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PENILAIAN

SPEAKING
By : Zurneva Rosy
Kemampuan berbicara (speaking) dan menulis (writing) dalam
pelajaran bahasa Inggris
merupakan dua kemampuan yang hampir sama sulitnya dirasakan
oleh sebagian besar siswa di
sekolah.

Kesulitan speaking biasanya disebabkan:


1. Sulitnya mengungkapkan ide secara lisan. Sehingga siswa bingung
untuk berbicara.

2. Terbatasnya kosakata (vocabulary), sehingga siswa sulit berbicara


lancar dan lama.

3. Terbatasnya kemampuan tata bahasa (grammar). Sehingga sulit


berbicara dengan aturan
yang benar.

4. Terbatasnya melafalkan kata-kata (pronounciation). Sehingga sulit


mengucapkan kata yang
diucapkannya dengan benar.

5. Kurangnya keberanian untuk berbicara karena takut salah.


Demikian pula dalam menulis (writing) pada dasarnya mempunyai
penyebab yang hampir
sama dengan berbicara (speaking). Hanya bedanya pada masalah lisan
dan tulisan.

Agar para siswa dapat berbicara dan menulis dalam bahasa Inggris,
bisa dicoba pembelajaran
melalui drama.

Tekhnis pelaksanaannya dapat mencoba sbb:

a. Terlebih dahulu menerangkan semua hal yang berkaitan dengan


drama. Mulai dari cara
membuat naskah, setting panggung, dll.

b. Membagi siswa dalam kelompok. Setiap kelompoknya terdiri atas 5-


6 orang secara
heterogen berdasarkan kemampuan.

c. Setiap kelompok di tugaskan membuat drama yang temanya bebas,


dan durasi drama
maksimal 10 menit. Serta setiap anak dialognya minimal 5 dialog.
Masing-masing kelompok setiap minggunya harus berkonsultasi
tentang hasil tulisannya.

Naskah yang sudah di konsultasikan dan diperiksa oleh guru,


dikembalikan pada siswa untuk
diperbaiki dan di tulis ulang.

Penilaian speaking
dilakukan secara
individual dengan aspek-
aspek penilaian:
*. Intonasi (intonation)
*. Pengucapan (pronounciation)
*. Tata bahasa (grammer)
*. Kelancaran bicara (fluency), dan
*. Gaya bicara (diction).

Sedangkan penilaian writing dilakukan


secara kelompok, dengan aspek
penilaian:
*. Kemampuan mencurahkan ide / gagasan.
*. Tata bahasa (grammer)
*. Kosakata (vocabulary), dan
*. Tanda baca (punctuation)

untuk melakukan penilaian pada speaking skill, kita memerlukan


instrument penilaian berupa
rubrik. alat ini digunakan untuk memberikan penilaian yang lebih
measurable dan observable
Speaking Proficiency Scale
(Oller)
1. Able to satisfy routine travel needs and
minimum courtesy requirements. Can ask and
answer question on topics very familiar to him; within the scope of his
very limited language

experience can understand simple questions and statements …

2. Able to satisfy routine social demands


and limited work requirements. Can handle with
confidence but not with facility most social situations including
introductions and casual
conversations about current events, as well as work, family, and
autobiographical information

3. Able to speak the language with
sufficient structural accuracy and
vocabulary to participate
effectively in most formal and informal conversations on practical,
social and professional
topics. Can discuss particular interests and special fields of
competence with reasonable ease;
comprehension is quite complete for a normal rate of speech;
vocabulary is broad enough that
he rarely has to grope for a word; accent may be obviously foreign;
control of grammar good;
errors never interfere with understanding and rarely disturb the native
speaker.

4. Able to use the language fluently and


accurately on all levels normally
pertinent to
professionals needs. Can understand and participate in
any conversation within his range of
experience with a high degree of fluency and precision of vocabulary;
would rarely be taken
for a native speaker, but can respond appropriately even in unfamiliar
situations; errors of
pronunciation and grammar quite rare; can handle informal
interpreting from and into the
language.

5. Speaking proficiency equivalent to that


of an educated native speaker. Has complete
fluency
in the language such that his speech on all levels is fully accepted by
educated native speakers
in all of its features, including breadth of vocabulary and idiom,
colloquialisms, and pertinent
cultural references.

Rating on Scale

a. Accent
1. Pronunciation frequently unintelligible.

2. Frequent gross errors and a very heavy accent make understanding


difficult, require frequent
repetition.

3. “Foreign accent” requires concentrated listening and


mispronunciation lead to occasional
misunderstanding and apparent errors in grammar or vocabulary.

4. Marked “foreign accent” and occasional mispronunciations which do


not interfere with
understanding.

5. No conspicuous mispronunciations, but would not be taken for a


native speaker.

6. Native pronunciation, which no trace of “foreign accent”.


b. Grammar
1. Grammar almost entirely inaccurate except in stock phrases.

2. Constant errors showing control of very few major patterns and


frequently preventing
communication.

3. Frequent errors showing some major patterns uncontrolled and


causing occasional irritation
and misunderstanding.

4. Occasional errors showing imperfect control of some patterns but no


weakness that causing
misunderstanding.

5. Few errors, with no patterns of failure.

6. No more than two errors during the interview.

c. Vocabulary
1. Vocabulary inadequate for even the simplest conversation.

2. Vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas (time, food,


transportation, family,
etc.)

3. Choice of words sometimes inaccurate, limitation of vocabulary


prevent discussion of some
common professional and social topics

4. Professional vocabulary adequate to discuss special interest; general


vocabulary permits
discussion of any non-technical subject with some circumlocutions.

5. Professional vocabulary broad and precise; general vocabulary


adequate to cope with
complex practical problems and varied social situation.

6. Vocabulary apparently as accurate and extensive as that of an


educated native speaker

d. Fluency
1. Speech is so halting and fragmentary that conversation is virtually
impossible.
2. Speech is very slowly and uneven except for short or routine
sentences.
3. Speech is frequently hesitant and jerky; sentences may be left
uncompleted.
4. Speech is occasionally hesitant, with some unevenness caused by
rephrasing and grouping
for words.

5. Speech is effortless and smooth, but perceptibly non-native in speed


and evenness.

6. Speech is on all professional and general topics as effortless and


smooth as a native
speaker’s.

e. Comprehension

1. Understand too little for the simplest type of conversation.


2. Understands only slow, very simple speech on common social and
touristic topic; requires
constant repetition and rephrasing.

3. Understand careful, somewhat simplified speech directed to him,


with considerable
repetition and rephrasing.

4. Understands quite well normal educated speech directed to him, but


requires occasional
repetition and rephrasing.

5. Understands everything in normal educated conversation except for


every colloquial or lowfrequency
items, or exceptionally rapid or slurred speech.

6. Understands everything in both formal and colloquial speech to be


expected of an educated
native speaker.

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: related ideas

GOOD: occasionally unrelated ideas

FAIR TO POOR: very often unrelated ideas


VERY POOR: irrelevant ideas

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: effective and well


Organized

GOOD: occasionally ineffective, weak transition and


incomplete organization

FAIR TO POOR: lack organization

VERY POOR: little or no organization

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: effective word choice

GOOD: mostly effective word choice

FAIR TO POOR: frequently error in word choice

VERY POOR: mostly ineffective word choice

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: grammatically correct

GOOD: mostly grammatically correct

FAIR TO POOR: frequently error in grammar

VERY POOR: very often error in grammar

EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD: few errors in spelling,


punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing

GOOD: occasionally errors in spelling, punctuation,


capitalization, paragraphing

FAIR TO POOR: frequent errors in spelling,


punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing

VERY POOR: dominated by errors in spelling,


punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing