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Project Report On

“POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT USING BOOST CONVERTER”


Submitted by

BABLOO KUMAR (U06EE508)


RAJ RAKESH (U06EE542)
SUBHASH REDDY (U06EE569)
VIKAS KUMAR (U06EE579)

B. Tech (IV)
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Year 2009 -2010

Under the Guidance of

Mr. M. A. MULLA

Department of Electrical Engineering


Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report titled “Power Factor Improvement USING
”submitted by Babloo Kumar (U06EE508), Raj Rakesh (U06EE542), Subhash Reddy
(U06EE569) and Vikas Kumar (U06EE579) is a record of bonafide work carried out by
them, in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of
Technology.

Date: 14-05-2010

Examiner 1: ____________ Examiner 2: ____________

Examiner 3: ____________ Examiner 4: ____________

GUIDE HOD
(Mr. M. A. Mulla) (Prof. Mrs. V. A. Shah)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

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We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our guide Mr. M. A. Mulla
(Lecturer, EED, SVNIT, SURAT) for his valuable guidance and motivation and for his
extreme cooperation to complete the project work successfully.

We would like to express our sincere respect and profound gratitude to Prof. V. A. Shah,
Head of Electrical Engineering Department for supporting us and providing the facilities for
the project work.

We appreciate all our colleagues whose direct and indirect contribution helped a lot to
accomplish this project work.

We would also like to thank all the teaching and non teaching staff for cooperating with us
and providing valuable advice which helped us in the completion of this project.

BABLOO KUMAR (U06EE508)


RAJ RAKESH (U06EE542)
SUBHASH REDDY (U06EE569)
VIKAS KUMAR (U06EE579)

Abstract
Today’s commonly used power converters have a poor input power factor and rich harmonic
current, which deteriorates the power line quality and may interfere with other power
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electronic equipment. This project report is targeted on the prevailing method of power factor
control in industries. The present trend is to use facts (flexible ac transmission system)
devices. The static var compensator is a thyristor based facts device.

To improve the input power factor of current power converters, stringent input power factor
regulations such as IEC 1000 have recently been enacted. Therefore, power factor correction
techniques have been very popular topics in recent years’ power electronic research. Because
the addition power factor converter will increase the cost of the overall system, the integrated
single-stage power factor correction techniques become attractive especially in low-power
cost-effective applications.

Contents

Chapters

1. Introduction……………………………………………….…………..1

2
2. Power Factor
2.1. Power Factor……………………………………………………….2
2.2. Disadvantages of Low Power Factor……………………………...2
2.3. Benefits of Power Factor Correction…………………………… 3
2.4. Need for Power Factor Correction………………………………3

3. Power Factor Correction


3.1. Various Methods of Power Factor Improvement………………5
3.2. Capacitor Banks…………………………………………………5
3.3. Synchronous Condensers………………………………………..6
3.4. Thyristor Controlled Reactors…………………………………..6
3.4.1. Principle of Operation…………………………..……….8
3.5. Static VAR Compensator
3.5.1. Principle of Operation………………… …………………..11
3.5.2. Connection……….…………………………………….......11
3.5.3. Modeling and Simulation………………………………...12
3.5.4. Advantages……………………………………….………...15

4. Boost Converters
4.1. Boost Converter………………………………………………….16
4.2. Circuit Analysis…………………………………………………..16
4.3. Modes of Operation
4.3.1. Continuous Mode………………………………………….17
4.3.2. Discontinuous Mode………………………………………19

5. Power Factor Correction Using Boost Convertors


5.1. PFC Boost Pre-regulator………………………………………….21
5.2. Modes of Operation
5.2.1. Discontinuous Mode……………………………………….23
5.2.2. Continuous Mode…………………………………………23
5.3. Power Factor Correction Circuits……………………………….24

6. Current Mode Control for PFC


6.1. Average Current Control……………………………………..26
6.2. Variable Frequency Peak Current Control……………………..27
6.3. Hysteresis Control……………………………………………29

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7. MATLAB Simulations
7.1. Basic Boost Implementation……………………………………31
7.2. Power Factor Improvement By Boost Converter
With Firing MOSFET By PWM……………………………….32
7.3. PFC With Boost Convertor By Firing MOSFET
With Voltage and Current Closed Loop Control…………….35
7.4. Hardware Implementation of Boost Convertor
Using LM3524…………………………………………………..38

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..40

References……………………………………………………………………41

:: LIST OF FIGURES ::

FIGURE NAME OF THE FIGURE PAGE


NO. NO.

2.1 POWER FACTOR TRIANGLE 2


3.1 PFC USING CAPACITOR BANK 5

1
3.2 THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR 7

3.3 MATLAB MODEL OF THYRISTOR CONTROLLED 8


REACTOR
3.4 SIMULATION OF TCR AT FIRING ANGLE 90 9
3.5 SIMULATION OF TCR AT FIRING ANGLE 126 10
3.6 STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR 12
3.7 MATLAB MODEL OF SVC 12
3.8 SIMULATION OF SVC AT FIRING ANGLE 90 13
3.9 SIMULATION OF TCR AT FIRING ANGLE 126 14
4.1 BOOST CONVERTER 16
4.2 BOOST CONVERTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 16
4.3 TWO CONFIGURATIONS OF BOOST CONVERTER 17
4.4 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS OF BOOST 17
CONVERTER IN CCM
4.5 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS OF BOOST 19
CONVERTER IN DCM
5.1 FLYBACK ACTION IN INDUCTOR 21
5.2 PFC BOOST CONVERTER 22
5.3 DCM OPERATION 23
5.4 CCM OPERATION 24
5.5 TYPICAL WAVEFORMS INA POOR PF SYSTEM 25
6.1 BOOST PFC USING AVERAGE CURRENT CONTROL 27
6.2 BOOST PFC USING PEAK FREQUENCY CONTROL 28
6.3 INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORMS(ON TIME CONTROL) 28
6.4 INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORMS(OFF TIME CONTROL) 29
6.5 INPUT CURRENT WAVEFORMS(HYSTERESIS 30
CONTROL)
7.1 BASIC BOOST TOPOLOGY 31
7.2 MATLAB SIMULATION FOR PFC IN BOOST TOPOLOGY 32
USING PWM
7.3 WAVEFORMS 33
7.4 OUTPUT CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS 34
7.5 PFC USING CLOSED LOOP CONTROL 35
7.6 WAVEFORMS FOR INPUT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT 36
7.7 OUTPUT VOLTAGE OF BOOST CONVERTER 37
7.8 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION 37
7.9 TOP VIEW OF SG3524N 38
7.10 IMPLEMENTATION OF BOOST CONVERTER 39

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Power Factor Improvement is the growing issue of concern. Within power quality
framework, one of the important aspects is reactive power control. Consumer load requires
reactive power that varies incessantly and increases transmission losses while affecting
voltage in the transmission network. To prevent unacceptably high voltage fluctuations or the
power failures that can result, this reactive power must be compensated and kept in balance.
This function has always been performed by passive elements such as reactors or capacitor,
as well as combination of the two that supply inductive or capacitive reactive power. The
more quickly and precisely the reactive power can be compensated, the more efficiently the
various characteristics of transmissions can be controlled.

Since most loads in modern electrical distribution systems are inductive, there is an ongoing
interest in improving power factor. The low power factor of inductive loads robs a system of
capacity and can adversely affect voltage level. As such, power factor correction through the
application of capacitors, synchronous Alternators, TCR SVC , Power Electronic DC-DC
convertors etc. is widely practiced at all system voltages. As utilities increase penalties they
charge customers for low power factor, system performance will not be the only
consideration. The installation of power factor correction circuits improves system
performance and saves money.

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In order to ensure most favourable condition for a supply system from engineering and
economical standpoint it is important to have power factor as close to unity as possible.
Linear loads with low power factor (such as induction motors) can be corrected with a
passive network of capacitors or inductors. Non-linear loads, such as rectifiers, distort the
current drawn from the system. In such cases, active or passive power factor correction may
be used to counteract the distortion and raise power factor. The devices for correction of
power factor may be at a central substation, or spread out over a distribution system, or built
into power-consuming equipment.

Chapter 2: Power Factor

2. 1.Power Factor
Power Factor is the ratio between the real power (kW) and apparent power (kVA) drawn by
an electrical load. It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful
work output and a good indicator of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the
supply system. Poor power factor results in increase load current draw that causes additional
losses in the supply and distribution systems.
Power factor can also be measured as the cosine of the phase difference between the voltage
and the current, however, where the current is distorted such as with electronic equipment
loads, this may not be a true indication of the power factor.

Power factor can be can be determined as follows:

Power Factor = Active Power (kW)/Apparent Power(kVA)……………..Eqn 1.1

Fig2.1. Power Factor Triangle

Power factors range from zero (0) to unity (1) with a typical power factor being between 0.8
and 0.95. The power factor can also be leading or lagging depending on whether the load is
predominantly capacitive or inductive in nature.

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Poor power factors are typically due to the effect of inductive or capacitive loads such as with
a motor or with long cables providing capacitive coupling. Poor power factor due to distorted
current waveforms such as with high harmonic content caused by electronic equipment
cannot normally be corrected with PFC alone and will typically require complex or costly
filtering.

2.2 Disadvantages of Low Power Factor


1. KVA rating of the electrical equipments increases due to low power factor as power
factor is inversely proportional to the KVA rating of the equipment. This increases the
size and cost of the equipment.

2. Conductor size increases. To transmit the same amount of power at low power factor
at constant voltage needs to carry high current. So to keep the current density constant
conductor area increases.

3. Copper loss of the equipment increases.

4. Voltage regulation becomes poor. Current at low lagging power factor causes greater
voltage drop in alternators, transformers and transmission lines causing to have low
power supply at the receiving end.

5. Handling capacity of the equipment decreases because the reactive component of


current prevents the full utilization of the installed capacity.

2.3 Benefits of Power Factor Correction (PFC)


1. Electricity tariff savings.

2. Avoidance of Network Service Provider (NSP) penalties for low power factor,
including restricted access to more suitable tariffs (minimum of 0.9 for large and high
voltage supply establishments in most states).

3. Reduced losses.

4. Reduce power drawn from distribution systems, optimum sizing of electrical


infrastructure.

5. Stabilized site voltage levels by reducing the inductive effect of the connected load.
The payback for PFC installations can be very reasonable and should not be over
looked when considering PFC for existing installations

2.4 Need for Power Factor Correction


New Works, Upgrades And Refurbishments.

Power factor correction shall be provided under the following circumstances for new,
upgraded or refurbished buildings:
1. To meet the NSP requirements for minimum power factor.

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2. At defense establishments with a high voltage tariff, any new building refurbished or
upgraded building with a power factor less than 0.9.

3. Where the feasibility assessment determines a worthwhile cost benefit or greenhouse


reduction measure.

Where assessment of the natural power factor confirms it will remain within the prescribed
range (e.g. above 0.9) and it is unlikely that the facility will require PFC at a later stage, PFC
or provision suitable space is not required.

Where assessment of the natural power factor cannot confirm suitability, however, there is
some uncertainty as to the need for PFC, the PFC equipment may be omitted provided
adequate space is allowed in the design of the building to incorporate PFC equipment as a
future requirement. This would also apply to buildings where it would be reasonable to
assume that PFC may be required at a later stage.

When allowing for future PFC installations the designer shall make all practical provisions
for the installation and connection of the future PFC equipment.

Comprehensive Maintenance Contract (CMC) or Comprehensive Maintenance Services


(CMS) contractor or design consultant shall monitor buildings not provided with PFC during
the defects liability period to confirm suitable power factor performance. Where the
performance is found to be unsuitable during the defects liability period, PFC shall be
installed and commissioned prior to completion of the project.

Existing Installations
PFC shall be considered for existing buildings to comply with the NSP requirements for
minimum power factor to avoid disconnection of supply, costly penalties, tariff restrictions or
where the feasibility assessment determines a worthwhile cost benefit or greenhouse
reduction measure. The funding of power factor correction works for existing buildings shall
be in accordance with regional funding and prioritising arrangements.

New Equipment
Equipment performance, both individual performance and the cumulative effect of non PFC
equipment needs to be considered as part of the design and also for equipment specifications.
Ensure that all equipment meets appropriate standards for harmonic content and that the
equipment power factor performance is considered to avoid the need for PFC or expensive
filtering in the first instance.

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Chapter 3: Power Factor Correction

3.1. Various Methods of Power Factor Improvement


Industrial loads, which normally operate at poor power factor, are induction motor, arc and
induction furnaces. Fluorescent tubes, fans etc also operate at low value of power factor. All
these loads working at low power factors need large amount of reactive power which results
in reduced voltage level at the load terminals. A low voltage at consumer terminals is
undesirable as it leads to the impaired performance of their utility devices.

The various methods of power factor improvement are as under:


1. Use of capacitor banks.
2. Use of synchronous condensers.
3. Use of thyristor controlled devices.
4. Use of DC-DC converters

3.2. Capacitor Banks


A bank of capacitors is connected across the load. Since the capacitor takes leading reactive
power, overall reactive power taken from the source decreases, consequently system power
factor improves.

Fig3.1. PFC Using Capacitor Bank

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Advantages of using capacitor banks
1. They have low losses.
2. They require little or no maintenance as there is no rotating parts.
3. They can be easily installed as they are light and do not require foundation.
4. They can work under ordinary atmospheric condition.
Disadvantages of using capacitor banks
1. They have short life span of 8-10 years.
2. They get easily damaged if exceed the rated value.
3. Once damaged, they have to be removed as their repairing is uneconomical.

3.3. Synchronous Condensers


In electrical engineering, a synchronous condenser (sometimes synchronous compensator) is
a specialized synchronous motor whose shaft is not attached to anything, but spins freely. Its
purpose is not to produce mechanical power, as other motors do, but to adjust electrical
conditions on the local electric power distribution grid. Its field is controlled by a voltage
regulator to either generate or absorb reactive power as needed to support the grid's voltage or
to maintain the grid's power factor at a specified level. The condenser’s installation and
operation are identical to large electric motors.

Increasing the device's field excitation results in its furnishing magnetizing power (kVAR) to
the system. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be
adjusted. The energy stored in the rotor of the machine can also help stabilize a power system
during short circuits or rapidly fluctuating loads such as electric arc furnaces. Large
installations of synchronous condensers are sometimes used in association with high-voltage
direct current converter stations to supply reactive power.

Advantages and Disadvantages

Unlike a capacitor bank, the value of reactive power can be continuously adjusted. However,
the synchronous condenser does have higher losses than a static capacitor bank. The motor
windings are thermally stable to short circuit current and faults can be easily removed. They
produce noise and have high maintenance cost.

Most synchronous condensers connected to electrical grids are rated between 20 MVAR and
200 MVAR and are hydrogen cooled.

3.4. Thyristor Controlled Reactors

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Static thyristor controlled reactors are connected in parallel with load for the control of
reactive power flow. With increase in the size of industrial connected loads, fast reactive
power compensation has become necessary. For such loads, thyristor controlled reactors are
now becoming increasingly popular.

Fig.3.2. Thyristor Controlled Reactor

3.4.1. Modelling and Simulation of TCR

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Fig.3.3. Matlab Model of Thyristor Controlled Reactor

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Fig.3.4. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 90 Degrees

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Fig.3.5. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 126 Degrees

3.5. Static VAR Compensator

1
A Static VAR Compensator (or SVC) is an electrical device for providing fast-acting reactive
power compensation on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. SVCs are part of the
Flexible AC transmission system device family, regulating voltage and stabilizing the system.
The term "static" refers to the fact that the SVC has no moving parts (other than circuit
breakers and disconnects, which do not move under normal SVC operation). Prior to the
invention of the SVC, power factor compensation was the preserve of large rotating machines
such as synchronous condensers.
The SVC is an automated impedance matching device, designed to bring the system closer to
unity power factor. If the power system's reactive load is capacitive (leading), the SVC will
use reactors to consume VARs from the system, lowering the system voltage. Under
inductive (lagging) conditions, the capacitor banks are automatically switched in, thus
providing a higher system voltage. They also may be placed near high and rapidly varying
loads, such as arc furnaces, where they can smooth flicker voltage.
3.5.1. Principle of Operation
Typically, a SVC comprises a bank of individually switched capacitors in conjunction with a
thyristor-controlled air- or iron-core reactor. By means of phase angle modulation switched
by the thyristors, the reactor may be variably switched into the circuit, and so provide a
continuously variable MVAr injection (or absorption) to the electrical network. In this
configuration, coarse voltage control is provided by the capacitors; the thyristor-controlled
reactor is to provide smooth control. Smoother control and more flexibility can be provided
with thyristor-controlled capacitor switching.
The thyristors are electronically controlled. Thyristors, like all semiconductors, generate heat,
and deionized water is commonly used to cool them. Chopping reactive load into the circuit
in this manner injects undesirable odd-order harmonics, and so banks of high-power filters
are usually provided to smooth the waveform. Since the filters themselves are capacitive,
they also export MVARs to the power system.
3.5.2. Connection

Generally, static VAR compensation is not done at line voltage; a bank of transformers steps
the transmission voltage (for example, 230 kV) down to a much lower level (for example, 9.5
kV).This reduces the size and number of components needed in the SVC, although the
conductors must be very large to handle the high currents associated with the lower voltage.

Fig.3.6. Static VAR Compensator

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3.5.3. Modelling and Simulation

Fig.3.7. Matlab Model of SVC

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Fig.3.8. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 90 Degrees

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Fig.3.9. Simulation Result at Firing Angle 126 Degrees

3.5.4. Advantages

1
The main advantage of SVCs over simple mechanically-switched compensation schemes is
their near-instantaneous response to changes in the system voltage. For this reason they are
often operated at close to their zero-point in order to maximize the reactive power correction
they can rapidly provide when required.
They are in general cheaper, higher-capacity, faster, and more reliable than dynamic
compensation schemes such as synchronous condensers.

Chapter 4: Boost Converters

4.1. Boost Converter

2
A boost converter (step-up converter) is a power converter with an output DC voltage greater
than its input DC voltage. It is a class of switching-mode power supply (SMPS) containing at
least two semiconductor switches (a diode and a transistor) and at least one energy storage
element. Filters made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally
added to the output of the converter to reduce output voltage ripple. A boost converter is
sometimes called a step-up converter since it “steps up” the source voltage. Since power (P =
VI) must be conserved, the output current is lower than the source current.

Fig.4.1. Boost Convereter


4.2 Circuit Analysis
Operating principle
The key principle that drives the boost converter is the tendency of an inductor to resist
changes in current. When being charged it acts as a load and absorbs energy (somewhat like a
resistor), when being discharged, it acts as an energy source (somewhat like a battery). The
voltage it produces during the discharge phase is related to the rate of change of current, and
not to the original charging voltage, thus allowing different input and output voltages.

Fig.4.2. Boost Converter Circuit Diagram


The basic principle of a Boost converter consists of 2 distinct states:
➢ In the On-state, the switch S is closed, resulting in an increase in the inductor current.
➢ In the Off-state, the switch is open and the only path offered to inductor current is
through the fly back diode D, the capacitor C and the load R. This result in
transferring the energy accumulated during the On-state into the capacitor.
➢ The input current is the same as the inductor current as can be seen . So it is not
discontinuous as in the buck converter and the requirements on the input filter are
relaxed compared to a buck converter.

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Fig.4.3. Two Configurations Of A Boost Converter, Depending On The State Of Switch S

4.3. Modes of Operation


There are basically two modes of operation.
1. Continuous Mode
2. Discontinuous Mode.

4.3.1 Continuous Mode

Fig.4.4 Voltage and Current Waveforms of Boost Converter Operating In Continuous Mode

When a boost converter operates in continuous mode, the current through the inductor (IL)
never falls to zero. Above figure shows the typical waveforms of currents and voltages in a
converter operating in this mode. The output voltage can be calculated as follows, in the case

1
of an ideal converter (i.e. using components with an ideal behaviour) operating in steady
conditions:
During the On-state, the switch S is closed, which makes the input voltage (Vi) appear across
the inductor, which causes a change in current (IL) flowing through the inductor during a time
period (t) by the formula:

At the end of the On-state, the increase of IL is therefore:

D is the duty cycle. It represents the fraction of the commutation period T during which the
switch is ON. Therefore D ranges between 0 (S is never on) and 1 (S is always on).
During the Off-state, the switch S is open, so the inductor current flows through the load. If
we consider zero voltage drop in the diode, and a capacitor large enough for its voltage to
remain constant, the evolution of IL is:

Therefore, the variation of IL during the Off-period is:

As we consider that the converter operates in steady-state conditions, the amount of energy
stored in each of its components has to be the same at the beginning and at the end of a
commutation cycle. In particular, the energy stored in the inductor is given by:

So, the inductor current has to be the same at the start and end of the commutation cycle. This
means the overall change in the current (the sum of the changes) is zero:

Substituting and by their expressions yields:

This can be written as:

…………………Eqn 7.1
This in turns reveals the duty cycle to be:

…………………Eqn 7.2

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From the above expression it can be seen that the output voltage is always higher than the
input voltage (as the duty cycle goes from 0 to 1), and that it increases with D, theoretically to
infinity as D approaches 1. This is why this converter is sometimes referred to as a step-up
converter.
4.3.2 Discontinuous mode

Fig.4.5 Voltage and Current Waveforms of Boost Converter In Discontinuous Mode


In some cases, the amount of energy required by the load is small enough to be transferred in
a time smaller than the whole commutation period. In this case, the current through the
inductor falls to zero during part of the period. Although slight, the difference has a strong
effect on the output voltage equation. It can be calculated as follows:
As the inductor current at the beginning of the cycle is zero, its maximum value (at t =
DT) is

During the off-period, IL falls to zero after δT:

Using the two previous equations, δ is:

The load current Io is equal to the average diode current (ID). As can be seen on figure 4, the
diode current is equal to the inductor current during the off-state. Therefore the output current
can be written as:

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Replacing ILmax and δ by their respective expressions yields:

………..Eqn 7.3
Therefore, the output voltage gain can be written as flow:

………………………………...….Eqn 7.4
Compared to the expression of the output voltage for the continuous mode, this expression is
much more complicated. Furthermore, in discontinuous operation, the output voltage gain not
only depends on the duty cycle, but also on the inductor value, the input voltage, the
switching frequency, and the output current.

Chapter 5: Power Factor Correction Using Boost Convertors

5.1. PFC Boost Pre-regulator


Boost converter topology is used to accomplish this active power-factor correction in many
discontinuous/continuous modes. The boost converter is used because it is easy to implement
and works well. The simple circuit in the below Figure is a short refresher of how inductors
can produce very high voltages. Initially, the inductor is assumed to be uncharged, so the
voltage VO is equal to VIN. When the switch closes, the current (IL) gradually increases
through it linearly since:

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Fig.5.1. Flyback Action of Inductor

Voltage (VL) across it increases exponentially until it stabilizes at VIN. Notice the polarity of
the voltage across the inductor, as it is defined by the current direction (inflow side is
positive). When the switch opens causing the current to change from Imax to zero (which is a
decrease, or a negative slope). Looking at it mathematically:

Or L times the change in current per unit time, the voltage approaches negative infinity (the
inductor reverses polarity).Because the inductor is not ideal, it contains some amount of
series resistance, which loads this “infinite” voltage to afinite number. With the switch open,
and the inductor dis-charging, the voltage across it reverses and becomes additive with the
source voltage VIN. If a diode and capacitor were connected to the output of this circuit, the
capacitor would charge to this high voltage (perhaps after many switch cycles). This is how
boost converters boost voltage, as shown in Figure below.

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Fig.5.2. PFC Boost Pre-regulator

The input to the converter is the full-rectified AC line voltage. No bulk filtering is applied
following the bridge rectifier, so the input voltage to the boost converter ranges (at twice line
frequency) from zero volts to the peak value of the AC input and back to zero. The boost
converter must meet two simultaneous conditions:

1. The output voltage of the boost converter must be set higher than the peak
value (hence the word boost) of the line voltage (a commonly used value is
385VDC to allow for a high line of 270VACrms).
2. The current drawn from the line at any given instant must be proportional to
the line voltage.

Without using power factor correction a typical switched mode power supply would have a
power factor of around0.6, therefore having considerable odd-order harmonic distortion
(sometimes with the third harmonic as large as the fundamental). Having a power factor of
less than 1 along with harmonics from peaky loads reduces the real power available to run the
device. In order to operate a device with these inefficiencies, the power company must supply
additional power to make up for the loss. This increase in power causes the power companies
to use heavier supply lines, otherwise self-heating can cause burnout in the neutral line con-
ductor. The harmonic distortion can cause an increase in operating temperature of the
generation facility, which reduces the life of equipment including rotating machines,cables,
transformers, capacitors, fuses, switching contacts, and surge suppressors. Problems are
caused by the harmonics creating additional losses and dielectric stresses in capacitors and
cables, increasing currents in windings of rotating machinery and transformers and noise
emissions in many products, and bringing about early failure of fuses and other safety
components. They also can cause skin effect, which creates problems in cables, transformers,
and rotating machinery. This is why power companies are concerned with the growth of
SMPS, electronic voltage regulators, and converters that will cause THD levels to increase to
unacceptable levels. Having the boost preconverter voltage higher than the input voltage
forces the load to draw current in phase with the ac main line voltage that, in turn, rids
harmonic emissions.

5.2. Modes of Operation

There are two modes of PFC operation:


1. Discontinuous mode

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2. Continuous mode

5.2.1 Discontinuous Mode


Discontinuous mode is when the boost converter’s MOSFET is turned on when the inductor
current reaches zero, and turned off when the inductor current meets the desired input
reference voltage. In this way, the input current waveform follows that of the input voltage,
therefore attaining a power factor of close to 1.

Fig.5.3. Discontinuous Mode of Operation

Discontinuous mode can be used for SMPS that have power levels of 300W or less. In
comparison with continuous mode devices, discontinuous ones use larger cores and have
higher I2R and skin effect losses due to the larger inductor current swings. With the increased
swing a larger input filter is also required. On the positive side, since discontinuous mode
devices switch the boost MOSFET on when the inductor current is at zero, there is no reverse
recovery current (IRR) specification required on the boost diode. This means that less
expensive diodes can be used.

5.2.2. Continuous Mode

Continuous mode typically suits SMPS power levels greater than 300W. This is where the
boost converter’s MOSFET does not switch on when the boost inductor is at zero current,
instead the current in the energy transfer inductor never reaches zero during the switching
cycle (Figure 10).With this in mind, the voltage swing is less than in discontinuous mode—
resulting in lower I2R losses—and the lower ripple current results in lower inductor core
losses. Less voltage swing also reduces EMI and allows for a smaller input filter to be used.
Since the MOSFET is not being turned on when the boost inductor’s current is at zero, a very
fast reverse recovery diode is required to keep losses to a minimum.

1
Fig.5.4. Continuous Mode of Operation

5.3. Power Factor Correction Circuits

Total Harmonic Distortion


The ratio between apparent power associated with higher order harmonics and apparent
power associated with fundamental harmonic is called Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

…….. Eqn 5.1

Where Inrms is RMS value of the n-th harmonic of the current.

Any periodic non-sinusoidal current can be presented by Fourier transform.

For a periodic current waveform mentioned above:

Where Io – DC component of the current.

In AC lines Io=0.

…………….. Eqn 5.2

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We can also derive the relationship between PF and THD,

………………….. Eqn 5.3

……………. Eqn 5.4

Where,

θ1: the phase angle between the voltage Vs (t) and the fundamental component of Is (t).
Is1, rms: rms value of the fundamental component in line current.
Is, rms: total rms value of line current.
kdist = Is1, rms /Is, rms: distortion factor.
kdisp = cosθ1: displacement factor.

Fig.5.5. Typical waveforms in a poor PF system

Chapter 6: Current Mode Control for PFC

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Over many years, different current mode control techniques were developed. Some of the
very well adopted methods are:
1. Average Current Control.
2. Variable Frequency Peak Current Control.
3. Hysteresis Control.

6.1. Average Current Control


In average current control strategy, the average line current of the converter is controlled. It is
more desired than the other control strategies because the line current in a SMPS can be
approximated by the average current (per switching cycle) through an input EMI filter. The
average current control is widely used in industries since it offers improved noise immunity,
lower input ripple, and stable operation .

Figure below shows a boost PFC circuit using average current control strategy. In the feed-
forward loop, a low value resistor Rs is used to sense the line current. Through the op -amp
network formed by Ri, Rimo, Rf, Cp, Cz, and A2, average line current is detected and
compared with the command current signal, icmd, which is generated by the product of line
voltage signal and the output voltage error signal

There is a common issue in CCM shaping technique, i.e. when the line voltage increases, the
line voltage sensor provides an increased sinusoidal reference for the feed-forward loop.
Since the response of feedback loop is much slow than the feed-forward loop, both the line
voltage and the line current increase, i.e. the line current is heading to wrong changing
direction (with the line voltage increasing, the line current should decrease). This results in
excessive input power, causing overshoot in the output voltage. The square block, x2, in the
line voltage-sensing loop shown in Figure below provides a typical solution for this problem.
It squares the output of the low-pass filter (LPF), which is in proportion to the amplitude of
the line voltage, and provides the divider (A ∗ B)/C with a squared line voltage signal for its
denominator. As a result, the amplitude of the sinusoidal reference icmd is negatively
proportional to the line voltage, i.e. when the line voltage changes, the control circuit leads
the line current to change in the opposite direction, which is the desired situation. As it can be
seen, the average current control is a very complicated control strategy. It requires sensing the
inductor current, the input voltage, and the output voltage. An amplifier for calculating the
average current and a multiplier are needed. However, because of today’s advances made in
IC technology, these circuits can be integrated in a single chip.

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Fig.6.1. Boost PFC Using Average Current Control

6.2. Variable Frequency Peak Current Control

Although the average current control is a more desired strategy, the peak current control has
been widely accepted because it improves the converter efficiency and has a simpler control
circuit. In variable frequency peak control strategy, shown in Figure below, the output error
signal k(t) is fed back through its outer loop. This signal is multiplied by the line voltage
signal αv1(t) to form a line current command signal icmd (t) (icmd (t) = αk(t ) · v1(t)). The
command signal icmd (t) is the desired line current shape since it follows the shape of the line
voltage. The actual line current is sensed by a transducer, resulting in signal βi1(t) that must
be reshaped to follow icmd (t) by feeding it back through the inner loop. After comparing the
line current signal βi1(t) with the command signal icmd (t), the following control strategies
can be realized, depending on its logic circuit:

2
Fig.6.2. Block Diagram For Variable Frequency Peak Current Control

Constant On-Time Control.


Its input current waveform is given in Figure below.
Letting the fixed on-time to be Ts, the control rules are:

➢ At t = tk when βi1(tk ) = icmd (tk ), S is turned on.

➢ At t = tk + Ton, S is turned off.

Fig.6.3. Input Current Waveforms for Variable Frequency Peak Current Control In Constant
On-Time Control

Constant Off-Time Control

The input current waveform is shown in Figure below.


Assuming the off-time is Toff , the control rules are:

3
➢ At t = tk when βi1(tk ) = icmd (tk ), S is turned off.

➢ At t = tk+ Toff , S is turned on.

Fig.6.4. Input Current Waveforms for Variable Frequency Peak Current Control In Constant
Off-Time Control

6.3. Hysteresis Control


Unlike the constant on-time and the constant off-time control, in which only one current
command is used to limit either the minimum input current or the maximum input current, the
hysteresis control has two current commands, ihcmd (t) and ilcmd (t) (ilcmd (t ) = δihcmd (t)),
to limit both the minimum and the maximum of input current.
.
To achieve smaller ripple in the input current, we desire a narrow hysteresis-band. However,
narrower the hysteresis- band, higher the switching frequency. Therefore, the hysteresis band
should be optimized based on circuit components such as switching devices and magnetic
components. Moreover, the switching frequency varies with the change of line voltage,
resulting in difficulty in the design of the EMI filter.

The input current waveform is given in the figure below.


When βi1(t ) ≥ ihcmd (t), a negative pulse is generated by comparator A1 to reset them R–S
flip-flop.
When βi1(t ) ≤ ilcmd (t), a negative pulse is generated by comparator A2 to set the R–S flip-
flop.

The control rules are:


➢ At t = tk when βi1(tk ) = ilcmd (t), S is turned on.

➢ At t = tk+1βi1(tk+1) = ihcmd (t), S is turned off.

➢ When, βi1(t ) = ihcmd (t ) = ilcmd (t), S stays off or on.

Like the above mentioned peak current control methods, the hysteresis control method has
simpler implementation, enhanced system stability, and increased reliability and response
speed. In addition, it has better control accuracy than that the peak current control methods
have. However, this improvement is achieved on the penalty of wide range of variation in the

1
switching frequency. It is also possible to improve the hysteresis control in a constant
frequency operation, but usually this will increase the complexity of the control circuit.

Fig.6.5. Input Current Waveform of Hysteresis Control

Chapter 7: MATLAB SIMULATIONS

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The following Matlab simulations have been implemented and the corresponding outputs
obtained are shown below

7.1 Basic Boost Implementation

Fig.7.1. Basic boost topology

Observations :

1)Input DC voltage : 12V


2) Output DC voltage : 47.87
3) Duty ratio : 75%

7.2. Power Factor Improvement By Boost Converter With Firing

3
MOSFET By PWM

Fig.7.2. Matlab simulation for PFC with boost convertor (Firing by PWM)

2
Fig.7.3. (I) Modified Input Current (II) Input Voltage
(III) Current after rectification (IV) Voltage after rectification

1
Fig.7.4. (I) Output Current with resistive load
(II) Output Voltage with resistive load

Observations: 1. Peak input current: 70.2 A


2. Peak input Voltage: 100V
3. Average output voltage – 74.06V
4. Average output current – 24.69A

7.3. PFC With Boost Convertor By Firing MOSFET With Voltage And

1
Current Closed Loop Control

Fig 7.5: PFC using Closed Loop control

2
Fig 7.6 : (I) Input Voltage in Pink color and current in Yellow color
(II) Input voltage (III) Current after rectification

1
Fig 7.7: Output voltage of the Boost convertor

Fig 7.8: Total Harmonic Distortion


Observations:
Peak input Voltage = 163V
Peak input Current=145.6A
Average Output voltage from boost converter=220v
Total harmonic distortion=0

7.4. Hardware Implementation of Boost Convertor Using LM3524

1
Many Integrated Chips are available in the market these which have all the circuits in build in
them.
Some of the Integrated Chips of same sort are
1. LM3524
2. SG3524N
3. LM5001
4. UC5696

Every IC has its own application of power factor improvement. All the above IC’s are used
with Boost convertor for power factor correction.
We have used SG3524N with the boost convertor.

Features of SG3524N

➢ Fully interchangeable with standard LM3524 family


➢ 1% precision 5V reference with thermal shut-down
➢ Output current to 200 mA DC
➢ 60V output capability
➢ Wide common mode input range for error-amp
➢ One pulse per period (noise suppression)
➢ Improved max. duty cycle at high frequencies
➢ Double pulse suppression
➢ Synchronize through pin 3

Fig.7.9 Top View of SG3524N

2
v

Fig.7.10. Implementation of Boost Convertor

Input voltage – 12V


Output Voltage – 52.5V

Calculations:

Duty Ratio (D) = [ 1-(Vin/Vo) ] = 0.77

Rf = 100k ohm
Fosc = 212.765 kHz
L1= 1.65mh
C0=4.7microF
I0 max = 15mA

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Conclusion

The key factor is that power factor correction and most other concepts are not new from the
point of view of formal circuit theory. The question is how the problem can be best
understood from the basics and then tackled in the best possible way.
PFC is rapidly becoming a mandatory feature in AC power sources because IEC 6100-3-2
requires the use of PFC circuits. Active and passive PFC circuits are designed to bring the PF
of a system closer to unity (PF = 1.0). While no system is 100% efficient, most PFC
technology makes the power factor of a system greater than 0.95. Highly efficient electrical
systems have the advantage of supplying less current to drive a load. This is beneficial to
customers that have low power factor problems because utilities sometimes charge penalties
for low power factor. While cost savings from PFC on small AC sources isn’t nearly as
noticeable as money saved from PFC on large systems, in the long run PFC will provide
reduced costs for high energy consumers.

References

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Power Factor Correction Circuits by Issa Batarseh, Ph.D.and Huai Wei Ph.D.university of
central florida USA.

Book on Power Electronics by Dr. P.S. Bimbhra

Book on Power Electronics by Ned Mohan

Power Factor Correction basics from www.fairchildsemi.com

Circuit theory and design of Power Factor Correction circuits by Prof. Chi. K.
Tse,department of electronics and information engg., Hongkong polytechnic university