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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Submitted by

RAJ RAKESH (U06EE542)

SUBHASH REDDY (U06EE569)

VIKAS KUMAR (U06EE579)

B. Tech (IV)

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Year 2009 -2010

Mr. M. A. MULLA

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat.

1

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report titled “Power Factor Improvement USING

”submitted by Babloo Kumar (U06EE508), Raj Rakesh (U06EE542), Subhash Reddy

(U06EE569) and Vikas Kumar (U06EE579) is a record of bonafide work carried out by

them, in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of

Technology.

Date: 14-05-2010

GUIDE HOD

(Mr. M. A. Mulla) (Prof. Mrs. V. A. Shah)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

1

We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our guide Mr. M. A. Mulla

(Lecturer, EED, SVNIT, SURAT) for his valuable guidance and motivation and for his

extreme cooperation to complete the project work successfully.

We would like to express our sincere respect and profound gratitude to Prof. V. A. Shah,

Head of Electrical Engineering Department for supporting us and providing the facilities for

the project work.

We appreciate all our colleagues whose direct and indirect contribution helped a lot to

accomplish this project work.

We would also like to thank all the teaching and non teaching staff for cooperating with us

and providing valuable advice which helped us in the completion of this project.

RAJ RAKESH (U06EE542)

SUBHASH REDDY (U06EE569)

VIKAS KUMAR (U06EE579)

Abstract

Today’s commonly used power converters have a poor input power factor and rich harmonic

current, which deteriorates the power line quality and may interfere with other power

2

electronic equipment. This project report is targeted on the prevailing method of power factor

control in industries. The present trend is to use facts (flexible ac transmission system)

devices. The static var compensator is a thyristor based facts device.

To improve the input power factor of current power converters, stringent input power factor

regulations such as IEC 1000 have recently been enacted. Therefore, power factor correction

techniques have been very popular topics in recent years’ power electronic research. Because

the addition power factor converter will increase the cost of the overall system, the integrated

single-stage power factor correction techniques become attractive especially in low-power

cost-effective applications.

Contents

Chapters

1. Introduction……………………………………………….…………..1

2

2. Power Factor

2.1. Power Factor……………………………………………………….2

2.2. Disadvantages of Low Power Factor……………………………...2

2.3. Benefits of Power Factor Correction…………………………… 3

2.4. Need for Power Factor Correction………………………………3

3.1. Various Methods of Power Factor Improvement………………5

3.2. Capacitor Banks…………………………………………………5

3.3. Synchronous Condensers………………………………………..6

3.4. Thyristor Controlled Reactors…………………………………..6

3.4.1. Principle of Operation…………………………..……….8

3.5. Static VAR Compensator

3.5.1. Principle of Operation………………… …………………..11

3.5.2. Connection……….…………………………………….......11

3.5.3. Modeling and Simulation………………………………...12

3.5.4. Advantages……………………………………….………...15

4. Boost Converters

4.1. Boost Converter………………………………………………….16

4.2. Circuit Analysis…………………………………………………..16

4.3. Modes of Operation

4.3.1. Continuous Mode………………………………………….17

4.3.2. Discontinuous Mode………………………………………19

5.1. PFC Boost Pre-regulator………………………………………….21

5.2. Modes of Operation

5.2.1. Discontinuous Mode……………………………………….23

5.2.2. Continuous Mode…………………………………………23

5.3. Power Factor Correction Circuits……………………………….24

6.1. Average Current Control……………………………………..26

6.2. Variable Frequency Peak Current Control……………………..27

6.3. Hysteresis Control……………………………………………29

2

7. MATLAB Simulations

7.1. Basic Boost Implementation……………………………………31

7.2. Power Factor Improvement By Boost Converter

With Firing MOSFET By PWM……………………………….32

7.3. PFC With Boost Convertor By Firing MOSFET

With Voltage and Current Closed Loop Control…………….35

7.4. Hardware Implementation of Boost Convertor

Using LM3524…………………………………………………..38

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..40

References……………………………………………………………………41

:: LIST OF FIGURES ::

NO. NO.

3.1 PFC USING CAPACITOR BANK 5

1

3.2 THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR 7

REACTOR

3.4 SIMULATION OF TCR AT FIRING ANGLE 90 9

3.5 SIMULATION OF TCR AT FIRING ANGLE 126 10

3.6 STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR 12

3.7 MATLAB MODEL OF SVC 12

3.8 SIMULATION OF SVC AT FIRING ANGLE 90 13

3.9 SIMULATION OF TCR AT FIRING ANGLE 126 14

4.1 BOOST CONVERTER 16

4.2 BOOST CONVERTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 16

4.3 TWO CONFIGURATIONS OF BOOST CONVERTER 17

4.4 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS OF BOOST 17

CONVERTER IN CCM

4.5 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS OF BOOST 19

CONVERTER IN DCM

5.1 FLYBACK ACTION IN INDUCTOR 21

5.2 PFC BOOST CONVERTER 22

5.3 DCM OPERATION 23

5.4 CCM OPERATION 24

5.5 TYPICAL WAVEFORMS INA POOR PF SYSTEM 25

6.1 BOOST PFC USING AVERAGE CURRENT CONTROL 27

6.2 BOOST PFC USING PEAK FREQUENCY CONTROL 28

6.3 INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORMS(ON TIME CONTROL) 28

6.4 INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORMS(OFF TIME CONTROL) 29

6.5 INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORMS(HYSTERESIS 30

CONTROL)

7.1 BASIC BOOST TOPOLOGY 31

7.2 MATLAB SIMULATION FOR PFC IN BOOST TOPOLOGY 32

USING PWM

7.3 WAVEFORMS 33

7.4 OUTPUT CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS 34

7.5 PFC USING CLOSED LOOP CONTROL 35

7.6 WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT 36

7.7 OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF BOOST CONVERTER 37

7.8 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION 37

7.9 TOP VIEW OF SG3524N 38

7.10 IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOST CONVERTER 39

1

Chapter 1: Introduction

Power Factor Improvement is the growing issue of concern. Within power quality

framework, one of the important aspects is reactive power control. Consumer load requires

reactive power that varies incessantly and increases transmission losses while affecting

voltage in the transmission network. To prevent unacceptably high voltage fluctuations or the

power failures that can result, this reactive power must be compensated and kept in balance.

This function has always been performed by passive elements such as reactors or capacitor,

as well as combination of the two that supply inductive or capacitive reactive power. The

more quickly and precisely the reactive power can be compensated, the more efficiently the

various characteristics of transmissions can be controlled.

Since most loads in modern electrical distribution systems are inductive, there is an ongoing

interest in improving power factor. The low power factor of inductive loads robs a system of

capacity and can adversely affect voltage level. As such, power factor correction through the

application of capacitors, synchronous Alternators, TCR SVC , Power Electronic DC-DC

convertors etc. is widely practiced at all system voltages. As utilities increase penalties they

charge customers for low power factor, system performance will not be the only

consideration. The installation of power factor correction circuits improves system

performance and saves money.

2

In order to ensure most favourable condition for a supply system from engineering and

economical standpoint it is important to have power factor as close to unity as possible.

Linear loads with low power factor (such as induction motors) can be corrected with a

passive network of capacitors or inductors. Non-linear loads, such as rectifiers, distort the

current drawn from the system. In such cases, active or passive power factor correction may

be used to counteract the distortion and raise power factor. The devices for correction of

power factor may be at a central substation, or spread out over a distribution system, or built

into power-consuming equipment.

2. 1.Power Factor

Power Factor is the ratio between the real power (kW) and apparent power (kVA) drawn by

an electrical load. It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful

work output and a good indicator of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the

supply system. Poor power factor results in increase load current draw that causes additional

losses in the supply and distribution systems.

Power factor can also be measured as the cosine of the phase difference between the voltage

and the current, however, where the current is distorted such as with electronic equipment

loads, this may not be a true indication of the power factor.

Power factors range from zero (0) to unity (1) with a typical power factor being between 0.8

and 0.95. The power factor can also be leading or lagging depending on whether the load is

predominantly capacitive or inductive in nature.

3

Poor power factors are typically due to the effect of inductive or capacitive loads such as with

a motor or with long cables providing capacitive coupling. Poor power factor due to distorted

current waveforms such as with high harmonic content caused by electronic equipment

cannot normally be corrected with PFC alone and will typically require complex or costly

filtering.

1. KVA rating of the electrical equipments increases due to low power factor as power

factor is inversely proportional to the KVA rating of the equipment. This increases the

size and cost of the equipment.

2. Conductor size increases. To transmit the same amount of power at low power factor

at constant voltage needs to carry high current. So to keep the current density constant

conductor area increases.

4. Voltage regulation becomes poor. Current at low lagging power factor causes greater

voltage drop in alternators, transformers and transmission lines causing to have low

power supply at the receiving end.

current prevents the full utilization of the installed capacity.

1. Electricity tariff savings.

2. Avoidance of Network Service Provider (NSP) penalties for low power factor,

including restricted access to more suitable tariffs (minimum of 0.9 for large and high

voltage supply establishments in most states).

3. Reduced losses.

infrastructure.

5. Stabilized site voltage levels by reducing the inductive effect of the connected load.

The payback for PFC installations can be very reasonable and should not be over

looked when considering PFC for existing installations

New Works, Upgrades And Refurbishments.

Power factor correction shall be provided under the following circumstances for new,

upgraded or refurbished buildings:

1. To meet the NSP requirements for minimum power factor.

2

2. At defense establishments with a high voltage tariff, any new building refurbished or

upgraded building with a power factor less than 0.9.

reduction measure.

Where assessment of the natural power factor confirms it will remain within the prescribed

range (e.g. above 0.9) and it is unlikely that the facility will require PFC at a later stage, PFC

or provision suitable space is not required.

Where assessment of the natural power factor cannot confirm suitability, however, there is

some uncertainty as to the need for PFC, the PFC equipment may be omitted provided

adequate space is allowed in the design of the building to incorporate PFC equipment as a

future requirement. This would also apply to buildings where it would be reasonable to

assume that PFC may be required at a later stage.

When allowing for future PFC installations the designer shall make all practical provisions

for the installation and connection of the future PFC equipment.

(CMS) contractor or design consultant shall monitor buildings not provided with PFC during

the defects liability period to confirm suitable power factor performance. Where the

performance is found to be unsuitable during the defects liability period, PFC shall be

installed and commissioned prior to completion of the project.

Existing Installations

PFC shall be considered for existing buildings to comply with the NSP requirements for

minimum power factor to avoid disconnection of supply, costly penalties, tariff restrictions or

where the feasibility assessment determines a worthwhile cost benefit or greenhouse

reduction measure. The funding of power factor correction works for existing buildings shall

be in accordance with regional funding and prioritising arrangements.

New Equipment

Equipment performance, both individual performance and the cumulative effect of non PFC

equipment needs to be considered as part of the design and also for equipment specifications.

Ensure that all equipment meets appropriate standards for harmonic content and that the

equipment power factor performance is considered to avoid the need for PFC or expensive

filtering in the first instance.

1

Chapter 3: Power Factor Correction

Industrial loads, which normally operate at poor power factor, are induction motor, arc and

induction furnaces. Fluorescent tubes, fans etc also operate at low value of power factor. All

these loads working at low power factors need large amount of reactive power which results

in reduced voltage level at the load terminals. A low voltage at consumer terminals is

undesirable as it leads to the impaired performance of their utility devices.

1. Use of capacitor banks.

2. Use of synchronous condensers.

3. Use of thyristor controlled devices.

4. Use of DC-DC converters

A bank of capacitors is connected across the load. Since the capacitor takes leading reactive

power, overall reactive power taken from the source decreases, consequently system power

factor improves.

2

Advantages of using capacitor banks

1. They have low losses.

2. They require little or no maintenance as there is no rotating parts.

3. They can be easily installed as they are light and do not require foundation.

4. They can work under ordinary atmospheric condition.

Disadvantages of using capacitor banks

1. They have short life span of 8-10 years.

2. They get easily damaged if exceed the rated value.

3. Once damaged, they have to be removed as their repairing is uneconomical.

In electrical engineering, a synchronous condenser (sometimes synchronous compensator) is

a specialized synchronous motor whose shaft is not attached to anything, but spins freely. Its

purpose is not to produce mechanical power, as other motors do, but to adjust electrical

conditions on the local electric power distribution grid. Its field is controlled by a voltage

regulator to either generate or absorb reactive power as needed to support the grid's voltage or

to maintain the grid's power factor at a specified level. The condenser’s installation and

operation are identical to large electric motors.

Increasing the device's field excitation results in its furnishing magnetizing power (kVAR) to

the system. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be

adjusted. The energy stored in the rotor of the machine can also help stabilize a power system

during short circuits or rapidly fluctuating loads such as electric arc furnaces. Large

installations of synchronous condensers are sometimes used in association with high-voltage

direct current converter stations to supply reactive power.

Unlike a capacitor bank, the value of reactive power can be continuously adjusted. However,

the synchronous condenser does have higher losses than a static capacitor bank. The motor

windings are thermally stable to short circuit current and faults can be easily removed. They

produce noise and have high maintenance cost.

Most synchronous condensers connected to electrical grids are rated between 20 MVAR and

200 MVAR and are hydrogen cooled.

2

Static thyristor controlled reactors are connected in parallel with load for the control of

reactive power flow. With increase in the size of industrial connected loads, fast reactive

power compensation has become necessary. For such loads, thyristor controlled reactors are

now becoming increasingly popular.

2

Fig.3.3. Matlab Model of Thyristor Controlled Reactor

2

Fig.3.4. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 90 Degrees

1

Fig.3.5. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 126 Degrees

1

A Static VAR Compensator (or SVC) is an electrical device for providing fast-acting reactive

power compensation on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. SVCs are part of the

Flexible AC transmission system device family, regulating voltage and stabilizing the system.

The term "static" refers to the fact that the SVC has no moving parts (other than circuit

breakers and disconnects, which do not move under normal SVC operation). Prior to the

invention of the SVC, power factor compensation was the preserve of large rotating machines

such as synchronous condensers.

The SVC is an automated impedance matching device, designed to bring the system closer to

unity power factor. If the power system's reactive load is capacitive (leading), the SVC will

use reactors to consume VARs from the system, lowering the system voltage. Under

inductive (lagging) conditions, the capacitor banks are automatically switched in, thus

providing a higher system voltage. They also may be placed near high and rapidly varying

loads, such as arc furnaces, where they can smooth flicker voltage.

3.5.1. Principle of Operation

Typically, a SVC comprises a bank of individually switched capacitors in conjunction with a

thyristor-controlled air- or iron-core reactor. By means of phase angle modulation switched

by the thyristors, the reactor may be variably switched into the circuit, and so provide a

continuously variable MVAr injection (or absorption) to the electrical network. In this

configuration, coarse voltage control is provided by the capacitors; the thyristor-controlled

reactor is to provide smooth control. Smoother control and more flexibility can be provided

with thyristor-controlled capacitor switching.

The thyristors are electronically controlled. Thyristors, like all semiconductors, generate heat,

and deionized water is commonly used to cool them. Chopping reactive load into the circuit

in this manner injects undesirable odd-order harmonics, and so banks of high-power filters

are usually provided to smooth the waveform. Since the filters themselves are capacitive,

they also export MVARs to the power system.

3.5.2. Connection

Generally, static VAR compensation is not done at line voltage; a bank of transformers steps

the transmission voltage (for example, 230 kV) down to a much lower level (for example, 9.5

kV).This reduces the size and number of components needed in the SVC, although the

conductors must be very large to handle the high currents associated with the lower voltage.

2

3.5.3. Modelling and Simulation

2

Fig.3.8. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 90 Degrees

1

Fig.3.9. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 126 Degrees

3.5.4. Advantages

1

The main advantage of SVCs over simple mechanically-switched compensation schemes is

their near-instantaneous response to changes in the system voltage. For this reason they are

often operated at close to their zero-point in order to maximize the reactive power correction

they can rapidly provide when required.

They are in general cheaper, higher-capacity, faster, and more reliable than dynamic

compensation schemes such as synchronous condensers.

2

A boost converter (step-up converter) is a power converter with an output DC voltage greater

than its input DC voltage. It is a class of switching-mode power supply (SMPS) containing at

least two semiconductor switches (a diode and a transistor) and at least one energy storage

element. Filters made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally

added to the output of the converter to reduce output voltage ripple. A boost converter is

sometimes called a step-up converter since it “steps up” the source voltage. Since power (P =

VI) must be conserved, the output current is lower than the source current.

4.2 Circuit Analysis

Operating principle

The key principle that drives the boost converter is the tendency of an inductor to resist

changes in current. When being charged it acts as a load and absorbs energy (somewhat like a

resistor), when being discharged, it acts as an energy source (somewhat like a battery). The

voltage it produces during the discharge phase is related to the rate of change of current, and

not to the original charging voltage, thus allowing different input and output voltages.

The basic principle of a Boost converter consists of 2 distinct states:

➢ In the On-state, the switch S is closed, resulting in an increase in the inductor current.

➢ In the Off-state, the switch is open and the only path offered to inductor current is

through the fly back diode D, the capacitor C and the load R. This result in

transferring the energy accumulated during the On-state into the capacitor.

➢ The input current is the same as the inductor current as can be seen . So it is not

discontinuous as in the buck converter and the requirements on the input filter are

relaxed compared to a buck converter.

3

Fig.4.3. Two Configurations Of A Boost Converter, Depending On The State Of Switch S

There are basically two modes of operation.

1. Continuous Mode

2. Discontinuous Mode.

Fig.4.4 Voltage and Current Waveforms of Boost Converter Operating In Continuous Mode

When a boost converter operates in continuous mode, the current through the inductor (IL)

never falls to zero. Above figure shows the typical waveforms of currents and voltages in a

converter operating in this mode. The output voltage can be calculated as follows, in the case

1

of an ideal converter (i.e. using components with an ideal behaviour) operating in steady

conditions:

During the On-state, the switch S is closed, which makes the input voltage (Vi) appear across

the inductor, which causes a change in current (IL) flowing through the inductor during a time

period (t) by the formula:

D is the duty cycle. It represents the fraction of the commutation period T during which the

switch is ON. Therefore D ranges between 0 (S is never on) and 1 (S is always on).

During the Off-state, the switch S is open, so the inductor current flows through the load. If

we consider zero voltage drop in the diode, and a capacitor large enough for its voltage to

remain constant, the evolution of IL is:

As we consider that the converter operates in steady-state conditions, the amount of energy

stored in each of its components has to be the same at the beginning and at the end of a

commutation cycle. In particular, the energy stored in the inductor is given by:

So, the inductor current has to be the same at the start and end of the commutation cycle. This

means the overall change in the current (the sum of the changes) is zero:

…………………Eqn 7.1

This in turns reveals the duty cycle to be:

…………………Eqn 7.2

2

From the above expression it can be seen that the output voltage is always higher than the

input voltage (as the duty cycle goes from 0 to 1), and that it increases with D, theoretically to

infinity as D approaches 1. This is why this converter is sometimes referred to as a step-up

converter.

4.3.2 Discontinuous mode

In some cases, the amount of energy required by the load is small enough to be transferred in

a time smaller than the whole commutation period. In this case, the current through the

inductor falls to zero during part of the period. Although slight, the difference has a strong

effect on the output voltage equation. It can be calculated as follows:

As the inductor current at the beginning of the cycle is zero, its maximum value (at t =

DT) is

The load current Io is equal to the average diode current (ID). As can be seen on figure 4, the

diode current is equal to the inductor current during the off-state. Therefore the output current

can be written as:

2

Replacing ILmax and δ by their respective expressions yields:

………..Eqn 7.3

Therefore, the output voltage gain can be written as flow:

………………………………...….Eqn 7.4

Compared to the expression of the output voltage for the continuous mode, this expression is

much more complicated. Furthermore, in discontinuous operation, the output voltage gain not

only depends on the duty cycle, but also on the inductor value, the input voltage, the

switching frequency, and the output current.

Boost converter topology is used to accomplish this active power-factor correction in many

discontinuous/continuous modes. The boost converter is used because it is easy to implement

and works well. The simple circuit in the below Figure is a short refresher of how inductors

can produce very high voltages. Initially, the inductor is assumed to be uncharged, so the

voltage VO is equal to VIN. When the switch closes, the current (IL) gradually increases

through it linearly since:

2

Fig.5.1. Flyback Action of Inductor

Voltage (VL) across it increases exponentially until it stabilizes at VIN. Notice the polarity of

the voltage across the inductor, as it is deﬁned by the current direction (inﬂow side is

positive). When the switch opens causing the current to change from Imax to zero (which is a

decrease, or a negative slope). Looking at it mathematically:

Or L times the change in current per unit time, the voltage approaches negative inﬁnity (the

inductor reverses polarity).Because the inductor is not ideal, it contains some amount of

series resistance, which loads this “inﬁnite” voltage to aﬁnite number. With the switch open,

and the inductor dis-charging, the voltage across it reverses and becomes additive with the

source voltage VIN. If a diode and capacitor were connected to the output of this circuit, the

capacitor would charge to this high voltage (perhaps after many switch cycles). This is how

boost converters boost voltage, as shown in Figure below.

3

Fig.5.2. PFC Boost Pre-regulator

The input to the converter is the full-rectiﬁed AC line voltage. No bulk ﬁltering is applied

following the bridge rectiﬁer, so the input voltage to the boost converter ranges (at twice line

frequency) from zero volts to the peak value of the AC input and back to zero. The boost

converter must meet two simultaneous conditions:

1. The output voltage of the boost converter must be set higher than the peak

value (hence the word boost) of the line voltage (a commonly used value is

385VDC to allow for a high line of 270VACrms).

2. The current drawn from the line at any given instant must be proportional to

the line voltage.

Without using power factor correction a typical switched mode power supply would have a

power factor of around0.6, therefore having considerable odd-order harmonic distortion

(sometimes with the third harmonic as large as the fundamental). Having a power factor of

less than 1 along with harmonics from peaky loads reduces the real power available to run the

device. In order to operate a device with these inefﬁciencies, the power company must supply

additional power to make up for the loss. This increase in power causes the power companies

to use heavier supply lines, otherwise self-heating can cause burnout in the neutral line con-

ductor. The harmonic distortion can cause an increase in operating temperature of the

generation facility, which reduces the life of equipment including rotating machines,cables,

transformers, capacitors, fuses, switching contacts, and surge suppressors. Problems are

caused by the harmonics creating additional losses and dielectric stresses in capacitors and

cables, increasing currents in windings of rotating machinery and transformers and noise

emissions in many products, and bringing about early failure of fuses and other safety

components. They also can cause skin effect, which creates problems in cables, transformers,

and rotating machinery. This is why power companies are concerned with the growth of

SMPS, electronic voltage regulators, and converters that will cause THD levels to increase to

unacceptable levels. Having the boost preconverter voltage higher than the input voltage

forces the load to draw current in phase with the ac main line voltage that, in turn, rids

harmonic emissions.

1. Discontinuous mode

4

2. Continuous mode

Discontinuous mode is when the boost converter’s MOSFET is turned on when the inductor

current reaches zero, and turned off when the inductor current meets the desired input

reference voltage. In this way, the input current waveform follows that of the input voltage,

therefore attaining a power factor of close to 1.

Discontinuous mode can be used for SMPS that have power levels of 300W or less. In

comparison with continuous mode devices, discontinuous ones use larger cores and have

higher I2R and skin effect losses due to the larger inductor current swings. With the increased

swing a larger input ﬁlter is also required. On the positive side, since discontinuous mode

devices switch the boost MOSFET on when the inductor current is at zero, there is no reverse

recovery current (IRR) speciﬁcation required on the boost diode. This means that less

expensive diodes can be used.

Continuous mode typically suits SMPS power levels greater than 300W. This is where the

boost converter’s MOSFET does not switch on when the boost inductor is at zero current,

instead the current in the energy transfer inductor never reaches zero during the switching

cycle (Figure 10).With this in mind, the voltage swing is less than in discontinuous mode—

resulting in lower I2R losses—and the lower ripple current results in lower inductor core

losses. Less voltage swing also reduces EMI and allows for a smaller input ﬁlter to be used.

Since the MOSFET is not being turned on when the boost inductor’s current is at zero, a very

fast reverse recovery diode is required to keep losses to a minimum.

1

Fig.5.4. Continuous Mode of Operation

The ratio between apparent power associated with higher order harmonics and apparent

power associated with fundamental harmonic is called Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

In AC lines Io=0.

2

We can also derive the relationship between PF and THD,

Where,

θ1: the phase angle between the voltage Vs (t) and the fundamental component of Is (t).

Is1, rms: rms value of the fundamental component in line current.

Is, rms: total rms value of line current.

kdist = Is1, rms /Is, rms: distortion factor.

kdisp = cosθ1: displacement factor.

2

Over many years, different current mode control techniques were developed. Some of the

very well adopted methods are:

1. Average Current Control.

2. Variable Frequency Peak Current Control.

3. Hysteresis Control.

In average current control strategy, the average line current of the converter is controlled. It is

more desired than the other control strategies because the line current in a SMPS can be

approximated by the average current (per switching cycle) through an input EMI filter. The

average current control is widely used in industries since it offers improved noise immunity,

lower input ripple, and stable operation .

Figure below shows a boost PFC circuit using average current control strategy. In the feed-

forward loop, a low value resistor Rs is used to sense the line current. Through the op -amp

network formed by Ri, Rimo, Rf, Cp, Cz, and A2, average line current is detected and

compared with the command current signal, icmd, which is generated by the product of line

voltage signal and the output voltage error signal

There is a common issue in CCM shaping technique, i.e. when the line voltage increases, the

line voltage sensor provides an increased sinusoidal reference for the feed-forward loop.

Since the response of feedback loop is much slow than the feed-forward loop, both the line

voltage and the line current increase, i.e. the line current is heading to wrong changing

direction (with the line voltage increasing, the line current should decrease). This results in

excessive input power, causing overshoot in the output voltage. The square block, x2, in the

line voltage-sensing loop shown in Figure below provides a typical solution for this problem.

It squares the output of the low-pass filter (LPF), which is in proportion to the amplitude of

the line voltage, and provides the divider (A ∗ B)/C with a squared line voltage signal for its

denominator. As a result, the amplitude of the sinusoidal reference icmd is negatively

proportional to the line voltage, i.e. when the line voltage changes, the control circuit leads

the line current to change in the opposite direction, which is the desired situation. As it can be

seen, the average current control is a very complicated control strategy. It requires sensing the

inductor current, the input voltage, and the output voltage. An amplifier for calculating the

average current and a multiplier are needed. However, because of today’s advances made in

IC technology, these circuits can be integrated in a single chip.

3

Fig.6.1. Boost PFC Using Average Current Control

Although the average current control is a more desired strategy, the peak current control has

been widely accepted because it improves the converter efficiency and has a simpler control

circuit. In variable frequency peak control strategy, shown in Figure below, the output error

signal k(t) is fed back through its outer loop. This signal is multiplied by the line voltage

signal αv1(t) to form a line current command signal icmd (t) (icmd (t) = αk(t ) · v1(t)). The

command signal icmd (t) is the desired line current shape since it follows the shape of the line

voltage. The actual line current is sensed by a transducer, resulting in signal βi1(t) that must

be reshaped to follow icmd (t) by feeding it back through the inner loop. After comparing the

line current signal βi1(t) with the command signal icmd (t), the following control strategies

can be realized, depending on its logic circuit:

2

Fig.6.2. Block Diagram For Variable Frequency Peak Current Control

Its input current waveform is given in Figure below.

Letting the fixed on-time to be Ts, the control rules are:

Fig.6.3. Input Current Waveforms for Variable Frequency Peak Current Control In Constant

On-Time Control

Assuming the off-time is Toff , the control rules are:

3

➢ At t = tk when βi1(tk ) = icmd (tk ), S is turned off.

Fig.6.4. Input Current Waveforms for Variable Frequency Peak Current Control In Constant

Off-Time Control

Unlike the constant on-time and the constant off-time control, in which only one current

command is used to limit either the minimum input current or the maximum input current, the

hysteresis control has two current commands, ihcmd (t) and ilcmd (t) (ilcmd (t ) = δihcmd (t)),

to limit both the minimum and the maximum of input current.

.

To achieve smaller ripple in the input current, we desire a narrow hysteresis-band. However,

narrower the hysteresis- band, higher the switching frequency. Therefore, the hysteresis band

should be optimized based on circuit components such as switching devices and magnetic

components. Moreover, the switching frequency varies with the change of line voltage,

resulting in difficulty in the design of the EMI filter.

When βi1(t ) ≥ ihcmd (t), a negative pulse is generated by comparator A1 to reset them R–S

flip-flop.

When βi1(t ) ≤ ilcmd (t), a negative pulse is generated by comparator A2 to set the R–S flip-

flop.

➢ At t = tk when βi1(tk ) = ilcmd (t), S is turned on.

Like the above mentioned peak current control methods, the hysteresis control method has

simpler implementation, enhanced system stability, and increased reliability and response

speed. In addition, it has better control accuracy than that the peak current control methods

have. However, this improvement is achieved on the penalty of wide range of variation in the

1

switching frequency. It is also possible to improve the hysteresis control in a constant

frequency operation, but usually this will increase the complexity of the control circuit.

2

The following Matlab simulations have been implemented and the corresponding outputs

obtained are shown below

Observations :

2) Output DC voltage : 47.87

3) Duty ratio : 75%

3

MOSFET By PWM

Fig.7.2. Matlab simulation for PFC with boost convertor (Firing by PWM)

2

Fig.7.3. (I) Modified Input Current (II) Input Voltage

(III) Current after rectification (IV) Voltage after rectification

1

Fig.7.4. (I) Output Current with resistive load

(II) Output Voltage with resistive load

2. Peak input Voltage: 100V

3. Average output voltage – 74.06V

4. Average output current – 24.69A

7.3. PFC With Boost Convertor By Firing MOSFET With Voltage And

1

Current Closed Loop Control

2

Fig 7.6 : (I) Input Voltage in Pink color and current in Yellow color

(II) Input voltage (III) Current after rectification

1

Fig 7.7: Output voltage of the Boost convertor

Observations:

Peak input Voltage = 163V

Peak input Current=145.6A

Average Output voltage from boost converter=220v

Total harmonic distortion=0

1

Many Integrated Chips are available in the market these which have all the circuits in build in

them.

Some of the Integrated Chips of same sort are

1. LM3524

2. SG3524N

3. LM5001

4. UC5696

Every IC has its own application of power factor improvement. All the above IC’s are used

with Boost convertor for power factor correction.

We have used SG3524N with the boost convertor.

Features of SG3524N

➢ 1% precision 5V reference with thermal shut-down

➢ Output current to 200 mA DC

➢ 60V output capability

➢ Wide common mode input range for error-amp

➢ One pulse per period (noise suppression)

➢ Improved max. duty cycle at high frequencies

➢ Double pulse suppression

➢ Synchronize through pin 3

2

v

Output Voltage – 52.5V

Calculations:

Rf = 100k ohm

Fosc = 212.765 kHz

L1= 1.65mh

C0=4.7microF

I0 max = 15mA

2

Conclusion

The key factor is that power factor correction and most other concepts are not new from the

point of view of formal circuit theory. The question is how the problem can be best

understood from the basics and then tackled in the best possible way.

PFC is rapidly becoming a mandatory feature in AC power sources because IEC 6100-3-2

requires the use of PFC circuits. Active and passive PFC circuits are designed to bring the PF

of a system closer to unity (PF = 1.0). While no system is 100% efficient, most PFC

technology makes the power factor of a system greater than 0.95. Highly efficient electrical

systems have the advantage of supplying less current to drive a load. This is beneficial to

customers that have low power factor problems because utilities sometimes charge penalties

for low power factor. While cost savings from PFC on small AC sources isn’t nearly as

noticeable as money saved from PFC on large systems, in the long run PFC will provide

reduced costs for high energy consumers.

References

3

Power Factor Correction Circuits by Issa Batarseh, Ph.D.and Huai Wei Ph.D.university of

central florida USA.

Circuit theory and design of Power Factor Correction circuits by Prof. Chi. K.

Tse,department of electronics and information engg., Hongkong polytechnic university

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