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Chapter 10

Human Biology 1:
THE MUSCULARSKELETAL SYSTEM

10.1 Human Skeletal System


The human skeleton is an internal framework
Bones
In adults = 206 ________
(hard, whitish tissue)
Cartilage
Skeleton also consists of ___________
Dense connective tissue, made of tough protein
fibers
Provides smooth surface for the movement of
Joints
bones at __________
Ligaments
Skeleton also consists of ___________
Bands of fibrous connective tissue
Hold bones together and keep them in one place

10.1 Continued
The skeleton supports the body & gives it shape Muscles are
connected to
Other functions include:
bones they
Internal
organs
work hand in
Protecting ____________________
Providing attachment surfaces for muscles hand
Blood cells
Producing ______________
Storing minerals
Mineral homeostasis
Maintaining _______________________
Calcium
Just the right levels of __________
& other minerals
are needed in the blood for normal functioning of the
body
High
When levels too ______
in blood- bones absorb &
store as mineral salts (why bones are so hard)
Low
When levels are too _____
in blood- bones release
some of the minerals

The Human Skeleton

10.2 Structure of Bones


Bones
Living
Very much ____________
Constantly making new bone tissue (which is made
up of cells) b/c we constantly get rid of bone
Blood and nerves
Full of ____________________
& all sorts of
cells and proteins
Bone matrix
Basic structure is _______________
Makes up the underlying framework
Spongy
Compact
Has both __________
(outer) & __________
(middle) bone

10.2 Continued
Bone Matrix
Consists of tough protein fibers, mainly
Collagen
_________
Become hard & rigid due to mineralization with
calcium crystals
Crisscrossed
__________________by
blood vessels &
nerves
Contains specialized bone cells that are actively
Metabolic
involved in ______________
processes

10.2 Continued
Bone Cells
3 types of specialized cells in human bones
Osteoblasts
1) ______________
Make new bone cells
Collagen
Secrete ___________
that mineralizes
to become bone matrix
Bone growth
Responsible for ______________
&
uptake of minerals from the blood
Absorbtion

10.2 Continued
Osteocytes
2) ____________
Mineral homeostasis
Regulate ______________________

Direct the uptake of minerals from the blood & the


release of minerals back into the blood as needed

3) ____________
Osteoclasts
Dissolve minerals in bone matrix & release them
Blood
back into the ________
Under the direction of osteocytes, osteoblasts
continuously build up bone, while osteoclasts
continuously break in down

10.2 Continued
Bone Tissues
Compact
__________
bone
Dense outer layer of bone
Osteon
Functional unit is the _______
Very hard and strong
Spongy
__________
bone
Found inside bones
Lighter & less dense than compact bone
porous

10.2 Continued
Bone marrow
_________________
Soft connective tissue that produces
Blood cells
________________
Found inside the central cavity as
Yellow
___________
bone marrow
Fats
Essentially stored _____
brought into
your bones by the blood
Found inside the head of the bone as
Red
_____
bone marrow
Blood cells
Produces our ______________

10.2 Continued
Periosteum
_____________
Tough, fibrous membrane that covers &
protects the outer surfaces of bone

10.3 Growth & Development of


Bones
How do bones grow?
From their ends, where they have cartilage
7-10
Human skeleton replaced every ________
years
Growth & Development of Bones
Cartilage
Human fetus skeleton entirely ___________
(firm, flexible connective tissue) early on
Eventually hardens into bone through process
Ossification
called ________________
Mineral deposits replace cartilage

10.3 Continued
Ossification of long bones (arms & legs) begins at the

Ends
Center
_______
of the bones
& continues toward the ____

By birth, some cartilage still remains in the skeleton


Growth plates
Such as ____________
at the end of long bones
This cartilage grows as the long bones grow
Allows bones to keep increasing in length during
childhood
Maturity
Late teens/early twenties = skeletal ______
reached
All of the cartilage has been replaced by bone
Bones will not increase in length but can still
Thickness
increase in ____________

10.4 Skeletal System Joints


Joint
A _______
is a place where
two bones of the skeleton meet.
Levers
Work like mechanical ______
with the help of muscles
The surfaces of bones at joints
are covered with a smooth layer
Cartilage
of __________
that reduces
friction at the points of contact
between the bones
absorber
Shock ___________

10.4 Continued
Types of Joints
Three main types
Immovable joints
1) ____________
Joints
Bones at these joints
held securely together
Collagen
by dense ________
Ex: bones of the
skull
________

10.4 Continued
Partly movable
2) _________________
Joints
Limited
Only very __________
movement
Cartilage
Bones held in place by ___________
Ribs
Sternum
Ex: _____
and ___________
connected
by partly movable joints

10.4 Continued
Synovial
Movable
3) ________
Joints/ __________
Joints
Space between bone filled with thick fluid
Synovial
called ___________
fluid
Cushions
__________
the joint along with cartilage
Most
Allow the ______
movement
Bones at these joints connected by
Ligaments
__________
Connect bone to bone
Most common
______________type
of joints in body
Ex: Pivot, hinge, ball-and-socket

10.4 Continued
Ball and socket joints
___________________joints
Ex: shoulders & hips
Greatest range of motion
Allows movement in several directions/planes
Hinge
_________
joints
Ex: elbows & knees
Allows movement along a single plane
Pivot
________
joints

Allow for the rotation


Ex: bones of the forearm

Movable Joints

10.6 Smooth, Skeletal & Cardiac


Muscles
Muscular
The ___________
system consists of all of the
muscles of the body
Composed mainly of muscle cells (also called
Muscle fibers
_____________)
Long
Thin
Each muscle fiber ______
& _____
Contract
It can _________
or shorten
Responsible for virtually all the movements of
the body
Three types of muscle tissue in the human body
Skeletal, smooth, Cardiac
_________________________
Found in the organs

10.6 Continued

Smooth
__________
Muscle

Sheets
Arranged in ________,
not striated

Organs
Found in walls of internal ________

Ex: stomach, intestines

Contraction helps organs carry out their functions

Ex: stomach squeezing food

Involuntary
Contractions ____________

10.6 Continued
Skeletal
___________
Muscle
Bone
Muscle tissue that is attached to ____
(move bone)
Striated
Appear ________/striped
because cells arranged
in bundles
Voluntary
_____________
contractions
Most common
_______________type
in human body

10.6 Continued
Cardiac
_________
Muscle
Also appears striated or striped
Only found in the walls of the
Heart
_______
Contraction causes heart beats
Blood
and pumps _______
Contains a lot of
Mitochondria
_____________
(ATP)
Helps the heart resist fatigue
Involuntary
_____________
contractions

10.7 Skeletal Muscles


Well over 600 skeletal muscles in the human body
Skeletal suckles is the
most common type of
muscle in the body

10.7 Continued
Structure of Skeletal Muscles
Each muscle consists of hundreds or thousands of
Muscle fibers / muscle cell
skeletal _____________
Fibers bundled together & wrapped in
Connective tissue
________________
Supports & protects the delicate muscle cells
and allows them to withstand forces of
contraction
Nerves
Provides pathways for ______________
blood vessels
__________
to reach the muscles

10.7 Continued
Skeletal Muscles & Bones
Skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton (bones)
Tendons
by tough connective tissues called __________
Many skeletal muscles are attached to the ends of
Joint
bones that meet at a ________
When muscles contract, they pull on the bones,
causing them to move
Contract
Muscles can only _________
(dont actively
extend/lengthen)
Antagonistic
The muscles will work in _____________
pairs
(working in opposition)

10.8 Muscle Contraction


What makes a muscle contract?
Starts with a signal from the
Nervous system
__________________
(brain)
Goes through nervous system to your muscle
Muscle contracts and moves bone

Muscle contraction occurs when muscle fibers get


Shorter
__________

10.8 Continued
Structure of Muscle Fibers
Each muscle fiber contains hundreds of organelles
Myofibrils
called ___________
Myofibrils made up of two types of protein filaments
Actin
________
filament
Thinner
Z
Anchored to structures called ___
lines
Region between Z lines is called a sarcomere
Myosin
________
filament
thicker

10.8 Continued
Within a sarcomere, myosin filaments overlap the actin
filaments
Myosin filaments have tiny structures called
Cross Bridge
______________that
can attach to actin filaments

10.8 Continued

Sliding filament
________________Theory

Most widely accepted theory explaining how muscle fibers

contract
Myosin
________
filaments use energy from ATP to walk along
the actin filaments with their cross bridges
Z
The movement of the actin filaments pulls the ____
lines
closer together, shortening the sarcomere
Sarcomeres
When all ___________
in a muscle fiber shorten, the
fiber contracts
The number of fibers that contact determines the strength
of the muscular force
When more fibers contract at the same time, the force is
Greater
___________

10.8 Continued
Muscles need a stimulus from a nerve cells to tell
them to contract
Ex:
Raising your hand
Brain sends electrical message to nerve cells
Motor
called _______
neurons in arm and
shoulder
Motor neurons stimulate muscle fibers in arm
& shoulder to contact, causing arm to raise