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Examining the Issues

First candidate
There will be no simple or
quick solution towards any of
our political or economic
problems.
We will need to put people
back to work for low wages,
but by doing so will allow our
economy to eventually
recover.
We will also continue to pay
high taxes so we can provide
for the poor, elderly and sick.
To avoid reckless military
spending, we will continue
not to possess a navy or air
force just as we promised in
the Versailles treaty.
Mostly importantly however,
we will continue to be a good
neighboring country and
honor our debts and treaty
commitments.

Second candidate
Do you remember Germanys
long and glorious past?
To this point our present
leadership is indecisive and
has been failing our people!
We are in need of a strong
and effective leader; not one
who will allow our country to
look weak towards our
enemies!
It is needed for us to rebuild
the army that once was so
powerful to protect against all
of our enemies!
To regain lands taken unfairly
from us by Britain and France!
To make sacrifices in our lives
so we can return to economic
health and to put the welfare
of the state above all!
Doing this will make our
country a super power once
again!

Examining the Issues


What strategy does each
candidate have for solving the
nations problems?
How does each candidate view
the role of the citizens in
meeting the challenges facing
the nation?
Which candidate makes the
strongest appeal to the
listeners emotions?

Years of Crisis

The World Between


the Wars
1919 -1939

Postwar
Uncertainty
AIM: The postwar period was one of loss and
uncertainty but also one of invention,
creativity and new ideas

Science Challenges Old Ideas

New ideas and


patterns of life
developed in the
1920s that changed
the way people
looked at the world

Theory of Relativity

In 1905,
Albert Einstein
____________________

theorized that while the

speed of light is constant,

other things that seem

constant, such as space &

time, are not = the

replacement of Newtons

absolute laws of motion

and gravity

Freudian Psychology

Sigmund Freud
________________

believed that much

of human behavior

is irrational, or

beyond reason

He called the

irrational section

the _____________
Unconscious

Thinkers React to Uncertainties

Some philosophers such as


Jean Paul Sartre
________________________
Karl Jaspers
_______________turned
to
Existentialism
___________________

Existentialists believed that

there is no universal meaning

to life


Therefore, each person gives

their own meaning to life

through their actions &

choices
Friedrich Nietzsche
________________________

urged a return of ancient

heroic values of pride and

strength instead of democracy

and progress = ideas had a

huge impact on politics in Italy

and Germany

Rebellion in the Arts


Artists tried to show
the inner world of
emotion &
imagination rather
than realistic
representations of
objects
Cubism
________________
objects are broken
down into different
parts with sharp
angles and edges

Rebellion in the Arts

Dada movement
The_________________

1916 - 1924
(____________)
preached

that
established
values

had been made

meaningless by the

savagery of World War I

Dada
Hobbyhorse
______=
___________

These works were meant

to be nonsensical and

meaningless

____________

Surrealism beyond or above


____________________

________
Reality
link the
world of dreams with real
life

The Persistence of Memory,


Salvador Dali, 1931

Rebellion in the Arts


Frank Lloyd wright
Architects like ______________
started creating buildings that
was functional & not as complex
Composers such as
Igor Stravinsky
_______________
used irregular
rhythms & harsh sounds
In the United States,
Jazz
Lovely loose beats
___________(______________)
dominated the music scene

Society Becomes More Open


Before

After

Gibson girl
______
______

Flapper
_______

Young people were


willing now to go
off & have some fun
Women were given
the right to vote ,
wore makeup, drove
cars, drank &
smoked in public!

Technology Changes Life


Automobiles
saw
technological
improvements &
sleeker designs
After the war,
mass production
allowed for
cheaper prices
Autos allowed
for vacationing
& suburbs

Technology Changes Life


Airplanes were
improved as well
Charles Lindbergh
_____________
_____________
flew 33 hour solo
flight from NY to
Paris
Amelia Earhart
_____________
became the 1st
woman to fly
across the
Atlantic Ocean

Technology changes life


Gugleilmo Marconi
__________________
conducted the 1st
successful
experiments w/ the
radio in 1895
KDKA
By 1920, _________in
Pittsburgh, PA became
the 1st radio station
In Britain the BBC
British broadcasting company
(________________)
was a public monopoly

Technology changes life


Movies turn into
a major industry
Hollywood
_____________
will produce 90%
of all films
Stars like
Charlie Chaplin
______________
& Rudolph
Valentino
emerged
Sounds enters
the movies as
well in the 1920s

A Worldwide
Depression
AIM: An economic depression
in the United States spread
throughout the world and
lasted a decade

Europe After the War


World War I left every
major European country
bankrupt
European nations were
counting on loans from
the United States to
help rebuild
Many new governments
were tinkering with
democracy. Many were
forced to form coalition
governments
Coalition government
__________________=
temporary alliance of
several parties, was
needed to form a
parliamentary majority

Weimar Republic is Weak


Germanys government was
Weimar Republic
known as the ______________&
showed many weaknesses
Germany did not have a democratic
tradition
Too many political parties (major
and minor)
Germans saw the Weimar Republic
as the ones to blame for WWI since
they signed the peace treaty of
Versailles

Inflation crisis in Germany

Germany did not raise


wartime taxes & just
printed more money
This money lost value
due to reparation
payments after the
Germans were
defeated in WWI
Germany continued to
print more money to
repay its debts
The money was
worthless &
Inflation
_____________
set in

Inflation crisis in Germany


Charles Dawes
_________________,
an
American banker, initiated a
200 million dollar
______________loan
from
American banks to help stop the
rapid inflation
The German economy began to
recover and began to attract
more loans and investments from
the US

Efforts at a Lasting Peace


1925 Germany & France signed a
treaty promising never to make
war against each other again
- Briand pact
1928 Kellogg
____________________
agreement to renounce war as an
instrument of national policy
These agreements had no means
to enforce it
League of Nations had no arm forces
(__________________________),
but it was a good start

The Great Depressionweaknesses in the U.S. economy

U.S. factories were producing a


enormous amount of goods
Despite prosperity, three weaknesses
caused problems:

Uneven distribution of wealth 60 % of


American families earned $2000 a year.
Overproduction by business and agriculture
Lessening demand for consumer goods = less
people bought goods = less need of
production of goods = less need for
employees = unemployment and no chance to
earn profit

The Great Depressionweaknesses in the U.S. Economy


Farmers were faced
with overproduction
Farmers had to deal
with competition
overseas
Farmers could not pay
back debts from bank
loans, which hurt the
banks as well

The Stock Market Crashes


The U.S. stock
market saw rising
prices with no end in
sight
People began buying
Margin
stock on _________
Pay a small portion
of the stock &
borrow the rest
from a stockbroker

The Stock Market Crashes


By 1929, investors
began to sell their
stocks
As prices
decreased, more &
more people
started selling their
stocks (________
in one day!)
_______________
_______________
the day the stock
market crashed

The Great Depression


Billions of dollars
in paper wealth
just disappeared
Stocks were
worthless coupled
with more
unemployment led
to the
______________
By 1933,
______________
people were out of
work

Images of the Depression

A Global Depression
American bankers
began to call in their
loans from Europe
The government
placed __________
so people would buy
American goods
World trade dropped
dramatically &
European countries
economies were left
in ruin

The World responds to the Depression


The British government
placed high tariffs,
increased taxes,
regulated currency &
lowered interest rates.
This helped to bring
about a slow & steady
recovery
France was more selfsufficient & was not hit
as hard. Unemployment
was high but kept a
somewhat stable
democratic government

Recovery in the United States


_______________
______________
is elected
president in 1932
His program for
recovery is known
as the _________
The New Deal
spent public
money to
stimulate the
economy

Fascism rises in
Europe
AIM: In response to
political turmoil and
economic crises, Italy
and Germany turned to
totalitarian dictators

Fascist Beliefs & Politics


_____________
Emphasized loyalty to
the state & obedience
to its leader
Fascist leaders
promised to bring back
prosperous times
Does not follow a clear
set of ideologies as
compared with
communism

Fascism vs. Communists


Fascism
Ruled by a
dictator with
one party rule
State was
supreme, no
individual rights
No democracy
Every class has
a purpose
Extreme
nationalists

Communism
Ruled by a
dictator with one
party rule
State was
supreme, no
individual rights
No democracy
Wanted a
classless society
Internationalists,
unite workers
worldwide

Mussolini comes to Power in Italy


________________
promised to bring
Italy back to
greatness
His
______________
began to eliminate
his opposition
Mussolini takes
charge & becomes
________________
(the leader)

Hitler takes control in Germany


_____________
& the National
Socialist German
Workers Party
(_______) began
to gain
popularity in
Germany
The
_____________
(____________)
was its symbol =
good-luck
symbol

Hitler takes Control in Germany


Hitler quickly became ________
(leader) of the Nazis which used
the ______________as its private
militia
Hitler tried to gain control of the
government, failed & was arrested
While in jail, Hitler wrote
_____________ (___________)
It will become the Nazi blueprint

Hitlers Beliefs
Germans were the
Aryans
___________or
the
Master race
_________________
The Versailles Treaty
was an outrage & the
lands lost should & will
be taken back
Germany needed
Lebensraums
__________________
(living space). He
wanted to conquer
eastern Europe &
Russia

Hitler in Charge

Hitler becomes
chancellor of
Germany legally &
eventually turns
Germany into a
dictatorship
SS
Hitler used the ___
(Schutzstaffel,
protection squad) &
Gestapo
the __________
(secret police) to
eliminate enemies &
gain obedience
Hitler took complete
control of the
economy as well

Hitler in Charge
Hitler shaped
every aspect of
German life
Propaganda
was everywhere
Children were
forced to join
the
Hitler youth
__________
(for boys) or
the
League of German girls
_____________

War on the Jews


Anti semitism
______________
(hatred of Jews)
was a key part of
Nazi ideology
Jews were used as
scapegoats for
Germanys
problems
Kristallnacht
________________
( night of the broken glass )
(______________)

German mobs
attacked &
destroyed Jewish
owned buildings

1936 Olympics
The 36 Olympics
were held in
Berlin & Hitler
planned to show
off the superior
Aryan race
African-American
runner
Jesse Owens
______________
ruined Hitlers
plans

Aggressors
Invade Nations

AIM: As Germany, Italy, and


Japan conquered other
countries, the rest of the
world did nothing to stop
them

World Drifts Towards War


Japanese militarists gained
control of the country using the
depression problems to gain
support
These militarists wanted to create
a giant Japanese empire for raw
materials & markets for goods.
Manchuria
Japan invaded ___________
for
Coal and iron
its _________

World Drifts Towards War


The League of
Nations condemned
the actions of
Japan, but had no
power to do
anything about it
Then, Mussolini
wanted an empire of
his own & invaded
Ethiopia
_______
to start
that empire
Hitler was also
beginning to
increase the army of
Germany

World Drifts
Towards War

Hitler
remilitarized the
_____________
The lack of
response from
Great Britain &
France allowed for
Hitler to get
bolder in his goals
Germany, Italy &
Japan will later
become allies and
form the
______________

World Drifts Towards War


In 1936, Fascist
______________
led a revolt
against the
Spanish
government
Italy & Germany
supplied Franco &
helped him to
establish a Fascist
regime in Spain

Western Democracies fail to halt


Aggression

The United States decided to remain


neutral & followed a policy of
Isolationism
Neutrality acts
_______________
(____________)
Anschluss
Hitler wanted _________(union
b/w
Austria & Germany). He wanted to
absorb Austria, Poland, Russia &
Third reich
Czechoslovakia into his ____________
Munich conference
At the _______________,
British Prime
Neville chamberlain
Minister _________________
gave into
Hitler to avoid further war
Appeasement
(______________)
Hitler is allowed to
Sudetenland
keep the ______________

ANSCHLUSS
Union between
Austria and
Germany.

Nazi Soviet Agreement


Nazi Soviet

___________
Non - aggression pact
___________
___________
Agreement
between the
Soviet Union
& Germany
not to
attack each
other