Petrel will identify them for loading.

Import a case - Units issues


You will receive a warning
if the project you import does
not match the unit system of your
current project.

Click on Change if your current


project is empty.

The units cannot be changed after


import.

Petrel will, by default, assume that the imported files have the unit
system selected in the project settings. If you attempt to load a
simulation case with data from another unit system, Petrel will warn
you and ask whether you want to change the project units to match the
incoming data. If you select to change the unit system, data that is
already in the project will not be converted. Hence, it is only when you
are importing a case into a new, empty project that you should select to
change the unit system. Note that Petrel cannot do unit conversion after
import.
If you click on Continue, then:
The grid geometry and 3D properties imported into Petrel will
be converted into project units
Summary line graphs imported into Petrel will be displayed in
project units
The keyword data will remain in the original units

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Customize units
If you run the ECLIPSE case again from Petrel and load its results, the
results will be converted to project units.
Similarly, if you are creating cases within Petrel, you can customize the
units in the Project > Project Settings > Units to be different in the
simulator to the project units. Working in this mode will cause Petrel to
convert keyword data on export, and results on load, between the
simulator and the project units. You should be careful when you are
working in a mixed unit mode! It is very easy to get confused and make
mistakes.

Import a case Petrel objects

CAUTION: These
settings only apply on import
and export. Changing the
units in the templates or in
the Project Settings after you
have imported the data have
no effect on the numbers, it
simply changes the display
label.

Well data from the


RESTART files in the
Input pane.
Summary data and 3D
Grid and properties in
the Results pane.
Simulation case added
to the Cases pane.

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Prediction Strategies 365

Import a case - Convert to Petrel case


You can convert the imported
case to a Petrel case. Right-click
the case and select Convert to
Petrel case.

Most items are converted


including:
Fluid model
Rock physics functions
3D grid properties

The development strategies are


NOT converted.

The SCHEDULE data is not converted to a development strategy in


Petrel. You can still run the case from Petrel by right-clicking on the
case in the Cases pane and select a Simulation run only. The
SCHEDULE data will then be read from the file.

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Examples of use of the Keyword editor

Keyword editor
Summary vectors

Select the SUMMARY section.

Select the additional vectors you


want, for example connection oil
production for a well.

To report other summary vectors than the ones listed on the Report tab
of the Define simulation case process, you can use the Keyword
editor:
Select the SUMMARY section in the left part of the Keyword
editor
Select the vector you want to report in the list on the right side
Check the syntax of the keyword in the manual if necessary
Click the Insert button and edit the keyword in the editor that
opens

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Prediction Strategies 367

Keyword editor

Tuning the simulator


Insert the TUNING keyword
into the SCHEDULE section.

Default tuning is usually good


enough for ECLIPSE.
Use with caution.

If you need to make changes to the ECLIPSE time stepping or the


convergence criteria, you must use the Keyword editor. In FrontSim
there are several options for setting the tuning parameters for the
simulator from the Advanced tab of the Define simulation case
process.

Exercises Keyword editor - import a case


These exercises shows you how to use the Keyword editor to access
the ECLIPSE/FrontSim keywords.
Exercise Workflow
Import a simulation case
Edit the case using the Keyword editor
Convert to Petrel case
Exercise Data
In this exercise, you will open a new Petrel project and import an
existing case from the folder ImportData>KeywordEditor.

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Load a simulation case


Exercise steps
1. Open Petrel, or start a new project if Petrel is already open.
2. Go to the Cases pane.
3. Right-click and select Import (on tree).
4. Ensure Files of type is set to ECLIPSE/FrontSim data and
results (*.*)
5. Navigate to the folder ImportData > KeywordEditor containing
BRILLIG.DATA.
6. Click on BRILLIG.DATA then click Open. This opens the Import
ECLIPSE / FrontSim run dialog.
7. As there are no results, the only file to load is the .DATA file.
Ensure the Simulator is set to ECLIPSE 100.

8. At the bottom of the Import ECLIPSE / FrontSim run dialog,


deselect the Automate handling of import settings option.
Click the Advanced button.
9. In the window that opens, select Global coordinate system.
In the Remove cells part of the dialog, deselect to use Flat
cells with no volume and pillars with equal z-values.
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Prediction Strategies 369

10. Click OK. You will be prompted with a question asking whether
you want to change the project coordinate system to match the
import data. Click Change. The ECLIPSE file is loaded into
Petrel.
11. Select to use NULL as coordinate system if prompted.
12. Save the project to the folder containing the BRILLIG data.

Edit the case

The list of keywords


on the right side is sensitive
to the section selected on
the left. For example, click on
GRID to see only the relevant
keywords on the right hand
side.

370 Prediction Strategies

Exercise steps
1. Right-click the BRILLIG case on the Cases pane and select
Editor to open the Keyword editor.
2. Expand the GRID section. Locate the NOGGF keyword. Rightclick it and select Documentation to get an explanation of
the keyword and any associated parameters.
3. Close the documentation and remove the keyword from the
case by selecting it and clicking the Remove button.
4. Click on Apply to save the changes.
5. Select Sort by include files in the Keyword editor.
Reservoir Engineering

6. In the Keyword editor, scroll down the left hand side and
highlight a keyword inside the SCHEDULE file (BRILLIG_SCH.
INC).

7. Select the INCLUDE keyword from the right hand side and
insert it in the left hand side by clicking Insert.
8. Enter the VFPI.TXT file in the INCLUDE file. The file contains
VFP tables for your wells. Save and close the text file.
9. Click on OK to save the changes and to close the Keyword
editor.
10. Save the project.

Run the simulation case


Exercise steps
1. Right-click on the ECLIPSE 100 case again and select
Simulation run only.
2. Browse the Input, Models, and Results panes. Expand the
Simulation grid results folder in the Results pane, locate
your case in the Cases pane and display the simulated
properties in a 3D window (Dynamic folder).
3. Open a function window from the Window menu, expand the
Dynamic results data folder in the Results pane. Ensure
BRILLIG is selected for view on the Cases pane.
4. Review some of the summary data vectors. You may need to
use the View all in viewport icon
to see the entire data
range.

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Prediction Strategies 371

Convert to Petrel case


Exercise steps
1. Right-click on BRILLIG in the Cases pane and select Convert
to Petrel case.
2. A message log will give you information on the keywords that
could not be converted to Petrel objects.
3. Inspect the Input and the Models pane. A fluid model and
rock physics functions has been added to the Input pane, and
a new model containing 3D grid properties is added to the
Models pane.

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Summary
How to set up prediction development strategies in Petrel has been
covered in this module. How to add additional rules and organizing the
wells into groups or folders of wells was covered. We have also
covered the use of the Keyword editor to enable options that are not
yet available inside the graphical user interface in Petrel.

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Prediction Strategies 373

Appendix 1 - Advanced
Workflows
Dual
porosity
Dual permeability
Dual
porosity
Dual permeability
Fluids exist in two
interconnected systems.

Simulator approximation
Reality

In a dual porosity reservoir, fluids exist in two interconnected systems:


The rock matrix, which usually provides the bulk of the
reservoir volume
The highly permeable rock fractures.
If the matrix blocks are linked only through the fracture system, this
would conventionally be regarded as a dual porosity single permeability
system, since fluid flow through the reservoir takes place only in the
fracture network with the matrix blocks acting as sources. If there is the
possibility of flow directly between neighboring matrix blocks, this is
normally considered to be a dual porosity dual permeability system.
Reservoir Engineering

Dual porosity dual


permeability runs are
computationally more
expensive than dual porosity
single permeability runs.

Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows 375

To model such systems, Petrel will generate two grids one


representing the matrix and the other representing the fracture volumes
of the cell. The porosity, permeability, depth (etc) properties of both
grids may be independently defined. A matrix-fracture coupling
transmissibility is constructed automatically to simulate flow between
the two systems due to fluid expansion, gravity drainage, capillary
pressure, etc. In a dual porosity run, the number of layers in the
Z-direction should be doubled. The simulator associates the first half of
the grid with the matrix blocks, and the second half with the fractures.

Dual porosity Dual permeability


Create fracture network model using the
Create discrete fracture network
process
Scale up fracture network properties:
porosity, permeability (3 or 6 tensors),
sigma

The Scale up fracture network process converts the discrete fracture


network (with its defined properties) into the properties that are
essential for running a dual porosity, or dual permeability simulation, in
ECLIPSE or any other simulator. These are fracture porosity, fracture
permeability (3 or 6 tensors) and sigma factor (the connectivity between
the fractures and the matrix).

376 Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows

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Dual porosity Dual permeability


Add fracture system to simulation:

3. Add relative permeability curves for the


Fracture system

1. Select simulation type

4. Set Advanced dual porosity settings (no


DP multiplier and Gravity drainage)

2. Drop in fracture properties and


the dual porosity matrix-fracture
coupling transmissibility

Sector modeling
Sector modeling allows you to simulate a portion of a reservoir - the
region of interest - using boundary conditions extracted from a
(previously run) full field model. This is useful when planning an infill
drill well, designing a complex completion or matching a wells
performance to observed behavior. The sector model simulation will run
much faster than the full field model.
There are two distinct workflows for sector modeling. The main
difference is whether the regions used to identify the region of interest
are defined before or after the full field run is performed.
Regions defined before running the full field model allow the boundary
conditions to be captured by the simulator at every time step during the
full field run, and results in a more accurate sector model simulation.

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Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows 377

To define a region, you can use the Geometrical modeling tool. In this
example, a region around well P03 is created.

378 Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows

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The previous illustration shows where to insert the region of interest in


the Define simulation case process dialog in order to capture the
boundary conditions for a well region during a full field run.

Sector modeling
Insert a sector model

Once the full field model has run,


the boundary condition for the
region is stored on the Models
pane.

Right-click the full field case in the


Cases pane and select Insert
sector model.

Once the simulation has run and the results are loaded, a new folder is
added to the Models pane. This folder is named Sector modeling and
contains the boundary condition that was captured at the boundary of
the region that was used as input.
To insert a sector model, right-click on the full field model in the Cases
pane and select Insert sector model. A new case is then added to the
Cases pane. You can open the case in the Define simulation case
process to supply the boundary condition.

Reservoir Engineering

Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows 379

Sector modeling
Run a sector model

Open the Sector modeling in the


Define simulation case model,
and drop in the boundary
condition captured during the full
field run.

Hysteresis

Hysteresis

Hysteresis: When the curve used to determine the rock properties is a function of the
history of the rock and a function of the direction of the change in the saturation.

Hysteresis enables you to specify different saturation functions for


drainage (decreasing wetting phase saturation) and imbibition
(increasing wetting phase saturation) processes for the simulation case.
A typical pair of relative permeability curves for a non-wetting phase is
shown in the figure. The curve 1 to 2 represents the user supplied
380 Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows

Reservoir Engineering

drainage relative permeability table, and the curve 2 to 3 represents the


user supplied imbibition relative permeability table. (Note that nonwetting phase saturation increases from right to left in this diagram).
The critical saturation of the imbibition curve (Sncri) is greater than that
of the drainage curve (Sncrd). The two curves must meet at the maximum
saturation value (Snmax).
The primary drainage curve is for a process which starts at the
maximum possible wetting phase saturation (Swmaxd). If the wetting
phase saturation decreases to (Swmin), this primary drainage curve is
used. In a similar way, if the initial saturation is (Swmin), and the wetting
phase saturation increases to (Swmaxi), the imbibition table data will be
used.
If the drainage or imbibition process is reversed at some point, the data
used does not simply run back over its previous values but runs along a
scanning curve.

Hysteresis
Select drainage relative
permeability curves and imbibitions
relative permeability curves in the
Functions tab.
Drop in saturation functions from
the Input pane.

For cases with the water saturation increasing: Imbibition curves should
be used.
When (in a grid block) the saturation of water increases and then the
saturation of gas increases Hysteresis should be used.
You supply two saturation function tables for the simulation case.
Reservoir Engineering

Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows 381

These provide respectively the primary drainage and pendular


imbibition curves.

Case management
Remote job submission
It is possible to submit jobs
from Petrel to a Linux/Unix
computer.

To do so you must:
Install support for remote
simulation
Configure Petrel for remote
job submission
Define queues in Petrel

Remote job submission


Petrel can run simulations in ECLIPSE and FrontSim either on your local
PC, or on a remote server. In either case, you must have an installation
of ECLIPSE Simulators on your PC, version 2006.1 or newer: this
includes an application called eclrun.exe which is used by Petrel to
submit simulation runs.
If you wish to submit runs to a remote machine, you need to configure
both Petrel and the server.
See the Online Help for more information.

382 Appendix 1- Advanced Workflows

Reservoir Engineering

Index

B
Based on input data, 155
Base surface, 52
Binary
grid data, 118

Symbols

Bitlock, 40

3D grid
skeleton grid, defined, 49
defined, 14

Black oil models, 67

3D viewing, 123
1D filters, 124
creating intersection window, 128
how to apply filters, 129
how to make filters using a Histogram window, 131
how to use I, J, and K filters, 131
how to view data on an intersection plane, 133
inserting intersections, 128
multi-value probe, 134
results viewing, 129
ternary property,
user filters, 126
well filters, 126
+/- Sign, 27

A
Active item, 26
Advanced tab
selecting formats, 118
Algorithms
for discrete properties, 168
in scale up properties, 166
Aquifers, 195. See

alsoMake aquifers;

adding, 203
Averaging (cell count)
in scale up properties, 166
Averaging methods
in scale up properties, 167
Averaging (volume-weighted)
in scale up properties, 166

Reservoir Engineering Course

by manual settings, 72
dead oil, 72
default models, 72
dry gas, 72
gas properties, 73
heavy oil+gas, 72
how to plot, 83
importing a keyword fluid model, 83
importing fluid models, 81
initial conditions, 75
light oil+gas, 72
make contacts, 77
making a table with initial conditions, 76
oil properties, 74
separator conditions, 72
specifying fluid phase, 72
using a spreadsheet to model the variation with depth, 78
Bold Item, 26
Boundary
in pillar gridding, defined, 141
Boundary for the Pillar grid
defined, 14
Branching wells
importing, 266
Bubble plots
for observed data, development strategies and simulation
data, 234
Bubble point line, 68
Bubble point pressure, 78

Index 383

Capillary pressure, 95

Dead oil, 72

Cartesian Dx, Dy, Dz, 183

Define simulation case, 108

Cartesian Gradual Dx, Dy, Dz, 183


Cartesian Gradual Nx, Ny, Nz, 183
Cartesian Nx, Ny, Nz, 183
Cases pane, 26, 27
defined, 14
Casing, 306
Cell
defined, 14
Cell angles, 157
cell inside-out, 158
Colors
specifying line styles for simulation results, development
strategies and observed data, 227
Comments tab, 34
Compaction
rock compaction function, 89
Completions. SeeWell completion design
Components tab
adding new, 70
Compositional fluid model, 67
making, 70
Conditions
initial conditions for black oil models, 75
Contact level, 78
defined, 14
Contact set, 75
Corey correlations
in make rock physics functions, 92
Corner point grid
defined, 14
Correlation library, 66
Create a STOIIP map from volume calculation,

advanced tab, 118


selecting grid type, 118
Depth
placing completion items at depth, 315
Development strategies, 208
adding a rule to limit the production pressures, 222
averaging data, 216
bubble plots, 234
combining view-ports in one plot window, 238
default strategies, 212
defining a history case, 217
defining and running simulation cases using history
development strategy, 223
exporting simulation results, 231
filtering results tree, 230
history match, 208
history strategies, 209
how to change the line style in function windows, 236
how to create a history strategy, 213
how to import observed data, 217
how to make a history development strategy, 217
how to visualize the observed data, 219
importing observed data, 210
line styles, 227
plotting, 215
plotting data, 226
prediction mode, 209
selecting, 108
viewing observed data in a function window, 212
view the history development strategy data, 221
water cut, 244
Deviation file
importing, 265
Dew point, 78
Dew point line, 68
Digitizing
fault, 56
well paths, 272

Critical point, 68
384 Index

Reservoir Engineering

Directional averaging
in scale up permeability, 167

how to use I, J, and K filters for 3D viewing, 131


how to use value filter, 162
making from function and histogram windows, 126
streamlines, , 235
well filters for 3D viewing, 126

Directions
defined, 14
Discontinuous surface, 52
Dongle, 40
Dry gas, 72
Dual porosity dual permeability systems, 375

E
Eclipse
importing keyword files, 81
remote job submission, 382
Empty prediction strategy
defined, 337

zone filter, 53
Flow-based upscaling
in scale up permability, 167
Flow paths
turning on display, 311
Fluid models ; See alsoMake fluid model
assigning separate to regions, 112
compositional model, 70
making, 69

Endwell filter, 236

Fluids
specifying fluids phase in black oil models, 72

Equality+/-, 251

Follow base, 54

Equilibration, 113

Follow top, 54

Equipment tab
defining settings, 313

Formats

Erosional surfaces, 52

Fractions, 54

Event data

FrontSim

for exporting grid data from models pane, 118

importing perforations, stimulations and work-overs, 320


Explorer panes, 25

F
Fault
defined, 14
Fault filter
defined, 53
Faults
assigning transmissibility multiplier, 58
excluding in pillar gridding, 146
how to insert into grid, 57
how to make a simulation fault, 61
in pillar gridding, defined, 141
inserting into grid, 56
Filters
defined, 14
fault filter, 53
how to make filters using a Histogram window, 131
Reservoir Engineering

remote job submissions, 382


Function bar, , 28
defined, 15
Function window
defined, 15

G
Gas properties, 73
General intersections
creating intersection window, 128
inserting, 128
viewing data on an intersection plane, 133
General surface, 52
General tab
used in black oil models, 72
Grayed-out area, 28

Index 385

Grids
creatings grids without faults, 48
how to make a simple grid, 48, 59
Skeleton grid, defined, 49
Grid separate zones
in local grid refinements, 184

H
Heavy oil+gas, 72
Help manual. SeeOnline help manual
Histogram window
defined, 15
History matching, 208
crossplotting two vectors, 254
how to compare cases in a map window, 260
how to run history match analysis, 256
how to view match data in a function window, 259
how to view match data in a map window, 257
match values in map window, 252
normalization, 248
results viewing, 248
sampling, 246
settings, 245
setting threshold and equality, 251
single vector versus case number, 255
statistics settings, 254
viewing data in a function window, 249
viewing data in a map window, 249
zero data filtering, 248
History strategies, 209
adding a rule to limit the production pressures, 222
defined, , 337
defining a history case, 217
defining and running simulation cases, 223
editing default rules, 215
how to create, 213
how to import observed data, 217
how to make a history development strategy, 217
how to visualize the observed data, 219
plotting data, 226
viewing the development strategy data, 221
History tab, 34

386 Index

Horizons. See alsoMake horizons


base surface, 52
defined, 15
discontinuous surface, 52
erosional surfaces, 52
general surface, 52
inserting into simple grid, 50
make horizons process, 51, 52
types of, 52
Horizontal wells, 308
Hysteresis, 380

I
Icons
used in this manual, 13
Importing
a polygon, 190
branching wells, 266
fluid models, 81
rock physics functions, 97
well header, 264
well path deviation, , 276
well path / deviation file, 265
Info tab, 34
Initial conditions tab, 75
Initializing the model
3D initial properties, 116
by equilibration, 113
methods for, 110
model, 108
with fluid and rock physics functions, 120
Input pane, 25, 26
defined, 15
Insert horizons, 50
Interface, 41
Intersection
defined, 15
Intersection window
defined, 15
Irreducible saturations, 94

Reservoir Engineering

grid to well connections, 185


methods, 183
scaling up a property onto the local grid set, 187
setting different parameters for different sources, 185
setting source parameters, 184
specifying host cells from sources, 182
upscaling a property, 193
use active filter, 184
zone filter, 184

Key Pillars, 140


Keyword editor, 355
defined, 15
documentation, 362
how to convert to Petrel case, 372
how to edit the simulation case, 370
how to load a simulation case, 369
how to run the simulation case, 371
inserting a new keyword:, 358
preserving keyword edits, 362
setting the tuning parameters for simulator, 368
sorting by include files, 357
sorting by section, 357
summary vectors, 367
tagging keywords, 360

L
Layering, 51
follow base, 54
follow top, 54
fractions, 54
process, 54
proportional, 54
settings for scale up structure, 155
Layers
defined, 15
LGR
defined, 15
Licenses, 40
Light oil+gas, 72
Liner, 306
Line styles
settings for dynamic data, 227
Local grid refinement
defined, 15
Local grid refinements, 47, 180, 195
defined by polygons, 181
defined by surfaces, 181
defined by wells, 181
extending host cell along I, J, K, 184
grid separate zones, 184
Reservoir Engineering

Local grid set


how to make, 190
inspecting, 192

M
Make aquifers, 195
adding an aquifer, 203
creating new or edit existing, 196
drive direction and vertical extent, 198
properties tab, 202
specifying the model to use, 197
Make contacts, 77
procedure, 77
Make fluid model, 66
importing a keyword fluid model, 83
Make Horizons, 51
process defined, 51
Make rock physics functions, 88
capillary pressure, 95
corey correlations, 92
how to make, 100
how to make a saturation function, 98
importing, 97
irreducible saturations, 94
plotting, 97
Reviewing the data, 102
rock compaction function, 89
saturation function, 91
spreadsheets, 95
Make simple grid, 48
Make zones
process defined, 51
Index 387

Map window
defined, 15
Menu bar,
defined, 15
Model
defined, 16

windows pane, 26, 29


workflows pane, 25, 29
Perforation, 306
Permeabilities
directional averaging methods, 169

Models pane, 25, 26


defined, 16
Multiple drop, 52
Multi-value probe, 134

N
Nodes
defined, 16
Notes
comments tab, 34

O
Objects
history, 34
renaming, 34
settings, 33
Observed data
bubble plots, 234
change the line style in function windows, 236
importing, 210
viewing in a function window, 212
Oil properties, 74
Online Help Manual, 41
Opening
projects, 39

Phase diagrams, 68
Phase pressures
computing, 114
Pillar gridding
boundary, defined, 141
cell size, 144
changing the grid orientation, 151
coarsening the grid, 148
concept, 140
defined, 16
excluding faults, 146
faults, defined, 141
geometry and formats, 147
results, 147
segments, defined, 141
settings, 142
throughput problems,
trends, defined, 141
Pillars
defined, 16
Plotting
fluid model, 83
observed data versus the development strategy, 215
rock physics functions, 97
Plot window
combining view-ports in one plot window, 238

OPF (Open Petrel Format) format, 118

Plug, 307

Polygons

Panes
cases pane, 26, 27
input pane, 25, 26
models pane, 25, 26
processes pane, 25, 28
results pane, 25, 27
templates pane, 25
388 Index

defined, 16
importing, 190
in local grid refinements, 181
in make aquifer, 197
Pore volume
setting minimum, 119
Reservoir Engineering

Prediction depletion strategy


defined, 337

Prediction development strategy


adding new rules, 341
adding new times, 338
adding new wells, 338

Relative permeability
curve for oil-water, 94

converting to tabular rule, 342


copy and paste a development strategy, 346
group control, 344
how to add a new rule to an existing
strategy, 349
how to create by using a default strategy, 347
how to define a prediction case, 350
how to make a strategy with a tabular rule, 351
how to view simulation results, 350
linked folders, 339
making a strategy, 336
rule validation, 342
user folders, 339

Reference project tool


how to use, 285

Remote job submission, 382


Reservoir conditions
in black oil models, 72
Results
3D initial properties, 116
Results pane, 25, 27
defined, 16
exporting simulation results, 231
filter results tree, 230
Results viewing, 129
Rock compaction function, 89
how to make, 100
settings, 90

Prediction mode, 209


Prediction water flood strategy
defined, 337

Rock physics functions. SeeMake rock physics functions


Rules
converting to tabular rule, 342
for the prediction development strategy, 341
validation, 342

Pressure
entering at separator conditions, 72
Processes pane, 25, 28
defined, 16
Project settings, 31
Properties
entering for gas, 73
for gas, 73
for oil, 74
multi-value probe, 134
Scaling up, 163
Proportional layering, 54

Q
Qualitative mode, 250
Quality checking
in scale up structure, 160
of the coarse grid, 156
Quantitative mode, 250
Reservoir Engineering

S
Saturation
by equilibration, 115
Saturation function, 91
how to make, 98
Saving
projects, 39
Scale up. See

alsoUpscaling

Scale up fracture network, 376


Scale up properties
algorithms for discrete properties, 168
applying different methods, 173
averaging methods, 167
how to sample properties from fine grid into coarse grid, 170
process, 163
reviewing in a 3D window, 175
Index 389

reviewing the upscaled properties, 174


selecting algorithm, 166
Scale up structure,
grid quality check, 160
layering, 159
two methods for, 155
Sector modeling, 377
capturing boundary conditions for a region, 378
inserting a sector model, 379
Segment filter
used in local grid refinements, 184
Segments
in pillar gridding, defined, 141
Segments (Regions)
defined, 16

Simulators
selecting, 108
Skeleton
defined, 17
Skeleton grid, 147
Spreadsheet
for wells, 297
Spreadsheets
for rock physics functions, 95
to model variation with depth in black oil models, 78
Squeeze, 306
Startwell filter, , 236
Statistics tab, 35

Select/pick mode, 37

Status bar
defined, 17

Sensitivity runs, 209

Stimulation, 306

Separator conditions, 72

Strategies

Settings
for layering in zones, 155
for objects, 33
for pillar gridding, 142
for project, 31
for rock compaction function, 90
style tab, 33
Simulation case
define simulation case, 108
importing an existing case, 363
managing, 366
remote job submission, 382
results viewing, 129
units, 364
Simulation grid
defined, 17
making, 139
Simulations
bubble plots for simulation data, 234
change the line style for simulated data in function windows,
236
development strategies, 208
viewing data on streamlines, 241
390 Index

when initializing model, 116


Streamlines, 235
Style tab, 33
Summation
in scale up properties, 166
Surfaces. See alsoHorizons
defined, 17
in local grid refinements, 181

T
Table
setting up for initial conditions, 76
Temperature
entering at separator conditions, 72
Templates
changing, 34
defined, 17
Templates pane, 25
defined, 17
Terminology
used in this manual, 13
Threshold, 251
Reservoir Engineering

Time units, 32

Title bar

Water cut

defined, 17

defined, 244

Toolbar
defined, 17

Water rates, 244

Trajectories, 270
Transmissibilities tab, 119
Transmissibility multiplier
assigning to fault, 58
defined, 17
Trends
defined, 17
in pillar gridding, defined, 141
Tuning runs, 209

U
Uncertainty workflow editor, 29
Units
for time in Petrel, 32
Upscaling, 153
Use active filter
in local grid refinements, 184
User interface, 24, 41

V
Value filter
how to use, 162
Vertical coarsening
upscaling, 153
Vertical subdivision, 51
two methods for simulation grid, 155
Vertical well
how to make, 278
Vertical well intersection
inserting, 302
View Mode, 37
Visualization
windows for, 29
Visualization windows, 36
Reservoir Engineering

Weighting
defined, 17
Well bore history, 209
Well completion design, 306
editing completion data, 314
editing completion items, 310
editing existing and adding new completions, 319
how to define equipment, 323
how to edit casing, 326
how to import well completion events, 328
how to insert casing, 324
how to insert perforation, 326
how to make completions using the operations tab, 331
importing event data, 320
inserting a new completion item, 310
organizing data, 312
placing items at depth, 315
quality check, 330
Well data
how to import, 276
importing a well header, 264
importing well path / deviation file, 265
Well filters, 126
Well header
importing, 264
Well manager, 267, 303
Well path
digitizing, 272
importing, 265
Well path design, 267, 286
editing, 275
inserting vertical well intersection, 302
intersection with horizons, 303
making a new vertical well, 268
process, 269
Index 391

synthetic log curves, 302


trajectory, 270
Well path deviation
how to import, 276
Well region property
defining a region, 378
Well report
how to make, 304
Wells
in local grid refinements, 181
Well section window
defined, 18
Wells spreadsheet, 297
Well tops
defined, 18
Well trajectories
defined, 18
Windows pane, 26, 29
defined, 18
Workflow
for Petrel reservoir engineering, 21
Workflow diagram, 19
Workflow editor, 29
Workflows pane, 25, 29
defined, 18

Z
Zonation, 155
Zone filter
defined, 53
in local grid refinements, 184
Zones
defined, 18
make zones process, 51

392 Index

Reservoir Engineering