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D.O.

A :
22ND OCT 2015
D.O.S :
29TH OCT 2015

MANAS ARORA
3RD YEAR B
ROLL NO. 3
VASTU KALA ACADEMY

OVERVIEW

HOW WATER CAN PENETRATE CONCRETE STRUCTURES?

CONCRETE COMPRISE THE LARGEST OF ALL MAN MADE CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL OF OUR TIME.
ITS PLASTICITY, WORKABILITY, EASE TO PLACE, TO CAST AND COMPACT WHILE WET AND STRONG AND
DURABLE WHEN HARDENED, MAKE IT ONE OF THE UNIQUE MATERIAL. GENERALLY STRENGTH OF
CONCRETE IS CONSIDERED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT CRITERIA AMONG OTHER PROPERTIES

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
CONCRETE CRACKS
CAPILLARY ACTION
VAPOR TRANSMISSION
CONDENSATION

BUT WHEN TAKING THE ACCOUNT OF DURABILITY, RESISTANCE TO WATER PERMEABILITY IS ALSO
CONSIDERED AS AN ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR WHICH IT IS DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND THE
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION FOR OVER PERIOD OF TIME WITHOUT ANY DETERIORATION.
WATERPROOFING OR DAMPPROOFING IS CARRIED OUT TO PREVENT OR TO SEAL UNWANTED WATER
CONTAINING DELETERIOUS SALTS AND CHEMICALS TO ENTER IN THE STRUCTURE, RESULTING
REINFORCEMENT CORROSION AND OTHER DESTRUCTIVE ACTIVITIES.

WHAT IS WATER PROOFING ?


BUILDING WATERPROOFING IS A PROCESS WHICH IS DESIGNED TO PREVENT WATER FROM
PENETRATING A BUILDING.
USUALLY EXTENSIVE WATERPROOFING MEASURES ARE ADDED TO A BUILDING AT THE TIME OF
CONSTRUCTION, TO PROVIDE MOISTURE CONTROL FROM THE START.
WATERPROOFING MAY ALSO BE DONE AFTER A BUILDING IS BUILT, TO ADDRESS PROBLEMS AS THEY
EMERGE OR AS PART OF A BUILDING RETROFIT.

WATER PROOFING vs DAMP PROOFING


OFTEN THE TERMS WATERPROOFING AND DAMP-PROOFING ARE
INCORRECTLY INTERCHANGED. ACCORDING TO ASTM DEFINITIONS:
WATERPROOFING IS THE TREATMENT OF A SURFACE TO
PREVENT THE PASSAGE OF LIQUID WATER IN THE PRESENCE
OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.
DAMP-PROOFING IS THE TREATMENT OF A SURFACE TO
RETARD THE ABSORPTION OFMOISTURE IN THE ABSENCE OF
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.
VIRTUALLY ALL BUILDING ENVELOPES ENCOUNTER HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE FROM WATER DURING THEIR LIFETIME.
THEREFORE, THE USE OF A QUALITY WATERPROOFING SYSTEM IS
ESSENTIAL TO PRESERVE THE WATER-TIGHTNESS OF THE BUILDING
ENVELOPE.

WHAT IS
HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE?
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
IS THE FORCE EXERTED
AT A GIVEN DEPTH BY
THE WEIGHT OF THE
OVERLYING COLUMN OF
WATER. THIS PRESSURE
ACTS WITH EQUAL
MAGNITUDE IN ALL
DIRECTIONS.

CAUSES OF LEAKAGES

SOURCES OF LEAKAGES

DEFECTIVE STRUCTURAL DESIGN


USE OF POOR QUALITY CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
POROUS STRUCTURES
IMPROPER METHODOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION
IMPROPER SLOPES ON TOP SURFACES.

SUBSOIL WATER RISING BY CAPILLARY ACTION.


CRACKS IN EXTERNAL PLASTER
VEGETATION GROWTH
SEPARATION GAPS BETWEEN PARTITION WALL AND
BEAMS AND THE COLUMNS.
FROM EXPANSION JOINTS

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
Basement Wall

Basement Wall

Hydrostatic Pressure

Wall Crack
Hydrostatic Pressure

Basement Floor

Wall Deflection

Hydrostatic Pressure

Stress Cracks and

Lateral Stresses

Rain and run-off


Cracks and voids
High water table
Normal water table
HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE

Insulation/Vapor Barrier

Floor Slab Uplift

Minimal Wall Protection

Saturated Wall Assembly


Surface Finish Damaged
Pressure

CAPILLARY PRESSURE

Basement Flood

Water
Pocket

THE MOVEMENT OF
WATER UPWARDS INTO
UNSATURATED (AS IT
DRIES) SOIL ABOVE.
RISING WATER TABLE CREATES HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AGAINST
YOUR FOUNDATIONQ

WATERPROFFING

Hydrostatic Pressure can cause Basement Flooding + Structural Damage + Property Damage

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

CRACKS

VAPOR TRANSMISSION

Minimal Wall Protection

45% RH

Water
65% RH
Vapor

FOUNDATION/SOIL SETTLEMENT

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

RH = Relative Humidity
55% RH
Water Vapor

CONCRETE SHRINKAGE

PERMEABILITY OF CONCREATE

CAPILLARY ACTION
Capillary
Development

Concrete Capillaries
Minimal Wall Protection

Water
Pocket

Capillaries

Foundation Wall
Minimal Wall Protection

Saturated Wall Assembly


Water
Pocket

CRACKED WALLS

PEELING PAINT

MOLDY ODORS

DRY ROT

SHOULD BE INSPECTED
TO DETERMINE THE
EXACT CAUSE.

PEELING PAINT IS A SIGN


THAT
YOU
HAVE
MOISTURE
PROBLEMS
AND WATERPROOFING
ISSUES.

THIS IS THE RESULT OF


THE DECAY PROCESS
FROM MOLD, AND DRY
ROT

BLACK FUNGUS GROWS


MOSTLY ON WALLS OR
WOODEN SURFACES,
CAUSING WOOD TO
DECAY.

MOLD AND MILDEW


FUNGUS THAT GROWS IN
DAMP AND DARK AREAS,
AND
CAUSE
DISCOLORATION,
OR
MUSTY ODORS.

Mold & Mildew


Dampness on Floor

Moisture infiltration results in Unhealthy Air + Dampness + Wall Assembly Damage

WATERPROFFING

PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR


AND CONCRETE CAN BE MADE
PRACTICALLY WATERPROOF OR
IMPERMEABLE WITHOUT THE
USE OF ANY INTEGRAL
WATERPROOFING MATERIALS;
BUT IN ORDER TO OBTAIN IT
CONSIDERABLE CARE SHOULD
BE EXERCISED IN SELECTING
GOOD MATERIALS.

SIGNS OF WATER LEAKAGES

Water Intrusion

Insulation/Vapor Barrier

WELL-GRADED SANDS CONTAINING CONSIDERABLE GRADED FINE


MATERIAL ARE PREFERABLE FOR MAKING IMPERMEABLE CONCRETE.
THE CONSISTENCY OF THE CONCRETE MIXTURE SHOULD BE WET
ENOUGH SO THAT IT CAN BE PUDDLED, MIXTURE SHOULD BE WELL
SPADED AGAINST THE FORMS TO AVOID THE FORMATION OF POCKETS
ON THE SURFACE.
CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN NOT TO OVER TROWEL.
THE USE OF EXCESSIVE WATER, CAUSES SHRINKAGE CRACKS AND
FORMATION OF LAITANCE-SEAMS.
DEFECTIVE
WORKMANSHIP
CAN
RESULT
IN
IMPROPER
PROPORTIONING, LACK OF THOROUGH MIXING ETC.

WHITE SUBSTANCE
ON BASEMENT WALLS
THIS IS A CHEMICAL
BREAKDOWN OF THE
BONDING AGENT THAT
HOLDS YOUR WALLS
TOGETHER.

RUST ON APPLIANCES
OR FURNITURE
LIKE FURNACES. RUST IS
CAUSED BY A WET
ENVIRONMENT AND IS
THE
SIGN
OF
WATERPROOFING
ISSUES.

DAMP SPOTS ON
WALLS
WATER HAS ABSORBED
THROUGH YOUR WALLS.

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

WHERE TO APPLY WATER PROOFING ?

WHAT IS A QUALITY WATERPROOFING SYSTEM?

A WATERPROOFING SYSTEM WHICH PREVENTS THE PASSAGE OF LIQUID WATER IN THE PRESENCE OF
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.
PROTECTION AS NECESSARY.
A DRAINAGE SYSTEM THAT REDUCES HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.
ACCESSORY PRODUCTS WHICH COMPLEMENT, ATTACH AND DETAIL THE WATERPROOFING AND DRAINAGE.

POSITIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING


NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING
BLIND SIDE WATERPROOFING INTERIOR
INTERIOR APPLICATIONS
EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

MATERIALS USED FOR WATER PROOFING


IT SHOULD BE IMPERVIOUS.
IT SHOULD BE STRONG AND DURABLE BE CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING BOTH DEAD AS WELL AS LIVE LOADS
WITHOUT DAMAGE.
IT SHOULD BE DIMENSIONALLY STABLE.
IT SHOULD BE FREE FROM DELIQUESCENT SALTS LIKE SULPHATES, CHLORIDES AND NITRATES.
FULL ADHESION TO SUBSTRATE: TO PREVENT LATERAL MIGRATION OF WATER BETWEEN THE
WATERPROFING MATERIAL AND SUBSTRATE.
FACTORY CONTROLLED UNIFORM THICKNESS: VARIANCE IN THICKNESS MAY LEAD TO VARIABLE
PEFORMANCE.
FLEXIBILITY OVER CRACKS: ABLE TO WIDTSTAND SUBSTRATE MOVEMENT.
1. POSITIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING
POSITIVE SIDE IS SAME SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE AS THE SOURCE OF THE WATER.
DESIGNED TO STOP WATER BEFORE IT HAS A CHANCE TO ENTER THESTRUCTURE AND CAUSE
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.
TYPICALLY THE MOST EFFECTIVE SOLUTION.
2. NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING
INTERIOR SIDE OPPOSITE THE WATER PRESSURE SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE.
3. BLIND SIDE WATERPROOFING INTERIOR
Positive side applied prior to installing the structural walls or slabs.
Typically inaccessible once the structure is complete.
4. INTERIOR APPLICATIONS
POSITIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING
SPLIT SLABS
BATHROOMS
LABORATORIES
MECHANICAL ROOMS
KITCHENS
FOUNTAINS
PLANTERS
5. INTERIOR APPLICATIONS
POSITIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING
FOUNDATION WALLS
PLAZA DECKS
TUNNELS
PARKING DECKS
BALCONIES
PARTY WALLS
BRIDGE DECKS
PLANTERS
ROOFING

WATERPROFFING

NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING


ELEVATOR PITS
RETROFIT

ADVANTAGES WATERPROOFING SYSTEM?


1. WATERPROOFING PROTECTS THE STRUCTURE

2. WATERPROOFING BRINGS CONVENIENCE

BLIND SIDE WATERPROOFING


SOIL RETENTION SYSTEMS
PARTY WALLS
CUT AND COVER TUNNELS
UNDER SLAB
ELEVATOR PITS
UNDERPINNING

THE DAMAGE TO BUILDINGS IMPOSED BY WATER IS A THREAT TO LIFE AND PROPERTY


PARTICULARLY IN THE REGIONS BEARING THE RISK OF EARTHQUAKES.
WATER LEAKING INTO THE BUILDINGS REINFORCEMENT IN ANY FORM WILL LEAD TO THE LOSS
OF QUALITY OF EQUIPMENT BY MEANS OF FREEZING OR CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
LOSS OF QUALITY OF THE REINFORCEMENT WILL RESULT IN IMPAIRED RESISTANCE AND
LONGEVITY.

PASSING THROUGH THE PORES OF THE CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS, SOIL


MOISTURE AND PRESSURIZED WATER CAUSE FORMATION OF MILDEW, BLACK SPOTS AND
FUNGAL ORGANISMS ON THE INTERIOR SURFACE.
AS A CONSEQUENCE, IT LEADS TO THE DECAY OF NATURAL INTERIOR SURFACE MATERIALS SUCH
AS WOOD, FLAKING OF PLASTER AND RUSTING OF THE IRON CURTAIN WALLS, THEREBY LEADING
TO THE DISRUPTION OF OUR CONVENIENCE.
MOISTURE AND THE ASSOCIATED MILDEW GENERATES BAD ODOR IN THE ENVIRONMENT. THIS
IS AN UNDESIRABLE EFFECT ON THE INHABITANTS.
WATERPROOFING NOT ONLY PREVENTS MOISTURE, BUT ALSO ELIMINATES BAD ODOR WHICH IS
A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON HUMAN COMFORT.

3. WATERPROOFING SAVES COST

NOWADAYS, THE STRUCTURES WHICH GAIN INCREASING ECONOMIC VALUE MUST BE LONG
LASTING. CURRENTLY, THE AVERAGE LIFE OF A GIVEN STRUCTURE IS APPROX. 50 YEARS.
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF WATER REDUCE THE LONGEVITY OF THE STRUCTURES, THEREBY
LEADING TO FINANCIAL LOSS.
WATERPROOFING WILL ALSO ELIMINATE LOSSES OF THIS KIND. THE COSTS OF WATERPROOFING
AT THE CONSTRUCTION STAGE ARE ESTIMATED AS 3 PERCENT OF THE BUILDINGS VALUE.
ROBUSTNESS OF THE BUILDINGS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT TO BE TAKEN INTO
CONSIDERATION. ACCORDINGLY, THE BENEFITS OFFERED BY WATERPROOFING ARE FAR MORE
IMPORTANT THAN THE COST

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

BASEMENT GRADES

COLD APPILIED

WET

GRADE 1 BASIC UTILITY CAR PARKING ; PLANT


ROOMS (EXCLUDING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT);
WORKSHOPS

HOT APPILIED

EASY INSTALLATION
THERMO FUSIBLE
TIME SAVING
PROBLEM IN
BONDING HAS TO BE STRONG
VERTICAL
JOINTS SHOULD OVERLAP
APPLICATION
TRAINED LABOUR REQUIRED BITUMEN BASED
ASPHALT BASED

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

CONTROLLED, GUARANTEED LAPS


THICKNESS
NO MIXING OR SPECIALIST
EQUIPMENT

COMPLEX DETAILING

TRAFFICKED IMMEDIATELY
ROBUST, SELF-REINFORCED

DAMP

DRY

GRADE 2 BETTER UTILITY PLANT ROOMS AND


WORKSHOPS REQUIRING DRIER ENVIRONMENT
THAN GRADE1

GRADE 3 HABITABLE VENTILATED RESIDENTIAL


AND COMMERCIAL AREAS INC. OFFICES,
RESTAURANTS; LEISURE CENTERS

TYPES OF WATER PROOFING :


1. SHEET MEMBRANE SYSTEM
SHEET MEMBRANE WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS ARE DESIGNED FOR ABOVE AND BELOW GRADE USE
AS WELL AS HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL APPLICATIONS.
SHEET MEMBRANES CAN BE INSTALLED UTILIZING ONE OR MORE LAYERS DEPENDING UPON THE
SYSTEM SPECIFIED.
AN ADVANTAGE THAT SHEET MEMBRANE OFFERS OVER FLUID APPLIED IS THAT IT GIVES A
GUARANTEED MEMBRANE THICKNESS THAT DOES NOT RELY ON THE INSTALLATION PROCESS.
BONDED SHEET MEMBRANES ARE GENERALLY COLD-APPLIED OR HEAT-BONDED TO THE FINISHED
STRUCTURAL WALLS. BOTH ARE MODIFIED BITUMEN ON A RANGE OF CARRIER FILMS.
THEY ARE APPLIED EXTERNALLY.
THEY ARE ATTACHED TO THE ENABLING WORKS (REVERSE TANKING) BUT SUBSEQUENTLY FULLY
BONDED, BY MEANS OF A SPECIFICALLY FORMULATED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVE, TO THE
POURED CONCRETE.
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
1. FLEXIBLE AND ABLE TO ADAPT TO MINOR MOVEMENT AND SHRINKAGE WITHIN THE
SUBSTRATE.
2. THEY ARE OF CONSISTENT THICKNESS AND QUALITY.
3. MAY PROVIDE PROTECTION AGAINST AGGRESSIVE SOILS AND GROUNDWATER WHEN
APPLIED EXTERNALLY.
4. REQUIRE GOOD SURFACE PREPARATION.
5. SUBSTRATE MUST BE FREE FROM SURFACE WATER FOR BONDING TO OCCUR.
6. GENERALLY, SUITABLE ONLY FOR UNCOMPLICATED FOUNDATION SYSTEMS SUCH AS PLAIN
RAFTS.

WATERPROFFING

MATERIALS
USED

APPLYING
BITUMEN
PRIMER

APPLYING
BITUMINOUS
FELT

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

SHEET MEMBRANE WATERPROOFING FOR


BASEMENT IN LONDON

GRAY WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE THAT CAN BE SPRAYED OR ROLLED ON. WATERPROOF PROTECTION
ABOVE AND BELOW GRADE.

MELBOURNE TORCH ON WATERPROOFING


MEMBRANE SYSTEM

IT TAKES TWO PEOPLE, ONE ON TOP TO SMOOTH


IT OUT AND STICK IT DOWN, THE OTHER ON THE
BOTTOM TO PULL OFF THE PAPER.

SELF ADHESIVE BITUMEN SHEET

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

BEING
JOINTLESS,
THEY
MAINTAIN
CONTINUITY OF MEMBRANE.
MAY BE APPLIED TO DIFFICULT SUBSTRATE
PROFILES.
ELASTIC
AND
FLEXIBLE,
THUS
ACCOMMODATING MINOR MOVEMENT
AND SHRINKAGE WITHIN THE STRUCTURE.
CAN PROTECT THE STRUCTURE AGAINST
AGGRESSIVE SOILS AND GROUNDWATER
WHEN APPLIED EXTERNALLY.
HAVE HIGH SUBSTRATE ADHESION AND
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE.
WHEN APPLIED INTERNALLY, MUST BE
RESTRAINED BY A LOADING COAT.
SUBSTRATE MUST BE FREE FROM SURFACE
WATER FOR BONDING TO OCCUR.
REQUIRES GOOD SURFACE PREPARATION.
CAREFUL APPLICATION NEEDED TO ACHIEVE

SEAMLESS

VARIABLE THICKNESS

GOOD FOR COMPLEX


GEOMETRIES

CURE TIME

QUICK COVERAGE WITH


SPRAY
APPLICATION

MIXING AND SPRAY


EQUIPMENT

MINIMAL SUBSTRATE
PREPARATION

INCONSISTENCY IN
COVERAGE

LOW IN-PLACE COST


EXCELLENT ELONGATION

CORRECT THICKNESS OF DRIED FILM.

PRECAUTION:

2. LIQUID APPLIEDS SYSTEM


FLUID-APPLIED WATERPROOF PRODUCTS ARE LIQUID COATINGS CONTAINING A BASE OF
URETHANES, RUBBERS, PLASTICS, VINYLS, POLYMERIC ASPHALTS, OR COMBINATIONS THEREOF,
WHICH ARE APPLIED TO THE SURFACE USUALLY BY SPRAYING OR ROLLING.
THE FLUID-APPLIED MEMBRANES ARE EASY TO APPLY, CONFORM TO THE SURFACE TEXTURE AND
IRREGULARITIES OF THE CONCRETE AND DO NOT HAVE SEAMS.
YOU APPLY A LIQUID MEMBRANE BY SPRAY, ROLLER, OR TROWEL.
THEY CAN BE APPLIED BOTH EXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY.
IN THE LATTER CASE, THE LOADING COAT MUST BE STRONG ENOUGH TO RESIST HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE.

WATERPROFFING

FLUID-APPLIED MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS REQUIRE


THAT THE TERMINATION OF THE MEMBRANE BE
CAREFULLY COMPLETED TO PREVENT DISBONDING
AT THE EDGE AND POTENTIAL WATER INFILTRATION.
BLISTERING WILL OCCUR IF MATERIALS ARE APPLIED
TO WET SUBSTRATES OR IF WATER FINDS ITS WAY
BEHIND THE MEMBRANE SINCE THEY ARE NONBREATHABLE COATINGS.

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

3. CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING SYSTEM :

4. DRAINAGE BOARD

CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS ARE PROBABLY THE EASIEST WATERPROOFING MATERIALS TO USE.


THEY'RE READILY AVAILABLE FROM SUPPLIERS OF MASONRY PRODUCTS, AND THEY'RE EASY TO MIX
AND APPLY.
THE CHIEF DISADVANTAGE IS THAT CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS HAVE NO GIVE TO THEM PROBABLY
BECAUSE CEMENT JUST DOESN'T STRETCH TO ANY DEGREE WORTH MENTIONING. THEY WILL STAND
UP FINE TO A HEAD OF WATER, BUT WILL TOLERATE ALMOST NO JOINT OR CRACK MOVEMENT.

CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING APPLICATIONS:

WATER TREATMENT PLANTS


SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS
BRIDGES
DAMS
RAILWAY & SUBWAY SYSTEMS
MARINE CARGO PORTS & DOCKS
RIVER LOCKS/CHANNELS & CONCRETE DYKES
PARKING STRUCTURES & LOTS
TUNNELS

FEATURES AND BENEFITS:

DESIGNED FOR NEGATIVE WATER PRESSURE


ELIMINATES WATER MIGRATION VERTICALLY
GOOD AS SOLUTION TO COMPLEX DETAILS
IDEAL AS REMEDIAL SOLUTION
PROVIDES EXCELLENT IMPERMEABLE COATING
HEAVY DUTY WATERPROOF COATING
GOOD ADHESION WITH CEMENTITIOUS SURFACES
APPLIED FOR POSITIVE & NEGATIVE SIDES OF
WATERPROOFING
EASILY BRUSH APPLIED
FLEXIBLE ENOUGH TO TAKE CARE OF MINOR CRACKS IN
CONCRETE & PLASTER
DURABLE & ECONOMICAL
NON-FLAMMABLE
APPLICATION TOOLS EASILY WASHED IN WATER
AVAILABLE IN PRE-PACKED, READY-TO-USE CONTAINERS

PRECAUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS:


MUST BE PROTECTED FROM FOOT TRAFFIC & OTHER PHYSICAL ABUSE.
DO NOT POND WITH WATER IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE 2ND COAT. ALLOW IT AIR TO CURE FOR
ATLEAST 72 HOURS.
PRE-WETTING OF THE SUBSTRATE IS ESSENTIAL BEFORE COATING.
FILM THICKNESS OF 1 TO 1.2 MM MUST BE ACHIEVED IN 2 COATS. FOR A CRITICAL AREAS 1.5 MM
THICK FILM IS RECOMMENDED TO BE ACHIEVED IN 3 COATS.
MUST BE APPLIED ON TOTALLY CURED SURFACE.
DO NOT UNDERTAKE APPLICATION IN HOT SUN (ABOVE 300C) AND BELOW 100C.
DO NOT DILUTE PRODUCT WITH WATER AT SITE.

WATERPROFFING

DIMPLED DRAIN BOARDS CREATE A 1INCH AIR SPACE NEXT TO THE


CONCRETE FOUNDATION

DRAINAGE SHEETS COME WITH AN INTEGRAL


TERMINATION STRIP.

ANOTHER APPROACH TO WATERPROOFING WITH APPLIED


SHEET MATERIALS IS TO USE DRAINAGE BOARDS, WITH OR
WITHOUT WATERPROOFING ON THE CONCRETE WALL.
WATERPROOFING MEMBRANES ARE A CRITICAL
COMPONENT FOR KEEPING BASEMENTS DRY.
THESE DIMPLED PLASTIC SHEETS ARE AVAILABLE FROM
SEVERAL MANUFACTURERS AND COME IN VARIOUS
LENGTH ROLLS, RANGING FROM 4 FEET TO 9 FEET 9
INCHES TALL.
THE DIMPLED SIDE IS PLACED TOWARD THE FOUNDATION
AND HOLDS THE SHEET ABOUT INCH FROM THE WALL.
A TERMINATION STRIP IS ATTACHED TO THE WALL AT THE
TOP. THE PLASTIC SERVES AS A WATERPROOFING
MEMBRANE, KEEPING WATER FROM PENETRATING TO THE
SURFACE OF THE WALL, AND AS PROTECTION FOR THE
MEMBRANE ON THE WALL DURING BACKFILLING. ANY
WATER THAT MAY GET THROUGH (BY
CONDENSATION OR LEAKAGE) CAN
TRICKLE DOWN TO THE FOUNDATION
DRAINS THROUGH THE SPACE FORMED
BY THE DIMPLES.

SOME
DIMPLE
DRAIN
PRODUCTS
UTILIZE
A
FASTENING STRIP AT THE
UPPER TERMINATION TO
PREVENT WATER FROM
GETTING BEHIND THE
MEMBRANE AT GRADE.

SOME DRAINAGE BOARDS INCORPORATE SOLID MATERIALS THAT ARE POROUS ENOUGH TO ALLOW
WATER TO FLOW DOWN WHILE SUPPLYING SOME INSULATING VALUE TO THE WALL. STILL OTHERS USES
TWISTED OR DEFORMED WIRE COVERED WITH A FILTER FABRIC TO PROVIDE THE DRAINAGE SPACE.
SOME OTHER ARE MADE FROM FIBERGLASS AND RESIN. OTHERS ARE MADE FROM EXPANDED
POLYSTYRENE (EPS) FOAM, FLEXIBLE CLOSED-CELL FOAM, AND EVEN MINERAL WOOL. PANELS ARE
USUALLY AVAILABLE WITH A GEOTEXTILE FACE ON ONE SIDE.

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

5. BENTONITE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM :

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH BENTONITE WATERPROOFING?

BENTONITE IS A TYPE OF CLAY HAVING THE


UNUSUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COHESION,
BINDING, SEALING, AND THICKENING.
WHEN INSTALLED AS A WATERPROOFING
MEMBRANE, IT BECOMES HYDRATED WITH THE
MOISTURE THAT IS NATURALLY PRESENT IN THE
SOIL AND FORMS AN IMPERMEABLE BARRIER THAT
ABSORBS AND EXPELS WATER.
IT CAN EXPAND AND CONTRACT AND IS CAPABLE
OF ABSORBING SEVEN TO 10 TIMES ITS OWN
WEIGHT IN WATER, SWELLING UP TO 18 TIMES ITS
DRY VOLUME.
TO FUNCTION PROPERLY AS A WATERPROOFING
BARRIER, IT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT THAT THIS
BARRIER REMAIN UNDER A CONSTANT MINIMUM
PRESSURE OF 30 TO 60 POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT.
BENTONITE HAS ENJOYED A STEADY UPSURGE IN
POPULARITY OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS.
WHEN IT REACHES ITS MAXIMUM VOLUME, IT
STAYS IN THESE AREAS PERMANENTLY TO SEAL
AGAINST WATER.
WITH OTHER PRODUCTS, YOU CAN INSPECT THE FINISHED WATERPROOFING APPLICATION AND
CONFIRM THE INTEGRITY OF THE SEAL BEFORE BACKFILLING. WITH BENTONITE PANELS, THE SEAL
DOESN'T FORM UNTIL THE FOUNDATION IS BACKFILLED AND WATER REACHES THE PANEL.

BEFORE AGREEING TO HAVE YOUR FOUNDATION TREATED WITH BENTONITE, ITS IMPORTANT TO KNOW
ABOUT CERTAIN LIMITATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES.
INCOMPLETE COVERAGE.
LIKE ANY EXTERIOR COATING, BENTONITE CAN ONLY PROVIDE EFFECTIVE PROTECTION AGAINST
WATER INTRUSION IF THE APPLICATION IS PERFECTLY DONE. SMALL GAPS, MISSED SPOTS AND
THIN COVERAGE ARE APPLICATION ERRORS THAT WILL ALLOW GROUND WATER TO ENTER THE
BASEMENT.
THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE WHEN BENTONITE IS INJECTED INTO THE SOIL RATHER THAN APPLIED IN
SHEET FORM.
EXTERIOR EXCAVATION.
FOR FULL COVERAGE WITH BENTONITE, YOUR FOUNDATION MUST BE COMPLETELY EXCAVATED.
BRINGING HEAVY EQUIPMENT ONTO YOUR PROPERTY CAN BE DESTRUCTIVE TO YOUR YARD AND
LANDSCAPING; IT ALSO TURNS YOUR PROPERTY INTO A MAJOR CONSTRUCTION SITE.
CARE MUST BE TAKEN NOT TO DAMAGE THE FOUNDATION DURING THE EXCAVATION PROCESS.
WATER LEAKAGE FROM INSIDE THE FOUNDATION.
BENTONITE APPLIED TO FOUNDATION WALLS CANT PREVENT WATER FROM ENTERING YOUR
BASEMENT ALONG THE MOST COMMON LEAK AREA: THE CRACK BETWEEN THE BASEMENT SLAB
FLOOR AND THE BASEMENT WALL. DURING WET WEATHER, HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE CAN
EASILY FORCE WATER UP THROUGH CRACKS IN THE BASEMENT FLOOR AND ALONG THE FLOORTO-WALL JOINT.
INTERIOR DRAIN AND SUMP PUMP SYSTEMS ARE BETTER ABLE TO PROVIDE WATERPROOFING
PROTECTION BECAUSE THEY ALLEVIATE WATER PRESSURE RATHER THAN CAUSING IT TO
INCREASE.

ALSO KNOWN AS
BENTONITE WATERPROOFING GOES
BY OTHER NAMES, LIKE HYDROCLAY
SODIUM
BENTONITE
AND
GRANULAR BENTONITE.

APPLICATIONS:

BENTONITE CAN BE USED UNDER STRUCTURAL OR


NON-STRUCTURAL CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS,
ON BELOW-GRADE FOUNDATION WALLS,
BETWEEN SLAB APPLICATIONS,
UNDER SLAB APPLICATIONS,
FOR ZERO PROPERTY LINE CONSTRUCTION, AND
ALONG TUNNELS AND SUBWAY WALLS.

ADVANTAGES:
SELF-HEALING.
PREVENTS
TRACKING
OF
WATER
BETWEEN
MEMBRANE AND CONCRETE SURFACES.
RESISTANCE TO HYDROSTATIC WATER HEAD OF 46 M.
OVER 100 YEARS OF LIFE EXPECTATION.
HIGH PUNCTURE RESISTANCE.
NON-TOXIC AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY.
QUICK AND EASY INSTALLATION OVER GREEN
CONCRETE
DOES NOT REQUIRE PRIMING AND HEAT WELDING.
INSTALLATION TEMPERATURE -30C TO +55C.
1. WATER ENTERS
2. BENTONITE HYDRATES PREVENTING FURTHER WATER PENETRATION
3. NO TRACKING OF WATER BETWEEN MEMBRANE AND CONCRETE

WATERPROFFING

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

COMPACTED AND LEVEL SOIL


CONCRETE BLINDING LAYER
BENTONITE MEMBRANE
OPTIONAL CONCRETE PROTECTION LAYER, FOR LOAD DISTRIBUTION
REINFORCED CONCRETE BASE
BENTONITE WATERSTOP
VERTICAL WALL

EXPENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE. INSTALLING A


BENTONITE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM ON
AN EXISTING HOUSE USUALLY CALLS FOR
COMPLETE
EXCAVATION
OF
THE
FOUNDATION. INTERIOR DRAIN AND SUMP
PUMP SYSTEMS ARE MORE AFFORDABLE
AND ALSO MORE EFFECTIVE.

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

DETAILS OF WATERPROOFING OPTIONS AND FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION

INTERNAL WATERPROOFING

EXTERNAL WATERPROOFING

EXTERNAL (REVERSE) WATERPROOFING

SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE MAY ALSO BE APPROPRIATE FOR PREVENTING OR LESSENING THE RISK OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
REACHING THE EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM.

DRAINED CAVITY WITH INTEGRAL PROTECTION

DRAINED CAVITY WITH INTEGRAL PROTECTION AND EXTERNAL


WATERPROOFING

WATERPROOFING

SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE POSITIONING


MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

WATERPROOFING LAS VEGAS MCCARRAN INTERNATIONAL


AIRPORTS NEW TERMINAL 3
PRODUCTS USED :

GRACE PREPRUFE

PRE-APPLIED WATERPROOFING SYSTEMGRACE

BITUTHENE SELF-ADHESIVE MEMBRANE


WATERPROOFING HYDRODUCT
DRAINAGE COMPOSITE SYSTEMS

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY THE


CLIENT AND CONSULTANT

GRACE PREPRUFE PRE-APPLIED WATERPROOFING


SYSTEM

GRACE BITUTHENE SELF-ADHESIVE MEMBRANE


WATERPROOFING

SELECTION
OF
AN
EFFECTIVE
WATERPROOFING SYSTEM FOR A STRUCTURE
TAKING ALL THE PERFORMANCE CRITERIA OF
THE STRUCTURE INTO ACCOUNT AND ALSO
TAKING INTO THE CONSIDERATION, THE
PERFORMANCE OF THE MATERIALS IN THE
SYSTEM IS OF PRIME IMPORTANCE FOR ANY
SUCCESS OF THE WATERPROOFING JOB.
WATERPROOFING JOBS AWARDED TO
WATERPROOFING CONTRACTORS PURELY ON
ECONOMICAL
PRICE
CONSIDERATIONS
OFTEN FAIL.
IT IS ALWAYS ADVISABLE TO INVOLVE THE ARCHITECT OR THE STRUCTURAL ENGINEER IN SELECTION OF A
SYSTEM AND REQUISITE PERFORMANCE GUARANTEES SHOULD BE TAKEN FROM THE CONTRACTORS.
IT IS BETTER TO AVOID BARGAINING FOR THE JOB VALUE OUT OF CONTRACTORS MARGINS. THIS COULD
RESULT IN STRETCHING THE PRODUCT BEYOND THE COVERAGE SPECIFIED BY THE MANUFACTURER OR
SUBSTITUTION OF CHEAPER MATERIAL IN THE SYSTEM TO COVER THE COST.
ALWAYS SUPERVISE THE JOB AND THE INCOMING MATERIALS FOR THE INTACT TAMPERPROOF SEALS
AND QUANTITIES.
USE THE SERVICES OF AN ENGINEER OR ARCHITECT IN SELECTION OF MATERIALS. THAT TOO ONLY
PROCURED FROM WELL KNOW MANUFACTURING FIRM.

FAILURE OF WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS

GRACE BITUTHENE DECK PREP

GRACE BITUTHENE SELF-ADHESIVE MEMBRANE &


GRACE HYDRODUCT DRAINAGE COMPOSITE

THE STATION AND THE TUNNEL COMPRISE


THE EARLY SITE PACKAGE OF THE
TERMINAL 3 PROJECT AND REPRESENT
ABOUT
600,000
SQUARE FEET
OF
EXCAVATION
AND
CONSTRUCTION,
REQUIRING 275,000 SQ. FT. OF PREPRUFE
AND 370,000 SQ. FT. OF BITUTHENE
WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE ALONG WITH
HYDRODUCT DRAINAGE COMPOSITE.

ESPECIALLY IN LARGE BUILDINGS, WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS FAIL IF THE CONTROL JOINTS ARE NOT IN
POSITION OR NOT PROPERLY EXECUTED AND MAINTAINED. THIS FAILURE OCCURS EVEN AFTER ONE
COMPLETE YEAR WHEN THE STRUCTURE HAS PASSED THROUGH ONE COMPLETE SUMMER AND THE
WINTER CYCLE. ONE CANT REPAIR THIS TYPE OF FAILURES. IT NEEDS A DIFFERENT TYPE OF APPROACH
INVOLVING PROVISION OF CRACK INDUCER JOINTS AND THEN TACKLING THE WATERPROOFING IN
MOVEMENT RESTRICTED BAYS.
APPLICATION OF A WATERPROOFING PRODUCT IN NON-SPECIFIED AREAS, SUCH AS USING A CRYSTALLINE
WATERPROOFING SYSTEM IN WATERPROOFING THE TERRACE OR USING A FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM
IN THE WATER TANK RESULTS IN FAILURES EVEN THOUGH THE PRODUCTS THEMSELVES MAY BE GENUINE.
STRETCHING THE COVERAGE OF THE PRODUCTS BEYOND THE SPECIFIED LIMITS BY THE MANUFACTURER
RESULTS IN INEFFICIENCY OF THE PRODUCT AND HENCE A FAILURE.

CONCLUSION

GRACE PREPRUFE PRE-APPLIED WATERPROOFING SYSTEM

GENERALLY, ARCHITECTS IN INDIA, DO NOT SPECIFY IN DEPTH WATERPROOFING DETAILS AND LEAVE THIS
ASPECT GENERALLY TO IGNORANT CLIENT TO CHOSE WHATEVER SYSTEM HE LIKES, AND MANY
STRUCTURAL DESIGNERS GIVE LEAST IMPORTANCE TO THE CONTROL JOINTS. AS A RESULT OF THIS, MANY
SYSTEMS HAVE FAILED IN SEVERAL PRESTIGIOUS BUILDINGS AND THE BLAME WENT TO WATERPROOFING
CONTRACTORS OR THE PRODUCT MANUFACTURER.
THERE IS A NEED FOR THE ARCHITECTS AND THE STRUCTURAL DESIGNERS TO UNDERSTAND THE VARIOUS
SYSTEMS AVAILABLE AND SPECIFY THEM CLEARLY AND IN SUFFICIENT DETAIL, TAKING INTO
CONSIDERATION THE IN-SERVICE CONDITIONS OF THE STRUCTURE.
THE CLIENT SHOULD ALSO INSIST ON THE ARCHITECT TO PROVIDE WATERPROOFING DESIGN DETAILS IN
ADVANCE SO THAT NO AMBIGUITY REMAINS TILL THE END. THIS WOULD GIVE ENOUGH TIME IN
SELECTING THE SPECIFIED MATERIAL.

WATERPROOFING

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

R
E
F
E
R
E
N
C
E
S

https://www.commonfloor.com/guide/what-is-waterproofing-types-and-advantages20867.html
http://www.nbmcw.com/articles/waterproofing-construction-chemicals/262waterproofing-an-overview.html
http://www.ode.com.tr/waterproofing/
http://constructionduniya.blogspot.in/2012/02/waterproofing-of-buildings.html
https://grace.com/construction/engb/Documents/A_Guide_to_Structural_Waterproofing_Substructures_final_doc_2012_BJ_
Brooks_.pdf#search=WATERPROOFING
https://leakybasementfixer.wordpress.com/2011/08/23/non-invasive-waterproofingmethods/
http://www.rpmbelgium.be/functions/products.asp?pnav=;3;27;&pcat=;&pcat2=;95;&product=20&Page=1
http://www.basementsystems.com/basement-waterproofing/bentonitewaterproofing.html
http://www.cirtex.co.nz/files/file/170/Bentofix+for+Building+Waterproofing.pdf
http://www.concretenetwork.com/foundation-waterproofing-drainage/drainageboards.html
http://www.waterproofmag.com/back_issues/200711/drainage.php
http://www.slideshare.net/KrytonIntl/integral-crystalline-waterproofing-technology
http://nbmcw.com/articles/waterproofing-construction-chemicals/22758-a-review-ofwaterproofing-systems.html
https://grace.com/construction/engb/Documents/A_Guide_to_Structural_Waterproofing_Substructures_final_doc_2012_BJ_
Brooks_.pdf#search=WATERPROOFING

WATERPROOFING

MANAS ARORA 3RD YEAR - B

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