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1947

[PUII[I' 'BIiIOL .IIIAI

RADAR SYSTEM
FUNDAMENTALS

WAR D EPARTMENT

28 APRIL

I~U

WAR

DEPARTMENT

TECHNICAL

M.rNUAL

TM 11-467 CONFIDENTIAL

RADAR SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS
.
.

.,

WAR

DEPARTMENT

II......

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28

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UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

1944

WAR DEPARTMENT,
WAtHINO'!'ON 26, D. C., 28 April 1944.

TM 11-467, Radar System Fundamental", is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.
IA. o. -'1 tiS M.r H).)

By OIIJ)D or THE SIlCU:TAaT OF W"a:

G. C. MARSHALL,

Ohief 01 St.!.
Qn1CIAL:

J. A. ULIO,
, Majrw Ge'Mf'al,

T"'-

Ad~ Oe~ral.

lhwnDUTlOX :

JUJ preecribed in p.ngraph 96, FM 21~; IR 11 (3); I Bn 1,


11 (lI) ; IC 11, (6) ; Air FOn:e8 (l'i) ; Air Foree Dep (2) ; Air
sve (10); Big C lAboratories (2) ; rE (~) ; ASF Dep (5);
Big C Dep (2) j Big Rep Shop (2).
1811: TIO and E 11--411- 8. RII AW Rect.
I fln 1 : T / O lad 1)1-311, Tr Cerrl~r 8'1 ; 1- 117, Bomb 8q Hv ; 1- 127.
Bomb Squad, iI: 1- 7117, C<.ombal " a pplD,Sq (2-&0-'"e ): 1- 768, Combtll
Mappl ... Sq 14En~nd: 1-3'/. Nl,bl
Sq: 1-31 ., or " Bomb Sq
(2-Enrtne ) : 1-981, Emerl..n ~1 Heecu. Sq.

V,

IB 11: T / O a nd IC 11--42:l-S, 811; fttopoortl ... Bn, AW


Reportln, Bn. AW Rect.

Rect :

ll ...ta:;

a.

IIia'

10 11 : T/ O and E 11- 287. 8 1r Co. Dep, A.. n : 11- 231, ~II Co By 01' TnK
C<!t>le",; 11-437 Sir A W Co ; ll--<fl 2-S, HQ Co Blr AW ~: 11 - 101. 811:
Rep Co ; 11 - 121. S l, o..p Co ; 11-32'1. Sl, Put!'i ~ Co ; 11 - 581. 81, lh.lu(
Co ; 11-611. Sta" K.dar ".lnl Un l l
IC"": T!O aud II: 4+-138. AAA !IlL BI., (SM) ; 4+-117. AAIJ. Quo Bt.,
(SM).

For explanation of ~YhlboJa, see FM 21--6.

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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

Fore........

Radar Sylt~". FWidamenlal" ha~ been prepared jointly by the Army


and the Navy for the purpm of providing the student technician
with an und61'llt.anding of typical radar eircuitJI. It ill anticipated
that be ..ilI han! become familiar with the subject coverage of .ithe!'
the radio technician COUr9I!II and Navshipa 900,018 All ftlrnished by the
BUrNU of Naval Per80nnei and Bureau of Shipe f"",pectiveiy, or
TM-l '5:1, TM ll-U6, and TM 11 too as provided by the War Department. No attempt hu been made to provide an anuysis of all
the poesible circuit combinations to be found in the various types of
radar equipment in use in the aerviQllll of the United States. H01fever, it is believed that the choice of emuiu presented here iI 8uf.
flcientJy nlprU!Dtative of all radar equipmenta to contribute materially toward the development of amore intelligent servicing technique.
The si.J: functional components in the form of bloeb, common to
all radar Bete, are introduced, and their inter-nlilltiollllhip is flEitabliehed. Actual circuits aN! then ~ubstituted for the functional blocks
to pi !Imt two complete equipment.: one very simple long. wa't'e !let,
followed by repl"t8entative microw.ve set. Sis I!IeCtiontl .re then
de't'oted to uploring the development of more highly refined circuits
for improving the perform.nce of the 8is buic functional components
previously described. An .ddition.1 eection is provided in which the
principlee of servo mechllllilJlIlll .re presented. No complete production equipment. have been utilized in the dillCll88ioll8 covering the
two reprteentaiive radar set.. It i8 the practice of the sen"ices to
pro.ide with each 8pecific production eet one or mOn! m.nuals which
include brief circuit .nalysis !lnd tables of spare or repl~.ble
part&, .Iong with maintenanot, een"icing, install.tion, and operating

"'...

The majority of the circuit. discmred in Radar Syrtem Fundamental, were e:l1:raeted from variOU8 production tquipments and in
many cu were simplified in order to stress the fundamental oper
tion. Particular reliance i8 pl.ced on TM 11-466 .nd Navsbipe
900,016 for the buic an.lysis of individu.l circuits composing the more
complu radar circuits. Mathemetieal consider.tiOM have been r.
duced to minimum, &8 it is not anticipated th.t student technicians
n

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UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

having a(,<"PH to this mlnual will be eonl~rned with problOlllll of


del:lign of rudar f(J,uiplllent.
Consistent el!'ort haa been put forth throughout the manual to
develop and establish a limple rldar nomenclature in which terms
01 a desctiptive nature have been giftn prefenmce over those which
convey no meu.ning to the beginner. In thill respect a glOlJ8lry of
radar tenns ill provided in the appendb:. Simple conventioIl!l have
been u!led in preparing the circuit diagrams. The following eon
ventions have lozoen adOI)wd with regard to valUe!! of circuit elem&nl.il
on diagrams:
100

- 150 ohms
l/lOK - 1110,000 ohmll
I.GM - 1,Il00,000 ohms

.01 - 0.01 microfarad


10 - 10 microfarads
10J'l' - lO micromit'rofatada

Linea which ("I'0Il8 1I!itAout being shown t ied togeth er by a dot form
no contact. Linea which cross and cart! shown tied together by a dot
fonn a contact. The direction of current fl.ow has been considered
to be the direction of the movtment of electrona, tJIILt i9, from negltive to positivt within the Cireuit Ind from cathode to plate within
the vacuum tube.

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Content.

"or __ pIIo

P_

&dion I . Elt'menta or radar ________ _. _ _ __ ___ __ _ __ _ _ 1-6


I/. Funct ional eomponentll of radar eY8truIL ._._ 7- 14
llI. Detailed study of self-eynehrollized long-

I
14

wave ra.dar system ... ____ ____ ______ ____ _ 15-20

33

IV. Detailed study of elfwrually eynehroDued


micro ...... ve radar ByBteIIL _____________ __ 21 - 26
V. Timers. ___ _____ __________________ ______ 27- 32
VI. Tra,l1Ilmittel'll ____ ____ ___ ___ __________ ___ 33-35
VII. Antenna By8teml __ ____ ________ _____ ____ _ 36-42
V]ll. Receivenl ____ __ _______ _____ _____ ________ 43--47
IX. IndicatorB ____ __ ____ ___ . ___ ___________ __ 48-54
X . Primary power lUld control cin:uits ___ ______ 55-57
Xl. Data tran8l1liB8ion and servo I YStem. . __ ___ _ 58-64
A~ndi:t.

GlOllllBry of terms. ___ _____ ____ ___ ________ __ __ __

[ndQ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ __ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ __ ___ __ _ __ ___

73
119
154

186
234
252
285
311

363

385

v
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Seetloa I
EleBleots of Radar

I. GENERAL

.. 8!a.ItJ... Radar i, an application of radio principles by


means of which it is po8llible to detect the pn!!lence of objects, to detnmine their direction and range, and to recognize their character.
.. PrI.eJple. Detection i8 accomplished by dincting a beam of
radio frequency energy over a region to be searched. When the beam
strikes a rellecting object, energy is reradiated. A very lIIllaU part of
this rtradiated energy is returned to the radar system. A sensitive
receiver located near the transmitter can detect the echo signal and
therefore the presence of the object or targtlt. The determination of
the actual range and direction is based on the facts that radio. fre
quency energy travels at the constant velocity of light and that the
receiving system can be made direct ional.

s . .....UC"T.ONS

OF ~ML
.. Sea_II. ( 1) Tactical operations al'& hesed on the available
knowledge of the enemy's dispositions and movements. Radar can
be of utreme importance in providing a continuous llow of accurate
information to the commanding officer. The initial location of the
ellemy and SIIb$equent n!ports up to the time when action is finally
joined is accomplished by search radar.
(2) The problem of locating aircraft targtl18 differs from that of
locating SIIrface targets, in that the reflecting surface of an aircraft is
small compared to that of a naval vessel. Also, since the speed of the
aircraft is much greater, information is required at greater ranges in
order to take effectivlI action. This factor necessitatl'll the use of
~a rly tNming radar for aircraft search. Such systems Ire intended
to determine range and approximlte azimuth.
(3) The accurat~ J"ep()f'tifIfJ systems permit the location of the target
more Iccurately than do the early wlrning systems. A means of
mealll.lting altitude is usually included in this typB of equipment so
. that the target poaition i, known in three dimensions. When th~
available dlta i~ used to direct fighter lIircrllft in the in t~rcept i on of
the target., the name gruu.ntl ccmtrolkd interception (Gel) is 8OIllelimes applied.
1

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(') The location of aurface craft involves the detennination of


only their range, and uimuth. S"r/ac. u/JI"CA radar is employed
largely. to provide the initial warning of the pruence of auch target.9
and to keep track of later mo'ftmenta. Since the Epeeli of surface
craft is relatively 111011', ezatt data ill Dot of great importance.
It. FIre ea.treL (1) Ths problem of antiaircraft Ore control
requinlll accurate infonnation on ran~, azimuth, and elevation. The
maximum range of radar systems used for thill purpoee is limited to
about '0,000 yards.. The radar aylltem is nonnaUy linked cioeely with
the guns to be controlled because of the relatively short time during
which an aircraft target ill within firing range.
(9) The problem of fire control against nanl Vt9lleia is Bimpler
from the standpoint of detennining position and beea\ll6 of the much
lo_rspeed of the target. Fire-oontrol systemll for use against surface
targets measure range and uimuth only, but to a high degree of
accuracy. The data is uaed to oonipute the firing problem, and the
results may be uaed by widely l!llparated gun batteries.
eo ~_e
(1) One of the moat important U8M of
radar is as an aid in the patrol of shipping lanes in _rcb of enemy
v_le. .J.it'Cla/e to IVr/au tleujjU (ASV) radar ill able to inan..
the wne which can be _rched by utending the range at which surf_ targt'ts can be detected well beyond the Tisual limit. In addi tion, ASV pro'fides an accurate meana for guiding the patrol aircraft
directly to the target.
(2) Fighter aircraft ean be direetl to the general 'fieinity of the
enemy planes by means of early warning systems, but, unl_ ~
ditiolUl of visibility are adequate, they may completely mi. the targN.
Ai1'Cf'(J;/t mmuptWn (AI) equipment in the fighter plane permits the
erew to locate the enemy at !lbort range! and to eloae to the attack.
The additioDalweigbt of the equipment and the n-t for AD operator
requinllli special fighter aircraft known &8 the "night fighter."
... I4I.... __ d.. Ii 1_41 e. fee. (1) Althougb radar ean
locate an object Bueh as an aircraft or vessel aCXlurately, it eannot dis
tingu ish between friend and enemy. Thia inability is particularly
dangerous in fire.oontrolllYitems, since thf' firing may be completely
blind much of the time.
(2) Identification-friend or foe (IFF) equipment is u8td as an
auxiliary to radar to idMtify friendly eraft.. The IFF system, 10eated on the craft.. f\'Ctives from the radar location a ehallenging signal by radio means and returns II. reply, either visually or by radio.

IFF techniques are mueh the .. me as those of radar.


eo Nevl,.de_I.I.... (1) Radar i~ in it8slf a fonn of na'fj
gationa' equipment, sinee object!l can be located with it. When the
objeeta., mch u mountaiI18 and prominent buildingll, cau be recog

U.

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UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

nized, tile movement of the nlsrl or aircraft can be guided acoordingly.

(2) Radar btIDCQAI tln) used to IJIIpplement the natural fixed target.ll
which act as reference points. Beacons are similar to IFF systems in
that they receive signals from the radar set and retum other signals
to iL Each installation has ita own eode U; identify its location.
Therefore, the IlIIII of beacons is an improvement over the UIi8 of lind

.........

(3) Radar altimeUrr are special radar systems used to measure the
height above the Burfaee of the earth. Such devices are called 00'0lute altimeter, because they measure the true distance to the earth
without reference to _ level or barometric preasure.. Since range is
tbe only form of data required, and sinee the earth's eurf8()6 is the
targst, altimeters are smRiI and relatively simple.

3. 1lAD..uI METHODS
.. eo.tIa.o_wavC'l (e-w) .et~ad. One method of detecting s target maklll use of the Doppler etrecL When radio-frequency energy which is transmitted continuously strikes an object
which moves toward or away from thllSOUrce of ooergy, energy is reo
8eeted and ita frequency is changed. The change in frequency is.
known as the Doppler effect. A similar effect at audible frequencies
i, reoognuoo readily when the pitch of the whistle of a train is heard
as it approachlll or leaves the listener. The radar application of thi~
effect measures the difference in frequency between the transmitted
and retleeted energy to determine the prellence and tpeed of the moying target. This method works well with fast-moving targets, but
not with tbose whicb are slow or stationary. Cow systems are therefore limited in pre!!llnt usage.
It. tr. " e."y........ tJ _t~"'. If the frequency 01
the transmitted energy is varied continuously and periodically over a
specified band, the frequency of the energy being radiated by the antenn a differs from that being received from the target. This difference occurs because of the time required lor the energy to reach
the target and retum. The frequency difference depends on the distance traveled, and can be used as a measure of range_ Moving targets produce a frequency shift in the returned signal because of the
Doppler effect which affects the accuracy of range meaguremenL
eo . . . _.ed.latl _et~"'. The radio-frequency energy
can also be transmitted in short pulses whoee time duration may vary
from 1 to 60 microBl:\OOnds (millionths of a second). If the tMlllemitter is turned off belon! the ~8ected energy returJUI from the target,
the receiver can di stinguish between the transmitted pulse and the
reflected pulsa After all re8ection$ have returned, the transmitter

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UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

can .gain be turned on .nd tbe PIOC


repeated. 'l'he reoelver outpu'
is .pplied to .n in.dieator ..hich me&SUl"'IlII the time interv.l bet..een
the tnnsmj!!8ion of the _rgy .nd ita return . . . reSection. Since
the lIlIergy mvela .t constant velocity, the time interval beoomes
meuure of the dinnce traveled or range. Sinoe this method does
not depend on the relative frequency of the returned sigfl.1 or on the
motion of the target., dil!ieultiea experienced in the c-...nd frequencymodul.tion method!! .re not prEsent. The pl!lr modulation method
i8 utJed almost universally in military and n.nl 'pplicatioD8. ThNetore it i8 the only method diacwIIIed in thiB manuaL
... DBiBRMlNA..T1eN O. 1lA..N6JL,

.. TI

e n-.'lI nJ_.h '.. (1) The BUC>'? 'ttl employ-

ment of pulrmodul.ted rad.r sysI.em!Idependl! primarily on the .bility


to meaaure dirrtanoe in I:enn!J of time.. Badio-frequency energy, once

..--......--..

--,~~~~,~,.:-

it h.. been radi.ted into spa, continues to travel with constant


Villocity. When it strikes a rellecting object there is no loss in time,
but merely. redirecting of the energy. Ita velocity ill th.t of light,
or, in tefDlll of distanoe traveled per unit of time. 186,000 land miles
per IieOOnd, 162,000 nautical millll! per aeoond, or 828 y.rds per microlJeO(md.
(2) The constant velocity of radio>-frequency energy is .pplied in
rad.r to determine r.nge by measuring the time required for a pulr
to travel to. targellind return. For es.mple. lI.8Sume thsl s I -mierosecond pulse is transmitted to ..ard an object which is 32,800 yard'!
....y. Figure 1 shows conditions.t ths instant the pulr is radi.ted.
When the pulse reachl!!l the target, it hll8 tr.veled 32,800 y.rd~ at
328 y.rds per micror::ond, .nd therefore 100 microeeconds have
el.psed. Figure 2 Show8 the pulse arriving at the target. The pulse
is then re1lected, and energy is retul"lled over the same path. Sinoe the

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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

nturn trip is al80 32,BOO yards, the raqui~ tim~ of travel i$ apin
100 miCl'( seconds. Figure 8 shows the pulse returned to the radar
system. The total elapeed time is 200 micrO$OO(lnds for a distance
traveled of twice the actual rangtl of the target. For radar ranging
therefore, the velocity is considered to be one ha.1f of ita true value,
or 164 yards per mic rosecond. In the enmple, range-timeX 164200 x UW - S2,800 yard8.

~--

TI e
e ___ e.t. (1) In order to employ the timerange rdationship, the radar system must hr.ve II time.measuri ng
devioe. In addition, since there may be more than one target in the
region under search, !lOme means of sepr.rr.ting and identifying pulses
must be ineJuded. The cathode-ray OElCillOllCOpI'I is well suited to such
task, since it retains the information on its flCreen and also forl1l~ a
time scale. The time scale is provided by using a linear sweep to produce a known rate of motion of the electron beam across the so::reen
of the cathode-ray tube.
~.

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(2) The DleUllftIlllent of time ill illustrated in the following enmpIe.. Assume that cath~-rRy tube ill used with. horiront.llineat'
sweep which pnxiUOllll a beam whOlM! velocity acroII8 the 8C~n is
1 inch pet' 100 miCl"Oll!OOnds.. The sign.ls received from. target .t a
range of 32,800 yards ani applied to the OIIcilloecope as a vertical dElflection_ Following the llame aequeooe of operations IllI in the pnlvioWl
illustration, figure' .hows the radio-f"'Queney puhle leaving the radllt'
anlenna and the sweep just starting acI'08S the 8CnlIIn. Since 1 micro8000nd hllll 6lapged, the leading edge of the pulse has moved 328 yards

--' - ./
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from the antenna, and the sweep tu.oe has moved 0.01 inch aeroaa
the!ICr"MD. The plolbe is .I!bown on the IICnlen as a vertical de8ection,
sinOI.'! the receiver def.ecUI the pulse which is supplied to the transmitting antenna .. After 100 miefOlleCOudl! elapsed time the pulse
reaches the target 82,BOO yanis away, and the swoop trIlOI.'I has moved
1 ineh(fig. IS). Since the pulse energy is out at the target, there is no
deflection of the trIlOI.'I vertically. The re6ected pulse Ntuma to the
r&dat' antenna at the end of 200 mier( E2 ~{)nda, during 1Ii'hieh the
sweep traoe hllll moved a totnl di!lt.ance of 2 inehes. For the length
of tht" received pulse (1 microsecond) the I.race is deflect.ed vertically
(fig. 6). Thu,,> with a consta..nt 811i'eep-trace velocity of 1 inch pet'

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UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

100 micn:!2oonds, a time _Ie i.e: proouced which ill equivalent to 100
mieJ 'C !lllloonds timell 164 yards pe r microsecond equals 16,400 yards
per inch of tnoo. If 1UI0ther target returned the transmitted pube
in 300 mici"O!:i8COnds, the return signal would be indicated 3 inches from
the start of the sweep, and the range of the target would be SOOx 1644-9,200 yards.
(3) The single-trace illustration used will not penis! on the O6CilloI:iCOpiI 8Cl'een for sufficient time to be useful.
Therefore it is neces8ll.ry
to repeat the pullile tralU!lllission and the sweep trace periodically.

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H W"'

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...
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}l4n,e IM41callon "I

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larflC"lI.

(S,.,....,., .... c. 1Ixit, " 1

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If the two operations are made to start in t he sa.me time n!lation each
time, signals retumed from a given target will be superimposed on
each other by 6uceessive sweep traces. The signals from all tllrgeta
will be shown on the oscilloscope in their proper swee plime-range
positions (fig. 7).

5. DETERMINATION OF AZIMllTH OR BE..t.RING


... Geaeral. (1) The measurement of the diMlCtion of I. target
from the radar system is usually given as lin angular position. The
angle may be measured from true north if the instalhltion is station-

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uy, or with respect to the heading of a v nl or aircraft containing


the radar !Itt. The angle at which the echo aignal returna ia meuured
by utilising the directional characteristica of the radar antenna BYS'
tom.

(2) The dimensions of the individual radiating - element (the


dipole) C&W18 it to eend out more energy in some direction. than in
other&. When _veral elements 1.1"6 tuJeCl ~her, to form an antenna
ayrnem, the eDergy ia further concentrated. Reder antenn ... 1.1"6 con
structed of radiating element., 1"68ectors, and directonl to prod\Kllil a
'ingl' narrow beam of energy in one direction. The pattern produced in this manner permits the bezming of muimum enngy in a
desired direction.
(3) The transmitting pattern of an antenna aystem is a.1ao its receiving pattern. An antenna can therefore be used to traDl:llIlit elH!rgy,
to receive re8ected energy, or both .
.. SIII....I. . . .,.'11 .' ( 1) The simplest "form of antenna
for me ... uring uimuth or bearing is one ."hleh producetl a single-lobe
pattern. The ,ylltem is mounted 110 that it ca n be rotated. Energy
il directed ACl'OSiI the region to be searched, and the beam is scanned
in uimuth until a return signal ie pieked up. Tbe position of the
antenna ie then adj"sted to give muimum return signal.
(2) Figure 8 ahowl the receiving pattern for a typical radar an
tenna. In it, relative eignal strength ia plotted against angular
poaition of the antenna with i eepert to the target. A maximum lignal
is l"6a!ived only ."hen the ois of the lobe p'nes through the target.
(8) The lIIINIitivity of the single-lobe .,.lItem depends on the angular"
width of the lobe pattern. The operator adjusts the position of the
antenna system for maximum reoei.,ed signal. If the signal strength
changes rap idly with angular rotation, the accuracy with whlch the
on-target poaitioo can be selected if! great. Thus, in figure 9, the relative signal strengths " An and "1/" have very little difference. If the
energy if! concentrated into a narrower beam, the difference is greater
and the accuracy better.
e 1&01 11 .,....,... (1 ) Figure 9 sho."s that the signal
strength variea more rapidly on the side of the lobe than near the ui ..
The greatel:lt rate of change of signal st rength per degree of rotation
oecurs between the anglee which give .00 and 86 pel'C'('nt of muimum.
Radar aylllelllll designed for gun laying or fire control require the
hi ghest. po68ible accuracy in measuring azimuth angles. The double_
lobe system achieves this accuracy by using t."o lobes to form the
antenna ..ystem pattlll'll"
(2) The princi ple 01 the double-lobe system is illustrated by using
two IMlparale .. nt('nnll>! wh,,~ lobe lXes arE' displai'M by some angular
distance (fig. 10). The two lube paUerns intenlect at one point only,

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UNfIIERSITY Of ~Hj(Jo,N

known as the Cl'Q6IiOver point, at which equal signals are produced hy


the two antennas for this particu1ar uimuth. At all other positiOlIll
of the amly unequal signals are produced. When the target ill in

..... bE!' . . . , ..........

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position .A, the echo signal strength &Ii received by lobe 1 is propor,
tional to Y, and aa received in lobe 2 is proportional to X. If the
IlIItenna is rotated 80 that the target is in position B, the signal from

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

lobe 1 decre ..ses to an amplitude proportional to X, while that fl"om


lobe 2 ri_ to a value proportional to Y. At position C, between tb_
t"o positions of the antenna, the signals from the two lobe!! are equal
and proportional to Z and t he antenna system i9 on t.he bearing of the
target.
(3) The use of two lobee instead of a single lobe grently increases
the accuracy of uimuth measurement. The 1I.(ll01,IIIt of increase de
pends on the oonfigurlltion of the antenna atray. In general, the increase is at least five li mes, but it can be much gre&l.6r. In addition
to the greater accuracy of the double lobe, there ifJ another advantage
in the sense of direction available. If the antenna array is off-ta.Tget
on the side of lobe 1 (fig. 10, poaition .d.) the signal received by lobe 1
is the larger. Therefore the antenna should be rotated towud.the left
until the signals beoome equal. When the amplitude of NCh signal
ifJ proportionsl to Z, the antenna is said to be on-to'11et .
,

I A

...,.. h' I

""IY Co

0.1",

n __

.. 8BT.MIN"TlON" OF BLEV"TN

. ....er.l. (1) The remaining dimension necessary to locate


completely an object in space can be exprll86ed either as an angle of
elevation or as an a.ltitude. If one is imo"n, the other can be calculated from the right-triangle relationship and the slant range (fig.
11 ).

(2) The freespaDe pattern of an antenlls array is b"sed on the


arrangement of the individual elemenl4 "ithin the system. If the
same array is placed c1O!ie to the earth, however, the vertical free~pace pattern I1Iny be changed by the eft'eet of ground refl.ootioIlB. Figure 12 represent.!! an antenna above the earth which has been elevated
~ufticiently 110 that energy will not strike the earth's ~urface and be
reBooted. Therefore the only energy that reaches the target is that
which oomes directly from the antenna system. If the antenna beam
is lowered to the po!!ilion shown in figure 13, IIOme of the transmitted
energy hit.! the e&rth and ifJ N!8.eeted b&ck into HpaCI!. The target now
roceives energy from two directions and the effective field ifJ the ~um

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

of the two fields 80 produced. The rellected wave Iravel~ fUIther lluan
the direct ray in reaching the target. The addition of the fields at
the target depends on thr dift"erena! in the distanct'18 traveled eJ:pr- " )d
in ",aVeil"llglhs.. For exalllple, if the path dift"erencl" for" given target.

" ..,
ALTITUDE:

..,..

..
,..",'" n.

lh1_jllO""~

Tl.-....
01 .ltll,,"".

1111171777777777777777777
In , .... _

... -.....

~:C<2

.-

.....u.m ....

poeition is a half wavelength, the fi eldy cancel. If the po!Sition of


the target is changed. so that the path dilJerence is a full wavelength
the fields add. Tbe result of ground reftl"<1,ion is to brellk the single
fl't'e-sp&<'6 lobe into II number of smaller lobes, with gill'S between
t.he.llI. Figure 14 illlll<frates Ihis elect.

..

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

b. ltleUlodli. (I) A uy method used for determining the lingle


of de' -lI t i...n or the altitude mllst ei ther malie nose of gronnd refl ecti""s
or COlllpletely al... \,1 the m_ T he /I,ru"old."icku!, m(!lhod 8ml t he
~i!l"al-co mpurisQI! methud use the effect of ground re n l'Ction~ to ti ml
altitude. T he till eti-ulllulJlu method ll'ui ds ground relloctions and
mell ~ IIn.'iI the a ngle of ele,-.tion .

..

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNIVERSITY Of MICHIGAN

(2) The thrl'1>ho ld-pickup method lIlukt'!< lise "f the V<!rtic"l-t-Hv\,T-

ags rmllern of an Rnt enlla ~y8rern whose lobe axi ~ is panlle! 10 I-h o
earth_ The positions of the lobes Rnd gaps are determined by fly ing
an aircrufl. toward Ihe Mldar inSh llMt ioll on known II ltiIIlJe~, lind I'i>cord ill g the nnge!ii at which a minimum usable sib" lal i~ returned. A
typ iclIl lllol of this dala ill shown in fib'l.ll"e 15. The chari "btnint>d in
Ihis way is u sed by obseni ng the range at whi ch lin unkno""1\ IoIrl.,oct
first ap pears, and then readillg its altitude from the chllrl. T hi s
method is very inoccurlue'l'rimuri ly b..-Cltuse t he graph of the allh!IIUII
pattern is determined by the use of 0 single aircnt ft while the target
may be any number of planes. I n b<encral, the greaur the numl>er of
plunes. the gl~at.er is the st rength of ths ""tumed SiglUI\. Therefon'.
a Inrge flight of [llnne. lit II. given altitude will be detected at II. grealer
range than II. lIingle pllne.
(3) Ths $ignal-COIll[lllri$On method is sim ply an exten@ion of the
threshold_pickup melh.KI. Tw o uutenl\n ~ Mre placed one above the

. ....
! "

,
.
,.
1l7rpn,]:::1<i~":-'----"

"

./,.~

.' ...

~~-

~~

'

-~

~.

.-'ropoo

-'

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...
. ..

Tl-a6!!1l
J.'I, . r~

I r..- (; ollb .... 'io" chI" f or

e.'h"oll~/I ~i ' ''''~ fl

"II.,.dr.

oIher 10 give sligh/ly differelll v"" 'r icIII .c"" e r"g~ l',uler ll >;. TII(,I"I}('!I
the refore overlll]) bnt do nOI wi nei'].. The $i gllltl~ ........:cived nn the
L"'O anlennas are comp"red in mllgnit.ude, ami Iheir rat io, together
... ith the range of ti,e tarb""!. is applied to II. heighr .r"llge chllrt fr"m
... hich al titude is reMd. Uude r lavon,ble condi t-iolls, th e "ltilUde can
I>e delermilled within 500 feet. I na~"Curllci('lj dne 10 the "'ltnh.~r of
plllll"" in a gil'en target ,,,.,. h, rgely d in,innte'] b.....:IIUSC II ratio is 1I.';C<1.
(4 ) '(1111 tilred -Rnl"m,a nr..thod measUI'tIS the Hngle of e1en. t i"ll di ro<; lly in Ihe Slime way thnt llZimulh is lIIe" slu~d. Ground I"t!fI.)(!lions
lire IlI'oided by usillg the system on ta rgets wh ich 1IT(l high enough so
that trans mitted tnel"gy does not strik e the ground ( fig. 12) . T he DCcuracy of I hi~ rnd h.M1 'lcpends un rhe frt",:-s pl\t~ Imtlel'n and the ubilil .'"
of the opernlor tn loclllo' tl .. "II -tllrgel 1" ~ irion of Ihe a nl en"n arrll ).
D o ubl.'l"hc systems '" .... ~"'mnuli ly uscd to iltcrense the pl'ecisiun wi th
... hich t.he IIntenna is l)Qi nttod,
t f)

0.'9'

.,I<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

SeedOD ..
huedo.a. Co_peaeafa .'Radar SY8te_

7. JI'IJ~AMII:NT.u. ELBMBNTS.
.. GII!_eraL Radar system. now in exillt600e vary greatly as to
detail. They may be very simple or, if mono accurate data are r&quired, they may be highly relined. The principles of operation,
however, ue e_mtiaUy the 8Ilme for al1l1JlMffis. Thus. single buic
radar eystem can be visualized in which the functional requirements
hold equally well for.1l specific equipment& The varying details are
due to I. choice of epedfic circuits to fulfill these general function&! requirement& In general, the degree of refinement of these circuita
increases with the frequency, "moe the microwave region lends itBelf
to a bigher degree of precision in angular measurement..
It.. ....e .. _.1 ..1M" ......... (1) The fum:tional break
down of the pulse-modulated radar system resolves itself into sill: . .
Benti.1 oomponent& Theee are shown in figure 18 and m.y be summarited l1li fo11ow8:
.
(a) The timer (variously known 18 the synchronizer, keyer, or
control oentral) supplies the synchronir.ing signals which time the
tranamitted pulses and the indicaUlr, and which coordinate other alllJOCiated circuits.
(b) The traM11litter ~nerates the r f energy in the form Qf short,
powerful pulsee.
( 0) The QnttlnJIQ '1If Um takes the r-f energy from the tnmsmi;tar,
radiates it in a bighly directional beam, receives any returning echoes,
and p"SIleo thelle echoes to the reeeivu.
( d) The receiver ampl ifieo the weak r-f pulses returned by the target
and reproduces them as video pul_ Ul be applied Ul the indicawr.
(tI) The indicawr produee~ a vi~ual indication of the echo pulse8
in a manner which furnishes the required infonnation.
(I) The p_ r l/Uppl y furn ishes all a-e and d -c voltages .nec_wry
for the operation o f the system components.
(2) Any radar system can be subd ivided on the basis of the functional block diagram pre!lented in figure 16. An actual system may
contain several fu nctional components within one physical component,
or a single function may be performed in I16veraJ pbysical eomponents.

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

However, the analysis of the operation of a given !let is greatly simplified by applying the functional block diagram without co nsidering the
physil"&llocation of the cin:uit.e.

L SYSTEM CONSTANTL
.. Ge-"ral. Any rad ar system bas l.88OCiated with it certain
cunslants. The choice of these constants for a particular system is determ ined by its tactical WIll. the ac<:uracy required. thtl range to be
covered, the practical physical sire. and thtl problem of generating
and receiving the signal.

1.

...co

~
~

t-

........ 'n ..

.........."

........
......
.

-'----'-

..

, '........

c .......

'-".

..

n- o.,.
l'I,.,u

16.

JI"".ctlo ....1 tloc.t " ;.a ... Of f MI04"meMal ra4ar ..' , _

.. Carrl_ Ii 41 ..,.41,.. (1) The carrier frequency is the


frequency at which the radio energy is genef'1ltoo. The principal fae
ton influendug the !!eleclion of the cartier f requt'ncy are the desi red
directivity and the generation and reception of r f energy.
(2) For the detennin ation of direction and for the CQucentration
of the transmitted energy so that a greater portion of it is useful,
the antenna should be highly directive. The bibrher the carrier fre
quency, the shorter the wal'elt'ugth and hence the smaller is Ihe an
len_na array for a giV811 sharpness of (lRttern, since the indi vidual ra
diating element is nomllllly 11 half wave long. For an antenna array
of a given physical si Zl' the Illlttern is sharper for R higher freque rwy.
(3) The problem of generating lind ampli fying reasonable amounts
of radio energy at extremely high fr9CJ.uenciea is complicated by the
I.

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

physical construction of the tubes to be used. The common triode


becomes impractical &lid must be replacOO by tuba! of special design .
.Among these are such types a/I the "Iighthou.ee" triode, the groundedgrid triode, the k1ystron, the magnetron, and the "doorknob," "AC()rn,"
and "peanut" tubes. In genen.l, the modifications are designed to reo
duce interelectrode capacitances, tra.nsit time, and stray inductance
and capacitance in the tube leads.
(') The lowest carrier frequency nonnally ueed is 100 megacyc1ea
per second, in order to limit the antenna arn.y to a practical lliu and
yet to obtain the deaired d irectional beam. Frequencies from 100 w
8,000 megacycles are in general use. Toward the upper end of this
band n.nges are IiOmewhat reduced becau.ee of inherent diftieulties in
genen.ting and amplifying r -f energy at ell:tremely high fnquencies.
Seta have been designed. woperate up to and beyond 10,000 megacycles in order to produce very narrow belms or to reduce the antenna
size.
eo P1dlfeo-i0pedd_ II!,.",,,,,, (1) Sufficient time must
be allowed between tran6mitted pul_ for an echo to return from any
target located within the mllXimum workable range of the system.
Otherwise the ' reception of the echoes from the more distant targets
will be ohecured by succeiing tnnsmitted pulses. This noo.- ry
time interval fUes the higheat frequency wbich can be used for the
pulse n!petit ion.
(2) When the antenna system is rotated at a constant speed, the
beam of wergy strikes a tft rget for a relatively abort time. During
this time, a wllkient number of pulses nf energy must be trall6mitted
in order to n!tum a signal which will produce a tasting indication on
the oecillOlJOOpe 8Creen. The peI'9istence of the ecreen and the r0tational speed of the ant~nna therefore determine the lowest. repetition
rate tht.t ca.n be used.
(3) In a system in which the entire interval between transmitted
pu16e!l is used in the indicator, the repetition frequency must be very
stable if accurate range measurement is desired. Since the (l9(:iJIo-8COpe 8Creen will normally have a fairly long persistence, succpsh'e
traces should appear in eJ[llCtly the !lame position to avoid blurring.
.... Pad" wi ...,.. The minimum ran~ at which a target can be
detected i6 determined largely by the width of the transmitted pulse.
If II. target is 1:10 c10611 to the tran$llitter that the echo is returned to
the reoeiver before the transmitter is turned off, the reception of the
~ho obviously will be masked by the tn.nsmiued pulse.
00 PO_1r rel.tI... (1) A radar transmittu generates radio_
frequency energy in the form of utremely short pulses and is then
turned off between put_ for comparatively long interval8. The U!le ful power of the transmitter is that contained in the n.dialed pulses

,.

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

and -ill termed the peak power of the eystem. Power i8 nonndly
measured .... an anrage value over a relatively long period of time.
Since the Mar transmitter ill resting for a time which ill long with
NlIIpect to ita operating time, the average power delivered during one
oycle of operation is quilAl low oompared to the peak power available
during the pulse time.
(2) A definite relationship e:riiU between the ayerage power dissipated over an en.ended period of tilTMl and the peak power developed
during the pulae.time. The time of one cycle of operation is the reciprocal of the repetitioo frequency, T-llf. Other factors remaining
oonstant, the greater the pube width the higher the average power i
and the longer the pul.ee-repetition time the lower the average po"ef.
Thus:
average power pnlse width
peak power - - puJ:iiiOrepetition time.
These generlll relationships are shown in figure 17.

---'.

(8) The operat.ing cycle of thl' radar transmitter can be described


in terms of the fraction of the total time that the r-f energy is radiated.
Thill time relationship i6 caUed the duty cycle and may be repregented

.-

{lube width
pulse_repetition time - duty cycle

For e][8mple, a 2-microaecond pulBe repeated at. the rate of MlO times
per I!ItCOnd represents a duty cycle of 0.001, 6ince the time for 1 cycle
is 1/Il00 IIOCOnd, or 2,000 mitICf(lfM!c(lDds :
2
2,000 - 0.001 -

duty cycle

(4) Likewise, the rat.io I.oetween the average power and peak power
ma.y be expn ;sed in lernl~ "f the dUly cycle:

""wer
. .:.;::... -- - duty cyde
peak power

.~erRge

In the abovl' enmple it mlly be aSl<111l1l.u that the po'Dk power is 200
kilowatts. For 2 microseconds, then, 200 kilowatts of power lI"e avail-

Or>c.>i . 1/"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

able, .... hile for the remaining 1,998 micrum:Qoos zero power is
available.
8iOOl:
avenge power -

~ak

power )( duty cycle

average power - 200 )( 0.001 - 0.2 kilowatta


These relationships Irt shown in figure 18.

-_.

....._.. -_....... ._. __ ._-----------

' ____ 'H"

........... _ t

(I) High peak power iq desirable to produce a strong echo over the
muimum range of tbe equipment. Low Iverage power enables the
transmitter tube!! and cireuit eomponenta to be made smaller and more
eomp&d. ThUB it ill advantageous to have a low duty cycle. The
peak power which can be developed is dependent upon the interrela_
tion between peak and Iverage power, pulse width and pulse-repetition time, or duty cycle.

e.

TIMER .
a. Ge.eral. The function of the timer i8 to insure that all cir-

cuits connected with the radar system open!e in a definite time relationship with each other ..00 that the intel"Val between pul1!e6 is of
the proper length. In general, there are two pra.ct.ieal methods of
8Upplying the timing requirementa.
It.
The pul96.repetitiOli frequency can be det.erminM by an oscillator.of any stable type IIUCh &8
a aine-wlve oeciUator, a mult.i vibrator, or a blocking oscillator. The
output is then applied to nece ry pulse.shaping cireuita to produoe
the required liming puiqe. Figure 19 showq several typical combinations of circuits ",hich may be used. The timing ot .)(liated eomponenta can be accomplished with the output of the timer or by obtain.
ing a timing signal from the t.n.nsrnitter &8 it iB turned on.
e. TI 1-.......... h i . Itiler. The tnnsmitter, with ita
as!lOCiBt.ed circuit.s, may eIlUbli~h its o .... n pulse width and pulse-repetition frequency and provide the synchronizing pulse for the other OODIponents of the sys tem. This Ilclion mlly be .ccomplished by a !leUpulsing or blocking r-f O!)Cilllltor 1II'ilh properly ch08l'n cin:uit eonstanta. This ~thod of timing eiiminat.e8 a number of special timing

T..... .,. _.-_te _It.

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSiTY Of M!CHKJo.H

circuits, but-the pulse width or pulse-nluetition frequency obtained may


be les<I rigidly OOl1trollOO than is desirable for some allplication8-

=lH-Hcu_ ~
TO _

.. no

TO ' .... CAr""

....u...... ~aTOOI .-~

"'_u.. ,,,

I .... .....
...!:" "

COIlO.llT IOlOw"3
n.-HIJ

.e.

TII..t.NSMIIIIKR.
_. Sell_p."! ,..Ie. . In the self-pulsing ....du tnmsmit~r
the functions of transm itt ing and timing are C>lrried uut by une component (fig. 20). This type of trans mitter in efl'ect oscillates a t twu
frequencies: the carrier /refJ~, IS determined by tbe LO constants
of t,he tank circuit, and the pubing / reqrJo't:y, as determined by the
HO constants of the grid cil'l:uit. The grid capacitor largely colltrols
the width of the pulse in that it'! size determines the uumber of po~i
tive r. f swings required 1.0 char~ it sufficiently to block the tube.
The grid-leak l"Il9istor controls the pulse repetition frequency 1.0 the
extent that it determines the I,ime required for Bufticie nt chv.rge to leak
out of the grid capacitor to unblock the tube (the resting time ). The
tim ing pulse for other components is developed &cross a resiswr in the
cathode circuit of the blocldng oscillawr.
~ 1K:l de __ n,. p,,8fl4 .y.te-. In the Ill[tern.lly pulsed
Iype of radar trans mitter t.he function of the r . f oscillator is !"Illatively
simple, that is, to gen erate powerful pulsllll of r-f energy III nlgu lar

I,

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

intervals. Aa the resting time is wry IODg oompa~ W the trans.mitting time, the oscillawr may be gnlatly overloaded during tn.namission w increase the peak power. In this type of opeRtion the
r-f oscillator requirefl power in the fonn of a properly timed, highamplitude, rooungular pUl86. In most cars the timing oeciUator
cannot fulfill this requirement directly, and therefore it it nee -ary
to WI6 a driver and a modulaWr (fig. 21). A driver is aJl.Y circuit
which, when trig~red, driVel; the modulator with a rectangular pulse
of accurntely timed width. A modulator ia a cireuit which supplil!8

1- - - lii.'7oii... .

;r..:;;:;;.iOi<~.;:;;

- - --- -

I
I
I

__ ~

..

COOIWo'

......,..

--I

- -

I
I
I

I
I

JL3t

I
I
I

,_

........

'..........

L __________________
. .

'C_ HM

r-----T;i~__;;.,T1i:R

i'

- - 1-1-1

I
I
I

11

--J-----l

lr

I -"~I

~_~

+
I ~~I :
I

I ______________ ---1I
L

power to the r-f oscillator in the fonn of a timed, high-amplitude,


rectangular pulse. The driver is triggered by the timer in order to
maintain the repetition rate of the system. The driver, when triggered, ~hape8 a rectangular pulli6 of proper time duration which in
turn operatetl the modulator. The modulator then furnishes the high
plate voltage to the r-f oscillator for the predetermined pUlsing timo!.
Thus the transmitter function may be carried out by the combined
performance of a driver, _ modulator, and an r-f oscillator. The mod
ulator acts like _ power amplifier for the driver and like a pitch
for the r-f oeciU_Wr,

Qri.v 1""""
UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

II. ANTENNA.
.. Ge.I!si.I. (1) The funotion of the antenna system is to take
the energy from the transmitter, radiate it in a directional beam,
pick up the returning echo, and pass it to the receiver with a minimum
of i(: len The antenna syatem may be considered to inelude the transmi!l8ion linea from the transmitter to the antenna array, the antenIa
array itself, the transmission line from the antenna arruy to the
receiver, and any antenna-switching d~vice and receiver-protective
devi08 which may be present..
'
(2) When a radar receiver is operated in close pro][itoity to a powu_
lui radar transmitter, a certain amount of signal inevitably finds its
way into the ~iver directly from the transmitter by way of the stray
capacitance of the input circuit leads. In certain instances such
signata resulting from the main tral1llmitted pul$(! must be entirely
eliminated from the output of the receiver. Therefore the rooeiver
must be gated. or turned olf during the pul$(! time 90 that it mny be
completely illli6fisitive.
(3) It may be desirable to couple a small amount of the tran..
mitted r-t energy to the receiver for timing purposes. However,
the signal directly available from the transmission line ill 110 strong
that the receiver input cireuit may be burned out. Because of the lensitivity of the receiver, the strong signal may also eu.U$(! blocking of
tubes which employ R-C grid circuits.. Thill blocking OCCUR beeauee
the strong signal will overdrive the tubes, cnusing grid eurnlllt to
80'11' which charges the capacitors. After the sign ... l is removed the
charge remairlll for some time as a bias which is much greater than
cut-olf. Bo,th of these conditions place a limit on the permissible
amount of trammitted pul98 which can reach the receiver, and are the
reasons for employing receiver.prutective device/l.
... UN.' tw
The simplest radar antenna system
would eontain two separate antenna arrays : one for tt1lnsmitting lind
one for receiving (fig. 22). In this arrangement the receiving antenna
must be shielded from the transmitting antenna in order to protect
the receiver from the powerful pulses of energy being radiated. In
general, the dire:tiv,ity of the antennas is sufficiently great to pennit
the location of the receiving antenna in a minimum ~i ~AI region of
the transmitting pattern. In aircraft installations the fU$(!lsge can
be used to shield the receiving antenna from the transmitting antenn n.
eo UN.I .Ia.le te ad "ell. (1) A mONl prA'"
tical radar system employs a single antenna and "an anlenna SWll ch
eapable of connecting the antenna to the tral1llmitter duri ng the trnns
mimon time and to the receiver during the rema inder of the pul\le
cyde. The switch is nec~AAftry to prot....:! the receiver from th e trans
mitter during the Ilulse t ime Ilnd also.> to isolate the transm itter dur in~

te.....

..

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

the receiving time. Otherwiee the wtak echoes might be wholly or


partially lost in following the transmi8llion line back to the tr&nBmitter.
'fhetransmitted pulse width and the repetition f~ueJlCy of the system,
whicb may range from 60 to 4.,000 cycles pn eecond, eliminates the
poasibility of using a mechanicil Bwitc.h. Otherwise a double-pole,
doublethrow switch (fig. 23) would aerve the purpoee.

,I <El

.!

~ - --- . -- -------,

,,,

.
". '

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,~.

l__{~'~'~'~":'~'":::J-it:::

r
.
f

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u.

81"'~ ."'~

....." _ uK, ",.. .... ,~ aNI""'....

.... ,...,mtll.., .

ror _ ....,m",

_ , .. tTI

w....

"M'''.
CD

""T[NHo TIIUCSIfITTlN'

.........
(Zl

AIIT(IIIIA 11((:['...... ,

TL . . .,

(2) A system for using the single Intenna for both transmi8llion and
reception ehould be as e!fieient IS po!lIlible.. In other words, an of the
energy produced by the tran~mitter should reach the antenna, and all
of (he received energy should reach the receiver. This e8iciency ill
most easily obtained by matching the anttnna to the chancteristi(:
impedllll~ of the tnnsmission line. During tnnsmission of the
pulse, the transmitter should be mltched to the transmission ]jne and
the reoeiver must. PUB-nt In open circuit or high impedance to the

On9 .. 01'"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

tUl1l!lllisaion line. During the reception time the conditions ahould


bere.erud.
(3) The problem of !!Witching is usullly ~implifi.ed because mOllt
trlnmlittenl hl"e a dill'erent. output impedance when tbey Ire on than
when they ar-e off. If properly matched to the t~nsmillllion lint during
the puIae, the transmitter. will be mismatched for the receiring tifD6,
and the t~namisaion line will become resonant. Figure 24, illustrates
a typic.l elementary system in which the receiver and transmitter are
ronnected by branch linll! to the antenna feed. line.. The junction of
the threelinll! ialmown I I the T. juntltion. During the off period, the
_itch in' the receiver brlnch is dOlled and the tral\lmi!Jllion line from
I.ntenna to ~i.er is properly matched. The f'IIIistance I:II!6lI from the
T-junction looking toward the traTlllJJliu.r Ct.n be controlled by the
length of the resonant eeetion between them. If the trallllffiitter im

....,...
,.".... f4.

Sl~"' .... ,.~~

."""el/_,

'"-

'l"'~"'.

pedanee dt<:rehell when it ill turned off, the length IIhould be I quarter.
wa"",length, or !!Orne odd multiple thereof, in order to see a high
impedance. The high impedance presented by the transmitter and iUl
feed line to the T junction is in parallel with Ihe relatively low characteristic impedance of the remainder of the transmi!Jllion line ayatem,
but, being high,hulittleell'ect. If the transmitter impedance inerea!J81:1
when it i~ turned off. the I""IlIIOnant-line length should be I half
"",amength, or a multiple thereof.
(4) When the transmitter is turned on to transmit the nen pulsoe,
it 19ain will be properly mltched to the anlellnl. The open switch
(Jig. 24,) ",ill prevent the pulse from reaching the receiver. Ind ",ill
ClUIill a milJIll.t.ch to the line between the ,,,,itch and T-junction. By
using 80me multiple of a h.lf-w....elength, the open circuit of the
switch ",ill be preeented IS an open circuit IC1"088 the tnnsmitter
Intenna line.

..

Q,iov, .1 """'"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

(5) III a broa d .;en,;e, thCII, the ijwilchi ug problem cun~ ist.l! o f providing whal amounts to II double-pole, single-throw switch ( fig. 24 )
f"r co nnecting the antenna alternately to the tnn6lllitter and to the
rt.~eivcr. The swiching device Illust be call1lhie of acting within a
time int ern.] of , few llIicrosec<Juds, u the roc~ i \'cr should be in the
antcllIHI. circ uit immediately Ifter the transmilll!ion of the pulse in
onler to detL'Ct close-range larS'!ts. T his m iCT"O>leCOlld timing Nlquiret;
that the dC\'ice be elect ronic in type. Ulldcr nrious o pe rational eirCUllIstunces it may tllke the form of r-f II mplifiCTII, k lystrons, spark
gaps, resonant tran ~ formeTII, spark-gap tubes, lIud (in wavegui des)
resomUl t slits.. It is L-nlll monly kno wn ItS the T- R (tt"BlIsmit-n.-ceh'e )
IIwitch or T-R box. Other te rm~ frequently encountered are d1lple_T.
rep7'(J(i, and , in certll.ill illllt.tlIlC()S, polypie;ur.
d. Typetl .f r.dl.l..... ( 1) The pr incipal type!! o f rMdiMtOMl
em ployed in Ihe radar allhlllllB wyslcm include: the ~tMckcd -dipole
ar ray with untlLlwd refl~~lor the dipole with tuned reflectors and di

.......... ------

'''''''''''0 KIIU

TC<:lul"1l ( Yagi). rhe d ipu lo wi th pBl"Nbo lic reflector, an d \'ar ious aTrall",~men t s of dielectric rlu liators u!SCd in conj unction with Wa\'e~"l idC8.

( 2 ) Figllre 25 ~lto""~ , ty pical stllckL...t -d ipoll' array. TI, is type of


array mMy be L~Hn pol;ed of one OT more b& uiul o f di po les allil lIIay be
adupted for 1000 switching. The entire II.SSemb ly usually ca n be ro,
tated in ei the r az imuth or ..,]c \a\ion, or both.
(3 ) F iguTe ~ shows II type of Yagi aT",y utiliz illg both d irector
pnd renl~ tor Jlllt"ll ~i tic &ntt'III '~ 8 in L"Olijull ction with a dT iven element ,
Unl y th e d r i-'cn elemell t is oollncded to the transmi ll6iun line, TI, e
{.o ther elemen!.s lire e:a:ci t~...t jllirasitically, pickillg u p elle Tgy (rom Ihe
dri-'CII clement IIlId rendiMling it ... ith ~nch II phase relation ... ith re.~I)\.'Ct to t he driven dipole that the field is reinforced in the forwnrd
direction.
(4) F igure 21 sho"" s IIII' jlat"llholic're fll'Ctor ty pe o f .nl ennA, ... hich
i~ a practical mellllS uf pruducing ~ Ullrr(l"" belm p",uern in the region

0.'9'

.'I<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

- -- - -

of the micro.wavelengtha. The re1I.eetion of r'f energy by the parabola or du'" is cloeely analogoua to the reflection of light by .. par...
bolic mino!::_ The dish is luge in coropari8on with the operating
wavelength j in gIlnllraI, the Ilrgt!f the l'1!8ector, the narrower the be.m

DIRECT 101'1 OF
PROPA....TION

pattern. The r f

is fed to .. dipole located at the focal point


of the parabola. A parasitic reflector is placed about one quarterwavelength in front of the dipole. 10 no6ect pradically .11 of the ra ellefgy

DI~O~I

dialed 6D(l1'gY back to the di~h from which it is l'1!fl.eeted . head in the
form of .. narrow beam. Modifications of this type of radiating system include cylindrical and other types of parabolas. Parabolic 1'('Recto" It'e frequently used in conjunction with waveguides.

..

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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

(6) . 'igul"ll 1!8 8h<Hnl a t,y pe .,f app lication of tliclocl r ic ratlialon!
fed by wa\'{~guitl~'!i. T he..e nu\ialOI'l:! mll y be consi,\eretl to be merl!ly
e:den sio n~

of the wlwegui,I CI! I\nt! are d~~ iglll"\lo pro"ide th e I,roper


lerm ination 10 (Mlilsfer lite ~nergy from the wl\,'eguidt'S 10 SpltCt!.

-12. REt::E I\'ER.


a. Geaeral. T he fllllt' lion of the r('("('\ver IS to take Ihe weak
<'ehoes fl"Q.m the ant enna system, amplify them suffic iently, delt'<.;\ the
pulse em'elepe, Ilmplify Ihe jlu l>;t..., 1111<1 feed them to the ;ndi m tur.
Since radar frC(juencil'8 11m high it is difficult to obtoin ~uflicicl)l
amplifkation. T lwrdore \.1m !'!Ceil'er function of the f1Itiar sy~lem

"n ......

o
o
...--.......

.... _,

-..

lS l)O'rforml~ 1 by ~lIpe rh"I(' ,", ..lyllt' comjlollent H of /,,'00(\ Sl abilit y and


utl..,ltle ;;cn~i t i 'ity. T he stllhilit)' of operalion is rnainta illt'<\ in the
rni cruwM"e r"nge of frtoqlU' " cics by co~ful dcs il;:ll, lind II", over-1I1l
.ensi th' il y of Ihe l"L'('t'i\'l'r is grea!.l y innell>!lod by the use of I)HIII~'
inl"n lll'{lia te frolluellcy ~\ lIg~'fi,. Sp."'ial lY IIt's of tul",s lllU"illg low
;m""electrode eII I'NIci tan l't's ha"e M I~, ~II de"eloped for w;e ill r f,
loclIl()!;I'illator, lind j f st"b'llS.

0.'9' .1 I<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

.. c.

..._c..

(1) Figure 29 illustrates the rt!C6iver components 01 the radar system. The r-f amplifier may not be p~nt
in the higher fl"llquency ranges and thus the received signal may be
fed directly to the miJ:er. In this CII.8e it is desirable to use IlII short
a ~inr input transmi llSion line as the design requirements allow.
ThUll the miJ:er and local OIlcillator may be located clOllll to the T .junc.
tion of the transmi88ion line in order that the received r_1 energy may
be OOIlvertOO. to the lower intermediate frequency before being relayed
to the remaining reeei.er components. One or two ~ of i-f amplification are lJ()JIIetilIlllll located inunediately alter the miser-local
oscillator stage, functioning as a preamplifier to oJrset the conlliderable
attenuation encountered in coupling the very weak recei.ed signal
to the remote receiver componenta.
(2) The components of the n.dar receiver may be distributed
throughout the syBttm in such a manner that tbeir physical identity
becomes lOIt. Figure 30 illustrates one representative di$tribution of
the radar reoeil'er componenu which makM it po!Il!ib1e to locate the
1requency-lnl'ersiOD portion in the immediate .icinity of the antenna
and the video-amplifier portion in the vicinity of the indicator.

13. INIAT. . .
.. G".",_I. The indicator UIIe8 the received signals to produce
a flSllal indication of the deaired information, ne cathode-ray 05cilloecope is an ideal instrument for the pt'elltntation of radar data
since it not only sho..s a variation of a single quantity such 1.8 voltage,
but gives an indication of the relative values of t ..o or more fl)'nchronized varilltions. The usual indicator ill baaically the same in funetion a.s the lo ..-frequency test OIlcilloecope. The foculling, intenllity,
and poeitioning controls are similar, The !!Weep frequency of the
radar indicator is determined by the pulse-repetition frequency of
the system and the s..eep duration is established by the setting of
the range-eelec tor 8witeh,
.. Ty.-.f _the4e--ray .-e1U.n . (1) The
simpler systems of data presenlation gener!!.l!y use the electrostatic
cathode-ray tube in which the electron beam is made to follow aome
pattern by controlled dilJerences in potential LJetw.een pairs of defleding plate&.
(2) The more highly refined systemll of dsta presentation generRlly
utiliu the electromagnetic ClIthode-fIly tube .. ith a !ong-per.listence
screen_ The position of the electron beam at any instant is d .. termined
by causing it to paSll through a mRgnetic fi eld produced by controlled
currmta through deflecting coilll mounted outside the lube. If intensity modulation is usffi, the bias is such that the tube is held ju~t
beyond ("ut-off, Ind the video output of the receiver is applied to either

.u...

MO'/ 30' ....U

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

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the grid or cathode with such polarity as to release t.be beam and

all01l' the trace to appear on the \!CreeD. Thus the bright 8pola on the
fl('I'OOn repruent returning echoes detected by the radar receiver.
"" Type .4. .u I' ~'fl.""_. (1) The A'lICan (fig. 31)
Wles In electrostatic cathod&-ray tube with. linear Ijweep applied to

..

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

the horizontal deflecting plates to elltablish a time b&lle, lind with the
video output of the reeeiver applied to the vertica l deflecting plates.
Since the , weep is linear with time, a lil:ale which ill calibrated in range
may be placed on the oeeilloecope eereeD. This _Ie permit.s the read
ing of range directly.
(2) Since the antenna beam is highly directil'e, the maJ:Unum received echo appeal'8 _hen the antenna i8 pointing directly at the
TRANS ... I IW

i""-SE

CRT SCRH

.......... ""'.
(GRASS)

SWEEP CALieRATEO IN RANGE

TL-eeet
F>,Mrf! 31. T,,..,

A .~

,.,.e_r.liOll.

TO Tit[ ItIGHT

Tl.-a'7t>
Fi,.r~.!t.

T".., B __ " "..,..... Iallo!o.

tllrget. Thus, by rotating the llntennR until the eo:ho pulse produces
maximum defleo:tions on the screen, an indication of direction in
nimuth or elevation can be obtained .
... TyJN' 8-.e pre .,. . .
The B-scan (fig. 32) plata
range against IIzimuth. Usually an electromagnetic tube is u9('(i.
The S\lreep current flows IhmUJ!;h the vertical deflecting eoils. A positioni ng curNmt controlled by the sntenna position flows through the
horizontal defleo:ting coils, 80 that the position of tbe vertical sweep

tI...

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

ia aligned with the position in azimuth of the antenna, which may


scan a !"!gion up 10 90 on e.ither aide of dead abead. The return
aignale are u!led with an intensity-modulated IIOOpe to cauae the target
indicatione to appear on the !!Creen.
e.. Type C
pr!u . . .
The C-:an (fig. 33), de
veloped primarily as a pilot'll remOUl indicator, plot. elnation
against asimuth. The 08CiII08COpII i6 intensitY'modulated by the echo

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signall. Modifications which present a tneall!l of estimating the
range in addition to the indication of the elevation and bearing are
more likeJy to be encountered than the basic type.
f. ""Fe u . prne.tatl... The PPI-lICan (fig. 301.)
presenUl, in polar coordinates, a map of the area being co1'ered with
the alltenna poIIition occupying the center of the aereen. The tube
is intell!lity-modulated with the sweep m01'ing from the center

..

L.l

I _ _~UNIVERSITYOfMl(HKJ\H
)~_'
Q,i.v,.1 """"

radially outward. The ",weep poeition is controlled by .nd synchronized with the antenna position throughout 860" rotation. The
lop of the IICreen repnnnlll dead ahead; if the antenna i. pointing.
dead ahead, the 8'tI'eep moves from the oenl.t'r of the &aeen to the
top. Like"iee, if the antenna points 90" from dead ahead, thtl sweep
moves from the center radially outward at an angle of 90 to the
right of dead ahead. Thus." polar map is developed on wbich the
range i8 plotted radially against the poaition in u.imuth, or be.ring,
through 360", The PPI'lICan 'finds considerable application in equipments designed for search, harbor control, convoy ke8ping, ground.
controlled interception, and navigation.
_ c._..._... ( I ) The buie romponenta of .. radar indicator are .. cathode.ray tube, .. sweep circuit, and .. gate circuit.
Tb., are illustrated in figure 8:1.. Various refinements may be added

to improve the data p rest'ntl.t ion Ilnd to 'meet specific operational

requirements.
(2 ) In order that the data supplied by the indicator may be useful,
the indicator's performance must be synchronized with tbat of the
other components of theAystem. Thus the sta rt of the sweep must bear
a definite time r~lation to the beginning of the transmitted pulse.. The
gating of the cath(Xleray tube al!l(l must be timed with the sweep dura
tion. Various methods of data presentation requiring sweep controls
of varying degl ees of compluity may be used.

rlM.....

I .... . .WEll SUPPLY.


a. ...
In the functional di agram of the rsdar
sy&tem .(fig. 16), the po\\er supply is Rpresented ali a single block.
Functionally, this block is repn!sentative; however, it is unlikely that

s.
Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

any Ofle power lupply Could meet ,U the power requirement. of. radar
!let. The distribution of the phJ8ic:al componenta of the Iystem may
be IJUch as to make it impr&etical to lump the power-6~pply circuit/!
into a single physical unit. ThllS, difterent lupplillll are needed to
meet the .... rying requirement. of thll system and must be designe<l
aeeordingly. The power-Iupply function is perfonned, therefore, by
v'fiollS tYJM18 of IlUpplies distributed among tbe c:ircuit components
of the radar equipment.
.. c._
Figure 36 illuAtralell the power requirement.
of. typical niicro ve radar equipment. II shows. repnosenh.tive
method of supplying the variona componenta of any radar lIystf'm
with power.

e....

~WfI.
UkC[

POWER SUPPLl' CIRCUITS

I~ . ,-,.,
IK~,,-.~,

API'LICATIONS

"L .....t'"

ff\,.... Fa~_

IIIC(: TO' IIII

~tNGS
' .a ~ A-C

wOLT.-4U

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200 .. 11

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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

SeedOD III
Detailed Stady of Self-Synehrf"ed
Long-Wave Radar Syotem

13. GENERAL
The system to be lItudied in this seetion has been
!!elected because it i~ I. relatively simple system which neverthelesa
illustrate!! the fundamental prindplea and citeuit applications used in
radl.l'. This IlIlIl-synchronized radar ,y,um is intended for UIIIl in
medium-range seareb for .irer.it. It can be installed in filted locations or on boud ships. Because of the wavelength chosen for the
carrier frequeney, the set should be in~tlled as high as possible above
the surrounding terrain for eft'e<:tive operation against low-flying aircraft. The indicator pennilll measurement of range on both I. 20,000yard and lOO,OOO-yard scale. Thll antenna is motor-driven to track
targets in uimuth.
IJ.
The carrier fn-quency sela:ted is 100
megacycles per second, I. relatively low frequency for radar. The
pUlse-repetition rate ie .pprD::Iimatl'ly 600 pul&es per !II!COnd, but it
may vary by plua or minWl 100 pulses per second. Tbe pulse width
is nominally Ii miCrose<:ondl!. The uedul peak power output from the
transmitter is lli Itilowatta. The low power output limit8 the Inuimum range for detecting a single Ilin:raft to about liO miles.
e. S,.,,_
The oomponcnt8 which comprise
the system Ilre shown in figure 87. The transmitter combines the functions of the timer and of the r-f generator into one !let of circuit elements. The 6-miCfUSl!COnd r . f pulse i$ radilted by II. stacked-di pole
trlnsmitting antenna. The returning ...eha signals are picked up by
.. similar receiving Intenn&. A superheterodyne receiver, with .. sen~tivity of about 1 microvolt, feeds iUi video output directly to the
indicator. The timing pulse from the transm itter synchroni:res the
indicator sweep so th at it repeats at the pulse-repetition frequency
of the tratl!lmitter. The IICteen of the indicator ill calibrlltOO to read
range directly. Necessary d-c voltages and the nec?3lry bcat.u
voltages are provided by the power supply unit.
. . . . . . . . . 1.

S,..te. _........

__pe."....

as

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

,.. TIlANSMlTTBL
.. Geaeral. Perhaps the gimpiest type of radar tnnamitt.er
is the two-tube, tuned-grid, tl1Jled-plate, llllif-puising triode ORcillator
shown in figuN! 88. No auxiliary modulation tquipm8ll t is requi red
with this tnnllfllitter becaU96 pulges of r-f energy aN! ~nerat&d by the
blocking action in the grid cireuit. 'The rate at wh ich the transmitter
is pulRed is not abeoJutely oonatant, but the pulse. repet ition toIennoea

JL

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aN! bl'Olld becaU96 the act ion of t he rest. of the sy"tem depend!! on the
tim ing pu hl8 generated by the t.n .lllJIl1it ter.
It. T.llu. (1) Since this transmitter is d88igned to operate at
100 megacycles., triode oscillator t ubes can be satisfactorily used. At
higher frequenci88 Vlcuum tubes U'8 subject to limitatio ns, such as
t h096 impcm:l by the transit ti me of the electroru;, the inductance of
the leads to the t ube elements, and the interelectrode capacital1088 of
t.he tube (1:I8C. 11). B ut moderately large transmiU-ing triod88 can

..

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

--

...

....

,, -

s.
,,~

UNrY[RSlTY Of MlCHJo.>AN

be used at 100 megaeycles because the inductanee of the tube lead.<!


I\nd the capacitance between elements can be used as Jnrt of the tuned
circuit of the 06CiIlator. For this rel.!l()n, when the length of a quarter.
wAVe LecherliQe tank circuit is measured, it mUllt be remembered tbat
tbe tube inductance.nd capacitanao both tend to make the line shorter
than a aim pIe calculation would indicate..
(2) When the time required for .n electron to go from cathode to
pl.te (called the electron transit time) bec.use.n appreciable fraction
ot one cycle of the o><ciliition, the plate cuITllnt gets out of phl.8ll with
the grid voltage and the efficiency of the tube is lowered. The transit
time may be reduced by making the tube dimefl!lioIlB smaller, 80 that
the electrons do Dot have.., far to tn.vel, but this reduction in size
limits the power output of the tube. Another way of reducing the
transit time is to inerease the speed of the electrons by using. greater
plate voltage, 110 th.t the electrons mvel given distance in lees time.
(3) When the plate voltage ill. intre-sed above the rated nlue, the
plate cur",nt &Iso increases .nd many mOn! eleetroIlB stt-ike the plat&.
MOIIt of the energy of the moving electroIlB is transformed into
heat when they strike the plate; therefon, when the pl.te voltage is
made greater, the energy dissip.ted at the pl.te must ,lIIO be greater.
If this incl"8a.Se is carried to an utreme, the plate will melt.. Howevt!f, the plate voltage on a triode used in 1\ radar transmitter can be
r.ilIed to value three times greater thaD the rated voltage for con
tinuoua operation, because the tube is not in continuoua Il88. Since
the tuba is idle most of the time, the plate haS a long time in which
to 0001 o!. A very large current can be dr.wn from the tube for a
few miCIC3ECOnds if the average power dissipated at the pl.te does
notuceed the rated value for the tube.
(4) The transmitter for the radar system must_generate a powerful
r f pulse. In order to do this, a very large eurrent must flow through
the tube&. The application of higher pl.te voltage c.n increase the
output of tube until the limit of filament emission is reached.
Beyond this limit higher voltage cannot increase plate current, since
all av.ilable electrQns are already in use. the supply of electrons,
howeV(lr, can be incn!ased ~y heating the fil.ment to a higher tem
perature. The type 'l27 tube. used in this radar system has a thoriated
tungeten filament. The fil.ment emiS'lion is inereased by the use of a
slightly higher fil.ment voltage than is recommended by the manu
faet.urer. Under these conditions .. peak POWIII' output of 16 kilowatts is produced.
e. T'ide4. eI--.lta. (1) At frequenciea normally used for
communications, oscillatortuned circuits can be made with conven
tion.l induct.ors And capacitors. Ultl"ll.high frequencies, however,
require similar elements 80 sm.ll in size that it beeomea utremely

..

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

difficult to prodUCB a usable tank cireuit . In addition, t.he &kin eft"ed


in the coils introdu8 resistance .... hich redUee8 the Q of the oecWator. To avoid th_ defects, the tuned circuit for u-h.-f O$CiIlator i8
usually made of 8 quarter wavelength transmise.ion line, BOIDetlmes
called a Lecher line. A quarter-wave transmission line shorted at the
far end aets like a parallel resonant cin::uit (eec. X, TM 11 466 and
Navshipe 900,016). The Q of such a tuned circuit can be made large
becaU!lll the induetanoe and capacitance are distributed and bec.use
the skin elJect can be minimized. by using large-diameter, silver-plated
rods for the quarter-wave line.
(2) The length of the quartel"'-wave line TL202 in the grid cin:uit
is physically 1_ th.n the length of the qu.mr-wave line in the plate
circuit, bec.Uge the capacitance from grid to cathode is l.rger th.n the
capacitance from pl.te to cathode. Thll larger capacitance caU!!lll!l
mOl'6 of the tuned line to be el!'ectively inside the tube envelope, 110

. -- --- .....

;---

r'/---'"_____

~4J

=--- -

~~

-~

TL-._

that the grid line is shorter physically, slthough the electrical length
of both lines is very nearly a quarter" ,,ve.
(8) The operation of the tuned-gr id, tunedplate, push-pull OIlCil _
Jator ill diecusaed in section V, TM 11-466 and Navsilips 900,016.
Oscillationa are generated in this transmitter in e:u.ctly the same mllnner &II in a conventional tuned -grid, tuned-plate oscillator.
(4) When the tuned circuit of an oscillator is Lecher line, it is
simpleRt to connect the high volt'ge supply to the sliding shortcir _
cuit bar acrGes the JineIJ. TheoreticaUy, the shorting bar hIlS zero r -f
voltage to ground. Actually, because of its physieallength, there is a
small part of the standing wave of voltage &c1"Oll6 it (fig. 39). The
true neutral point is determined by the capadtance to ground of each
plate, which changes slightly for dilJerent tubes. Changing the position of the supply voltage connection is avoided Ity using an r-f choke
L206 (fig. 88) to prevent. feedbllck of any r f voltage into the po.....er
supply. The rf ground is then established within the tubes by theiT
iDterelectrode capacitances.

.,

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

.. Calli". !Ute... The timing pul8e for the indicator in thi.


system is produced 'Cl'O!l6 naistor R200 within the transmitter (fig.
38). This rea.istor, dong with &201 and ROO2, forms .n impedaD<"e
to the radio-frequency current thus causing d~nerative voltage
in the cathode circuit. The de",nerative volta", redu~ the rep,nera
tive feedback .nd therefore redUcell the power output of the trans
mitter. The reduction can be puti.lly avoided by the UIj6 of byp
capacitor at the tube soeket8 to provide low. impedance paths to ground
for the rf current. Since the lil.ment lead! of the type 221 tube are
app~imately 2 inches long. tht actual filament r-' voltage cannot
be reduced to zero. The impedallQ6 of the bypa98 cape.citon is 8ufficiently low at radio frequencies, howe.f.er, to increa88 greatly the
amplitude of OIlCiIlatia:n and, thtrefore, to incm,. the power output,
without disturbing the pu1eefonning network. In addition, COOl
and C202, together with 1.201. fonn a filter which prevent. the pul.
of r-f voltage from feeding b.('l< into the powerline through the.fil,n..ment tran8former. This filter helps to reduce interfenmce with other
equipment by preventing the r-f disturbance from ",tting on the
power line.
e. Melli. . . . ., pu_._ (1) Energy is coupled out of the
plate tank cireuit TLOOl by the tuned lilll! TL203. The magnetic fitld
that is 8I!t up by the r-f cur rent ill TUlOI induces an r-f voltage in
TIn. ThUll, TL203 is in elect the tuned IItIOOndary of a tranaformet"
of which TLOOI is the tuned primary.

(2) The shorting bar of the coupling line, TL203, is pl.ced. directly
above the lIhorting bar of the plate-tuned line. The degree of coupling
between the two tuned lines can be varied by raising or lowering TL203.
In orde r that TU!03 may be adjusted for muimum energy transfer,
capacitor (:210 is varied to make the line reIIOnant at the tranBmitter
frequency. The two-wire transmission line ia connected to the coupling line ata point at whi ch the impedance of the coupling line is equal
to the impedanoe of the transmi!l!lion line. If the mstch of impedanl'8
is very close, the energy transfen-ed from TU!03 to the tranBDliSllion
line is maximum.
(3) The r f choke L206 is uaed to keep the coupling line, the traMmi!l!lion line, and the antenna at d ~ ground potential. It prevents the
accumulation of a static charge on any of thf196 elementa.
I . . . . . . . . ..,..... (1) The rf voltage generated in the plate
tank circuit TLOOI i8 modulated by the blocking action in the grid
ci rcuit of V2()l and V200. This actioD ia uplained iD lIfICtion VII,
TM 11 466, and NaV1lhips 900,016.
(2) The duration of the puJ9Il of r -' energy is determined by the
timt required to charge espacitor C209 in the grid circuit. Th6 capacitor is charged by the electron8 which are attracted to the grid!,

..

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

of the tubes when the r-f voltage in the grid tank circuit TL202 swings
them positive. Therefore., the time required to charge o.lOO is affected
any of the factors which detennine the magnitude of the r-f grid
voltage. These are: the tuning of TL202 raiative to the tuning of
TL201, the magnitude of the d-e plaIA:! voltage applied to the tube!!,
the tuning of the capacitor 0210 in the coupling line, the position of the
transmi8llion-line taps on TL203, and the degree of coupling between
TU!OO and TLOOI. When the transmitter il tuned for ml.J:imum
power output, the duration of the transmitted pulge il controlled only
by the site of C209. Thil siz.e is selected to give a pulse length of apo
proJ:imately !'i micum :onds.:
(3) The pulae-repelition frequency of the oacillator can be varied
by most of the adjustments that control the pulse length, einlle chang_
ing anyone of them causes C'JOD to be eharged to a slightly different
l"oltage. and it therefore takes a different time for C209 to diaeharrto the voltagt' at which the tubes can lpin bt-gin to conduct. The

hr

mORt. .p~ctical adjustment for controlling the pulSe-repetition frequency is to short out one or more of the lOO,OOO-ohm resistors in the
chain from R2(H to R218. These resistors are mounted on a board
&8 shown in figure 40.
'The pulse-repetition ~uency is nominally
000 pulge8 per second, but this rate may be ..ried easily by any of
the adjustments mentioned.
I. ,...,... p.llle. (1) When the tubes V201 and V202 an>
conducting, during the pulse time, IL large current ftOW8 in the plate
circuit. In order to synchroni~ thll indicator, the plate current ia
used to generate a pulse acl"OSll R203.
(2) Sinlle the negative side of the plate-voltage power supply is
grounded, the electrons which make up the plate current ftow from
ground up through H203. The resistoTll H20t and R202 are used in
order to divide the current equally bet\l\een the two filament lines. The
electrons Row through H203 lind then divide, first between the two fila ment lines, and then alternately between the two tubes, "ince V201
and V202 conduct alternately. Most of the electron!! which Row to
V201 pass from the cathode of this tube to the plate, then out through

so
Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

half of TL201 and through L206 to the po!Iitive side of the plate power
supply. From there they.re returned to ground to complete the circuit. A few of the electrons which le.ve the cathode flow into the
grid circuit to charge C209. The conduction through V200 is exactly
the same lUI that in V201, ucept th.t V201 conducts only when V202
doetl not, since the whee are in push-pull. The current through R203
never drop!! to zero during the pul9ll OOcaU9ll of the alternate conduction of V201 .nd V202 and the filtering action in the filament lines.
(8) Since electrons flow from negative to positive, the upper end
of R208 must be positive. There is. voltage &cruS!! R20.~ only during
the r-t pul9ll. This voltage ri_ at the ~inning of the pul9ll and falls
at the end, 110 that a positive pul86 of voltage, which occurs at the same
time lUI the r-f pulse, is generated aCltii R203. The smplitude of the
pullll! aCr088 R203 i9 approximately 120 volta This pulse i9 used to
synchronize the generation of the sweep in the indicator.
17. ANTIKNNA SYSTIKM
.. Geaer.l. (I) The functions of the .ntenna system .re to
radiate the r-f enfrgy su pplied by the trall!lmiU.er , to ronv"rt the energy
of .ny received electromagnetic field inw a voltag6, and to feed thi~
voltage to the receiver. To perform these functions efficiently, the
IIntenna must be properly designed for the frequency at which it ill
operated, and the imped.nce!! of the system feeding energy to thl'
aotennl must be properly matched.
(2) The two sep....te antennlUl uged in this radar system must be
.rranged IIOthat the high_powerelect,rom>Lglletic field whi ch i9 radi.ted
from the trfmsmitting antenna does nol, induce a high voltage in the
receiving antenna. To minimize coupling between the anteniuls, the
receiving antenna is placed below tbe transmitting antenna.
(3) AntennlUl for use with radar systems are subject to many re quirements, some of which are in dir-ect conflict. The weight of In
Intenna must be lUI sman lUI poIISible !IO tllal it may be installed and
transported with ease. Thel<tructure must be strong to withstand the
vibration and shock to which it m.y be subjected by shelling Hud
bombing. The antenna st ructure mUll! be designed to have as much
llpell space as possible, 80 that it' will offer minimum re><istam.-c to t.ill'
wind. The antenn. should be si mple, mechanicnlly reliable, snd .hle
to operate ove r a wide frequency hand because usually its location is
inaccessible for adjustment or repair. It must be direction.1 and
rotat.ble, in order thst accu rlte bearings of tar~t.a may be obtained.
All of these requirements are incorporated in the de!Oign of the . ntenna. It is not nl'Ce8.5ary to consider them in the field exoe pt in Ihe
rare cases where a t~mporary antenna may have to be erected after
the original antenna bas been shot away .

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

FlU!. -3"-'-. (1) The feed system of the transmitting an_


tennn is shown echematically in figul'f! 41. A coaxial-type line is used
to eliminate poMible radiation, snd thus to prevent stray pickup of r-f
energy by the receiver and indicator. The Olltput coupling circuit
in the transmitter is tuned w the frequency of the trammitter by adjustment of capacitor O. When this line is properly tuned, a Btanding wave uista on it, and the impedance between the two wireS varies
from zero at the short cill:uit to a high impedance at the open end.
The sliding connections A and B may be adjusted to a point at which
the impedance between them is 70 ohIllll, which is the characteristic
impedance of the particular transmission line used. Under this condition, the energy trander from the transmitter to the couid line is
mulmum. The open-wire line from the points.{ and B to the coaxial
line i& very short, and has only a small ellect. on the impedance that
ill seen looking from the output coupling inw the couial line.
(2) The line balallce converter, or bazooka as it is more commoruy
called, ill U&ed to prevent the r-f energy from appe~ring on the outside of the couial line. It doea not assist in maU:hing impedances.
The outer conducwr of th e couial line is grounded, while both aides
of the open-wire line should be above-ground potential. The bazooka act& as a choke or high impedsnCe fo prevent the grounding of
the connection between the outer conductor of the couialline and the
open-wire line.
(3) A rotating joint is necessary willow the antennl W turn continuously. Since the coaaid line must go through ths center of the
pedeetal on which the antenna is mounted, the rotating joint is generally built into the pedestal Issembly. When two couiallines lead
to the antenna, as in the case of this radar system, one of the lines
which form the joint is constructed inside the other. The center conductor of one oouiallins is a hollow tube, as shown by B in figure 42,
A third conductor is put inside the center conductor to form the see
ond coaxial line, which will not interfere with the first because the rf
energy traveb only in a very thin skin on the copper tube. Therelore, two entirely different r-f signals may be condu cted by one copper
tube: one signll on the inside skin and one on the outside skin.
(4) In order to use the signal from the inner t ransmission line, the
method shown in figure 42 is used. The r-f energy of signal S, is
ronducted on the inside surface of conductor A and t he outside surface
of conductor B. The rf energy of signal S. is conductw. on the inside
~urfaee of conductor B lind the outside su rfllce of oonduct.or C. At
the point where it is desired to lead out the signal St, conductol'll
Band C are brought out. However, since signal S, is on the outside
of col)ductor B, it is necessary w extend conductor A a quarter wave-

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

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length along the eide conllfCtion, and to ahort A to B at this point to


p~"ent signal 8, from being radiated from the outside of conductor B .
(II) The rotating joint i.made by enlarging one end of each COIIductor 80 that it tele!l(l(lpe8 over the end of ita mate as shown at D.
The enlnrgement is .lit length .... ise into many fingers, and the mml
is IlpeciaUy treated to make it springy in order to insure a good wiping
oon.....
(8) The characteristic impedanC'f of the ooaxial traasmiaion line
ill 70 obnl& The impedan~ of the antenna is approximately 190 ohm.
at the feed point. In order to m.ke an approximate matclt of im-

rv- 41. Ro4,'/'"

/01,., for .... &k 00...... , I.....

pedanoe bet....een the coni.1 line and the antenn', the imped.n~
tratlllformer is lUIed (fig. '1). This tUllIIformer is a quarter_wave_
iength eection of two-wire line whoee characteristic impedance is
determined by the two impedanON between which it is located. In
tbia caBe, the chaRcterist.ic impedanl"'e of the transformer ie:
Z, - ../70 X 190-1111 ohms.

(7) In order to l"1!duce the Btonding wa ves on the line to a min imum,
a cloeer match of impedan~ is n4!"(!lSBrY than is UBUally p08sible with
Ii8OT.:w _ U _~'
.

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UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

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UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

..- _.-.-._-,

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the impedance tn.naformer. The imped&llce-matl:hing itub is therefOri used to ootftICt the l'Mlaining mismlltch of impedance. Its length
and position on the line is critical, and 0Il(le established it ehould not
be moved. The adjllltment ill made at the factory, "here elaborate
taU equipment ill available. By the Uf18 of this equipment both the
length and the position
the stub may btl_ fol' miDimum , tending
waves on the tranBlnieeion line.
(8) The tranamisllioD line wbieh connects the leoei.virg antenna
to the recaivtII' is M(I-.m aehematieally in figure 4.11. It is aimilu to
tbe line to the transmitting antenna, ucept for the termination It
the f'E'()EI;ver. Since one aide of the input trandormer i. "rounded, no

&,

buook. is needed at the receiver end. The luto-transformer is designed 90 that the impedance pre.'lented aCfOllll the ~rmin.1a of the
coaJ:ial line is 70 olune.

eo

h...,. __,...

(1) The transmitting and receiving an


tannu, which an! identical, are oomponl of arrays of stacked half"fIVe elements &8 shown in figure 25. Becau!IIl the frequency of 'hi~
radar system is 100 megacycles, the antenna must be made large in
order to obtain the desired directivity. One section of the system is
shown in figure 44.
(2) All of the dipoles af'l!l fed in phue. If at 80me in81&llt the volta~ on the right-hand element at point A is at a positive 'maximum,
the voltage on the left hand element at this point is at a negative mad
lDum. The tra.n8mi9llion line between points A and B u, a halfwave

..

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

long, and the wiI'!\ll are trallllposed as shown. The voltage at one end
of a half-wave line is 180 out of phlo!le with that at the other end.
Therefore the voltage on the right-hand element at point B is at a poIIi _
tive mazimum and that on the left-hand element is &negative muimum. For the instant chosen, the polarity of the voltage is shown
011 all elements. The voltage distribution 011 half of the element. ill
shown by the dotted eurves..
(8) Each individual radi&ting element has A point of null, or zero
r-f voltage, appl"(u:imately at its center. A connection between the
center point and ground (the screen f'l"8ect.or) ca.n be established without ca.using a current 80'1'1' because the voltage is zero. This fact
penDits the use of a metal supporting rod from screen to ndiating
element. The rod may be welded for strength to the screen and radiating element. The rod holds the radiating element approzimately
one-eighth wavelength in front of the lICf'l"t!n.
,
G

....'I"'....

....II'fgwre

~6.

Rallll<lli<m pOIlen!;1I 1...uo..lGi

(4,) The relIector is a metal screen mounted on a suitably strong


framework. A l!C1'eeJl is used to minimize the wind resistance. A
plate with no holes in it would be a more effective reftector than the
screen, but it would have tremendou.ll forees ezerted on it by the wind.
If the holes in the screen are not too large, it will be almost as efi'ective
as the plate in refleeting the energy radiated by the antenna.
(Ii) The feed impedance of one pair of half-way elements mounted
one-eighth wavelength in front of a screen is approximately 2,000
ohms. The null on the radiator i8 a single point., but for mechanical
strength the supporting rods must be of fairly large diameter. . A
small eurrent i8 drawn by each supporting rod. The impedances of
th_ rods are in parallel with the impedance of the feed point, whicb'
i8 therefor's reduced to approIimalely I,liOO ohlll!l. There are 16 halfwave elements in the antennR, wh ich may be considered as eight dipoles
effectively in parallel. The net impedance of the whole army \here-

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

(ore is: lWOj8-188 ohms. This value of feed impedanoa ill appronmate only i it ia juet as COllect to round off tbe figure to 190 ohms.
(8) The pe.tt.em of thill antenna in the horizontal plane is shown
in figure~. Maximum lIignal is rad iated along the line 0 0 . The
au., of the echo received from an object wbich Ii.,. ~Iong 00 is greaLer
than the echo {rom any target. of similar aille in any other direction. The lignll radiated Iiong either OA or OR ill TO pen:tlllt of the
mu:imum l ignal. Sin.::e the lIignal ill measured by the voltage ,..hic:h
it can indu.::e in tbe recei"ing antenna, the TO-percent aignal oorres
ponds Ul one bllf of the maximum received powef. The points A a.nel
R are therefore ailed the Iw.l/,poloer pDintl. The width of the bea'"
ill gi.,en by .uting the size of the angle AOB..the angle at half po,..er,
whi.::b ill about 30" in thill a nttm~ . The beam &Ogle 'ilI gener'lily I1!IM
to d~ribe the direc::ti.,ity of"the}anttnnL.
.
(7) The t wo smaU.lo'* of enefn .at D and 'K aAt ailed EF condary
lobes. They are dftMlribed. b; '-ing the'lInle 'DOO and by measur
ing t he length of the line OD .. a peroenuge o( the lengtb of 00.
Th_ fIeCOndary lobes are ullUaUy aymme~ri.::al about the asi, 00 of
the radiated energy. At abo rt rallgM, .echoea an be; obtained (rom
the energy radiated in the !IeOOndary 10,*. Th_ echoee are "ery
oonfuaing if there are: many tar~U! clO8fI together, .. in a oon.,oy. To
pret"ent thia oonfUl!i6n, antennu for radar ~yfltems whi.::h are to
be ueed for convoy ' keeplng Of aimi!.... ,..ork must.be designed to
minimize th e efec:t of eeoondary lobes.
'
;
(8) The akett:h .. in figures 4e and 4T show. approximately how
thia antenna looks when eNICted and ~y. for U8e. Note that !.he
IIlIl1ectina: acrMn ia relat.ivf'ly larp _. If a iU ngle antenna were ullBd,
the 8truc:tul"l could be half III la rge.. If the frequencJ wen- bigher,
an antenna of this air.o rould be mucb mor. dil"f!Cti".", or equal di
recti"ity could be obI:ained witb a lIIDaller antennL
.........
ee' . . . . . (1 ) EverJ radar .,lItem mUlt.
b..,e tome meanR of pointing ita radiated energy in ~y deeired di
rection. Prutially an radar .yllteIDII ......-..uplilb thill by rotating
the antenna.
(2) The method - employed in the IJlStem under diacu8Bion i8 a
simple motor dri"e whi.::h can be controlled in direc:tion and rate of
rotation. The position of the anlenna mount in nimuth is indiated
by a eeale around the base of t he to,..ar. A mec:haQ;eal gear train can
be employed 10 tranamit the data to the operat ing poaition.
... JIIIa!IVBIL
.. tJe_e_l. (1) The efl'ec:ti.,e range of a radar .,.tem de
pends on il.l abilitJ to distingll ish bet ..een the echo retunted by alar.
get and other disturbance!! whi.::h may be prel:l!nt. Although the total

, '"""

UNr.'ffiSllY Of MlCHUN

radided power may be many kilowaUs, only a put nnCMa the target
and a still SDlllller amount is returned to the receiving system. The
available signal from the mOlt distant targeUJ may be approJ:imately
1 microvolt or less. The rr:ceiver must be capable of amplifying thie
very weak echo llignal, 80 thllt it can be used to control the electron

'IUH""'_
....u_

n_
FIfIHt"e '6.

flk<"rell Qf

.III~~ .... ~II .....

(f.-om 111"""') .

beam of a cathode.tay lube. Basically, the reiver is an amplifier


in which VIIcuum tubes are Uged to inCI"ell!i8 the amplitude of II. very
&IlI1I1l voltsge.
(2 ) An amplifier tube uses II. signal on ill! grid to control the flo ...
of pillte cu rrent through an eJ:tunal load. The gnin obtained def)E'nds
on the ability of the tube to control current lind on the aia of the

..

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

plnte load lCt'OIIII wruch the incn!a-t signal voltage appears. To


obtain mn:imum gain a tube with high traIJllCOnduct&nce is ulllld with
a plate-load impedance Il8 high Il8 pradicabl6.
(8) TIle "alue of tha plate-load impedaOO8 for ill radar frequencies is primuily determined by the ct.rrier frequency of the noceived
signal. Since the pulse oonsists of the carrier and side banda which

..,......

T~"=''''''''

.. ---

' ...... ,

occupy a relatively small portion of the r-f spectrum, a tuned circuit is


normally used. This circuit oonsists of an inductanoo afi'ectively in
parallel with the tube input and output capacitances, distributed wiring capacitance, and any capacitance which may be added to tune the
ci~uit to reeonance ( fig. 48). The smaller the capncitance used, the
larger the inductance at a given frequency and the higher the plate-

\
Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

load impedance. All frequency is increased, the total capacitance is


reduOlld by eliminating any added capaeitanoe and by careful cireuit
construction and selection of tubee.
(4) If the amount of gain is to be maintained at higher frequencies, lhe tube used must have small interelectrode capacitances. The
upper limit of frequency is reached ... hen it is physically im~ble to
reduce further the interelectrode capacitances within the tube. Beyond thie limit the gain decru!1e8 with incnlps-s in the carrier freque~y.
A. point is &oon reached where the gain per stage is 110
small that an impractical nwnber of tubes i6 nquired to HilMI the
weak signal to II. usable voltage.
(Ci) It must be possible to distinguillh the received echo from any
other electrical disturbances pf'l'.8l!nt, most of which are produQlld
within the receiving system. Sirn:e noi. volta~ are produeed by
the tubes and by cin:uit elements, the tubes and ass"ociated cireuite must

~r'e.t8.

r..-.N

~II

~-

01 ,...1 """,,'jkr.

be ch0gen from the standpoint of ooise level as well as gain. The


smallest. signal to be received must equal or u:oeed the inherent Doise
voltage present in the first amplifier stage.
It. S.perlae(er ,..e reeeiver. (1) The su perheterodyne

receiver is used almost universally because it provides a higher overall


gain with fewer tubes than do other types of ret:eivers. The hetero
dyne principle involves the conversion of the higher carrier frequency
to an intermediate frequency at wh ich the gain per stsge can be made
greater. The frequency conversion is accomplished by mixing, or
beating, the reoeived signal ..... ith a signal of dill'erent frequency gen!!fated in the receiver. The minr stage produces an output voltage
lit II. frequ ency whi ch is the difference of the two signals applied. This
dill'erence signal is amplified by the intermediate-frequency (i-f)
IImplifier, and then is detected and amplified in the usual manner.
(2) A functional block diagram of th e re<.:eiver used in this system,
which is a typical radar receiver in many ways, is shown in figure .9 .

..

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

"

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For any given local-oecillator frequency then are two earriu frequencill8 which will produce the ..me intermediate frequency in the
mixer output. It is desirabl6, therefore, to U!le .. tuned r-f amplifier
.. head of the mixer stage to di6Crimin .. te 19ainst all but the desired
earner frequency. ~en the <:'E'"ier-,requene), i.80 high that .tJ:ae...t;J
amplifier eontributeOi mo# noise thUl ",In, t,Jli. stage is elimil)..ted.
At the carrier frequency used in thiB system, 100 megacycles per 8eC(Ind,
the r-f amplifier is included.
(3) The local oscillator generates I oonstant-amplitude signal of.86
megacycle which is mixed with the lQO.megaeycle input to produce a
16-megacycle intermediate frequency. The output of the mixer is
amplified eelectively to diminate the &- and tOO-megaeycle signal
eomponents 'It'hich are preeent. In eliminating these cemponent., the
i-f ampliller must not distort the pulse shipe of the ftCeived echo. A
puble with steep aides oontaill.8 voltagell of many frequeneielll, as 8:1[plained in aection In, TM 11 tGG and Navshiptl 900,016. When the
pulail ia applied to, or produced by, an t-f generator, the tranllJl1itted
energy eonsilJtJl of the carrier and side banda. Th_ .ide bands utend
both above and below the carrie1'" frequeney by an &mount detennined
by the frequeney component.e of the pulse itself. The band width of
the i-t amplifier mulll be great enough to paM the required side band.
(t) After the echo amplitude hili been increued to a reuonable
value, the signal is pa88ed through a detector to nproduce the r-f en
velope III a video pulae. The video amplifier provides the signal output
n~ry to operate the indinltor, nprodueing the pulse shape a.
faithfuUy as possible. Whene\'er a 10'11' impedance load i8 to be placed
a<'roI!II the tenninala of the receiver. a cathode-follower tube is used III
a low-impedance output Itage to match the 100d.
e. . . . . .pll'er. (1) The receiver circuit diagram i. shown
in figure 60. The loo-megacycle echOl'l$ picked up by the receiving
antenna are applied to the grid of the first r-f amplifier through an
autotramformer L301. The input line is tapped down to provide a
match for the TOohm cOll[ial line. The autotraflJlformer is tuned to
resonanoe by st ray capacitance and the variable capacitor C301. A
small voltage gain i8 Tellized by trandormer action. V301 i. a remoteeut;.otf acorn tube. type 956, designed to have high gain, low
noise, and low interelectrode capacitance. Bias is provided by the
cathodll resistor R301. whieh is by-pasaed by capacitor C303 to avoid
de,;reneration. A filter network, composed of 1.303, R302, R30S, C302,
and C304, is used to prevent r-f energy on the plate and screen grid
from rta<'hing the power 8upply, while ~upplying the r.tCEmry doe
vohageR. The capaciton< C302 and C30t are 00llllecttd to cathode to
insure a very sJ10rt path for the r-f current to return to the tube.

..

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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

,
(2) The plate load for the first r-lamplilier is .. tnndonner, L302
and L804" whoee 8e(lOndlry is tuned by capacitor C3OO. The gain of
the type 966 tube i~ about Ii at 100 mepeycles. The coupling between
the windings of the transformer is aided by capacitor CSOIi in order
to obtain .. wider bandwidth. The eec:ond r.' tube h&II ita grid tapped
down on the IBlOnduy to decreree truI elJect of the input capacitance
of.the tube. Biu, screen grid, .nd plate ...oltagN are obtained in ..
Bimilu manner to that used on thfl fil'8t r-1 stage.
(3) The coupling ein:uit beh'fln the second r-1 tube and the mi.:J:el'
ill .. tuned circuit oonaisting of resistor R306, inductor 1.810, capacitor
O3llS, and distributed capacitance. <Apaeitor C310 blocb the d-c
voltage from tube V804. Resistor R306 broadllllll the response of ths
tuned circuit.. A higher supply voltage is UlIIId on the II&COnd 1'-1 amplifier th.n on the first to compensate for the Tollage drop a.<:roes
resistor B806.
Le " I Ttlillater. (1) The IIOUn:e of the beating signal is
.. triode tube V303, .. type 9M acorn, connected in .. modihd Hartley
circuit. The requirements for the local OIICiIlat.or are that it should
be stable in frequency and ahould furnish a sufficient signal to -provide
reliable miJ:1III' operation.
(2) The OIICillator circuit may be considered u a tuned amplifillll' in
wbich part of the output is fed back into the input. TIle tuned circuit
conaiata of the inductor L307, capacitor C312, the interelectr'Ode capaci
tance of the tube., and distributed capacitance (fig. In). The amount
of feedback is determined by the size of capacitance OO~ compared
to capacitance O,.~. Grid.leak biu is provided by reaistor R308 and
capacitor call. The r f signal generated is kept out of the power
supply by the filter eompoBBd of R307, ca13, and L809 (fig. flO).
(3) Tht! beating signal is coupled into the minr input circuit
through a link coupling oonsisting 01 the inductors L308 and un
and a low-impedance line between tbem. The coupling is jUllt suf.
ficient to furnish the n1quired signal without loading the oecillator
and shifting it/! frequency. Chongea in frequency during the warmup
period of the OIICillator are corrected by the LOCAL OSCILLATOR
TUNING control, C312.
e. MI.._. A diode tubEo, V304, is used &8 a miser for the local
OIICillat.or output and the echo signals. The diode loads ita input
circuit during the time when the applied signals are poaitive. To
~uoe this effect, the diode plnte is tapped down on the inductor 1..310.
The output of the miJ:er tube is a current which includes components
whoee frequencies are those of the applied signals, their sum, and
their difference, which is the delrired intermedia te frequency. This
current ia pmed through the primary of a trallllformer 1'301 and
indU088 a voltage in the geOOlidary. The undesirable signals an,. elim

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inated by tuning ..the IiOOOndary to the intermediate frequency of Iii


megacycles and building up only the i-I voltage acl"088 reIlistor .&310.
Resistor R809 and capacitor (;314 provide a biaa during individual
pllloes to prevent overloading.
I. 1_I . . p.IAer. (1) Four tubes, V305, V806, VS07, and V808,
are used to increase the amplitude of the i-f output of the muer_ The
tube employed, the type 6AC7, is I. high-tranllCOnductance pentode
with low interelectrode capacitancee.. All four 8t.agIlB are limitar in
constroetion e:lcept for the eereen voltage supply for the first two.
(2) The signal lor each rrt.age is taken from the IIeCOndary of the
preceding coupling tnmsfonner and applied between grid 01 the
amplifier tube and ground. The tube itself Uf168 cathode bias hom a
byp'OO!d resistor, and lICt"een voltage which i. supplied through a
resistor-capaeitor filter to rMuce interstage coupling. The plate load
i. I. trandonner whOl:i6 primary .nd secondary "lll'indingll are tuned to
the intermedillte frequency by distrihuted and interelectrode capacitance. Exact tuning mprovided hy iron-dUllt slugs which act ..

TL-e880

variable cores in the coils w change their inductance. aloin is sacrificed by resistance loading of each winding, in order w provide I.
I-megacycle Innd-pll!8 response, which prese'rves the pulse shape.
(8) The gain of the ~nd r-I amplifier and the first two i-I amplifier stageB are controlled together by means of the eereen voltage.
This system constitutes the entire gain control for the receiver.
Potentiometer R322 providl'll the v"riable eereen voltage, which can
be adjusted from zero w 12.5 volts.
(4) The i-I amplifier is totally inclosed in a metal shield w deerel.lJe
capacitative coupling with other parts of the reeei\"i! r. This shielding
preventa regeneration and po68ible oeeillation.
Deteeter. The deteewr is a diode V309, using one half of
.. type 6H6 tube w rectify the i-f signal. The rectified current develops a negative pull!e act"OSll the load resisw r RSSl, which is directly
coupled to the video amplifier. The i-f voltage is filtei"W from the
pulse envelope by series resistor R332 and inu:releelrooe capaci t&n~
of the video amplifier. There is a slight 10611 in a diode deteewr.

..

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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

.. VN_ _ .pll'er. The video amplifier is uBIld to raise the


detected pulae voltage to the magnitude required to operate the indicator. Since the detector output is always negative in polarity, the
t"ideo-amplifier tube V310 is opel'Rted without biu. The IICrMn voltage
is IlUpplied through resiliWr R33S, which acts both u a dropping
resistor and u a filter. The plate lo.d oonsists of resUtor RaM and
inductor LS]j in eeries. The over.aUlo.d seen by the tube tends to
iocrwlf! with the frequeocy, i.nd therefore inCrrF'21 the gain of the
tube at the higher frequencies. This inductor oorrects for the shunting
tlfect of the output capacitance of tube V310 and the input capacitance
of tube V8ll, which nonruolly decreue the gain as frequency n-..
The echo pulees therefore are ampli~ without change in waveform,
ucept for the inversion, or change in polarity.
Leach ........_ _ The cathode-follower st.ge, tube VSll.
is ueed to CQupll' the video signaJ to the indicator with a "'flicit!fltly
good imperllmce match tominimize the distortion and 10IIII of amplitude
which woula normally be encountered if a eoD.xial cable were w.ed to
feed the video signal to a remotely located indicator. No voltage inversion results from the lUll! of the cathode foliowe.r. Only a slight
1081 i, inserted in producing the impedance match between the high
output impedance of the video amplifier and the low impedance of the
couial cable.

18. m.ICATG. .
.. fOe_eraL (1) The function of the indicator il to measure
the time required for the tnnsmiUing pulM! to travel to the target .nil
back and to apply this time to measure the distance between the target
and the radar eat. To perform thie function the trace on the cathoderay tobe IICreen can be calibrated in termll of distance (eec. II). The
spot on the tube il ulually de8ected by a Mw-tooth waveform to pro
duee a linear time base. Since:cera time for each sweep il the instant
when the transmitted pulse starts, the saw-tooth wave must be very
ca",fuliy synchroni:ced with the transmitted pulse.
(2) In order to prevent the appenance of the rd.um trace on the
IFCreen of the 9OOpe, gating pulse is applied to the tathode-ray tube.
Thi, gating pulse permits electronl to 110'11' in the cathode.ray beam
only during the time of the forward swoop of the sawtooth wue.
No electrons are permitted to strike the ecreen during the ftyback or
"'tum-trace time. Becaullt! this pulse, in a M!IUIt, opena and shuts ..
gata through which the electrons in the cathode-ray tube must pass,
it i, IIOmetimea called an inten.ritY-{1ak voltage.
(8) Radar systems used for general l:II!arching must be capable of
conring very long ranges, and therefore need a 1low_speed sweep.
A1J targetll approach the radn station, rna", alX:urate data on their
poaition is needed than is po8IIihle with the slow-speed. sweep. To

.,
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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

provide more a~~ur~te ranging on clO!le targets, mOllt radar systems


are provided with several speeds of lIWeeps.
(40) ' The indicator used in thi& radar system i& comp!lH ~ of the eIIIleJltial circuit oomponentll for producing a type A-sean presentation
of data ( fig. 62). The avai lable ranger! are 2O,COJ yards, sho'll"n by
the IIOlid-line waveforms, and 100,000 yards, shown by the broken line
waveforms. The tim ing pulse (fig. li2(!) is limited to a bed ampli
tude (fig. G2(D) by diode VfOl. The s ....eep generator is timed by
t his pulse to produce an esponential rise of voltnge in a bed length
of time. Since there are two ranges, two rates'of rise can be selected.
(fig. 52). The Nlmainder of the cireuits in the indicator convert
the waveform of figure li2@intothatof figure l\8@,the actuallJWeep
voltage. ComparillOn of these waveforms shows that t'll"O changee
must be made. F irst, the voltage rise for each sweep must be COlllpleted in the time corresponding to the range selected.. The limiting
of voltage rise is accomplished in the grid of the limiter-amplifier
tube, Vf04 (fig. ;52@). Second, the amplitudes of both !!Weeps must
be equal and of the proper magnitude to cover the calibrated portion
of the 09CilJoeoope lICl"een. The limiter-amplifier takes care of tbie
problem (fig. 52(!. Inverter tube V4O:i is used. to produce the elfeet
of a push-pull sweep by inverting the output of the limiter-amplifier
(fig. :\20) and applying the result to the right horizontal deBPCling
plate. The limiteramplifier output is applied directly to the left
horizontal deRecting plate. The limiteramplifier output i, difl'enmtiated. and applied to the indicator' gate tube, V406. The output of
'his stage is Il potiitive-going square wave (fig. ~) wbich permita
electrons to Bow only during the sweep time.
'

It. Sweep FDer.,.r. (1) The sweep generator uses .. vaouum tube to control th& charging and discharging of a ca.pacitor.
In the ci rcuit ~hown in figure 113, tbe inpu t timing pulse from the
transmitter is applied to the sweep generator through a diode limiter
circuit, including tube V401. The pulse duration is approsim&tely
!I microseconds and the msgnitude is about 120 volts. Tha limiter is
used to provide a filled pulse amplitude of + 38 volts to the !!Weep
generator tube V402. The limiter tube, V401, hils ita: cathode raised
to a potential of +38 volt.. above gt'Qund hy the voltsge divider,
consisting of R400 and R403. As the input pulse rises to a potential
more positive than 38 volts, V401 conducts. The current which Rows
in the diod e also 60ws in RfOl. The voltage drop across R401 reduces the magnitude of the pulse applied to the grid of V4<I2.
(2) The grid of tube V402 is normally held slightly positive with
respect to cathode by a voltllge divider, consisting of resistors R40!I
and R400'. A chRnge in the setting of resistor R406 hIlS little effect
on the grid potential becaU96 of grid currt'lnt drawn through the

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5-meghom resistor R404, which limits the elfedi"e grid "ultage 5Upplied by the d ivider. When the po><itive timing pulse is a"plied, the
grid of V402 is swung to +88 volts ill5hlntaneuusly and a large grid
current is dnlWJl, quickly charging the grid Cflpacitor C402 through
the 10.... grid-cathooe re-sistllnee. This action can be followed in the
waveform of figure 53. A8 C402 heromes charged to t.h e full 38
volta the grid is returned to approximlltely zero potential. At the
end of the timing pulse the grid is instantly driven to - 38 volts,
which cula oft' the tube. The chari'! on the grid capacitor 'begins to
leak oft' through the large grid resistor, R4O-I, to the + 400-"\OOlt
supply.
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(8) When tube V402 is cut oJf because of the di.schal"~ of capllcitor C402, the sweep_generating Ctlilacitor, C403 or C404, bl-gins
to charge through tel!istor R407 from the plate su pply. The charging
continues until tube V400 conducts and acts as a parallel low re;i~t
anee to remove the chllrge. The duralilm of sweep vOltlige rise therefore depends on the length of t ime necessary for the negative grid
voltage caused by the disehllrge of Cllpacitor C402 to rellch cut-oft' for
tube V402. This time is mllde greater thall the 610 microseeondl!
nee " 'ny for an echo to noturn from a target at the maximum
range of 100.000 Yllrds. For example, in figure M it has been ILSsumed that V402 begins to ron(\U<'1 8W microseconds dler the end
of Ihe transmitted puiS!!. One ~thod of causing the negative grid
voltage to reach cut oft' (poin t 0) in 8W micruse(!ondl! is to discharge

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UNrI'R5ITYOf MKH~N

capacitor CI2 through a 2-megohm resistor connected to ground_


T1'!e dischar~ takes place along curve A . A 8l!OOnd method is to
use a iar!,!r resistor which is connected to a positive volta!,! !IOurre.
The coupling capacitor then discharp to zero and attempts to
charge in the opposite direction. Curve B repreSents the dis:-.harge
of CfQ2 through a Ii-megohm resistor connected to + 40 volta. When
the grid voltagt' is reduced to zero, it is held there by grid-current
action diseussed in (2) above. Figure 54 indicates that CUI'Ve A and
curve B both reach cut-oft' bias in 8tiO miCl'06l'COnds. However, curve
A f'hows that the grid of V402 can never I'8II.ch ground pbU!ntial
\\'ithin the pulse repetition time, while curve B can. It is desirable
that the grid be returned to ground potential within the pulse-repetition time in order tbat the plate resistance of V402 may be 10111' for
a sullicient time to diachu!'! the sweep capacitor. Tbe voltage waveform at the grid of V402 is as shown in figure 1i3(!).
(4) While V0W2 conducts, the voltage between il:ll plate and ground
is low. When the tube is cut oft', the voltage from piaU! to ground
risee &II fast IS CW3 can be chargtd. The rise follows an exponential
curve with a slope determinoo by the time constant involved. Curves
of two dift'enmt slopes may be obtained by aelreting one of the two
capacitors C403 or C4<M,." The voltage at the plate continues to r ise
exponentially toward +400 'folts DS long &II the tube V402 remailUl
cut olf. When the charge on C402 hIlS decayed lIufliciently to allow
the tube to conduct again, C403 discharges through the SWe6Jl"g'!nerator tube, and the voltage at the plate of V400 drops rapidly to its
normal value. The waveform at the piaU! of V400 is shown in figure
M@. The magnitude of the plate wavefonn depends on the capacitor
selected.
eo S.eep el per ......... ter _.p.18er. (1) The
waveform in figure 53 shows that the amplitude of the 2O,OOO-yard
s"'~p is much greater than that of the lOO,ooo-yard sweep at the output of the SWel!p gt'nerntor, but that the time in which both voitagllll
rise is the same. Thi!!o waveform is repeated in figure 1i5(j). In order .
to produce a 8W~p voltage for the 2O,ooo-yard range, the rise in 'foltage shown by the solid line must stop after 122 microseconds. Sinlilarly, to prodlJC(' the lOO,OOO-yard sweep, the rise of the voltage represented by the dotted line must stop after 610 microseconds. The
limiter-amplifier accomplishes this result by limit.ing the applied
sigual at the proper time.
(2) If a resistor \\~re u!Jed as a grid leak, ClLp"acitor C406 would
("harge to som~ extent during the positive swing of voltage caused by
the applied siWlai. This chargiug would distort. the linear rise of
voltag@. To avoid Ihis distortion, the diode V400 is llsed as "one-way"
grid leak.. No current call flow in this type of grid leak during tho.

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positive awing of the grid signal sinoe the cathode of the diode is
mOI1l positive than the grounded plate. The action of V408 may be
t'Onsidemd to be tbat of a cJo.mping tube which prevents tbe grid of
V404 from going negativa with respect to ground. Any ch&ll(tl! which
is put on ~ by grid current fl.ow is I'f!moved almost instantly with
the removal of the driving aignal. Thus the grid of the amplifier
tube must be held to ground potential in the absence of a signal on the
grid.

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(8) Since the aweep clamper, V403, cannot conduct during the positive swing of the signal (fig. M(i). the signal is applied to the grid
of tube V404 without change until grid current begins to fl. ow. Capa.citor C4ol5 is relatively small so that ..... hen grid current does flo,,, the
capacitor charges as fast as the voltagt! riaes. The result ill to increase

the signal on the grid of Iimiter.amplifier tube V404 untIl grid current
fl.ows, and to absorb any further incun8e in CIlpo.ciwr C401! ( 6g. MI).
The clamper tube, V403, retnoVBII this charge during the negative
signal8wing.

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(4) The value of applied signal which will produce grid cul'ftnt ia
controlled by varying the bias in the gridto-cathode circuit, Figure
57 showa the eire of variation in bias on tbe time during which tbe
grid signal rises. The more negative the bias uEled, the longer the
lime that the grid signsl can rise. This bias is produced snd controlled
by means of rftIistors R408 and R409 or R410 in series with the cathode
(fig, 1StI), Capacitors C400 Ilnd CW1 are used to provide partial deg.!nention by means of which the exponential rise is made very
nurly linear. The resistonl R409 and R410 are called sweep-time
controls since the.y set the speed with which the beam is traced acl"O$8
the O6CillO!lCOpt IICJ"ee n.
(5) The limited voltsge swing which is effective between grid and
cathode is ampl ified snd illVerted by tube V404. The signal appearing on the plate normally hili a different magnitude for the two ranges,
The ampli tud6ll must be the same, since the length of the sweep t rsce
-

__ __

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depends on the magnitude of the voltage. applied 1!etween the deflecting plstes, Resistor R411 is used u a plate losd for producing the
2O,OOO-yard swee p, and a6 .. voltsge divider to provide the proper
sweep amplitude for the indicstor, R412 performs' s similsr function for the IOO,OOO-yard nnge, The switch S401C selects the propev
output snd supplies it to the left horizontal de8eding pls~e of the
OIICiIlOllCOp6 (fig. 6~),
. Pk __ lavener. (1) The sweep is IIpplied in push-pull
to the ueflecting plsles to avoid the defoo:using ellectll explained in
paragnlph 1&, TM 11-466, and NllvShips 900,016, In order to obtain
a positive-going voltage "'a\'e to apply to the right-hand horizontal
deOecring plate, it is nect'SSary to chsnge the polsrity of the output of
the sweep-aulplitier tube (fig, :18),
(2) The voltllg.! divider R414 and R4Ui reduces the amplitude of
tile voltage. IIpplied to the phase in\'erter tube V4tJ5 hy a factor equal to
the gain of this tube. The voltage div ider cub! down the wnvefonn <D
in figure 58 by .. factol' of approx ilUately 11. The small-ampli tude

..

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~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

waveform ii, applied tQ the grid of V401i for amplification. By


proper design o~ the plate-lo.d resistor and the cathode resiatQr, the
gain of this !Stage is made approximately equal to 11. The output
. wavdorm is of the B&me amplitude 1.8 the waveform CD, but it is of
the opposite polarity.
e ....eat.r pte. (1) It is usually desirable to have the
trace visible on the indicator screen only while the spot iB being swept
from left to right. Such an arrangement eliminatee both the bt-ight
spots that could appear lit the ends of the sweep and the faint return
trace. The waveforms in figures 63 a.lld 68 show that the spot n!Sl8 at
the left end of the trace until the sweep parts, and for the 2O,ooo.yard
sweep it r ellts at the right end until the voltage drops. The bright
spots that would appeu becau8e of these momentarily steady voltages
would render the observation of the picture on the ilCreeD di8icult.

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The bil.l:l on the cathode-ray tube ill normally Such that no electroD!! strike the IICreen; that is, the tube ill normally bia.aed. beyond
cut-off and therefore no light is omitted from the se.reen. The output
.of the gating stage redUtelj the bill! on the grid of the cathode-ray tube
110 that electrons can fiow in the beam. The chang!! in bil.8 occurs
at the instant at whicb the sweep voltage begins tQ move the spot acI'06S
the screen. To produce this change in biu at the proper instant, the
negative-going sweep from the plate of VfO.i is differentiated. The
output of ths differentiating circuit, C409 and RUS (fig. 59), ia dependent on the rate of changs of voltage applied to it. If the voltage
changfll rapidly, a large output is obtained. If ,the voltage does not
change, no output is obtained. Therefore the a10ping part.il of waV8forrn (!) in figure 119 produce the pulses in waveform , while the
horizontal parts of waveform CD produce no output. . By this means,
the plate current in V406 is reduced during the aclualsweep time, and
the voltage at the plate of the tube riaee and remains high during the
(~)

..

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UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

sweep time only. The positive pulse that appeara at the plaIA! of V406
(wavefunn 0. fig. :i9 ) i6 applied to the grid of the cathode-ray tube.
The time reJationshiptl of th_ wavefonD6 are seen in figure 60. Thus,
electrons are allowed to 80w, and & trace is produced on the faoe of the
cathode-ray tube only during the dlort time that the sweep voltage is
cbanging. At the end of the sweep, & bright spot" is prevented by the

.. -

,,

!='

,, ,,

1\'
, .,
,

,,

1,

: .
"---:o- i

......

~:

,. ----t.f::;;;;: --'-4'] -:

+
,
--

II

"

I"

:.-::

"

,,

I,
I I
, I

I'
, '
I

.~"...' ,.),,,,,.__ ___ L~ __ ____ --Io-"j. _____ ~_~-I ,


,, ,,
' ,

01'.....
;.,<
..... ..._

,f--"

' ;
,

-.. '

...

' ~"---" '----;

fact th.t the grid volt.ge of the cathode-ray lube falls rapidly to a
value well beyond cut-olf, eliminating the electron beam.
(8) Since the volt.ge changes at slower rate for the lOO,ooo-y.rd
sweep than .i t does for the shorter ran&,!. the output of the dill'erellti.ting cireuit would be small if the const.nta of the circuit wer"6 not
changed. Therefore, when the long.range sweep is used, larger resistor, R419 (fig.:i9), is switched into the dilfereuti.ting circuit so tha.t

..

,.,

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II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

-!i
--

1
.f

.-,

-,

. ,,I

,,,,
,

Ii i

!II
'II

..
l "

b!
I


a pulse of prllctically Ihe SIIIll\' amplitude i~ .. pplied to 111l! IImplifie,' as

in the fonne r CIIS(! .


f . C hode-ray Ite. The circuit Msociated ...;th the cat hOlle-r"y t "be, "" h kh is ~ho "" n ill I h~ t"Olll l'lete in. lie. tor ci reult d iMgn.m
(6g. 61), ill quite COIlI'en li onal. Bectluse push-pul! defle<.1ion is used
in t he horizon ta l direct ion, the eo;,n tcriuJ!' "" h uge is also push. pu ll.
T he blocking CIIpllci t oMi C41O, C411, .nd C412 Ill't'! used to pre\'ent the
dire<:t voltal-_ 011 the o.;cilloscope elements from drooling the COIlnedI'd cirellils.
,. O~r.'lo. of I.dl~.'.r. (1) A Irtl TUiPftrent scale, on
".hieh lilll'!; are etched at equal intervals, is placed over t he f Roe of
the cathode-ray lube ( fig. G2). These lines are de.;igned to be 2.000
ya rd~ a pnn for the 2O,000.y,,1"(1 SWl!ep alld 10,000 yards MJlart for
the IOO,OOO-yard s"'eep. The ,-j(leo Olltput. 1',,1_ from the receiver

.., '-

<.0, "",",_
K"<,H

...

,. . ..........'

ocoo. . CAI. ....,... " ' M.


.
.. ' ...... . _

. ....

.................. _

0 "------/

.....

'<I,

._

, ...;<

(" ....... 1

. -....

camle vertical ddleclion~ of Ihe 1I~ ce. The "B ng" ~ o f the IlIrget ~ f'"<ln.
which Ilu"ie ed ... l'u1._ ClIme can 1)(> htiIlHII~'(1 frum the posi lion al
which they BPIJeMr o n the trtt('(! ~ I aliv., 10 the ol'er l.. id $C.lle.
(2) The length of the trllce i8 adjusted on Ihe 2O,ooo-y"rri SWI'(lP
by vllria t ion uf bud. IH(J.). !3W EEPT I1HE. lind R" l1 , SW EEP AM
PLI 'I'IJ D E , ( fig. 61). A Cfllibl"tur IlIlIy be IIs~'(1 tu IJI'\witie I '" nge-lII11 rk
Imlses. eMlled '; piP5" or ';bliJlS,~ which MI'tl ~ pll~...'(1 "I ('(1"uLi In ten' Bis.
The speed of t he 6Wrtl' is then IIllj llsted by mellns of R.. OO to m"ke tlle
l1l"I,,'e mllTks line u p with the marks un the Bell Ie. D uriug this PTOCO'SS,
the SWEEP AMPLITUDE conl.-ol and the HORIZONTA L POSIT ION colltnll R430-R"31 lIlust be IIdju~le(1 so t hlll II.e length of the
s weep 18 .rlwllYS contOiul-d within the ellll~'1H1I ,ullrk.. Oil the SCMII'.
Aft er the ~'n"'JI ha ~ "nce bt..... n calihrat ed in thl~ woy, it should u~.... 1
un furtller :,djn~uncllt eX~'C J!t rur TOu t ine ch~,<;kl;.

0.>9 t I<om
UNIVERSITY Of MICHIGAN

(3) The damping diodes V407 and V408 prevent a shift in the poIIition of the " ...oop trace when the unge is chlnged. Th_ diodes insure thlt the sweep voltage on each horizonI'll de6eetion pllte ahvlY'
ltam from the voltage determined by the setting of the two positioning potentiometers, resistors- R430 Ind R431.
(4) The oontrollmobs on the front of the indicator are the lJWllep
range, the focus, Ind the brillilnoe. The position potentiometf'rII need
IIdjustment infrequently. They al"1l therefol"1l mllde adjwrt.able only
by 8Cr&W driver. Only the controls which the operator needs to
operate the equipmf'lIt are mllde accedble.
( II) The SWEEP_RANGE control operates the !!Witeh 8401 (fig.
61). There are four aections of this flWitch , which are shown 1.11
S401A., B, C, and D. All sootioJ\8 are operated simultaneously sinoe
they are all on the same shaft. The two positions of the nritch are in_
dicated 1.11 Sind L. The let.lr S indicatefJ the short or 2O,OOO-yard.
range, and the letter L indicates the long or lOO.ooo-yard n.nge.
:18. POWER SUPPLY.

.. Ge._I. A variety of direct voltages is required to operate


the radlr equipment. A high-voltage lIOuree, which ill capable of df'liv_
ering a large current for a short interv'" of time. is required for the
tranlllllitter. It is not important that the regulation or the amount
of ripple voltage of this power supply be controlled clrefully. An_
other 9OUroe of power at a high voltage, but with ,11 IlmOHt negligible
current dn.in, ill needed for the aeceiel'1lting voltage in the cathode-raJ
tube. .Regulation of this lIOuree is no problem becaUSl" of the oonstant
IIIIlIUload, and the ripple voltage i8 eliminated beeaU8ll the filter capacitor i8 kept chlrged Ilmost to the peak volt!lge. However, flllr the
plate voltage /lUpply for the nl('('Iiver Ind indicator, I !j()urce of good
regulltion and very small ripple voltaft\' is needed. In addition to
these power 8upplies which furniBh the direct voltajpl$, suitable transformers must be provided to supply the Mater power for the variOU8 tubes. A echemntic diagram of the various power-supply circuits
is shown in figure 63.
It.
"'er. Since the avera~ current drain of the
I.rlnsm.itter i810w, and because it is notllbeolutely n('Cessl"'y to main _
tAin a corurtant value of diN'Ct voltagt' at the pIattt! of the transmitter
tuhet!, a voltage-doubler power Bupply is adequate for the- transmirer.
The action of this cil"~u i l is explained in !leCt ion VI, TM 11-466, Ind
Navsbipa 900.016. The l'l'S i ~tors Rool and ROO\! are use-d. to limit the
puk currenJ. that passes through the n'Ctifier tubell to eblrge the capac_
itors CooI 'and C602.
Co c.....e-r.y .
TIle simple half wlve reel.iUt'r V603
IlInintains I prlctit~Llly full charge on the filt er capacitors because the

Tre..

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Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

:--~

"' ....--~~~ '-r----r---."- It.~ 7 ".

...".

........... "-

-_.

--

_ _ v ... . . -

... "'-"' ... ', ..

current drawn by the cathoderay tube and by tlle bleeder, located in


the indicator, ia very small. Beclluse the current drawn is small, it
ill economical to use the smoothing resistor, R~. Transformer T603,
used to step-up the line voltage, is a special type in which a few turIUI
near one end of the secondary winding are made of large wire.. Across
these few turns a voltage of 2.11 volta is induced, 90 that the tilament
of the type 2 J: 2 tube may be heated from this source of power. The
other end of the winding is held at I. potential 100 volts positive with
respect to ground by the mltage drop that occurs in I. part of the
bleeder (fig. 61).
. "dl_t.r rl'!edw'_. The current drain of the receiver and the indicator is fairly high. Therefore, a tube which is
t'8.pable of supplying a large continuoUli current must be used in this
power-supply circuit. A full -w,ve rectifier V6IM is used to reduce the
r ipple in the output, and a choke-input filter is used to improve the
regulation. Resiston R606, ROOT, and R608 serve all load resistance
to provide a constant load on the rectifier 90 that the filter capaciton
cannot charge to the peak output voltsge of the rectifie r when no erternal load is connected. These load resistol'S aid the voltage regulntion
of the rectifier and prevent abnormnlly- high volta~ from being
impressed on the receiver and indicator tubes before they are properly
heated. These n:siston se rve also as a voltage divider to provide the
250 volts for tIle receiver.
fl. P_Utle _ . .Uleatl.... (1) I n this simple radar BIIt all
of the rectifier power supplies are shown lumped together in one
chassis. In practice they are BIIldom lump!ld because it is unwise to
extend high-voltage cables over a greater length than is absolutely
necessnry. For this reason the rectifiers are usually distributed
throughout the equipment. In such an arrangement, only the 115volt primary voltage need be distributed among the 96veral unita.
(2) ~nerally it ia desired to maintain the plate voltage on the
tubes in the receiver at a very constant value. Frequently an electronic voltage regulator is used for this purpose. If a regulated powe r
supply is used, the rectifier conneded to TOOl! is modified to supply only
400 volts, and a !lepa.rate redifier circuit is used with the electronic
regulator.

On9 .. of I,.,.,.
UNfIIERSITY Of ~Hj(Jo,N

Seedon IV
Detailed 8tady of extern.Uy 8ynch .....
Dlzed "'ere.ave ..ad... 8Y8tem

21. G&.~
.. A.pll~tI... (1) The radar system deflCribed in this section is designed for installation in an aircraft to enable it to search
for IJ\Irface vessels. This type of radar equipment is called aircraft to
surface [ el, or simply ASV. Because the set is used in airerdt, it
must be light in weight and small in size. Th_ Iimitat-iOllll did not
affect. the design of the radar system discussed in lIIlCtion Ill, since
that set 11'&1 intended for UM at .. ground lItation where weight and
lrize of the equipment are of secondary importance.
(2) The indicator pennia measurement of range on .. 2O,ooo.yard
_Ie and a lOO,OOO-yard lICale. The antenna normally is rotated at a
coHllt"nt 4eed and .. polar map of the lrea being searehed is drawn on
the indicator ilCreen, with the aircraft oonstituting the focal point or
oenter of the map. All reHe<:ting objects within range of the system
appear on the screen of the uthode-ray tube as brigbt spots of light
whose relative position with respect to the renter of the map is an indicalion of the Tllnge and bearing of the refleding objects from the
aircraft. An indicator in which a Tlldial sweep is rotated to produce
a plan view of sn area as called a pkllI poritiOfl ifldicatOf' or PPI.
... S,..tP" H Ila.ho (1) .In order to limit the antenna
array to a reasonable si ~ for installation in an aircraft and to permit
the detf!etion of sm.!1 targets such as submarine periscopes, a ca rrier
frequency of 8,000 megacycles per ~ond has been selected. A 2
microsecond pulse of radio-frequency energy is transmitted every
1,200 microseconds.. The duty cycle for the transmitter is therefore
0.0016, which permits an output peak power of lIO kilowatts to be
generated from an average input power of approximately 2l1O walts.
(2) The pulse-repetition frequency of 800 pulSBII per second allow$
IUllple time for echoes from all targets within the mllllimum range of
the set to return between transmiued pulseti, yet the pulses are repealed at a sufficient rllte to give a clear target definition dI"I the indi_
cator tube. By sweeping the antenna in uimutb at a mllll:imum rate
of 20 revolutions per minnte, 8everal pulSBII of energy ca n strike each
object in the area to be searched, 80 that everything in that area should
7

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

be detected. If the antenna werfl rotated at an exwnively high ~! !d,


the be 'm might be displaced in azimuth \10 far from one pula6 to the
nut that objects near the enreme range of the equipment could ~
main undetected until their Tlnge Was reduced.
e.
(1) The componenta which make
up the II)'!Item are shown in figure M. Note that the functiOll8 which
must be aooomplished in this system are identiea1 with tboee of the
syBt"m diBellflllJed in I)IlCtion III. The di'e.renoe between the two ~
tern. is in the manner of perfonning the n8CFEUry functioll8. In this
system examples of the techniquea usuany employed in a microwave
system are illustrated in contrast to the long-wave wcllDiqnee di.ecu ' ! d
in aection ill. In order to make this l18Ction as. Wl8ful18 prJ ible in
showing typical ndar cirouits, an utem.J timer ud a dilferent type
of indicator are Bhown.
(2) The system requira:! an 800-qele-per 2! rond motor-driven
genen.tor capable of delivering approximately 10 amperea at 116 volt.&.

S,..te. "_.... em..

1IIIA1QI\

n.-lm
l'ivwrfl 64. BIDe.\: 01'; ..... 01 ulft"llall,

~ ....ln>t11:<"..

rGoIGr."

A 24-volt, 8-ampere, doc IIOUrce of power is required for operating the


antenna motors. Transformers and rectifiers are ircluded in the
varioUl components to supply the nece :sery voltagea to the vacuum
tu....

(8) The timer produoea 800 IIharp negative pubs per second to
trigger the transmitter and the indicator. The 2-micr~nd r-f
pulse is genera~ in a m!lpetron and is radiated from a paraboloidal
reftector. Since the !J&me antenna is UIIed for tra.nsmiUlng and Nceiving, a T-R switch is nllOfssuy to protect the receiver during the
transmitted pulse. The output of the receiver is applied to the grid
of an electromagnetic cat.hode-ray u.sing type PPI-_n to ClWIII a
spot of light to appear on the &Creen when an ec:ho is received.

22. TLWBL
.. GeIIeral. (1) The timer performs the functions of 811tabliahing the puhe-repetition rate of the radar system and of synchronizing the actions of the other components to the transmitter. The

L,l

I,--_-"UNIVERSITYOfMl(HKJ\H
)~'C'
Q,i.v, .1 """"

most obvious aynchroni&ing .ction is that of cau.ing the sweep in


the indicator to start at ellactly the same instant that the transm.itter
produces a pm of ref energy_ However, the production of the sweep
and of the gate voltage III Jciated with the lJWeep will be treated during
the discu.slJion of the indicator_ The amplification of the trigger pulse
formed by "the timer will be tfEllted during the di!lCU.Mion of tranllmitter, with which this .ction is cloeeiy assoc::iated.
(2) The block diagram of figun:! M !ilioWl! the circuit.8 uaed in the
timer to prodU08 ths trigger pulse. The ma8ler OIICilIlltor in this .ystem genenteIJ an 800-eycle aine wave voltage. The Bine wave ill ap-

J'

,....-c+ r

c_

T\.-Ifo'

plied to a limiter stage to produce a wavesh.pe which ill apprDJ:imately


equare. An onrdriven amplifier is used to make the sides of the
equare wave mOn:! nellriy l'tIrticai. In this way, a sharp pulse of
arprollimately 2"mici-naconds duration with a definite leading edge
mly be derived from the R-C peairer which follows the overdriven
amplifier. The poEIitive pulse of the peaker output is &elected and '
Implified. This pulse is used to trigger the transmitter and to synchronize the .tart of the indicator sweep. The complete lICbematic
cirCQit diagram of the timer is shown in figure 66.
It. M_ter _lUater. (1) 'The circuit uwd. to control the
repetition rate is a pha8l"-shift O!ICilIator (fig. 61). The output of the
oecillator is a sine ....ave of good frequency !Jt.IIbility, which produoee
I sweep trace free from jitter.
(2) Qecillations Ire produced by coupling the plate of tube V101
baek to the grid through an R-C bridge net~ork. The network
reduces the sip:nll from plate to ground by an amount equal to the
pin of th, tube, and produces a 180" phue &hitt only at 800 cycles
per seeood. A negative feedback VOklge, which is essentidly constant
for aU frequencies, is developed across the unbypt'l\'ed cathode resistor RI05. Thi~ fPtldback maintains a sinusoidal output at the
plate of the tube VIOL The combination of phase shift other than
18()'> with the negative ll'tdbaek voltage reduC611 the tendilncy of the
ayBtem to oecillate at Iny frequency except 800 cycJt'S per second. The
oonlltants of the feedbllck llet.,..ork determine the frequency at which

Q,i.v, .1 """"
UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJlH

~I

1j

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I

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l,

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-
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UNrYEIlSHY Of WCHtu.N

oscillll.tiOJlli take pl.ce, wbile the rftIist.n('6 of BIOI) detennilll'll tbe


.mplitude of these oacillations. The output vollllgt is developed
.cr<lfI8 the plate load resistor RI08.
(8) The eombination of RI01 .nd C10e in the pl.te dn:uit of the
tube .cta as I filter to prevent feedback through the power BUpply.
This filter il desirable to prevent interference with other circuits operated from the
power IJQUroe. The low reactance of 0106 It the
frequlUlCY of the oacillitor effectively ahort-cireuit6 the .Iternating
voltage wbich ~ to appear at the junction of RUlIS .nd Ri07.
Capacitor CI06 can be oonsidered .. a b.ttery, beeauM the voltage
between ita termin.ls cannot change qntil charge haa been added or
removed. Since the f'elistlmce present in the cireuit prohibits any

.me

M_

,...re n . 8c" .... "llfc

~rctljl

iI;',....", of ..... ,'... OQI .. tOf'.

instantaneoue cha~, tbe voltagt acrose the capacitor is held prlll'tieally constant.
e." Iter. (1) The 8nn. step in producing trigger pul_
from the sine-wave voltage ia to convert the sine wave into a 8I)uaN
wave. To make this conversion, the IlIl1plitude of both the po:sitive
and the negative alternations of the sine wave must be limited. 111e
limiter used in this timer is shown in flgun! 68.
(2) The Iimitel' tube is operated with uro bed bias, &nd develops
grid-leak bias due to grid current. The coupling capacitor 0101 is
charged during the positive swing of the applied signal by the current which flow8 through resistor BI09 and through the internal grid
resil;tanC6 of tube VlC12 in series with rftIistor RUO. ~ring t!i.e neptive swing the charge which has .ccumul.ted on CI07le.ks off througb
resistor RI09. Since the resistance for di6Charge is great .. r than the
resistance for ch.rge, a residual charge is accumulated on capacitor

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

e l 07, which is eI'ectively I negative bias between the grid and cathode of tube VI02.
(8) The grid-leak bi., which is produced by grid current 60w reduces the el ect of the a.pplied si ne- wave voltage in driving t he grid
positive. This biu repretlents the average about which the einuSQidal
variat ion takes pla<;e. Figure 69(D MOWS the average grid-leak bi..
IS a negative voltage relative to ground, with the sine wave superimpoeed on it. When the grid is driven positive senet! reai8lor RnO
still further limits the el ective signal, beeause of the voltage drop
aer0B6 the reaistor caU88d by grid current. This limiting i8 illustrated in figure 69(!) by the reduction of t he positive peak from the
dotted line to the I!Olid li~
SQUARE-Wltlf.
OUTPUT TO
C)Yf.II.OfUWI'I-

..........
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OKI!..

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---

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...
....

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,

PfgtIr" " .

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Bdem ..' /c .......... " "~fIFWI'I

.., &I..."."..

(4) The tube VIOl! reproduDe8 the limited grid signal .. the appronmate squllre wave shown in figure 69@. The positive half cycle
of the applied line WIVe increl8E.'l! t he plate current Ind reduces t he
plate voltage to a low va lue. The least posit ive portion of the plate
wave form corrt8ponds to the period of grid-eurrent 80w, I.lId is flattened by the grid limiting. All the grid signal swings negative, pllte
current is reduced Ind finally Ct'1lItII to 80w when the combination of
lIignll and biae reaeb the cut-ol value. The piau voltage , isea towa rd
'he supply voltage during th is t ime. Since the inp ut cireuit of tube
VI03 is connected to the plate load resistor t hrough coupling capacitor
(;109, charging current 80w& in RIll, which prevents the plate voltage from rising instantaneously.
Ove ..... rlve pllBer. (1) Although the sine-wave voltage is approximately !lCjUlred by the limiter, the sidet of the square
"Ive are not 18 vertical .. is desired for the p roduct ion of a sharp

..

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

trigger pulse. Therefore, the equare wave produced by tbe limiter tube
is applied to an overdriven amplifier (fig. 70) for the purpose oflJl.eep..
ening the &idea.
(2) The output from the limiter stage is a voltage of luge amplitude. The plate current of amplifier tube VI03 ill cut off early in the
negative alternation and ill driven to a manmum .early in the positive
alternation. In addition, the grid current which is drawn during
the positive half cycle of the applied voltage chari'" CH19 through the
nllatively low CIIthode-to-grid resistallOl) of VI03. Ju; a result., the

i2 IN'.
a
_

,,
,, II

I I
I I
I

,, z......

,I

a~ft

+~ f.I......L----'.....

- --

.~---------------~--

..

...

Flqw.u : 69. Wue'l> ...... It< U,"Uff INN VIOl.

coupling capacitor is ~harged to an avel'llge voltage v.. hich acta I.Il a


high negative bias for the grid of tube VI03.
(8) The only bi u prt'Sl!llt in the grid circuit of tube VH18 is due
to grid current. The plate waveform of tube VI02 is distorted in
paseing through capacitor CI09 by the charging and discharging of
the capacitor (lig. 710).
As tbe grid signal starts to swing positively, it is ineffective until,.t
time t" it drives the grid llbove cut-off. At time tit when the grid
SigllB I drives the grid to :tero biBS, grid current flt>ws, limiting the signal
un til t._ The grid i8 t hen swung negative, reaching cut-oB' again at to.
(4) Plate current begins to flow at t" rises to I. max imum at t remaina practically constant u!lul t., then decreases to zero at I,. " The

..

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

d rup in voltage produced by the current acTOSS n'sistor R1l4 cauSl!ll


the plate volta~ waveform shown in figufll 71@. Becau~ tube oon
duction takes place entifllly in the positive half cycle of grid signal,
the negative portion of the plate signal is narrower than the poaitin
portion. The plate signal of VI03 ill applied to an R-C pellker circuit.

'.

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i~ J !,
~ ,~ ; n

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"
J "

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.n'ldll.;&! ........

c /. ,

I,'

-The important feltute of the peaker is its ability to charge and disehe.r~ ~mplete ly in the available time betwen signal .lteration!. The
plate signal can therefore rise to the supply voltage only after the
peaker citeuit is charged. The leading edges of both positi1""e and negative portions of too waveform are slightly rounded because of the
short time used for charge and discharge.

.,

,.,

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

e. II-(; pe.ke.. _ . p" __ .p.taer. (1) In order to produce a sharp pulse nom the aquare_wave output of the overdriven
amplifier, the time constant of the coupling circuit to the following
stage i8 made very short (fig. 72). Because this time constant is !Ill
short, capacitor CIU charges and di&charges completely and the average bi&l:l produced iB negligible. The grid of the tube may therefore
be conaidered to be at ground potential. The time constant of the
coupling circuit is approximately 2 microeoconcb for a negative voltage
swing at tbe~grid of YUH, and less than 2 microeeoonds for a positive
swing at the grid becauee the low cathode-to-grid reaistance shunts
R116 when grid current i8 drawn.
(2) When the voltage applied to the coupling capacitor rises sharply
(fig. 13Q), .. charge is quickly developed on C111. The voltage at
the grid of the tube follow8 the charging current, rising alm06t
instantly to ita maximum value and dropping back to zero quickly (fig.
78@). In the same way, when the applied sign.a l swings negative,

,----:=- -:o::;_

n_
"90'1'8 71. &",-al/o cI.-.:w1f

4""',...... or R-C ,......... a"" ,,,/fe ., ...'11,......

the grid is driven below ground potential, but it nlturns to ground


quickly because elll discharges rapidly. Tile signal on the grid thua
is a series of sharp positive and negative pulses.
(8) In order to eliminate the negative pulsea at tM input to the
pulse amplifier, the tube is biased beyond cut-oft'. Cut-oft' for a 6Aar
tube with a 2:11J-volt plate supply is approximately 6 volta. A biu of
"early 12 volta i8 aupplied by raising the cathode potential of VIO-I
by meana of the voltage divider R117 and R118. Using thiB bi"., the
tube does not conduct until the grid is raised to a potential of +6
volts relative to ground .He~ce figunl 78(!) indicatell that both the
n~gative pulses and the broad lower portions of the positive pulses
Ilre lost beeause of the biu on the tube. The portion of the grid
signlli whicb tends to drive the grid more positive than the cathode
ill lOIit becalll:le of the limit-ing action of grid current. The peakll of
the positive pulses tend to drive the grid of Vl04 very posi tive relative to the cathode, lind therefore cause a large current" to flow in the
tube for the duution of the pulse. Thill large flow of current pro-

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

duoes Jt, lafge drop of voltage at the plate of the tube (fig. 78@), eo
that the output is a high amplitude negative-going pulae whC81 duntWn iliappl'OJ:imately 2 mieroseoonds..
I. ea.....e
(1) In this system, .. in DlOIIt other
radar sy!!tems, the tfigger pulse is conducted to the tnnsmitter and
indicator by mean~ of couia) cables. Cabl." in use have charaeterU,tic impedanoee in the .range of IiO to lliO ohms In order to Vn!-

'.U._.

-1'_", a 73. Wo""fonn. '" R-() ,....1:.". 0'" ,,,,'"

.",p.U~

Ide

VI''-

vent re6ectiona in the cable, the tenninating impedance should be as


nearly equal w the characteristic impedance &8 ia practical. A cathoole
follower is used as a low impedance aou1'CEl W furnish the output pulse
of tlll~ timef w the CO&J:ialline.
(2) Since the trigger pulse is negative-going, it is desirable to
have the cathode follow.r normally conduct a heavy current, eo that
a pulse of large amplitude ca n be dll\'eloped acl'Qll8 th e cathode resiswrs. The billS on Vlm (fig. 74) is the voltage developed acrOl:\ll
R123 by the plate current of the tube lIowing through this rtlIIistor .

..

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

The characteristic curves of a type M07 tube" show that a current of


24 milliampere8 Bows if the bias on the tube is -8.6 voltll. Therefore,
the normal steady current in VIOIi ill 24 milliampef'E'll'l, mnce 100
ohmsXO.024 I.IIlpere- 3.6 volta. The voltage developed acro6II BlU
does not ailed the bias on the tube, since it rlillell both the cathoda and
the grid above ground potential.
.
(8) Until the negative pulse i, applied to the grid of VI06, the
cathode i8 1,9:10 ohmsxO.m 1.IIlpe.re-47 volta positive with te8pect
to ground. Since the output of the pulae amplifier is more than 6uffieient to cd\. off the cathode follower, a negative-going pulse of 4,7
volta is produced across Rl23 and R124 when VIOl! ill cut off by the
applied signal. The .negative pulse output of the cathode follower is
coupled to the tran$mitter and to the indicator by colIiailinee which
connect to JI01 and JI02.

. . r._r

.ppl,... The plata voltage for III tubes in the


timer i, supplied hy the 2ro-volt power supply in the indicator. The
heater voltage for all tubes in the timer is supplied by transformer
T:102 in the indiOltor.

23. TRANSMITTER.
. . Ge_ell'aI. (1) The transmitter generates a 2-micluHond
pU\1i8 of r-f energy at. frequency of 8,000 megacycles per Ii8COnd under
control of the timer. The peak pov.er generated in each pulse is
approJ[imaiely 50 kilowatts.
(2) The r-f ~nerator is a magnetron to which II plate voltage pulse
of 12,000 volts is applied by the modulator. The modulator aetl! as an
electronic switch. This awitch is closed by a positive pulse from the
driver, which amplifies the trigger pulse furnished by the timer.
L Ma.aetroa. (1) The operation of the magnetron used he~
is similar to that of the m~gnetron8 discusseti in section xn, TM
11.....06 and NIV!lhips 000,016. In this tube the anode, or plate, forms
An outer metal case, within which are mounted the cathode and heater.
Electrically, the magnetron may be considered to be a diode .nd i,
often shown &8 such in tJCbematic di.grams. Two methods of sup0<

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

plying plate voltage can be ulled (fig. 715). The first is to insulate the
ca_ from ground, connect the cathode to ground and apply the high
positive potential to the c ee . The B!xmd and preferred method is
to ground the case, iII8Ula~ the cathode., and apply a negative voltage
to the cathode,
(2) The magnetic field, which is applied parallel to the cathod~
is produced by a pennanent hOf'!leShoe magnet. The magnetron is
plaoed between the pole faces of the magnet and fitted to them &II

--------

-------

a._ __ 22

0 ........

Ge '

CD

cloeeJy as po!l8ible. Tbe r' energy is ta ken from tbe magnetron by


coupli ng the transmission line to tbe field inside with a small loop,
e. M ......~r. (1) The modulator perrol'llUl the function of
a Iwitch which discharges a storage capacitor through the magnetron.
I n figure 76, the magnetron iJI shown schematica lly as a diode V208
and the modulator tube l1li a lIimple switch 8 .
(2) While , witcr" 8 is open (fig. 76@) , electron, 11.0'91' around tbe
circuit in the direction of the solid arrow8, placing a charge on capacitor C206. During the Bow 01 eiectl'Ona, a voltage is developed

..

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

aerollS R206 which keeps the potential of point .A letiII than the battery voltage of 12,000 volta (6g. 770). At the 5Ilme time the drop
across ",sistor R207 places point D at a positive potential relative
to ground (fig. 77C!). If the liwitch remains open for a long time,
capacitor C20~ becomea completely charged and the electron ftow
stops. C206 then hu a potential aClWS it of 12,000' volta, with

e.

YOI.'IIIoCK .... w.........n


OP ~ AND GRCO..f<ID

...

..
..

~----

""'-1::-=-::--:;;-;0:--::-::-:::':":'
I'j\
~

YOU'AGI!'" i WElH Pl...ATI

0'

PI,Mre 77.

c:aoe. AND

CifIOIMD

W.. w/on,.. II< If... ple ...

04.,. '. . .

point.t being positive with respect to point B. III the absence of electron 1101'0', the drop aerollS the resistors is zero, and therefore point A
is 12,000 volts above ground while point B is st ground potential.
The magnetron does not conduct while the switch is open, because its
Cltthode, point B, is either positive or at Uta potential with respect to
the plate, which is grounded.

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

(3) If the switch is now dOlled (fig. 76@), point A of the ca pacitor
is ifllltantly grounded (fig. 770 ). Point B maintains its 12,<O.Ivolt
potential difference with respect ro A by going to -12,000 volta relative to ground (fig. 77@). The magnetron can now conduct, and
the capacitor is d i!IChar~d through resistor R201 and tbe magnetron,
as shown by the broken arrow s (fig. 76@) . By the time the switch
is again opened, some ch nge has been remuved from the capacitor
and the volta!" across it is less. The + 12,ooo.volt bnttery starts to
charge C'.!05, instlllltly raising poi nt B to a positi~ potential with
respect to ground, and cutting oft' the magu etron. P oint A also returns to a potential lIoove ground.
(4) The pulse duration of t he system requ ires thllt the magnetron
be turned on for 2 microsecon ds once every 1,200 microseconds. A
mechanical switch cannot readily be made which is able to opente 6(1

rapidly and at t1w ~a me time halidJ e the high power. For th is retl90n
an electronic swit!'!! is used in place of the switch S.
(II) The'mod ulRtor and t ransmitter used in this lIyst(lm are shown
in figure 78. The p'lrt of the eireui t inclosed in the dotted J in~ is the
electronic switch which roplaces t he mechanical swi tch of figure 76.
The type 7UIA tube, V202, is nonnnlly noncondUcting because of the
- l,OOO-voit billS on ita' grid. In thi s condition it is lin open switch.
During the relati\'ely long time tllII l V202 is nOIl ~onducting, cll pacitor
(.'200 cha rges to 12,000 \'oJts.
(6) The modula tor tube is made strongly conducting by a large
1'08iliv6 pulse applil'd to its glid. Duri ng the 2 mi croseconds when
V202 cond ucts, plate A of OlO5 is effectively connected to ground so
thnt capacitor C2M disclmrges thl'Ough V2O'l in series wit Ii t he parallel
combinlllion of th e magoetron.and resistor R\107. Wh ile the discharge
is tftking plnce, plate voltage is applied to the magnetron which, t herefore, generates lUi r f pulse of 2 microseconds durat ion .

.,

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HIGAN

(7) The size of capacitor ~ is eo chosen that the voltage across


it will drop only 6 peNent or 18I!S during the OIICilllltion of the mag
. netran. This limit in the magnitude of the drop is important because
if the voltage applied to the magnetron changes greatly, the frequency
and the power output will chnnge during the pulse. Such a change in
frequency and power output would cause d~reased e!lciency in the
transmitter, and consequently the radar equipment would be lell8
eft'ecQve.
(8) The power IIIlpply which furnishes the 12,000 volts to the mod
ulator is a voltage doubler. The voltage regulation of this type i8
t:.l:tI"\!mely poor, &8 the output voltage decreases rapidly with increase
in output current. In order to prevent an ucessive voltage drop in
the voltage doubler output, tftIilltor R206 is wire-wound. The inductive
el!ect of this rFFistor aid, in limiting tiM! cur~nt drawn from the

NI:~TIVE

TRIGGI.!! Pl- V

'ADM T ..... -

1~,OOO-volt

power supply when it is shorted to ground tlrrough V202


during the pulse...
rlver. (1) The bias on the modulator tube is - 1,000 volts,
in order to keep this tube cut all between pulses. The 4O-volt triwr
pulM supplied by the timer tberdOI"\! must be amplified considerably
t o operate the modulator tube. A pulse amplifier, called a driver, is
used to incnase the am!llitude of the Iri~ r pul88 (fig. 79).
(2) The driver tube V201 is a type 8(11, which is used to provide
the required amplification. Ti,e control grid is at zero bias, eo that the
tube nonnally draws a plate CUrTent of about 100 milliampere$. Because of the voltage drop produced across plate 1000d reaistor R200 by
the flow of this current, the voltage at the plate of V201 is MI volts in
the absence of a signal on the grid. The resistor R202 is used to limit
the screen grid current to a anle value, and the bypaS/! capacitor C202
is used to hold the screen grid voltage at. constant value.

..

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

(3) Under the conditions at which ViWl is Ope l'Sloo' , c UI-off bills is
approximately -38 volts. The negative pulse from the timer is 4U
volts or more in amplitude. The driver tube is cut off by the applicatiun of the negatiw trigger pulse. The voltnge at the plute of V201
then rises to the 1,M)()..volt supply voltage. Th us, the output of th"
driver is a posith-e-guing, 2-microsecond pulse of 1,400 volts. This
J...",'1l pulse is cllpacitively cou]Jled to the modulator grid. The puJ ....
is. ill effect, the COIIU'O) which closes anti opens the eloctrunie switch.
e. Power pply. (I) The schemlttic circuit diagram of the
complete trallsmitter, including necessary powel' supplies, is shown
in figure SO. The primaries of all tnnsformers in the power supplies
ne energized from the 115-volt, 800-cycle-per-secoud line. This line
is fed by a motor-driven generalur in the plnne.
(2) The + 12,000 high \'oltage fur the plate of the mod ula tor is
supplied by a voltage.doubler circuit which Ul!efI two tYl~ 71X>A fe<.:
tifier tubes. TI'BllsfOl'mer T201 is used W step up the line voltage tu
supply the nec~ssary high voltage. The filaments on the IWo IU bo!s
ant heated by the two ~parute Ilt'OOlldary windings on T:103. Since
onll filament is 6,000 "olts more positive tha n the other, and si nce both
filaments are at a high putentilli with re!lpe<.:1 to ground, the tUIlS'
former must be 1\'1'11 insulated, The re!listol'S R209 and R210 are pru
t.ective resisturs which limit the peak CUrl'1'nt that can flow ill the tubes
to restOI'll the clul.rge on the capacitors C200 and C207. Since the aver,
age curl'ent drawn fl'om the power supply is I"l'lntively small. the out
put voltage ,'ernaill8 vel'y close to tw ice the pellk "oltage of the secolld
ary of 1"201. The bleeder resiSt-ol'S R207 and R208 IIftOrd pl'utection
to maintellllllce pel'!;Onnel since the rl!S istol'!l prul'i d~ a path to dis
charge the high. voltage capacit ul't; when the puwel' is turned off,
(3) The plate voilllg!! for th!! driv!!r, the 9Cl'i!l'tl voltnges for the
driver and modulator, IIlld the bias for the modulator are furnishl!d by
a full wave rectifier. Two type 866 mel~ury-vnpor rectifier tubetJ are
used in thi ~ power ~upply oo,nu96 of ti, e high curnml drain of the
connected load, TIle high I'ultngc is supplied to the rectifiers by the
_-olldary of 1'2Q-l, ' The filument vuitab't' for V206 and V207 is taken
'l'Om anolher secondary winding on the same tranllformet'. The
I'I!Ctifier output is filtered by 1..201, ( '208, llnd 1..202, which fonn a choke
itlput filter. CllpucilOMI C209 and C210 Ill... used l'rinci pnlly to stabi- '
liZ\' the output voltages wh ich are tapped oft the l'oltnge dh'idu. Nu
furth!!1' filtering is necesst\ ry at tile "ollnge dh'id!!f because the 9Crct!n
grids whi ch liN; sUllplit<l with + 1,000 volts and +400 volts al"l' each
bYPPssEd at the tube, &t.istol'!l rull, ru12, rut8, und ru14 are so
proportioned thllt the desired voltllges elln be tapJX.'<i off at their
,
junctions.

..

,.

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

, . _.- -'- '- '--'- j

-j>!

~,

,
I~.
Ii.

i'

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1 ;

IJ !

- '-'l !

!o

II

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1'1' " I!

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1, \[1

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UNNERSITY Of MKHJo.>A~

!,

."Ii

,-

--
,,
-
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-,

68C11 iW1' ~"'_ '

l.

(4) The heater voltage for V201 is supplied from the 6.Svolt sec- ondary winding in the indicator power supply. The heater vollage
for V202 is supplied hom the 27.II-voll secondary of lrarulfonner T204.
Since the magnetron cathode is at a highly neg.tive potential during
the pul!lll, the heater transformer, T206, must be specially built to
withstand this high voltage.

24. Al\'TBNNA SYSTBM.

.. Ge.eral. The antenna system include!! the stub-supported


couial transmission line, the transmit-receive (T_R) switch, the
radiating element with ita paraboloidal reftector, and the rotating
and tilting mechanisms (fig. 81). A.single antenna i~ ilBed for both
transmitting &lid receiving, in order to con!lllrve space, since this radllr

.... --_ ..

----.-.-

"""."

r ...nI

M.

Detail

at

rola' .... /01.01.

IMIt is to be installed in' an airplane. A T:tl switch is nec :s:pry to


connect the antennn alternately to the transmitter and tc the receiver,
thereby preventing the sensitive receiver circuits from blocking during
the transmitted pul96.
II. P"I!4IIIII_. (1) The r -f trnnsmii;8ion line is of the coaxial
type, with a characteristic impednn~ of 60 ohms. The inner con
ductor is held in po!Iition by means of quarter-wave, shortcircuill1d
line sections, called Irub8, ",hich act a. in!>ulators. These supporting
stubs are shown at points 8 .
(2) The method of matclling the magnetron to the coa:..:ial transmi~ion line during osdllation is to U!Ie a quurter-wave tl'1lnsforml'r.
The transfonner, point A, is built into the output connection of the
mngnetron, and is adjusted in Qlanufacture to give an out)JUt imped_
aliCE' of 50 ohms. SiueE' there is no Yoay to change the transformer,
the magnetron is said to be pretuned.

..

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

(8) The rot&ting jointaat pointa E and [I permit the antenna. to be


rotated a.d tilted freely. .A. detailed Cl'QEsection of a joint is ahown
in figure as!. The collars that are connected. to the outer conductor of
the line form an r-f choke, which in ejfect muea the outer conductor
apper.r to be continuous. The two couial collars may be conaidered
to be a section of transmission line. The distance from D to C is
electrically a quarter-wavelength, although it is physically shorter
than the free-space wavelength because of the increased capacitance
introduced by the dielectric E. The short cireuit at D is re&cted to 0
.. a high impedence. The distance from () to B is also a quarterwavtlength, 10 that the high impedance at C appeaI'll as a short cireuit
at B. The~ore" continuous conductor for the r-f energy appeal1l to
oist at point B, and one section of the line can turn freely relative to
the other without appreciable 1088 of energy. The inner conductor

appeal'B CQntinuous at point..t because of the low capncitive relcbnoe


between the mating ends.
(') The tennination of the feed line is shown in the detailed sketch
of the ante nna in figure 83. The center oonductor is short-cireuited to
the outer wuductor at the cylindrical reftector J to provide mechanical
support for the line. The dipole /.[, is mounted a quarter-wavelength away from thia short circuit.. .A. hole is cut in the outer conductor to pennit connection of the element [' to the inner line.
Bazooka H is used to isolAte the grounded outer surface of the OOll:zial
liM from the element I . The feed.point impedance of the liipole is
approximately 60 ohms. This impedance is redected to transformer G
by the hllf-wave ~tiol\ of line con nected directly to the dipole. The
trandc.mner is a quarter-wave section of line whose characteristic impedance is changt'd to enahle it to match the ISO-ohm coasialline to the
6O-ohm IIntenna load.
e. T.a ....'e... (1) The T-R I witeh connects the tranamitter to
the antenna and disconneeta the receiv:er during the transmitted pulse

..

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

I t revcrst.'!l these conncction~ duri ng the resting t ime while echoes Rn.l
being receinl/1.
(2) F iguTe 84 shows the dctnil of the T -R switch used in this
system. A ty pe i 21 A swit ch tube is motl nled in Mcy lilldri,:tll cln 'ity tu
fn rm the T-n ~wi t ch. The tube contains two conical -shapI.'t.i mct"l

!-

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I'

,-

!!

<

,"
0

-
,

,.,I

l;i
-...,
lj

!
I

dccll,t){Ie!! which aet HS " 's park b'l\P' Thc;;c Ill't! hl'Qught QUI. through
the glass em'clupe olul connect to the cylindriclIl 1Il01llit to eQmplete
the J"I~!i<lIum l CIlViIY. T he clldty, ~hown lightly cross-hatch .....l, is at
al moS pheric prl"ss1ll't! "nlsi,\" Ihe glass ell.'do pe, but is \llll'l inUy
e"ucllitled insidc llul tuUe .

...

0.'9' .1 from
UNrYERSlTY Of MlCHK>l.N

(3) A simplified schem1\tic sket<.:h of the reSUllMllt cavity with all


appro:w.:imate equivalent circuit is ~howll in figure~. The coupling
~Joops which anl used to couple ,.-f energy into and out of the cavity are
represented as transformer windings. The resonant cavity ia ("{'presented as two resonant circuits in parallel. If the gap at A does not
break down, the input voltage is transformed to a high level by one
tuned circuit and reduceti to its original level in the second.ary winding at the output. Thus the cavity acu as a highly selective transformer with a 1: 1 turns ratio. If the input voltage is large enough,
it is transformed to a voltage sufficient to break down the sptlrk gap at
A. When the gap conduct~, the resonant tank is short-circuitet!, and
1\ short circuit is therefore reflected into the input transformer primal-Y.
(4) Although tbis conduction does not constitute R perfect &hort
circuit, it causes a very low impedance to appear at the input. coupling
loop. This ,ery low impedance reflects to the T -junction a quarter-

V t,..

( /\ 1

, .. 011'

wavelength away as a high impedllnce. The circu it to the receiVe'


therefore is disconnectetl by the conduction of the T -R switch tube.
(:I) Since the impedancll across the gap is not a perfect short circuit during the pul~e, !;Om!:' enl:'rgy from the transmittl:'r is coupled
into the 1"I:'1:eivl:'l. The Ilmplitude of the voltage so coupled is reduced by the T -R switch to a vlllue which is low enough to prevent
t.arm 10 the cr)slal mise!". An added safeguard is the keep-aljlH!
voltage. A con~tant negative potential of 1,000 volts is maintained
on II third elect!"ode Ilea!" the break-down gup to facilitnte ionization
when the tnn~mitted pulse is applied. This voltage kee ps the va(lOlr
and gas within the tu~ very slightly io ni zed at all times.
(6) Th~ receive!" sboultl ~ recollnt.'l.!ted to the ant~nlla as soon as
possible aftel" the end of the t!"RIlSlniUed pulse so thnt echoes from
nearby objects cnn be received. The speed with which this connection call be made is largely 11 fllnctiOJI of the de-ionization time of the
switch tube. The pres.;nre of the watel" vapor 01 kas within the s....itch
tube is selected to provide a low breakdown voltage and a short deioniution time

..

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

(7) Echoes which retut'n to, the sysam Snd two paths in panllel at
the T-junctioD. One path is a m.whed 5Q...ohm line through t.he T-R
cavity to the receivet'o The othet' is the coui.lline to the tn.nsmittet'.
Since the impedance 1()Ilking into tbe magnett'on when it is Dot oscillating ia much less than when it is osciUating, standing waves es:iat
I'n the line to the magnetron. To pre\'ent 10911 of received eignal,
trombone (fig. 81) is used to vary the length of the transmission line
between the magnetron and the T -junction. The length of this &00tion of line is adjusted to an odd numbet' of qu.rtet'-wavelengths, 80
that the low output impedance of the magnetron reflects to the Tjunction lUI a high imped&nce. Almost all of the echo ~igllal is then!fore direct! into the 5O-ohm path to tbe n!C8ivet'.
til. . . . . lad
(1) All of the output power from the,
tn.namittet' is fed to a single dipole antenna. This dipole is made of
two taper"ed element.> which are each, electrically, II quartet'-wave lon(l.'

,..'e .

Tl-873f1

(fig. 83). This type of dipole has a broader frequency n!SPODge than
the uaual thin antenna element, in ordet' that small frequency changes
may be tolerated.
(2) One-half of the dipola, 1', is connected to the center conductor
of the coaxial line through a hole cut in the outer conductor (fig. 86).
The othet' dipole, I , is cOnnected 10 the outer conductor at the same position along the line. The enet'gy on the couial line is col\ducted on
the oulet' skin of the inner wnduclor and the inner skin of the outer
conductor. In the absence of the hules indicaled at N, the energy t.o
ucile element 1 would have to tn.vel from the inside of the outer oonductor out through hole M and around the outside of the outer conductor to the element. This estra distance would cause element I to
~ more than lSO o out of phase with element 1', and the radiating
system would be uubalanced. Although Ihis unbalance may be usetl
very profitably in some applications to pmduce a type of lobe switching, it is uudesirable in this aystem.. Therefore, boles N are cut in the

..

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

oute r C<}nd ucto r !lO thllt I lind I' lII11y be excited 1800 Ollt of pI1:ISl!.
Elemeut I mlly now be ClIcil.ed direo::t1y from th e inside of the OlUl'r
Lvmlilclor by Ihe energy which !lows through holes N.
(3) T he dipole Hllteulla is 1Il0Ul'lted II q Ullrte r-wllvelenl.>1h trom
Ihe cylimlriclI l metlll ",Ilecto,.. This C<}m binlltion is placed Ilt the
locus of Il pllraboloidal reflector wi th Il 2{Iillch dia meter, lind it is
ti sI'd to direct Ihe rlldia ted energy iulo the [lllrllboloid. The purl' b..loid conct'ntrlltcs thll ra.\illted energy into I. be'Uli whi ch is Ilppl'oxi mlltely 100 wide.

--'-. ..,-,.---"
-,-..

.-

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~,

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, ~.,. .

==---- ._.

(4) In rhe norm81 finitud e of Ihe ,. ircra fl ill flight , t he di pt/ le is


mon J1t~IIl''''8 11(' 1 10 Ihe SUrfllt'e of the eurt h, The tI.di,.Ied energy is
therefore hori:ronl81ly polarized.
e . Ro tlnll!!: ml!t:hanIHm. ( I ) A ske tch of th e spinner assembly Ililtl t he bllse on whi ch it is moun ted is shown in figure 87.
The view shows the telll o f the p(l.rnboloid in OI'del' to mllke d ell "
the Ilhysical relAtionship ol the tilting me<:: hnnism to Ihe spi nner,
The glm rd plAtl'S "round the mounting bAse Are removed to show
the position of the slip rings and th e mcduulislIl lor d ri\'illg the
antennll in Ilzimuth.

.,
o.>9",.11f<>rn
UNIVERSITY Of MKHK>l.N

-,

I,

.. 'UII!

----4~ ....
,

~_."'.;

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .J
(j)

..
(

-e- - CON'TRl... O RCUrTS

B",

""TENNA

TUflNTABLE

r'~

r'o ofr]

T',

'0000'

TICT

""""""'"
.....
~.

+,
.1.
+'

llIla.
lUi

L - -,---_ __ _ __

dfoqr,,,.. Of 1I,,'emlia ct/N , ruL

..
Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

(2) The spinner is rotated by the 24-voll, d-e uimuth drive motor.
The pinion on the shaft of this' motor engages a ring gear on which
the spinner is mounted. A second pinion which engages the same
ring gear driveB the rotor of a eelsyn generator. The voltagea which
are induced in the stator of the eelsyn are fed to the stator of a similar
machlne, a eelsyn motor, which turns tbe deflecting coils in the indicator. The currents that are set np in the stator windings of this
seleyo motor produ~ a Reld which caU&e8 the rotor of the motor to
align itself with the Reld. The rotor of the motor is always in step
with the rotor of thegenerator; 90 that the sweep line on the indicator
is always in step willi the antenna.
(8) The spinner may be tilted a maximum of 20" above or below
the horizontal by operation of the tilt motor. Since this motor with
its speedreduction gears is mounted on the rotating structure, the
spinner may be tilted while it is rotating in azimuth. The tilting is
aecomplished by a connecting rod which is fastened."to the paraboloid
and driven by a crank keyed to the reduction gear shift. A potentiometer is geared to thia same matt to provide an indication of the
angle of tilt of the spinner.
(4) The antenna control circuits ire ahown in figure 88. Operation
of awitch SOO8 in the indicator permits the &pinner to be rotated at
either 10 or 20 revolutioDll per minute. The slow speed may be ueed
in conjunction with the direction-control switch, 86M, to _reh over
" small 9I!Ctor when one target. area is to be investigated more clO8ely
than the normal PPI ..uowa. Usually the switches are eet 80 that
the antenna rotateB at 20 revolutioDll per minute in the clockwiee direction to provide a normal PPI indication.
(~) The tilt motor, B602, may be turned in either direction by operation of tilt switch SW/S. This Bwitch normally is open, and it can
remain cloeed only as long &8 the operator holds it closed. Tbe volt.
age tapped. off the tilt potentiometer, R601, is fed to tilt mew M!SOI
in the indicator. The voltmeter scale is gradusted in degl2e8 of tilt,
80 that the operator haa a oonstant indication of antenna position
before him. The amperite ballut tube is u.sed to stabilize the current
flowing through the tilt potentiometer. Resistor R631 is used to
calibrate the tilt indicntor by adjuning the total voltage that appeal"'ll
acroas R601 in the anlenna assembly. Note that a common ground
bus is carried through from the indicator to the antenna, and that
both the rotating and the fb:ed parta of the antenna usembly have
a common ground through a slip ring.

23. 1lECB1VBB.
.. fieaera.. (1) The ultra-high-frequency IJ\lperheterodyne reN! iver used here is of the conventional wide band de~ign intended
for pulse reception. The receiver components consist of a Idysbon

...

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

loeai oscillator, a crystal mixer mounted in a resona nt caviLY, aiI


stages of intennediate-frequen cy amplifiers, a diode detector, a video
amplifier, a cathode follower, and the ner.~ ry regulatl and un~gulated power supplies_ The relative distribution of these eam Jl(ments is shown in figure 89, while the oom plete schematic circuit
diagram is shown in figlll"l 1M. The'main features of its ope"stinn
are high gain oom bined with high signal-to-noi se ratio, short recovery
time, ease of adjustment, and Ulll' of a III'puate m ixl"r-preamplificr
section ahead of th e ma in unit. This latter feat un' allows the mixer
stage to be located close to the antenna and th e rectoiver-output stage

to be loea ted close to ihe iud icntor.


(2 ) At a frequency of 3,000 megacycles per second. tubts may' not
be capable of amplificat ion because of intereleclrooe <'apacitan<,,,.
Likewise the transit time fo r an electron from <'...thode to plate is all
appf'e(liable part of an r-f cycle. At this frequency the period of one
oscillation is approsimately one-fifth of the electron transit time fnr
elements 1 centimeter apart and with 100 volts acl"QSS them , whereas
at a much 10" 'er' frequency the period of one OIICi l1l!-t ion is very long
romp.red to th e same tr'lIlsit time. In order to reduce transit time
to a negligible value compared t() the period at high frequen cil'S,
small tubes, such as aoom tubts, are used. Th l'Sl' are practical as
amplifiers up to ltpproximately 200 megacycles. Lighthouse tubes
function 118 amplifief'll up to approximately 2.500 megn cycles. At
frequencies beyond thia range r-f amplifiers are impractical and a
greater number of interffiooiate-frequency amplifiers are used in the
receiv~r in o rcler to obtain satisfacWry performll\~.
(3) At 8,000 m ega~ycles (10 centimeters ) the I'(!ho pulse is fed
directly t() the mixer. in the absen~ 01 r -f amplifi{'r st ages. The
mixer must be loca ted as close to the ante nna as possihle in order to
keep transm ission line Iesses to a minimum. The position of the
ftntenn~ is such. as " rule, that it is impractical t() mount the entirereceiver neal' the antenna. The m ixer and local ()scilJat()r are placed
in the immediate ,'ieinity of the antenna in thi s system, in order to
,'onvert the weak echo signals to the in termooi llte frequ eucy of 30
UIl'gacycles before they a re atten uated appreciahly hy th e transmission
line. The fin;t two stages of i-f amplification follow immediately
IS a preamplifier to prevent the if signal from bei ng lost because of
the attenuation of the oouiai feed line to the remo tely located receiver
challl!is.
(4) In r ada r, the received signal is of ve ry small amplitude, usually
in th e neigh borhood " f a fl" w lI1i....,!volls. Tilert>f" l"e the reo:t'iver mu st
have a very high gain. BecMII ~e of t he low amplitude of the ('<'h"
pulse, a high sigllal-Iu-n"i.-e nt io must be maintsined so tha.t "'ell k
echoes are 1101 obscun;d b.y inlel"llslly generated noise.

Dn9, II"""
UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

"

,;!~
"I
"

~,
~

"

ii

I
.,". -

"

f.

~!.~

~o

~.

."'1'! i ..... .
~~~

~Ut t

,.

~~I

~,

~';

~ .

--

~.

...

Ii

------

"

------

Ii~3

t~~!1
.
"

G.

(5) In &electing the hand width of the receiver &evl:'ral facton must
be taken into consideration, chil!fty the shape of the video pulse sent
to the indicator and the response to weak echOl.'5 which may be lost
in noise. The forml!r factor calls for a wide hand response, whill! the
latter favors a narTOW band re8ponee. The prohll!m of compromising
between these contradidory fa lt.on is best studied with a reeeivl!r
which has a fb;ed signal-to-noiee ratio at the mixer and a variable
band width.
(6) Figure OO(D shows the output of a receiver with wide band
response displayed on a type .t IICOpe. The pulse shape is faithfully
reproduced, but the noi!le is !'<jual to the sign&! in amplitude. Sitch
a wide band response is applicable 00 a fir&-oootrol unit in which a
sharp leading edgl! is important for a.eeurate range dl!tenniuation.

:&
(7) Figure 90<!) shows the output obtained when the same signal
is fed through a reeeivl! r with IIRrrow band response. The pulse is
considl:'rably distorted and hu smaJll!r amplitude, but the noise is
reduced weU below the signal level. Since a much weakl!r signlll can
be recognized in the 1I0iSl1, the receiver with narrow band response
is l!ifl:'Ct ive for u: trl!mel y long range wllrning systl!ms.
(8) Figure 900 shows a romp l"Qinise selection bt-tween preeervation of the echo pulse shape and. fI1duction of the noise II:' \'el, which
produces both fI1asonllble pulse shllpe lind signa]. to. noi!le mtio on the
indicator SCrel:'n. In order to ret:eive lind to reproduce satisfRctorily
r ectangular pulses equnl in nmplitllill! to the noise voltage, the reo
CI1iver band width in cycles ~r secund should be IIpproximately 2,
divided by the pulse width in ~onds. For optimum conditions in
prllcticl!, 1 ml!gncyclc J>l!r serond is added to thl! band width to Ill"
comodate frequency drifts in I!ither mllgnl!trOIl or loclIl osciJIntor.
In this systl!m It pulse width of 2 microseconds is developed in the
transmitting IInit, and the receiver band width is establishl:'d at 2
ml!gncye1el!. Thus:
Band widtb -

2x~O-.+l mc/,-I mc/.+l mc/ ,-2mc;,.

II. lUy'-tro. I_al _lIlator.

(1) The operltting range of


tile reflex klystron employed liS Il locll] oscillator in this equipment is
from 5.00011.0 CI1ntimeters. In this applicati on, however, only a small

...

o,,~,

.11,,,,,

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

portion of tho frequency range is utilized in adjusting tho tuning of the


receiver.
(2) The klystron, V301 (fig, H) , supplies a signal voltage to the
crystnl mixer 30 megacycles lower in frequency than the incoming
signal. The tube consists of an indirectly heated cathode, a control
grid, a resonant cavity with its grids, and a repeller eloctrode. Tho
operation of the klystron is blUJled on velocity modulation, in which
the transit time between resonatilr and repeller is utilized, This
principle is diacu.ssed in section XII, TM 11-466 and Navship!l
900,016. Whether or not oacillations occur depends 'on the phmse
of the reflected electrons when they pass \!etween the resonator grids.
This phase is determined by the resonant frequency of the cavity, the
accelerating voltage, and the reflector voltage. Because th6!J6 variables are interrelated, oecillations may be obtained by adjustment
of IIny one of tbem.
(3) Rougb adjustment of the klystron frequency is obtained by
tuning tbe resonant cavity with the threaded plug. Fine tuning over
the desired portion of the frequency range is obtained by adjust-ing the
repeller voltage by mellns of receiver tuning potentiometer R3M
located on tho front pllnel of tbe receiver chlUlBis.
(4) The IIccelernting mltage between tbe cathodo and the grounded
cavity is fixed at - 400 \olts.. The control grid potential is also fixed,
and is the dill'erenct> between the cathode voltage and the voltage
drop across resistor R30IS. This potential is between 10 and 20 volts.
Oscillation of the klystron is indicated by the crystal current meter,
MOOl. When the klystron is operating the crystal current should
be about 0.8 milliampere.
eo ery.... _lxer. (1) The mixer is the main BOUrce of noise,
unless preceded by r-f ampli6en, since it is the input stage. Types of
minI'S availilble ul. 8,000 megacycles usually have a gain of one or less,
and therefore the seleo::tion is based primarily on the output noise level.
The silicon crystal is used since it htJ.s about the lowost noise output,
even though its gnin is less lball unity.
(2) Tbe signnls to be mixed ore applied to tbe crystal mixer by a
resonant CDvity, which is used in Illace of a com'entional tuned circuit.
The cavity is practical in size at the fl'l-'f}uency used in this radar s)'stern, and has the advantage of very 10..... losses us compared to its equiv_
alent tuned circuit. Figure 91 shows the equh'a!ent circuit diagram
of the crystal mixer. Tbe mixing cavity is represented as the indudur
L, tuned to the ~ ignal frequency b yt.he capllcitor Cpo Physically O. is
the screw plug in the side of the resonnnt cllvity.
(3) The output of local OIICilIltor Vaol differs in freqllepcy from
the received signal by 30 megucyc1es. 11li8 output aud the received
signal are combined by the mixer to produce a current which contains

...

o,,~,

.11, ""

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

i;e \'erai frequency components. These components include frequencies of the ret:eived and local osci llator signals, their higher harmonics,
and their Slim amI ditrerenl'e, 'ni l' di fference fn..'<[lI Clu;y is selectoo
as the inte r med iate frt'(luency of :J() meb'llcycles, lind is fed to t be first
i-f amp lifier, V302.
(4) Probe O. cou ples the loco I oscillator signa l in to tbe mixer eavity
and is Kdjust(!(l so t hat the crysta l ellrrent. li S read on crystal current
meIer MOOI , is IIJlpl"OXimKtely 0.3 milli"mperes. Filllli matching is
accomplished by adju~t ing {J. and 0., t he probe which couples the sig-

nal inJlllL from t he Hntenna inlo the mixer cuit y. {J, is set so th at
maximum .''Cho siglllli is injed ed into the Cll\' it y.
(6) TI,e if signa l generatt.'d in t he crystKI is brought out by a lead
from the base of the cnvi ty. The h igh - fr~uency l-omponent$ lire
bYJlPSged by melUl!! of filler capacitor
whic h i~ built into the base
of the t'll\'ity. T he circuit d" I II CII ! S 1.301 , C3().I , ROO t , C:W5. 1.:\0'2,
1<302, and C3OO, which form II tlwl'i'.stage. I.-type fi lt er. iiCf\'IlI O filt er
Ihe intel'llIed inle fl'equcncy out of the ci rcu it of the crystal current

0,.

m~t er.

d.

Inl ~ r ....~dl . I ~'_qur. n ey

HI_ge,..

(1) T he i-f section


o f the receiver includes six IImplifier stages (fig. 04). T he first nnd
second stages aNI employed as preamplifie rs lind arc locllted with the

Or;gtr .11< ""


UNIVERSITY Of MKHKiAN

JlIiIer Imd loed oscillator in the immediaU! vicinity of the antenn .


The rem.ining stages ILfe loelL ted in the receivef chlLssis along with the
dctectof, video amplifier, and cathode followef. All i-f stages are adjusted for muimum response at a center f l'efl.uency of 30 megacycles
and the tuning is broadened to give an over-ali band pass of 2 megacycles.
(2) A. simplified diagram of the i-f input circuit is shown in figure
91. Inductor 1..304 is tuned to resonate at 80 megacycles with its distributed capacitance, tube input capacitance, and capacitors CS03 and
a, in series.. The crystal miller acts IS a resistor shunted across
capacitor 0,. Its reflected resistance loading the tuned circuit is

TO !,UJ"[R

CIRCUITS

TL-flZI

a,

somewhat greater because 01 the step-up ratio of


to C303. The volt..
age applied to the grid of V302 is the cl')'!rt.al voltage stepped up several
tim...
(3) The two preamplifier stages (fig. 94) are conventional in operation. The intel'!l1:age coupling network is a resona nt circuit loaded by
resistor R307 to broaden the response. The output circuit matches the
low input impedance of the couial transmission line to the plate of
tube VSOO. The circuit consists of the output capacitance of lhe tube
in parallel with C313, inductor L306, and resistor R311, .munled by the
impedance of the coaxial line. These elements can be considered as
a resonant, step.down autoUansformer. The transmission line transfers the i-I aignals to the rest of the receiver, and is terminated in its
proper load by resistor Rat3 nnd the tapped inductor L307.
(4) The i-I stagas, V804, V305, V306, and V307, constitute an i-f
strip which is inclosed in a metal boI for shielding. The entire strip,
including the shield, may be r eplaced easily. Since tha tuning of the

...

Or'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

i-I inductancea is not utremely critical, the replacement of indiridul


tubes does not nec- ' iute retuning of the i-f strip to secure proper
receiver performance..
(Ii) 1be gain of the receiver is controlled by muns of potentiometer
RaIS 'l't'hlch regIllatee the plate and sc:reen voltage6 of the third and
fourth i-f amplifiel"8. This potentiometer control is brought out to
the front of the receiver panel all the receiver gain contMI knob.
II. .Heeter. (1) The i-I signals of the j f strip are converted
to rideo-fnlquency signals by the type SHe double diode, V808, in order
that they cao be observed on the indicator screen. The two halves of
the type SH6 are connected in parallel 80 thst the tube functions all.a
oonventional diode detector.
(2) The intermediate frequency acro!ll:l the tuned circuit of L811 is
applied bet'l't'OOD cathode and ~round 01 the diode. The video ~urrent,
'l't'hicb follo'l't's the amplitude fluctuatioos of the intermediate fre_
quency, flows through diode rectifier V808, choke coil UI2, and load
reeistor R329. ~ i-f component of the diode current is bYP'8onl to
ground by capacitor C329. The video signal, therefore, is a negative
pulse appeAring mainly aCr088load reei!!l:or ~ and is applied to th~
grid of video amplifier V300 through capacitor C830.
I. V _ _ 18_. (I) LS12 and C329 act" a filter to
eliminate the i-I component of the f'l'Ctified current from the video
input eirouit, and lUI a series compensation to improve tbe frequency
response of tbe video amplifier.
(2) The midfrequency gain of the stage is approximately 3!i and
the band 'l't'idth between half-power points is 0.7 megacycle. The
positive amplifil!d video signals are developed across R338 and are
applied 'to the cathode-follower input ~t'CUit through C334. Resistor
RaM tenda to prevent strong aignals on the grid of V810 from charging

C334.

.. (;a""" n_..-er.

(1) The video pulsea are delivend to


the indicator grid by way of a cathode-follower stage. A beam-power
t"trode V81 0, type 6V6, is uSed in this stage because it has a fairly
high tranaoonductanc,e did a high current-carrying capacity.
(2) The voluge relationships in the CIlthode follo'l't'er are shown in
figure 98. The normal bias with no signal on the grid i9 approximately
- 510 volta. A muimum video signal of about +90 volts on the input
of the cathode follower causes the plate current through the lube to
increase from the no-signal level of 20 milliamperes to approximately
92 milliam~, producing an output voltage of 72 volta and reducing
tbe biaa to 2 volts.
(8) An output impedance of approximately 200 ohma i8 realized
which elfectively minimizes pickup by the oscilloscope lead and re-
duces inlentage coupling between the ~lloscope input circuit and

....

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

the receiver circuits. In addition, the leading etreet on the video amplifier is negligible, sinre tbe input impedance of the eathode follower
is high because no grid current ftows. The etrective input capacitance
between grid and ground is much smaller than that of the sa.me tube
used as an ordinary amplifier.
Ia.
ppl,... ( 1) The required power supplies f or the
reeeiver cir(!uits (fig. 94) are rontained within the main receiver
chassis with the e:r~ption of the filament voltages for tubes V301,

._.er ..

+90V- - -

e. OF

V3'0 TO GNO

0--

-2$ ==::if:;=il---

e. OF VJlO TO

I(

-20V--

,-

i,
.02'1- - __I

e. OF

V3tO TO GNO

+20V--

i
0--1--+1-PI/I"..e '8.

n.-.no

Voltaj/e KIf/liON , h' "",/lode lallotcer.

V802, and V303, for which filament transformer nO} is located near
the preamplifier stages. AU plate and screen voltages are regub.ted
ex~pt the 2<JO-volt supply furnished. to the plates of V301, V809,
and V3W.
(2) A regulated source of negative potential is required for the
cathode and repeller voltages of the local oscillfltor VSOl. Transfonner T302 supplies plate and filament voltages for rectifer tubes
VSIl and V312 connected in a volage-doubling circuit. The output
of 'he rectifier is regulated by the two-stage inverse feedba ck circuit
composed. of V313 and V814, which eliminates output voltage flue-

...

o..gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

tuations. The klylltron is supplied with a regulated CRthode potential


of -.00 volts and a ",gulated ",peller potential which mlly be varied
between ":"'400 volts and -550 volts by controlling the resistance of
R8Ot. Filament voltages for other t ... bes in the receiver chr.sais are
alllO furnished by this supply.
(3) Some tubes in the receiver unit are not critical with I'I'lSpeCt
to regulation of plate !lUpply. To supply them a h ..... vy-duty power
!IOU1'CIl iff used, ...-hich also furnishes the regulated 9CfOOn and plate
voltages for the ",maininjl receiver tubes which require some "'gulation. Traneforml'r T303 supplilllB plate and filament voltages to
the full-wave rectifier tubes V3lS and VBI7, and the h .... ter voltage
for VBI'. The elements of VSlS and V817 are connected in parallel
to aooommodate the high current requirement. The rectified output
of th_ tubes is filtered and divided into two major oomponents:
+200 volta at about 300 milliamperes lead, and + 106 volts regulated
and supplying a load of about 76 milliamperes lead. This voltage iff
produced from the 2OO-volt I!(IUIW by the drop through RlJiS, and
it is held oonstant. by regulator tube V31~.
The klystron voltages and the screen and plate voltages for the two
pre_ampli.8er tubes are carried by two cablflll connected to jacks J801
and J 800.

t .. INItICATeL
.. Geaeral. (1) The indicator for thill radar

system

it of the

PPI type, UlIing an electromagnetic cathode-ray tube. The sweep


signal which must be produced in order to caUtle a linear defteetion
of the electron beam is a saw-tooth current. The trace it swept radially
from the center of the tube toward the outer edge along a line which
shpW8 the direction in which the antenna is pointing. In order to show
this direction at all timea, the trace on the cathode-ray tub& 9Cree.n
and the antenna" must rotate at enetly the same rate. One direct wny
to produce a rotating sWe('P ia to use deflection eoils which ma, be
revolved around the eathode-ny tube.
(2) The antenna is driven by a motor at 20 revolutioIl8 per minute.
As the antenna rotates, a selsyn generator which is geared to the antenna cause!! the rotor of a selsyn motor to a!:l8ume the Bame relative
angular poeition as the rotor of the generator. Then. as the antenna
ia rotated, the selsyn motor rotates at the same speed and enctly in
step. The seIsyn motor is used to drive the deflection coils around the
cathode.ray tube.
(8) Generally the staton of the two aelsyns are aligned so that
the tnee OD the screen is vertical when the autenna u, pointing dead
ahfld. If. seale is placed arou ud the edge 01 the screeD, the relative
bearing of a tar~t may be rea.d directly.

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

b. S ....eep ... lth'lbralor. (I) T his n ldar system is desiglletl


for b~lIenll searching of 1111 Un-II 100,000 y~ ..ds in Mldius. 'Vhell th e
tugtlt oomes close to the equipment. more lIocurfl te measurement o f
the nlllb>e o f the tll rb"l'l is de~i~l. F or this reaso n. lin additional scale
to meas ure rllllb"-"" frulIlzero to 20,000 YAnis is included.

.,

i!

'1

13

.-

iH
I !

~I

,I
j i

_ ~-_=.c-_=..c=J

--,

!,

II ,

.! IL _____ l!

i ,-

II~

-.~

I
1

-.--

__ -.J

(2) T he ti mt! 1~l l1in'(1 for the radar pulse tu u"IH'e l out. 100,000
y,uds, be re He<:ted. fln d Inn"e] bllck the SlIlIIe dish nce to the rl'CCi\'l"r
i.s tt ppl'ul1irmuely {HO micn.$'CQllds. The t ime requiretl for the pulse
In t rlive! ou t 20.000 y!U"d ~ ami u:u:k is 12'2 1I1ic .. ust'\.~,nd~. These l illll'!;
mlly he ca lcul ated rcn d i Iy r rulL] I h" l"()IlStft li t s gi \,ell in sect ion l. S ince

...

0.'9' .I/rom
UNrYERSITY Of MKHKiAN

the radar indic(\tor mmt show the distance from the radar equipment
to the target, the current in the deflection coils must have a waveform
that defl.eett the beam k om the oen ter of the tube to the outer edge ,
in 610 mienl8!OOnds for the long range , and in 122 micre SEconds for the .
short range.

r -- ~

Ii Ii

I
I

I
I

I
I

(8) The pulse-repetition frequency is 800 pul.ser! per second, which


mean. that there is an interval of 1,200 mi cnJ8Cconds between pulsell.
In order to permit a long time fo r the curre nt through the Bweep
coila to l'\Iturn to ur(}, it is dl.'8irable to limit the tUne of increase in
the current which produces the sweep to the 610 micltJiJewnda required

...

~, ...I""

UllrvUISITY Of MKHI'.>AN

for the longest range. The remainder of the l,260-microseoond period


is used for the return trace.
(f) A muitiviblltor is used to control the duration of the sweep
becaw;e it,is capable of generating a pulse of eJ:actly the proper duntion at a nte which can be synchronized. by the pulse from tbe timer.
The type used in this indicator is a one-jlhot multivibrator, often called
a ringz. kick or a dorl-dop ci~uit. Tbe oneshot variety can never
. get out of synchronism since it does not put out any signal until it i,
triggered. The cirouit !!elected is one which is triggered by .. negative
pulse and from which a positive square pulse may be uken as output.
(6) The cj~uit of the sweep multivibrator- is shown in figure 95
and the voltage waveforms are shown in figure 96. Tube VOOI is
normally conducting, since it is operated without biaa. Under this
condition, the plate current is d.lOut 8 milliamperes and causes a drop

j ...,
.",

.-..- -

FfgM~.

.--

n. ScMmlillc e(f"CiIlI

--- .... -

.-

dicr~

01

.~

1II-.I'W'MIlOf'

across resistor RtIOS of 160 volts. The eifeetive plate voltag& of VISOI
thus is +90 volts. The grid voluge for tube VMl2 also is +90 volts,
because of the diroot ooupliy.g between the tubes. Resi8lor RM4 i9 in
series with the grid of the second tube to limit grid current to a safe
value in the event of a positive signal with respect to cathode. The
cathode of V602 is oonnected to a voltage divider, reenstof'll R606 and
R507, which plaoea the cathode at approximately 125 volts above
ground. The effective grid.to-cathode voltage when V561 is con
ducting is therefore - 31\ volta. This voltage is more than sufficient to
cut off tube VMl2, which ig thus normany nonconducting. The circuit
remaills inactive until an eJ:ternalsignal is applied to it..
(6) The negative trigger pulse from the timer is cOuploo into the
grid of V601 through capacikor ' CWI. As a re!lult the plate current
of VOOI is dccn!ased, and the grid of VIS02 rises toward +250 volta.
The cathode of V602 is beld at a relatively constant potential by capacitor CMl4, so that the increased grid voltage causes the tube to

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

conduct. Th(l currl'nt flow through resistor ROO5 reduues the plate
voltage acrO!<S th~ tube lind .I!IO the charging potl'ntiRi for capacitor
C502 (or C5(3). C502 begins w discharge, setting up lll'gativl'
voltage across n'si~tors R50! nnd RM2 in the grid ci rcuit of tube
VISOt. The effect is cUlUulat ive and prncticaUy imtllntnneous in cutting off tube VOOI lind ill drivillg V502 to IIlnximum pillte curn>nt.
(7) Tube V~l n>mniliS cut off until cm hRS discharged sufficiently to let the grid voltage of Vlffil n>turn tv a less negative value
than cut-oft'. The voltage rises esponentiaUy tvward cut-oft', as
shown in figure 96Q). When Vlffil begins tv oonduct, its iJiRhl voltage
dE'CNaees. This docreaSl' in turn IO\1"I'rs thl' plate Cllrnmt tbtough

. ~ 'rl--'~Ir--~--~I----;i
,

,,

,,
,

. ,,

-..--
.--.-

,,

,,
,

V-

,,,-...,...,.

~ft

.
.

,
,

.....
"',_ ...

u.
- ..

......

,......,,'

VMl2. The platl' VOltllge of V502 rises and swing!:< the grid of VOOI
positive, returning buth tubes to their norlllill operat ing conditiun.
The time between the turning -off and turning on of V501 is COIItrolled directly by the time constnllt of the circuit which includl'S the
plate circuit. of vr.oo, capucitor 0 '.00 (or C5(3), and I"f'si!<tol'li RliIII
and R602. Switch SWIA seh.,t~ C502, a 400-micromicrofurad cllpaci.
tor, for the 2O,OOO-ynrd range, nnet CMla, a cllplIcitor five times l1.l:I
la rge, fur the U10,OOO-Yllrd rau"e,
(8 ) The wlI,'eform of th e a i~nlll III the plate of V.Mll is a good
"'I.uare wave the start of which is controlled by the input trigger IlUI"'l'.
The duration 01 the positive hllif of the square wave is accurately
set tv either of two ,'alncs by the select or switch 8 501A, and can be
corrected for minor changtlS by resistor RW2. This square Wll\'~ is

no
Or>c.>i .11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

~I

'.

51
~I

II

>

-, ,
; r;;

i
e

".
(

>I

applied to the sweep-g1!nerawr tube V603 to control the time of ri se


of the sweep current.
e. S_p p.e_tor. (1) The circuit used to genel-aC,e II
saw tooth current in tlle deflection coilB is shown as part of the com
plete circuit diagram of the indicator in figure 97, and is !!Iimilar to that
deecribtod in Sl!Ction IX, TM 11----466 and Nllvships 900,016. The cur
rent ill a circuit consisting of inductance and resistance in !l('ries builJs

..

"--I

'OIf"

Pm" f"" ."ppl(u


PPI i~d j,.. ,,,,..
f"j,~ r<. 97--C(>.lIn..ed.

up towaro It IIIuimulll valu~ !Llong nn ~xl><m .. tltial curve. The maximum is determined by th .. applied voltage Mild the constant s of the
circuit. Th~ first part of the eIponeut ia l eUITe, wh ich is very nearly
Iinell.t, is to be used as the SWel'p. Since two SWt'('P spet'ds a~ nf'!!it't'd,
the induct,or LOO2 is used to lim it the tise of curren! to that wl,ich i~
just sufficie nt to d ..flt'ct the beam linearly from the cenwr of the ljel'l'(! U
to the out.e.r edge in 610 m ietv>;l.,<:oml s. The cnrrent through the deBt'<:tion ooil must build up to the same magnitude for the short rllllge , ill

...

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

order that the beam will be deflected to the edge of the 8C1'oon, hut tho
rate of ri!M'l of CIllT1!nt must be five times gNnter since tho current must
rise to this value in 1S!2 microeeronds instead of 610. The rate of rise i.
made faster by switch $li01B, which sho~in:uits USOO. The effective
inductance and resistnnce in the cireuit are reduced and the current can
build up more quickly.
(2) Tube V603 is normany cut off by the - 76-volt bias applied to
the grid. This tube acts 11.8 a switch. It is turned on by the leading
edge of the positive pulse from the multivihTator, and it is turned olf
by the trailing edge. Tube VMS must oller about the same resistance
to the flow of electrons at all times during the condueting period if
the sweep is to be linear. The grid v~ltage theNfore must not change
tluring thie time. The time constant of the input circuit., CW~ and
R509, is made long relative to the duration of the positive pulse by
adding f'IlIlistor RM8 to limit grid current., so that the charge on C506
does not change greatly during the condueting period.

<D

CUIIMNT IN OEFUCTION

CZ>

~ROftA INDIcaTION

COU DOES HOT MU. ll)


URO

1'19_ 98. Effecl 0>1 PPI IN4lcGlor 01 roll"~e 01 C1II,"",' I.. d~clw.. DOli. '0 IoU

(8) A beam-power tube, VM3, is used lUI tbe switch tube ~au!le
a large current is required for the sweep. The tube eRn be cut olf
by eathode bias., but the resistance between cuthode and ground should
be less than 1,<XXl ohms, 80 that the build-up of eurrent in the deflection
coil may be just as linear as possible during the conducting period.
The cut-off bias is therefore supplied by applying a negative voltage
to the grid.
(4) The current in the deflecting coil must be reduced to :uro at
the end of each sweep 80 that the spot may return to the eenter of th$
screen. If the current does not fall to ;wro, thl! electron beam never
quite returns to the eentl!f of the SCNen, and a smllll eircle appean;
there (fig. 98).
'
(~) When V!103 is cut off, the conduction in both the tube and in
the deflection coil must stop suddenly. The I!nergy in the magnetic
fieJd of tbe deflection eoil is dissi pated in the dSIllPing filsiator R~ll.
Some OIiCillationa in the deftection coil may be cil used by the shock
of in terrupting the eurrent., but these do not affect the appearance of

...

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

the screen bect.uae the inumsity of the trace is reduced at the end
of theeweep
.. Gate "verCer.

(1) The method of eliminating any trace


011 the O!lCilJOIICOpe eJ:cept that produced during the actual sweep time
is to bi.. tlle cathode-ray tube beyond cut-oft'. A pte ill then applil
whieh permits the tube to trace the signat.. In this indicator the
output of the receiver is used to turn on the electron beam, and ther..
fore the gate need only bring the bias to the point 1Vh~ IIPlf.ll signals
can control the intensity of the trace.
(~) The output of the multi vibrator is attenuated and inverted to
produce the gate for inlenHifying the indicator tube. The circuit
which couples gate.inverter tube vwa to tube V601 lcUi a8 an i80lat.ion
network. to prevent. distortion of the waveform at the plate of VOOI.
The time constant of the network is made luge to prevent distortion
of the equare wave when it is applied to the grid of VIIO.5. In addition to isolating the inverter tube from the multi vibrator. resistonl
R612 and lU518 form a vI.Iltage. divider to reduce tho 8ign.1 by a ratil.l
of i2 to 1.
(8) The gate inverter U8ell a type 6AC? pentode &8 a degenerative
amplifier, with f'IIIlistor mI. unbypnnd, tQ preserve the wavefQrm.
The plate load l! listor mus i8 purpoeely sman to provide a reh'tively
IQW Qutput. The gate is a square-wave voltage of about 20 VQlta, the
negative portiQn of which corresponds in time to the 81feep.
e. c. .... e r.y t.te. (1) TIle indit:atiQn Qf the range and
. relative buring I.If the target appean in this radar set I.In the IIt:I"8IIll
I.If an eleetromagnelit:ally foc:used and deflected cathode-ray tube.
The electron beam is foc:UlIed to a small apot Qn the lIt:re8n by m _
I.If the magnetm field eet 'up within the tube by the eurrent in coil
Lli01. The strength I.If the field t:an be varied by potentiometer R62l,
since' this mistance controls the amount I.If t:urrent in the eoils.
(2) The bum in most cathode-ray tubes strikes the eenter I.If the
aa . m wheu nQ defteding Held acts I.In it. However, slight inacoorad_ in manufacture can calUle the beam to strike a BIllall distance
away from the eenter. It is usual, therefl.lre, to provide tWI.l pairs I.If
centering coila to eorrec:t the effect I.If impN.lper alignment Qf the elementa within the tube. The arrangement shl.lwn in figure 91 enables
the current in the coil to be oontrolled in both magnitUde and directil.ln
80 that the spot may be ml.lved to any part I.If the sereen.
(8) The bias I.In the grid I.If the cathode-ray tube is adjusted 80
that electrons cannot flow in the beam. During the actual time I.If
the sweep the potential I.If the cathode is IQwered by the gate pulse,
but the elective biu is still large enl.lugh to prevent the appearance of
a trace I.In the !JCt'88D. The output from the videQ amplifier in the
receiver is a eeries Qf poeitive pnlses which are applied to the grid
.111'

Or'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

Each pulse Cliuses a spot of light to appear on the screen, 110 that
the range and relative bearing of the target is indicated by the position of the bright spot on the cathode-ray tube. Any signals which
come between the end of one swet'p and the beginning of the following
8,,;eep do not appear on the screen, since the tube is bia.sed well beyond
cut-off in the absence of the gate pulse.
.. P ....er pply. (1) The power supply for the indicator is
conventional. Because an el~tromagnetic tathode-ray tube is used
in the indicator & ~latively large current is required for the focusing

and positioning coils.


(2) A single type 6U4-0 tube, VtKl6, i, used in a fun-wave rel:tifier drewt to supply +400 volta, + 250 volts, and - 7!S volts. The
BOO-cycle line voltage is llte;pped up by transformer T501 lind i, recti6ed by the full-wave rectifier tube, V!S06. The output is filtered
by L607, (;518, and L!SOS. Resistors R!S32, Ra33, and R634 serve as
bleeder ~siston and as a voltage divider to provide +2tiO volts for
use in both tke indicator and the timer. A negative voltage is provided by grounding the voltage divider at the junction of R633 and
R534. Capndton C514 and C!S15 are used to stabilize the output
voltages.
(3) The accelerating voltsge for cathode-ray tube V504 is 8upplied
by the half-wave rel:tifier dreuit composed of T&'r3 and V!SOT. Since
the current drain of the cathode-ray tube is very smllll , the simple R-fJ
filter is adequste and economical. Note that II positive accelerating
voltage iB applied to the aquadag second anode in the electromagnetic
cathode-ray tube. In the electrostatic tube discussed in sedion III
the accelerating voltage WIIS a negllth'e voltage IIpplied to the' cathode
in order that the seoond anode and deflection plates might be grounded.
(4) Because the cathode of cathode ray tube V504 is not grounded,
a separate heater transformer winding is provided on T!S02 for this
tube. The other secondary winding on T502 is used to supply 6.3
volts to all tubes in the system which require this heater voltage.

...
-

--

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

SectioD V
Time....

27. GENERAL

.. I.trod.ed... (1) Circuits which control and synchronize


the operation of the various components of rndarequipments lU'e known
18 tim61',. The timing circuits are either assembled into a unit which
constitutes a separate cemponent of the equipment, or , as in the usual
case, they are contained within one or more additional components,
such as the indicator , the receiver, Rnd control circuits.
(2) For the purposes of study, timer!! have been divided into two
general types. One is the self-synchronized type in which the tim.
ing function is performed within the transmitter circuits. The olher
is the externally eynchronized type in which a master OIICiliator in tbe
timer establishes the repetition rate and supplies trigger voltages
for controlling the entire system.
It. TI. . . . . . _ _.. (1) The signals required of the timing
circuit depend I.. rgely upon the purpose of the set , the type of trunsmittel', and the method of deta presentation. Typical requirement!!
are illustrated in figure 99. This diagram dOO!l not necessarily apply
to any particular set, but showa the more common timing pulse channels in general use in many systems. In figure 100 these timiug pulses
are shown in their proper time N!lationship.
(2) Figure 100 r epresents the time-referenoo pulse originating in
the timer circuit, and shows wave forms typical of the externally synchronized systems_ This figure is equally typical of self-synclll-onized systems in which the time-refeN!lJ(:e pulse is developed in the
transmitter circuit. The t ime-reference pulse is used to trigger the
various liming circuits into operation. Thus, in the fonner case. the
pulse shown in figure l OO(i) becomes a transmitter trigger, a.nd in
the la tter case it becomes II. timer trigger. In eithe r case it ser,-es
as the reference point from wbich the other opemtions are timed.
(8) The !IeOOnd timing pulse shown in figure l ClO(!) gates the re:eiver
to make it operative during only the proper portion of the pulse cycle.
It may be necessary to gate the receiver in this way in some sets in
which short minimum ranges are important_ The T-R switch normally limits tbe amount of trllnsmitter sigual entering the r eceiver

n.
0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

to a value which does not dama~ the crystal mixer, but it may not
prevent blocking of the receiver circuits. When blocki ng oeeUI"II,
the receiver remai ns inoperative for an interval immediately following
t he t ra nsmission of the pulse. This interval il required for recovery
of t he receiver to a state of normal l!ensitivity. If the plate and acreen
'oltap of the first two or three i-f stages are removed during the
transmitting time, receiver blocking i. prevented and the minimum
range It which targets can be detected beeometj simply a function 0.1
the pulse width. The timing cireuits are made to apply ' heee &creen
lind plate potentials in the form of a positive rectangular gate voltage
It-F Pl.LSE

---

----1
we>

I
I
I

M;DI"
I

I
I

.....

PVUII!
SW!:EP TRlGGf..

I
I
I
I
I

_-1
INDICATOR

TL 87811t
ESTABLISHES T1-tE TIME REf'"EM':rCE FOR THE SYSTEM

during the time interval beginni ng just after the end of t he iran&mitted pulse and ending afte r eehoetl are received from the most distant targets in the operating range. I mprovements in radar-receiver
and T-R switch design have shortened recovery time to such an extent
that, in many recent seta, it il unnecessary to gate the receiver.
(4) The timer st.rt.8 the range sweep in the indicator circuits.
The timing pulse may he in the form of a trigger, a.s shown in
figure 1()(1(!), where it ocell I"ll simultaneously with the transmitter
trigger, 80 that the beginning of the Iweep and the beginning of
the transmitte r pulse coincide. If II ny appreciable delay oecun iII
starting the sweep in a cathode-ray tube which uses mll.gnetic deDection, t he sweep tri~r may be made to precede the transmitte r

...

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

trigger to compensate for this inherent del"y. The more commonly


encountered alternative, however, is to t ri~r too sweep coincidently
,,ith the transmitter and develop a trttpe:r.oidal 9weep voltage to o,er
come the delay.
(5) If the tube N!m"ins in an operating oondition du r ing the entire
Jlul~ period, both the forward sweep and the return trace will be

,I

TflA.NSIMfTER

""""". 0-+ -----1-- ++:- - ---j-,

- - -+ -t

0=;: '----+==~, - - -f=


,f - '

..."

II

TR IGGER

0""::'

+:.::.:..::::...- I~-,~iI :::.::::==l~


~====~'~'_ _ +
'+'=======
----11, !
-

...,

"L

,I

I
l'I/llUe 100.

I I

Tim e rd,,'I,,""ltIp or p.l,el ' ..... llhd

b~

TL. - e1l5

tim er III" ..." III

1I11.'~

99.

visible, so thnt signnls appearing on the screen from tIl rgets outside
the desire range will CR Use confus ion in interpreta t ion of e<lhOOll.
To avoid this, the circuits of Ihe cathode-ray tube permit its operation to be controlled by a rectungulRr vOltRge. ur g1Ite. I n figure
10lX!) t his gnte pulse ill shown to be poaitive during the sweep time

...

,.,

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

-and i6 applied to the grid of the cathode-ray tube to reduce the bin
6ufficiently tp make it- operative. At the end of the sweep time the
grid i8 returned to .. high bias oonditioD and signal8 returning during the remnining portion of the pulse period cannot appear on the
oscilloscope. The same result. are obtained by applying a negative
gate to the cathode of the indiutor tube during the sweep time..
(6) The most commonly used metliod of estimating range directly
on the indicator screen involves the production of rtLllge-mar!ter pips
in the indicator cireuits and superimPOSi.ng them on the video output of the receiVei'. The OIlCillatory circuit 'it'hich generates the
marker Signals is gated by. rectanguJar pulse-furnished by tbe timer,
89 shown in figure lOO(!). The m.rker gde en.bles the marker
circuit,s to operate during the lI'Weep time only and may be either
positive or negative, depending on the input. requirement of the
marker generator.
(7) to provide the required timing pulses the timer must indude
tbe following:
(a) A circuit capable of establishing the pulse repetition frequency_ This may be simply tbe grid- circuit of 'an r-' blocking 08eillator (diseu88ed in 1If<:. ID), a rotary spark-gap type of modulator,
a sine-wave oecillator, a multivibrator, or a singi&-I'Wing blocking
oscillator.
(b) Heans of forming tbe dl!6ired signals with the proper time
relations.. These may include such circuits II limiters, clampets,
peake"" amplifiel1l, controlled multivibrators, Ind delay networks.
(c) Circuits designed to protect one component from the loading
effect of another and to deliver pulses to the loads without distortioD.
Such circuits include the bu1l'er amplifiers and cathode followers.

aIL .... BLOaUNG OSCIUATOL


.. llepedd b e, __ ey Wty. (1) The self-synchroni~ radar systems Ire, IS a rule, simpler than those which are
externally - synchroni~d. They are suitable for search type radnr
~au8tl their inherent weakne88, instability of repetition frequency,
is not an important factor, _ Direct timing of the reet of tbe system
from the transmitter prevents errors in range measurements and
prevents the blurring of target signals on the screen.
(2) The blocking action in the grid circuit of the r -' oscillator, of
the type shown in figure 38, section III, controls ih operation. This
blocking action is de9Cribed in detail in eection VII, TM 11....66 and
Navships OOO,Olll The pulse duration is determined by the size of
the grid capacitor which charges through the grid-cathode resistance
of the tube during the positive swings of the r-f oecillations. After
the capacitor haa become charged to the voltage at which oacillations

...

cease, grid cu~nt does not flow and the capacitor discharges through
the grid-Ink mistor. The value of this l'efiistor establishes the pulserepetition frequeny.
It. S,..e.. _aIUltl for ...... IIIly. (1) Any 6IIIlllJ changes
in circuit constanta or operating oonditiollll dect the stability of the
pulse rate. Where its becomes desirable to maintain a pulserepetition
frequency at a value more nearly constant than that which is posaible
by grid.blocking action aJone, a synchronizing signal is applied to ilie
grid of the oscilllltor. The grid constants an! adjusted to produce the
Ilppro:timate n!petition rllt~ , lind the e:tact operating frequency is
established by the synchronizing voltage.

"

nNING P\JI.S(
IHor;ATOII

(2) A typkal example of the synchronization of an r-f blocking


oscillator is shown in ligure 101. The pulse-repetition frequency
desired is 60 cycles per second; therefore the grid constanta H. and C.
are adjusted to a slightly lower frequency. The 6O-cycle synchronizing voltage is supplied by transformer Tl. The voltllge developed
across grid capacitor C2 is shown in figure 1020. The voltage developed acro8!i capacitor Cl by the transformer Tl is shown in figure
102. The minor variation ill the synchroniziug voltage is due to the
charging of capacitor Cl during the trllllsmissiun time. The effective
voltage at the grid is the algebl"llic sum of these two voltaget>., a8 shown
in figure 102@.
(3) The capacitor Cl (fig. 101) is pla<'fll. acl'08ll the secondary of
the synchronizing transformer to provide R low-impedance charging
path for grid capacitor 02. RI provid('~ a means of adjusting the
amplitude 'Of the synchronizing voltage. If the vultage is too low,
the oscillator will not pulae on the steep slope of the simi wave, so

o,,~,

.11,

1m

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

that small chlnges in' operating conditions may cause relatively large
changes in the repetition fnquency. If the synchronizing voltage it
too high, the pulaa width is reduced becal18e of pewive grid-currfllllt

....

eSYN;.O

(j)

e,
I

I
n.

a.

SEC

ROTA.V SP.ul1I. GAP.

Self...

,ae._a.ae...,..,e .

(1) Radarsyst8msutilizing
II. rotary spark gap modulator may be considered to be of the self.
synchronized type, in that the timing function originates within the
transmitter circuits. The block diagram of figure 103 illustrates this
fact. The analysis of the operation of spark gap modulaoon is d&veloped in paragraph 36 and only the manner of establishing the
timing of the Syst(lffi i8 to be considered at this point.
(2) In contraSt to the systems which are rigidly controlled by-a

timing oscillator, tbe routing gap operates the ref generator .t


l'Omparatively random rate. The approximate timing of the system
is set by the rotation (If !hI' gap, but the eJ[.llct timing, over. rangtof severd microseconds, is determined by the random wnditions of

>
o

...
Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

the air path between the electrodes. This characteristic is typical of


the inherent instability of the self-synchronized Ilystema in general,
but these systema have one advantage over rigidly controlled types
in that the self-synchronized systema are less su.!lCeplible I() " jamming"
or interference. The transmitted and rellected pulaea of all other
radar sets move on the indicator screen even if they have the same
average repetition frequency .
... TI ,_ . . .,.0... (1) The rotary spark gt.p acta 18 ..
switching device in tbe modulator circuit of the transmitter. The
switch ronsisbJ of a bed cathode at a highly negative potential alld
a mooor-driven spark wheel with regularly spaced anooM arranged
around its periphery and held at ground potential. Assuming" constant. spHd of rotation, the pulse-repetition frequency of the system
is a function of the number of anodes on the spark wheel.

~ ~ SEC ,-uLK
TO JlULSI
TR"'NSro!l"~R

~"
T''''*' JlUU~
TO 'NOICATOR

1I'fv1oF"tllOJ. Tvpical rolarv .part laP ",,,,,Ill_'or "'/I~ ", ..cUe.


lor ,/Ie

11"'_.

_"''1' "",I,.,

.
(2) In the example illustrated in fiA"ure 104, the driving mooor
has a speed of 3,450 revolutions per minute and the spark wheel haa
H electrode6. Thus a pulse-repetit ion frequency of aplJl"O:r.imately
800 eycles per second is produced. The pulse width is determined
by the pulse shaping line, Z,. During the resting time, this pulse
shaping line is charged through the resonant charging cireuit compend of L. aud Z, t() appl"O:r.imau-ly 8,000 volts. As the gap breaks
do .... n, the line discharges through its characteristic impedance, producing a +4-,OOO-volt pulse of I 1h-microsecond duration. This pulse
is applied to a p~ tn.n8l0rmer and stepped up t() a -18,OOO-volt
level to overate the magnetron. A +4-O-volt pulse is taken off across
R, and is used as a timing pume 00 synchronize t.he indicaoor sweep
and gate voltages. This pulse may also be uHed to t.rigger stich components as range-marker circuits and ~iver-gate circuits.

..

o,.'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

se..

SINB-WAVB eSDJ.4.T8a.
.. All
fer neUIa'er. (1) The timing circuit" are designed to produce syncbronizing signals which In! specifically adapted
10 " given system. Th1lJl it is unlikely that any two radar equipmenta are .ble to utilise. common design in their timing cireuits.
After the specific system requirements for timing functions are established, the proper circuits can be ehOl!'!Il to produce the desired re8uit.ll. The mister oscillator employed in the uternlll, synehI'{)niud
type of ...dar equipment largely detenninee the variety of shaping

eircuita used.
(2) A sine-wave osciUator in which good frequency IJtability cln
be maintained i8 sometimes used as the master 06CiII.tor in utemaUy
aynchronized radar systelDl:!. This i8 especially true of early firecontrol equipments in which the r.n~ unit UIiIl6 phase-shifting networks for l<:<lunte range measurements. The primary disadvantage
of sine WAVe timing eystel1llllie6 in thlliarge number of wave-shaping
circuits required, since th_ contribute prohibitive weight and bulk
in IIOIDe application&.
(8) The !line-wave timer repreaented here is designed around a
2,OOO-cyde per second Wien-bridge oscillator and employs circuits
whieh supply timing qignala for A-, B-t,}nd C-sean indicarore in addition to the transmitter-triggu and receiver-glte voltages. It is
designed for use in aircraft with short tinge AI equipment. The
block diagnm of the complete timer ill shown in figure 106_
It. Cb nit ._Iy.... (1) The Wien-bridge oscillator suppliea
a 2,OOO-cycle-per-second sine wave through the buffer amplifier to the
diode rectifier and to a test jack_ The output of the diode is a half
sine wave whieh ia applied ro the overdriven amplifier. A good
square wave of 250-volt amplitude and 260-microsecond duration appears in the plate circuit. This equare wave is u!led to produce the
A-lICan sweep_ I~ is also applied to a differentialor-amplifler circuit
to produce the A- and B-llCIn indicaror gatell. The output of the differentiator-amplifier is again dilJerentiated to obtain a short"trigger
pulse f~r the B-SI':lIn sweep circuit6, and for the N'mainder of the timing circuits. The first of these circuits is that which generates the
~iver gate. The trigger pulse is delayed by an artificial li ne and
applied to a multi-vibutor, the output of which is fisoo length gate..
The time of occurrence of the gsle is varied by changing the delay introduced by the artificial line. The second group of circuits which
WJe the output of the dilJerentiator-amplifier, V6, is that which generales the C-lICan gate and the B8CII.n marker pip. The gate is produced directly by the variable multi vibrator, and has a trailing edge
which can be varied in time. This gate eliminates targets on the
pilot's indicator which lie beyond the target in which he is interested.
107

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

80 that the operator will know what targets appear on the C ICOpe,
the trailing ~ of the C-ecan pte i8 difenmtiated to obtain a Bscan marker pip. 'fP,e transmitter trigger is produoed by diferentiating the trigger pulse from Va.
.
(2) In figure 106 the U8lIal Wien-bridge circuit employing a TNT
double triode is shown. Ql i.!J sufficiently I.rge not to .feet the pha"

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of the regenerative voltage palllling from the plate of Vl.2 to the grid
of VI.l. The lamp filament, R4., acting as vari.ble resistance, controls the degenerative voltage 80 that the oscillating freqUl'ficy remains
st.ble .t 2,000 eyelet! per tlIlCOnd. The buller amplifier V2 providee
constant load for the Wien-bridge o&eillator.

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(3) III figure 107 diode re<.'tifier V3 is CQnneeted to pag the negative
half of the buffer-amplifier output . The negative half-sine wave i8
applied direetly to the grid of V4.1, driving it beyond cut-off. Plate
current limiting results are shown in figure 108. The leading edge of
the negative-going !!!J.uare wave which appean across the load of V4.2

,, /

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0--------------------__

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TL-I113

is used as the zerotime reference for the operation of the vllnous


circuits of the timer.
(4) 'The output of the ove rd rh'en amplifier is applied simultll neously to the SWI!(']J I,.'('nerator in the A-st"nn indiclltor which pr'Hlucl">I
either a 2,OOO-yard or a lO,Ot)()-Yllrd sweep, and to the differentintor
input to V~. One !;I:'Ction of th e rallgtl -S('lector switch plllces the l)roper
resistor, R17 or RI S, in the circuit. The R-C t ime oonstant for the
shortrange po.;il inn of Ihe ~ witch is :; micrt~omls, and for the longrunge poaitioll is ~:; micM;et.'UIiUs. The grid of VCi is driven beyond

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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(lutotl' by the ntlptive pulse prOduced. by the dHlerentiator, &Dod is held


in this oondition for approllimately 2.6 R-C aeoonds. A positive gate
pulse appears in the plate circuit "hich is "ud to intensify the A,.. &Dod
B-8Ilan indicators (fig. lOS) .
(6) The gate output of V!5 is applied also through the ditl'erentiatm
cif'(luit, CU and R21, to VB of figure 110, "hich is biaMd clO8l! to cut-ofl
by the voltage drop &CrosaR22. The output of this amplifier stage, at
point 0, is a very sharp negative-going trigger pube of approllimatel,

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1OO-volt amplitude. This trigger is used to start. the s"eep generator


in the B-8Can indicator. It is applied simultaneously to the delay line
in I.h e plate cil'(luit of VB and to the input circuits of the variable
multivibrator V7 and the dilferentiator amplifier Vl2.
(6) The C-scsn indicaklr gate voltage is produced by the multivibrator V7 (fig. 111). The operation of th e multivibrtltor is Bynchronized by the application of the negative pulse, introduced from
point C in figure 110 to the grid of V7.2, by way of the voltage-divider
network consisting of R24, &28, and R29. V7.2 is cut oft' by this pulse
and remains in a nonoonductiug etate during the time required for
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C14 to diSl:'harge liufficiently to return its grid above cut.otf. '11e


plate waveform of V7.2 during its cut-oi! time is used as the ga te.
The d ischllrge rate of C14 is IIdjusted by th e setting of H29, thu/l
determining the width of the gale at J)Oint E. This "a r iabll)-widlh
jlllen ~i fier j.!1l1e is Applied to IIHI C-scope by wily o f the cRthtlde follower V B. H31 is adj usted to produce II CMthode-follower OULput of
approximntt!iy 40-1'011 IIIl1Jllitude,
(7) The ~'II t e pulse with II "ar iMble trniling ed~ Itt point. E (fig,
Ill) is applied also to the ditfere nt ia tor inp ut to V9 ( fig. 11 2 ), which
produces a shllrp poIIiti"e pCllk from the Icading edJ,'e 111111 a shllrp
negllti\'e pellk from the Irll iling edge. These ~i gnil is ure PlIssOO on to
the grid of t he arnillifier V9, which is operating at zero bias, The

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Iniling peak drives t he grid of V9 ~Iow ent-oi!, slightl y fi lltlening


the posith'e peak on the plate, The R-C t ime (''()II ~lIInt of the grid
input circuit tlf the cll thode followu \' 11 i", Itppl'()ximlltcly 100 micro!!(\(.'onds, which is long OOIllPll l'lod to the dunotitlll of the plI l.,, '~ applied
by th e Imo'cedinj::' SII'b'e, bue is short compl' N!d to the J>1l1s.~ n:pctition
time as establ i"!IO',1 by the W iell-bridJ,<e OIiCillllttlr, T he d iode Vto nchi
IlII a posit ive limiter at. a polell tia l d.>te rtn ined ~y the selling of the
potentiometer HM. The cathode follower 1111-.11 the p'A;i t in) llulSOl
(fig. 1130) . 111is pulse is applied to th e grid of the e l l'Ct r""'P~lIcti c
B' 900pe, produci ng hor i7.' )J\t ll ll~' IIC ru8/! t he fllw of the O!;t,ilh""-e:' pe n
bright. line, the positi on of which the opel1llor nll'Y conlN,1 by II ti justing H29, As this l'lm,;c p ip i ~ pr' ~ l uce,1 loy th e t rllil ill.lt c.'.C II-'C of Ihe
C-Sl..'fln ind icator gtlte JIll l ~e, it H Ilo\\"s the opern tur to ~)J\t I'()l the rllnge
coverage of the pilot '"'" oo;cilloscupe.

OcOg" .11< ""


UNIVERSITYOf MKH KiA N

(-8) The negative trigger pulse a~ point. 0 of figure 110 is applied


to the differentiator-amplifier Vli of figure 11'. The input circuit
haa a tiD'lfl constant of five miCZ'C -conda which further aharpena tM
applied pulse. The amplifier is driven to cut-off during the pullM!
time, producing in the plate circuit a positive pulse with a very steep
leading edge. This pulse is coupled to a wnwl cable by cathode fol-

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lower VIS, and is fed t() the transmitter where the steep leading edge
geTVeIl to trigger the driver circuits into operation.
(9) The negative t rigger produced by the differentiator-ampli6er
V6 (6g. 110) is fed directly to the delay network in the plate circuit,
where it is delayed suffic-ielltly t() ilJ""-Ire its Ilppearanoe at point D
immediately following the end of the trllllsmitur pui9l'l. . From point
D the delayed negative trigger pulse is fed to the grid of V16 (6g. 116)
where it serves to 6Yllchrolli~e the operation of the asymmetrical
multiviurator composed of VB and V16_ The circuit constants of

...

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JJ~f\I[RSlTY Of

MICHIGAN

this electron.co ur1c<1 lIl uit ivibrlll o r a re Buch that th e Iluq m l Ili keu
from the plate of Vl l'> is It j)()oj it iwl re<.:tun~rulll.r pulse ,..ith /I lending
e<lge determ ined by the IXlSi t iuli of t he 111 1) 0 on fh e dela)' lille II ml II

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t railing edge occur r ing I I Il fixed Inter time. This 1>00;;l i"e gllie ill
rou pled by e1le Ctl thode fo llow er VU; In the carly i -r Ilmpi ili*!f ~tllb~
in lhe fO!C1!ive r to provide sc ree n .. nd plate voltages d ur i,,!; the lime
t hat it is J et! ired to rece ive return ing echoes.
1:17

Or>9",.11f<>rn
UNIVERSITY Of MKHK>l.N

31 . S I N GI.IWi1ll'I NG ....) C.UNG OSC::.UA TOR.


All " . .. r o .elll or. (1) T he compluity of a ti mer is
dependent on the complexity of the rad ll r system. H owever, 1e.'IS
weight lInd space are "-'<:Iuil't!<i if the maste r oscilllltor i81\ single-swing
blocking O!lCilIlitor iusteud of a sine-wuve lJOj(:illll.tor. T he &Lving re-

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suits from tl,e eliminution of the ....... ,lh I111ping cin:: uitll t hat are
requi~I IU 1J!"<~ln c .. a ""I,WI ... Wll'" from II sine ....... ve.
(2) T he block d i:'gl"lllll (lig. 116) 1~IJI't!Sents the use of II blocki ng
O!:ICillulor in the timer I"",,"iu nsly d i<>cnssOO. The simil "l"ity is spIJllre nt oot,,een the timing signllis produced here lind those produced
in figure 105. The w"vern.ms produced in the blocking oscillato r
tim'll" a re shown in figure 117.

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ImIVERSlTY Of MICHIGAN

,I I...

It.. . .~
(1) The blocking OIICiliator is employed
as the maater OIICillator in some ~t designs in whi(lh Illiti(l8.1 timing
and simplicity are important factors. Simplification of the timer is
pos9ible principally 00caU8e only one type of indit:ator is u8lld, Ij()
that the variety of timing signals is reduced. The block diagram (fig.

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118) illustrates SU(lh II timer in which th p bl"cking oscilllltor establishes IJ\e frequen cy and indiroctly contl'(lls the l"equin~d t.iming liignals
which synchronize the various c(l mponente of the equipment. The
trsnl:llllitter is triggered into opeTlllion by the ml,"ter (lscillawr and a
portion of the modultl.tion pulse is coupled to the timing cin:uita to
control their operation.
~30 '-"U

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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(Sl) The advantapJ of the repetition frequency st.bility of the


uternally syncbronized. aystem are reali..,d in trus timer. At. the
same time simplicity is gained by utilizing the modulation pulse as
a triggering voltage to operate a multivibrator capable ot produoing
the required timing pul888. The voltage pulsea produced within the
timer are shown in figure 119 in the proper time relation to the
muter-oacillator pulse.

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t::IretIU._I,....

(1) The output ot the hlocl::ing oscillator


(VI of fig. 120), developed across 8e('Ondllry 82 of transformer Tl
is applied directly to the grid of'the bia.eed cathode follower. The
operation of the Bingle'Bwing blocking oscillator iB diBCuSBed in eection
VII, TM ll-i66, and Navsbips 900,016. The sharp positive pul.
output of the cathode follower is applied directly to the IFF interrogator equipment. but is delayed nine microseconds before triggering
the transmitter to compensate for the inherent deJays in the IFF

Qoi.v, .1 """"
_ ... _ JJUlVtRSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

-~----''--'

. .- .. --

system and to insure that any returning IFF signal appean on the
indicator at the proper ran~.
(2) The modulation pulse is fOlmed in thl" driver and amplified
in the modulator, lh" which it is applied w tht' magnetron. A
pick-up pllte in the modulator which is capacitively coupled to the

,,

high-voltage capacitor deli vel's a negative pulse to the grid of va


(fig. 121) of sufficient amplitude to trig~r the electron-coupled
lIIuh ivi brlltor va and Vol. The grid of Vol is normally biased beyond
cut-off 80 that va is the conducting tube of the one-shot multi vibrator.
The grid of Va is returned to +3flO voll!! nnd 11>(' circuit conslDnts
are such thnt the (rjgb'llr pulse Cll.use'f Vol to conduct and VS to re-

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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

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main cut-oir for the proper time duration a8 determ4J.ed by the /letting
of the range-selector switch_ Thua, coincident with the transmitter
pulse, the plate of V8 delivers a positive pulse to the lJWetlp-generating network, and the plate of V4 deliven a negative gate of equal
width which esbblishee the operating time of the rwge-marker
generator, the indicator tube, and the receiver.
(3 ) The negative gate pul8e, at point E (fig. 121). i~ applied diredly to the range-marker generator in the indicator unit, which i~
of the shock-excited oecillator type dllllCl'ibed in aection IX. It is
applied aI80 through the cathode follower, VG, to the cathode of the

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RECEIVER GATE
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AMPLifiERS

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indicator tubto, reducing the biaa to a value which will pawit the
video signals to modulate the intensity of the cathode-ray tube. '!'be
cathode follower is cut oir &8 the leading edge of the negative gate
pulse i8 applied to the grid. The voltage on the cathode of the
cathode-ray tube drops to approJ:iwately + 87 volts beca1l98 of the
voltage-divider action of RU and Rl~. This reduces the big on the
cathode-ray tube to a value just beyond cut-oft' and anablM any poai. tiTe video signals to produce HUOf! 3 JIilnce. As the trailing edge of
the negative gate puise is applied to the grid of Vii it is returned to ita
nonnal potential of + 1011 volte and the cathode ri8&8 toward this
value, increMing the bias on the cathode-ray tube to a point weD
beyond cut-oft'.

...

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.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(4) A~ point E (fig. 121) the negative-going gate pulse is fed


through another lead to an artificial trarun:nission line whieb introduces
a delay of 0.76 mieroserond.. This delay enables the receiver to remain
inopera~ive during the transmission time and thus prevents blocking
of the video stages as a result of the Btrong ~ransmittal signal. The
delayed. gate pulse is then fed to the inverteramplifier stage (Va of
fig. 122). The ~reen grid of this tube is returned to a voltage higher
than the plate supply which produces a large plate current., holding
the grid of the directly coupled cathode follower V7 at a 10'IV poeitive
potential. The positive gate pulse developed ":I"0Il8 the plate load of
va is coupled to a couial cable through V7, and is fed 10 the receivergain cootrol circuit. in the receiver chasais "here it furnishes the
plate and screen voltagea for the first and l!I!COnd if amplifier stages.
As the receiver is unable to amplify and detect any aignals received
during the time the plate and &creen voltages are removed from the
if amplifien" its operation ia effectiv!!ly gated in this manner. Video
signals are produced and fed to the indicator only during the time
of the positive receiver.pte voltage.

.
32. MlJLTIVIII....TO. .
....... pater .,III_lter.

(1) A multi vibrator is 80IDetimes


employed in radar equipment a8 the master OlICilIator in the timing
system. The major factor which favors the use of this type of timer
is the simplicity "ith which the required timing signal!! can be prqduced for the various components. Both poeitive- and negative-going
rectangular pul!ll!!l of equal but controllable width are produced simultaneously at the t"o plates ot tbe multi vibrator. Thus it is po!lSible
to perform the tim ing functions of the radar system with a minimum
of additional timing ci rcuits.

(2) The block diagram of a multivibrator timer is shown in figure


123. The mll9ter oscilllltor consists of a free -runn ing, asymmetrical
muitivibrator which furnishes directly the following rectangular
pulses:
(a) Ponti" puuu (A, fi~. 123)_
1. To thedelllY tube V2.
t. To the peaking circuit in the PP[ sweep generator.
(6) Neqath,e pubeA (E, !i.e:. 123) .
1. To the PP[ 6weep g(!nerator.
t. To the A -scope sweep generator.
3. To the s"'eep clamping' circuits for synchronization_
4. To the para phase amplifier V6.
(3) The output of the deilly tube, , is fed simulttlneously to the
cathode of the PPI oscilloscope as a gating pul><e, @.aml to a diff('rentiator circuit to produce a trigger 101" the tran6mitter,@. The negR-

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

tive pulll6 output of the paraphlll8 amplifier is pl.C1:ld on the cathode


of the A-soope as a pting pulse, , and the positin pulse output iI
dilfen!l1tiated to produce. trigger for the IFF equipmflllt, .
.... OnIda 'y-'s. (1) The muter oecillator cireuit is
shown in figu~ 124. The asymmetrical multivibrator employs .. 6SN7

!-,

-,

ti

double triode and the ne(E'suy circuit constants to produce an OI'ICillating frequency of approximately 65(J cycles per I!eCOnd for radar
operation. Provision is made for switching to bellcon operation by
reducing the OIICiIlating frequency to approximately 325 cycles per
second. The multivibratoJ:' is free running and is unconventional only

...

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

in the manner of switching to dift'erent n.nges. 8y meana of balaDOed grouping of resistors in each grid circuit the range liWitch controls the time constanu in tM grid circuita without changing the
repetition frequency of the circuit.

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(2) F our rangt'S, 6, 20,.50, lind 90 miles. are ..,.ailable. One section
of the range-sell'ctor switch establi~hes the proper ratio of grid resistances to produoe pul!:il:'S at t.h e plates of VI.I nnd Vl.2 which are ~lightly
wider tban the operating range requires. The time during which VI.I
is conducting and Vl,2 is cut oft' is utilized in producing the timing

..

,
0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

signala for the ay~tem components. Tlllls the leading edges of the
pulsea which occur simultaneously at points A and E establish the
zero-time referenoe of the system.
(3) The plate aDd grid waveforms of VI.I and V1.2 for the four
8ettinga of the f'\lnge switch are shown in figure 120.
(4) The positive gate voltage produced at point A is fed to the peak.
ing circuit in the PPI sweep network and to the input of the delay tube
~

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_llSV

+240

o,w

.0 M"
o MI.

r-r-.....,..----~-----_,
:
:
I

,,

+',.
+105

I----i~

,,

,'
,

'.---J

--,,----.-----,,
,,
,,
I

,,
,

,,,

,,

,,,
,

,,r

_IIV

....'

_135V

,,,

+240V

.....

+156V

,,

,,
,,
,

f,,

__ _ " - _ _ _ ...L _ _ _ _ _ ,

,,
,

,
,
.1 __ J

+105V
TL '8.0
,."...1U.

(Jrf4 ...... ".,"t>Oll~"""...,fo""~

01 VI.I a.oll VI.!.

V2. The delay cireuit is shown in figure 126. The cathode is tied to
a positive potential of 100 volta and the grid is directly connected to
the plate of VI.I. During the time VI.I is conducting, the voltage
at the grid is not sufficient to bold the grid above cut-oll. A delay of
IIppro:zimately 10 microseoonds ill produced by using an integrator
input circuit consisting of RIO and ca. As Vl.l is cut 01, the rillll
in plate voltage is applied aCtU68 RIO and ca. The capacitor eharp

...

"t

"00

,"

---

-
"
"
0

,,

,,

-.

<
0

I,

0
0

-t

- ..

-,
1,
.~

I0

;;-

0 -

,
-.
>.

.N

-
0

"~

>

,,<

-
:!
-ii

-..
o N

0
0

.'
.:

-.o.

"

.0

.'
o.

0
0

-",

- 0
' 0

.'
.:

u0

.".-,.

.0

".

,;

~o

I0

~
.~

u o

LllNOOTY Of M(H.".,W

at a rate determined by the R -C time oonstant of the charging path.


Thus the grid of V2 can reach cut-oft' only after a time delay determined
by the rate at which C3 chargee. Figure 127 illu6tratea the delay
action ocaJrring in the input circuit of V2.
(Ii) The delayed negative-going pulse output ,o f Vi (, fig. 126)
ie deliv~ to the rangtl-marker generator for the purpoee of-starting
and controlling the duration of its operation. It is applied KimullIneously to amplifier va through the dift'erentiator circuit eonsiAting

of RIa and ~ The dift'erentiated leading ed~ drives the grid of


va beyond cut-oft', stopping the flow of plale current. The difl'erentiated trailing edge is limited to low-amplitude value by the flow of
grid current. The output of the amplifier is essentially a po!litive
pulee with a steep leading edge and a flat lop of four or five microseconds. This pOISit.ive pulse is coupled to a coa:zial cable by the cath ode follower V4 and is delivered to tbe transmitter as a driver trigger.
The grid-input to va and cathode-follower output waveforms are
ehowD in figure 128.
.
(6) The negative pulee occurring at point B (fig. 126) is fed aJ80 to
the tel'Q-biased cathode follower Vli (fig. 129), which couples 'it without inversion to the cathode of the PPI 06Cilloeoop8. Xbel1l 8l1I ap-

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

proximately 20 volts acl"OllS Rl8 .... ith no signal on the grid of the
cathode follower. This places the cathode of the PPI tube at + 20
volts. The grid potential may be adjusted to a potential sufficiently
negative to hold the tube ....ell be)'ond cut-olf. AiJ the negative pulse
from the dela)' tube is applied to the grid of V5, the clthode of the
OIIClilloecope tube drops to zero voltage, thua reducing the negative
grid bias on the clthode-rl)' t ube sufficiently to permit In)' poRitive
video signals on the grid to prodUCEI ftuol'I!8C('nce. The 4 '1'8. e, char-

r-

e~

Oll.A'I'

Va

,
e.

....__ ._- . - ----------------

VI

+ laay

+12 Y

...1..J
TL Ills

''Prt 118. Tm .... mlll..".

frl" .... Kla...,(ar .....

1(.:tI;!ristic of the catlwde ' rR), IU~ is emplo)'M ill figuN' 180 to iIlustrite the grid- and cathode-voltage relationships.
(1) The piau of V1.2 produces a negativl"-going pulse (@' fig.
J..2.4), coincident ....iththe positive pulse produ~tlat poiul@. This
pulse tim es the operat.ion of both A -scope and PPI swee p generaton;
and provides a synchronizing voltage for the PPI sweep -c1ampin~
circuits. It also is fed to t he paraphase amplifier shown in figure
131. The voltage across cathode resistor R20 is approximat~ly 30
volll> with no signal on t.he grid. The negative pulse on Ihe grid
drives the tube to CUI-off, ea using a 30- volt pul"", to be devl'l"lX'd arross
H2O. Thla negative pulse is applied to the cathode of the A-stupp 10

,.,

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HIGII~

r-~- ~~.--- ~--".

,- - ----

TL-A
~'"

11.. CjreWt 11'%" 222 of PI'/ ,."" _iooI 0'

,s.

:I~.

",..u,.,emklf''' w.

:
I

I
I

.fr-'-~
.....
I
I
I
I

,,
~--

"""... 1~.

TIII"", ~. ~lInIderld"" """'t~al"'"


~ IoIdfclol.tor.

", t il'"

of ooatroll"" Nu

remove tbe bi voltllge and to intensify the tube for the' duration of
the sweep.
(8) A poe:itin rectangular pulse is produCfll. Ul'08S the plate load
B21 of ve aimultaneously with the pulll6 Icroee RSlO. This puh~ i
I

o,'gir '''''"'

UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

ca,

applied through the differeuLiltor, consisting of R22 lind


to the
grid of clthode follower V7. T he differe nt iated lead ing edge of t!.e
in put Jlulse i~ u~ 10 lrigger th e inte r rogllor equipment of the IFF
"ystem. The amplitude of the fIO'ii-ilive trigger It poin t H wilh the
cOl s il1 clble conn ected iSlppros ima te ly 15 vol(&

"I

n o 1'-1'-

yo

s wu ~

" ...... HII.

yo
0,.

~ ~, S"U~

yo A-.eOH
s"lC ~

COU.

."

".

.,oow

'----1--'
'''O'C A TO"

...

TO

O.

.-.

.oo ~

~ Hl

c"",oo t

~. , sco~.

'"

TII .CC "

.n

"

l .IK

Fil1"'rfl Ill.

..

,,,
i os

.. ....

OI,.,MiI dil.,....", of A ...,,... /IfItc ..,," 11'1' fri,l o.:r ..,.,flo" O( ... MII'-

,,;brotor fi"' .....

(9) The nmhivibTlllor ti mer IH"O,-i,leol the mehllS of ~ta rtillg t he indicKtor-~weep voltages .. head of the trtt n~milte r pulse. T his, h"w eve r , does not affl'Ct the o'-etall I"ange ttccuta ey. s i n~ the PPI ind icalor gttte circuit and the tttnge-mHl"ker ,,~n e nlt"l" Hl"e OI" ~I'lIled uy the
same de layed IJUlse thll' produ~s the IrllllSlllilter trigger .

,n
0.19' .1 from
UNrY ERSITY Of MlCHK>l.N

Seed VI
Ir. . . .ltten

33. GBNBaAL
.. Seleed_ ...... ,e.e_ter. (1) The selection of the r-f
generator is governed chiefly by the carrier frequency at which the
syR.em is to openUl. The carrier freqUfllcy depends on IJevenJ factors, among which are t.he de6ired directivity of the antenna, the d fect of frequency un propagation, and the tactical application of the
B)'atem_

(2) ~fter determining the carritt frequel'K"Y, the nut step is to


select the r-f generator. The triode 08CilIator is able to produce high
peak power in pulse operation up to 400 megacycles per second. Because of interelectrode capacitancn, electron transit time, lead. inductances, and stray capacitance!l. the triode is in('&pable of producing
a pulse of large peak power at higher frequen ci~. H owe-.er, triode
()IICillatllrll may be used to produce pulses of ",Iatively low peak power
at ~Iuencies up to 600 megacyclea per se<!ond. Booh an r-f generator
is useful in lightweight seta wbUfi high-power output ia not _ntial.
Abo-.e 600 megacycles, the magnetron is by far the most eJli.cient r_f
generator known at present., and is used almll6t u:c1usively in microwue radar. In a few C&&ell II special form of triode, called tbeligbthoWle triode, is used in low.power transportable microwave radl.l'

.....

.,. Weft&' ' _M.... ........ (1) Three important


pulsing methods are in use at present: self.pulsing in a triode blocking
OI!ciUator ; production of a low-power pulse which is shaped and amplified to the proper magnitude to operate the r-f generator; lind the
production of a high-power pul:o;e which is applied directly to the rf
generator. The meth{)(\ used depends on the type of r-f generator,
the accuracy of range meM ~urement to be obtain!'<l. and the minimum
range desired.
(2) The triode 08Cilllltor ie pulsed equally well by all three of tht
above methods. The method which is used with a magnetron, however, must produce 11 rectangular pulse with very steep sides in order
to apply II. fairly constant voltage to the mllgnetron during the pulee
time. Otherwise power is "'Il~te.u by the production of oecillatiolls of

..

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

seyeral di6eren~ frequencies. Early pulsing 'YSUms for magnetrou


WeN of the type that produoed I. low-power pulse and .. mplifled it to
the proper magnitude_
(8) The limitation on the nse of sueb ptilee-amplifier ~1Il8 is the
amoun' of pulse power which can be produced without the use of m.. ny
tubes in oomplicated circuits. This upper limit is ..bout 800 kilow .. tta
The high-power pUlse-generating systems use sp.. rk gape capable of
controlling enormous pe.. k powers. Radar sets are now .......il..ble
which by using rotary gaps to e:ltend the life of the sylUm, produce
r-f pulp PlB of peak power u:ceeding .. megawatt.
(4) If extreme precision of range measurement il nece88l.ry, the
leading edge of the tnnflmitted pulee must be as steep as poesible in
order th .. t the zero time for each Iweep m ..y be accurately determinM_
In "pplicatiOlUl where nry ehort ranges mll8t be measured for enmpie, in aircraft int.eltl&ption--the trarwnitted pullMl must be short
and the trailing Mgt' of the pul8e must be yery steep. Thie is 1M!tC!I.
f!l.ry eo that the change-over from the transmitting condition to the
receiying condition may be made .. rapidly as possible to .....oid masking of nearby targeta. The self-pulsing triode OflCiIlator doe. not
m6et either of thl'lle requirements well enough to permit ita WIll in
pteci8e ",nge-meuuring 'Ystern6 Ho"'e"fer, because of ita simplicity,
this type of pulsing is of considerable value in !i6l.rch ",stems where
.. high degi ee of accuracy and melllJUnment of very short ranges are
not nquired.
.

34. ....

~"N."'TOs

(1) Although triode tubes may be


operated with their control p-ids poeitive to produce very high freqnency OIiCiI1ation~. as in the BarkhaW!ell-Kun: oscillator, such circuits are not uled in radar transmittefll because they are too ine16cient
to aupply the high peak power necessary. The triode oscillators
which are U66d are of tbf nfglllive-grid tyPf. connected in a twotube, push-pull circuit.
(2) The tuned circuits usro in triode rad:r transmitter ci rcuitlf a~
usually short-circuited quarter-wave sections of two-'II'ire tr .. nsmission line. These tuned circuits may be connected in the O6Cillator cir_
cuit in any of the "'ays shown in figu~ 132. Oscillations"I"1!I produced by feedback I.h rough intHele<:trodf capacitances. Other connections may be used, particularly when the lfn gth of the filament
leada within the tube is such that special precautions must be taken
to eliminate dfgenefation in the cathode circuit and the feedback of
r-f energy into the power linf.
(8) All the O9Cillatora as being shown are self-pulsed. In the
grid is connected to B + through I. high resistance in order to establish
.. TiI.iI'e ueUIa :

0&0180"-11

11

I ..

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

I alightl, more stable puu.repetition fnquency thin is poeaible


with the oonnections shown in CD or @. In all c' su the fto"" of grid
cutTElnt chlrges caplcitor C to produce a bias large enough to stop
oecillition. A reduction in the size of the grid.leak resistor or an
increage in the ~ize of the capacitor will prevent ..It.blockingi all
typaa lilly then be pulsed by oommon forma of moclllJltOl'L

-,..

..(4) Energy llIay bt coupled out of the oecillator inductivt'ly, caplci


tively, or by direct connection. Capacitive coupling is geldom u&ed.
Iione, but it mlY bt UBati in conjunction with inductive coupling.
Inductive coupling to the grid cireuit ill used in lIOIDe radar trans!
mitters, but U!luIlly this type of coupling reduces the Q of the grid
tank cireuit 110 much that it cannot be used. to control the frequency

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

of the oscillator eft'ectively. One important d ifliculty that arises from


inductive coupling to the plate fink eircuit (fig. 182(!) is that the
voltage bet.1I'een the coupling line and the plate tank circuit is the IlUm
of the d-e voltage and the rt voltage. Because of this large voltage,
the coupling line cannot be moved too close to the plate tank because
of the potlIIibility of an arc-over. The degree of coupling is 150 limited
in some C&Sell tlIat optimum couplink cannot be obtained. This difliculty is overcome in the direct. coupling arrangement shown in 0.
There is no d-e voltage on the cathode; therefore, the transmill8ion
line may be coupled w the cathode tank to any desired degree by
adjusting the position of the output tap.
lit.. JU a.eU) a.. (1) ThfI power output of a two-tube
push-pull oscillawr is limited by the peak' plate current that can 0011'
in the tubes and the power dissipation of the plate. To increase the
power output it is neNl8Sary W increaee the current.carrying capacity
of the tubell, or w increase the number of tubes in the circuit. Because of electron trUlsit time, interelectrode capacitance, and lead
inductance, it is undesirable w increaae the physicnl size of the tube
to provide greater current-earrying capacit.y. Although increasing
the temperature of the filament will permit greater emission, this
chanjle greatly shortens the life of the tube. Increasing the number
of tubes by paralleling 1.110'91'8 a higher peak power w be genaated,
but it 1.180 increuea the dect of the interelectrode capacitancee.
When it is necl'lB8&ry to build an oecillator of high power, tube!> are
added in pairs in series to form a ring circuit (fig. ISS ).
(2) The ring oecillator shown is an utension of the oecillator of
figure 182@. The etreet of the interelectrode capacitancea in this
t.ype of circuit is half f)f that for the same tube!> connected in a pushpull parallel circuit. Addition of lUbes in series to fonn a ring
therefore permits a given type of tube tf) be used at a higher frequency
or allf)ws the use f)f tubes which are physically large.
(3) The ring oscillator functions because of the feedback of energy
from plate to grid through inteN'lectrode capacitance and becau.l,le
of the voltage distribution f)n the plate and grid lines. As d iscussed
in TM 11-466 and Navships 900,016, proper adj m;tment of the tank
circuit/! causes a regenerative voltage w be fed back through the
grid-plate capacitance. At the same time standing waves of voltage
are established on the sections of tnmsmission linell which cause the
voltage at one end of the line to be out of phllSl! with the voltage at
the otha end. Assume that the grid signal of VI (fig. 188) i8 JXI8itive at a given instant. The plate signal of VI will be at a minimum,
or negative muimum. The plate f)f V2, apprOJ:imately a halfwavelength away, is tJ<'l;itive becnuse of the ~tanding wave of vf)llage on
the tuned trall.SlBiSilioli line. The signal on the grid of V2 is' pro-

...

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

duCf'd by interelettrode c.pacitan~ 119 negative mn:imum, in ordert.o reinforce the plate current. Cont.inuing around the ring in this
manner, the grid of Vf ill at negative maximum to e108& properly
with the grid VI,. half-wavelength a ...ay. Plate relationa are main
tained by always adding tubes in pairs, if a larger number ill needed:
(f) The physical COlllItruction of the ring oscillator normally is
arranged w have the tubes pl.~ in an approzimate circle wilh the
tank circuits OD the inside of the circle. Thill arrangement permits

...

-*-

:::: est
t

='"
! ~

===-;=C', "

--_..

c,< -;-

,!
j .,~,..:::j;

11-11-"
~
~

L.....

",,*

... ....,.;.

.. .

,.

,.

symmetrical oonnection8 between rircuit elements, and allom the output coupling to the transmission line to be of relatively simple oem
struction. Figure 134 shows one method for obtaining energy from
the tank circuits. The plate linee are supported vertically between the
tubes, with the morting bars at tbe lower ends. The pollrity of voltage
at the plltes is II indica~ and this caUgeB the currents in the shortillB
bars to haYe the relltive direction of 8011' shown by the arroW8. A
transmission line wit.h I loop in the end is lowered between Ute pllte
lines 110 all to place the loop nelr the shorting bin, to provide inductive
I ..

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

coupling. The magnetic 6eJds produced by the CUlTfllW in the shortiqg bars reinforce each other in inducing the r-f voltage in the loop.
-nt.line and loop can be made resonant by using a ahorting bar a balfwavelength from the loop to insure muimum transfer of energy. The
fd line is tapped acn'lBB the the re.onant eeetion in this ca&Il.
(G) Any of the push-pull oscillaton shown in figure 1 may be coonected in a ring cm:uit to produoe a -high-peak power output. Since
the ring connection reduCCIII the dect. of the interelectrode capacitance,
tubes of fairly large physical me may be used to produce high-peak
output power at frequencill8 up W fOO ut<gacycl-. In order to prodUOl

co.

......u

LINU -

"-F CUII"Dn'

' - -_ _ 'WJf'LINO L.oc.

TL-."
JPigIIn 1.!~.

COII,.!I", "' .. ...... NCll/alor-.

even gteater peak output power than is possible with the four-tube
ring OIICiliator, additional tube.! may be added in pair, to the cireuit.
(6) The ring oscillator has the disadvantage of having many tuning
adj\l8tmenw in il.8 circuit. If the lM!V8ral adjustments are not made
properly, inefticiency will result. BecRU6e the ring circuit penni!1I
mecbanical symmetry in construction, the tuning adjustments may be
ganged w few controls, and the oscillator is relat ively simple to

' po"'"
eo Mal

etr.- (1) The magnetron isl18ed as an r -f generator


at frequencies above 600 megacycles per second. Since statement of
the frequency in this range may involve rather large numbers, magnetrona are uaually described in terms of the wavelength of the r -f energy

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

they produce. The general range of wavelengths in which mapetrooa


are practical is called the microwave regioll. For uee in this regiOD
magtll~trol1lJ have been manufactured which are capable of producillg
peak output power as high as a megawatt. The efficiency of the magnetron Il9 a device for converting d-c energy to radio frequency energy
is approximately 30 to ISO percent...
(2) Magnetrona for radar use require high plate YOII:ape to cauaa
oecillation. During the OIICillating period, the current drawn is 10
amperee or more. The elective impedance of the magnetron while
it is oecillating is approximatflly 1,000 ohm:J!. Although it is desirable
to reduce the magnetron impedllnce to a low value to eliminate the
neceeeity for utremely high plate voltage, it has been impoe!lible to
reduce the efFective plate impedance below approximately MlO ohma,
even by apecial d6llign.
(3) It is characteriBtic of the megnetron that, if the plate ",oJ.
falls very greatly during the pulse. modes of oecillation other than
the olle desired may reeult... Oscillation in this manner caU8e8 seriOU6
10IlII of power, lowered magnetron efficiency, and difticulties in tuning
the system, since unwanted frequency component.oJ af@ produced in the
output... Therefore, the voltage applied to the magnetron must rise to
the full value 18 lOOn &II poasible Uld remain oonstant during the pulBllt
and decrease to uro ill II short time at the end of the pul!J6. Hence the
magnetron requiree a fairly rectangular modulating pulll8.

35 nraa MO.IJIATeB 8YSTBMS


.. 6' era).. (1) The triode type of r-f~erator may be either
8I!'1f-pulsed or uternllIly pul8ed, while the magtletl"OD is alwaYII extemaUy pulsed. The general requirement.oJ of the modulatmg or
pulsing system are about the same for both types. When the pulse is
fOillied in low-power cireuit.oJ and then amplified to prodllce the actu.1
tran8lDit.ter pulse. driver .. commonly employed to shape the pule&
.nd modul.tor is employed to produce the
.mplificati.oll
and apply it to the r-f generator.
(2) If the shape of the modulating pulae need not be controUed
accurately, the trigger pulee from the timer m.y be amplified in
power .mplifier, 1.8 illustrated by the syat.em of aec:tion IV. This is
the simplest form of driver modul.tor'. When the pulse shllpe and
duration must be accurately oontrolled, &8 in radar eeL!! of short
range, more el.borate circuiL!! are used. Such IIpplic.tions generally
require a driver in which the pulse is formed by an .rt.i6.cial tr.nemission line, and then applied to a modulator. The 00CUl'l"IIn06 of
the pulse i, oontrolled by the output of the timer.
.. "t_....."ere. (1) The bootetrap driver WIe8 the
trigger pullte from the timer to start the di&charge of.n IIrtifieialline

nquired

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

through a gaa tube. The pulill formed is amplified by a bootstrap


NDp1i6er from which the dri....u
itA nlme, and u applied. to a
convelltional moduJawr.
(9) A. aimplified. circuit for producing a rectangu1ar pu19l!l by the
UII!I of an artificial transmission tine is shown in 6gure 1M. The cbaracteristic impedlnce of the tranamilBion line is 2,1lOO ohms. The resistor, H2, acroea ""hich the output pulee is to be de...-eloped. is equal to
this characteristic impedance. Rooi8tor RI, through which the line is
char~, i.e m,.dt! vuy much larger than the characteristic impedance
80 that it is an apparent open cirwit during the discharge of the line.
The (lapaciters are all charged to 600 volts if ,",itch S is lett open for
a M6.jent time. If the ,",it.ch is dOlled after the line hu been
charged, a current immediately IItarts to flo"" through R2. The line
may be considered 118 battery ""ith an internal impedance of 2.600
ohms during the discharge time ( fig. 136). The voltap attOlll R2 ia

tw

"
_.
_.! --

..

U ..

L _. _._._._. _._._._. -.J

....

n_

,..,n 1$$. 8"",,,, ci ......lf for ,..04t1d"V 0 ,.,.e , ........ orIl,otclOll

f~a .. "

.. "ricH<

one-half the voltage to which the line was cbargro, or 300 volt8, since
half the availllble voltage ill lost atf'Ollll. the 2,6OO-ohm internal im
pedIlnoe, Z.. If the net""ork consisted only of capacitors, the di s_
charge ""ould follow an u:ponential curve, and the voltage aCl'OII8 R2
""ould not be constant. Ho""ever, the inductance and capllcitance of
the line are 80 designated that the diach.~ rate is practically
constant.
(3) The dillChftrge of the .rtificialline can Ite uplained best. as fol low8: A.t the insllmt that the ,",itch (fig. 136) is dosed, the voltsge at
point A falls to aoo volt&. This can be looked. upon as a traveling
wave of -300 volts applied at point A. to reduce the volt.ge there im.
mediately from 600 to 300 volta. As the w. ve moves from A to B the
voltage acf'08ll the line is MUCed from 600 to 300 volts. On re.ching
point B, ths wave Hee8 .n open circuit, sinee resistor R1 is very IUgi!.
The ""ave is reflected ""ithout chftnge in sign, and immediately reduce6
the voltage at point B from 800 volte to zero u the wave travels back

.e.'

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

to point Ai and the ~maining 800 volts act'088 the line is canceled
out. On reaching point A, the wave haa reduced the voltage acro88 all
sections to zero, the wave itself disappearing because it is absorbed
by a load which matehes the characteristic impedance of the line..
The pulse formed across R2 by the line dillCbarged 1ast8 for the tim~
required for the traveling wave to mo-ve froID the switch end of thl'
line to the open end Ilnd bAek.
(4) The complete circuit diagram of the tratulmitter with a b0ot,strap driver is shown in figure 187. A thyratron, V2, is used instead
of the mechanical switch shown in figure 1811, to diacharge the artificial transmi88ion line.. The line is connected between the - MlO-volt
and - l ,l00-volt taps on the power supply, 80 that it i.e charpl. to a
voltage of 600 volts through resistor R.')_
(5) A positive-going timing pube with a steep leading edge is applied to the driver throu~ coupling capncitor 01 and illOiDtiug diode -

I
I.

T :
1 -=::

-~

L. _. _ . _ ._ ._. _ ....;.J

188.

n. lIa2,

BflOIlt>al.... ' circool/ of ...tI~aI I .......... ~

""to III ...,

iUfc""'~.

VI. The positive t rigger pUI5e cau_ the thyratron V2 to ionize. The
current which Oow, through Vi must. coml' from the di.!Jcharge of the
artificial line because R5 is too large to allow the Bow of current aufficient to maintain ionization. The dillCharge of the artificial line
through V2 and R6 prodUceB a -300-volt pulse across R6 during the
discharge.
(6) Tube V8 i, a double beam-power tube "ut for convenience it is
shown in figure 137 lIS a single tube.. The tube normally is cut off,
since itt! cathode is connected to the - l,I00-volt tap and its grid is
connected to the - l,.211O-volt tap on the power supply. The net bi~
on t.he t.ube is therefore -1110 volts, which is amp le to prevent conduction. Wben the artificial line discharges, the - SOO-volt pulse developed acl'08S R6 is coupled to the grid of V8 through 010, causing
the tube to conduct strongly. The cathode of Va ri_ from 1,100 volta
below ground to positive potential with respect to ground because
of the voltage drop across lUI

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

,I

...
Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

(7) The life of thyratron Vi is shortened by positive ion bOmbardment of the cathode if the grid is driven suliciently negative to caU86
acceleration of the ions to .... rd. the cathode. This condition is avoided
by using diode VI .nd capacitor ca. The trigrr pulse is coupled to
the grid of Vi through c'pacitorOI and diode VI. The positive swing
of the pulse caU8e8 diode VI to condud and produce a signal voltage
acl'08ll R2 and RS. The drop aef'OlB R2 is Ipplied directJy bet",een
grid .nd et.thode of Vi through ca. When the pu," is removed
capacitor 01 dillCharges, but, since the diode cannot conduct, the negative voltage reaulting does not appear at the grid of Vi. The pulse
developed in the cathode of V2 is coupled blck into the grid through
ca, causing the grid to rilll! ...ith the cathode, and thus preventa a
negative voltagt on the grid from this IIOUI"OO. Resistor R4 is U8~d
to limit grid current through Vi. Since rin is es8I!ntiai in the o~
tion of this driver, a bootstrap ampli6er is used. The bootstrap
eireuit indudes elements ... bich cause the voltagt on the grid of the
amplifier tube to riM with the cathode voltage. maintaining. constant
l<ignal voltage from grid to cathode. Theee elements include a lOuree
of pllte voltage for tbe preceding tube which is not tied directly to
ground, .nd I muna of coupling the rise in potential of the cathode
to this plate supply.
V2
(8) The arti6cia) line is the source of plate voltage for
during the pulse, and is isol.ted from ground by resistor HIS. Tbe
only other p.th to ground is through Mstor R9 in the cathode of
tube va. Therefo~ 18 the cathode of V3 rises during the pulse., the
entire circuit of Vi is raised the same amount above ground The
drop acroes R6 is mlintained by the discharge of the line, and is
applied directly between the grid and cathode of V3. This is the bootstrtlP action, so-called because the amplifier rli_ ita grid-cireuit
voltage in order to maintain a constant grid signal. When the artificial line i8 completely discharged, the voltage dijfe~noe aeroee Be
disappears, and the potential of the grid of va .t once becomes - 160
volts with respect to the catbode, and the tube is made nonconductina:.
The modulator tubes nonnany are cut 01 by the -1,100 volts applied
to their grids through RD. The positive pul8e produced &croes R9
driVf16 V4, and V5 into heavy conduction, 80 that CIt. is pennitted to
dillChnrge through the magnetron to ground .nd through V4 .nd Vli
in parallel. Since these tubes are in plrallel, the r88istors RIO, RU,
Rl2, and RIS .rt nl!lmnry to prevent paruitic OIICillations. The
charge that is lost from OIG,during the generation of the r-f pube
is rffltored to the capacitor during the restinj;l' time by ch'rging
cur~nt ... hich flo ... a from ground through diode V6, capacitor 016,.
and resistor RU to t,he -13,ooo-volt supply. Tbe diode i8 ulllld IS I
one-way "'vi ....or which permits current to flow to charge OUl, but

tu_

I ..

Q,i.v, .1 """"
UNIVERSITY Of MlCHK'JIH

wh ich pre ,'ent>! 100;\1 of ,"u,"rgy du r iug Ih" pu lse. sin"e nO ll e of tile d is"har!,re cur rent can JIow in the d iode. 'n le lise of lite diode perltl i l ~
mOn) eftident use of the en!!rgy s tored in Ihe "upllci to r .1x'l':lI use :\
n'tiistor used liS It charging el"Il11'llt , liS R207 in figure 80, mlly d iSlliPll te
us milch liS 20 pert.'t'nt of the 1t'lIi h.bl e energy <luri ng t he dischllrg".
e. UBe e .rolled .. I_kin. o.elll or tlrher. ( I ) A
mod ificati on of t he circuit of th e sing le-swing bloc ki ng oscilllllOr
runJ be used to pn xluce II pulse of Hct'u rll tcly COlli rolled d urat ion f IJI'
the operation of II. mod ulator tu be (lig_ 138). An nl'l ifid ll. l lrnnsm it;-

,----

" UL' t - r o ~ ..

".c; L. N t

II

_____ __ ~

---

o-".

"",.. r~

IllI.

l,j"~"'roiled.

. ~so
Mock;", ,,!WiII" 'fI.: "c_,..,,,ti,, ei,,,,,jf d.jQ,r~ ....

'0

sion line is u~d


c'Jlltrol lhe Ju mt ioll uf the jlulse, since II,,: blocking
u",ci lla tor itself ill ull Nble to produL'e Il SfjIlArc out pll t of "ulllt'<lJ]lIble
dUMlt ion, On6 "(] \"Ul tn/-'tl of Ih ili Iy pe of tlri ... r is IlulI it rt.'<luil'",
unly ..me t ube, wh ich mu kes the drh'er circuit II.nd Ihe IlSWCill llod
Ix)\nr ~uppl)' simp!!!_
(2 ) The blockin g oscilllltor tnbe VI is norm ally cut off beeaore ilo;
grid is oon ilL"" cd t hr()Ugh R2 I u t he - 150-" <lit b i'l~ ~11 Pili Y_ A p.."i I ; \'e
l im ing jJu !~ of IIpproximlllely 11fl "oilS is llp pl i~'(1 10 the "i n;o it
through n cn t.hod e followe r 10 slllr t Ihe OIl<! r "liQ n , This Jl ulo,(l i",
C"UIJled acr OllS tJle CII. IJllcihlllt'e of tbe artifici al lrn ll ~mir;o;;ion line lind

...

0.'9' .1 from
UNrY ERSITY Of MlCHK>l.N

through winding 81 on the pulse transformer to the grid of Vi.


Although the pube suffers considerubll' IIttenulltion in passing through
this network, it is of eufficient amplitude at. the grid to start conduction in the blocking-OIICiIlaror tube.
(8) The platl' current of VI flowe through the transfonner pri.
mary, P, which prodUOO8 a voltage across this winding. A vol~
in B9C0ndary SI is also induced that reinforces the trigger pulse, 1:10
that t.he grid is rapidly driven very positive as soon lIS conduction is
started. If 1,000 volta appears acroea P, a voltage of !iOO volts is
induwd in SI ~au"", uf t.ht 2-to-l turns ratio of the transformer.
EQUIVALENT ClRCIIIT
OF CI1ARC>EO
TRNt"'"SSION UNE

r,

'.,"

' . ..J

,I
L . _.J

-,,+
,

I,
L.

-I

r~

EOIIlvalENT CIRCUIT
OFSI OURlfrtO PULSE

I, ,

,,

.> """

~>,

"

,,,

()II"

,,.,
Since the voltage induced in 81 is relatively consta.nt during t.he pulse,
it mlly be repreeent.ed &8 a 600-volt battery with polarity as indicated
in figure 139.
(") The artificial transmission line normally is ehafged to -150
volta through nt, 81, and R2 ffom the bias ~upply fOf VI. In the
equivalent cireuit, the line is shown &8 a resistor in lleries with a 150volt battery_ Since the two battefies oppose, only 350 volta ie uai!able to drive a current through t.he circuit,. The sum of the grid-tocathode reaillumC(\ of VI and the output l1lSislimee of the cathode
followcf is made equill \(I the cha racteristic impedllnce of the aniJiciailrnnsmi88ion lin&. Therefor$, II CUfrent i flowing in the circuit
prodU08S approJ:imlltely 175 volt.s across the line and across the
combination Of Rt+R.- with polarity &8 indicated in figure 189. -All

...

Q,i.v, .1 """"
UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJlH

long as the current i continul'$ to flow, the voltage developed across


H... will keep VI in full conduction.
(5) The additional voltage imprmed on the line by the now of
cur~nt i in the circuit is of the same polarity as the initial charge.
A travelin, wave goes down the line, raising the volta~ acf'06ll it to
82li volts. When the wave strikes the open end 01 the line, it is reneeled witbout cbange of sign. The wa,", tben comes back toward
tbe BOUrce, charging the line to !KlO vol t~ as it progresses. At the
instant tbat the reflected wave reaches the input terminals of the
line, the curlWlt i drops to zero, since the voltage across the tralUlmil;8ion line equals the voltnge induced in 81, at thie instant making
the net vo!ugs in the cin:uit- zero. Although the timing-pulse voltage may still e:riat ac.ros! H., the potential of the grid of VI drops
sbarply because of the connection to the -150-volt bias supply, reducing tbe magnitude of the current flowing in the tube. The duration of conduction in VI, which is equal to the output-pulse length,
is oontrolled by the artificial transmission line. Since the line is designed 80 that -ih micr(l68COnd is required for the wave to travel the
length of the line, the output pulse is of I-micrcs!C[)Ild duration.
(6) All the current in the tube atute to fall oft', the voltage induced
in 81 drops to:cero and the u1i6cialline bt-gins to diecharge through
R2 and R.. Both of tlllllle eft'ects oombine to drive the grid very
sharply negative, which quickly cute oft' the current in VI. The
field set up by the primary winding mUlit therefore collapse. In
collapsing, a sharp negative BUrge of voltage is induced in 8 1 which
drives the grid even farther negative. Resistor Rl is ul:Ied to damp
out the OIICilJationB that are e:a:cited in the secondary by this negative
surge. If no damping were provided, the p<HIitive swing of the
oscillation might caUlj6 false trigg'i!ring of the cin:uit.
(7) The waveform of the voltage at the grid of VI is shown in
figure l4O(D. The slight irregularities in the top of the pulse am
due to the fact that the artificial line i. only an appro:rimation to
a real line. The relatively slow rt('overy of the grid to its normal
bias is caused hy the discharge of the capacitors in the artificial
line to their normal charge of - 100 volta. The flow of current in
the primary 01 TI also induces a positive pulse in aecondary 82.
8ince the turns ratio bet ween windings P and 82 i. 1 to 1, the output
developed Rcross thiB secondary is a pulse of appro:limateiy 1,000volt amplitude (fig. 14O(!) .
(8) The line-controlled blocking oscillator driver ifi shown in figure
141 1.8 a component of a complete transmitter cin:uit. The input
to the modulator tube V2 i8 the l,ooo-voit pulse developed acrOt;~
winding 82 of the pulse transformer. V2 is normally nonconducting
hecaufJe of the - 860-volt bias supplied to ite control grid. Capacitor

.07

Dn9m.t/fl;n>

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

is chsrged from the 14,ooo...volt supply through va, R7, and lA.
When the positive pulse is applied to the modulstor tube, Cti discharges through the magnetroD and V2, generating an r-f puifle.
(9) Wheo the driver output pulse falls, V2 is sharply cut ofl'.
OsciliatiolllJ are 86t up in L6 and the distributOO Upacital}C6 between
the magnetron filament and ground by this sudden cha n~ The in
ductance is put in the circuit pUrpollSly to cause oecillations, so that
the pulse at the magnetron filament mlly have a steep trailing edge.
For uample, figure 142(i) shows the eifoot of the distributed capacitance in prolonging t he decay of voltage at the magnetron Blanmlt.
QscillatiolllJ set up in the filament cireut by the addition of inductor
LIS produce ~ voltage of the type shown in @. Since the negative
alternations of the oscil lation, as at A and B, could cause the mal'netron
to oecillate, the negative portions must be removed. Damping II
~

- -'---J:::'~'=

"-I-- -j--.!-7'--

e __ ...... " ..
usually provided by a diode,so that a waveform of the type shown at
is produced. The diode acts 811 a very low resistance aCI"{)SS the reso
nant circuit during the po9itive alternation, and quickly damps out
the oeciUations by absorbing the energy in the oscillatory circuit.
Therefore, no negative alternations oocur to cause the magnetron to
operate.
(10) Because there is always a slight delay in starting the pulse in
a blocking-osc_il1ator driver, it. is not desirable ro Uge the trigger pulse
fol' timing the rest of the radar system where short minimum ranges
are iml)Ortant. In order to avoid the complexity that would be
involved in attempting to match this de lay by some form of delay
circuit, a timing pulse is coupled out of the t,ransmitter from the c~
of 05. Since the caBe of ell is oonnected to one plate of t he capacitor,
it chnnges potential abruptly when the modulator is driven into cou
duction. Therelore, whenever the magnetron is pu1sed, a negativl5

...

( { l~I"'__ ""'''ii"""'~'''T",.".t.!!"c''II&,","1---

"

>

'I~
!

J
~

-
1
-,

I-
I

1.,
,
-
,,
--!
.,

.,
I

-,
~

<

J'

JNNEIt!.lIY Of MCHIbAN

ttming pulse is ooupled out to the rest of the circuit at exactly the same
instant.
WI.eII . . .
(1) Instead of &mplifying a modulating pulse in a series of vacuum t.ub6s, a pulae may be

rIl.... ...........

.
T R" !l!"'G EOG[ PROI.()t,IG[O
ev OISCHA RGE OF OISTA!BuTlI)
c"''''.CIt,t,!<IC[ .

TAA!t.!"'(; (~STUPENtO
ev OSC!llKno",s.

OSClll" TIO"'S D.t."'1>0 BY


CUPPI"'G " C TOON OF 0000[ .

genuated at high-power level directly by di9Charging a pulse-forming


line through t.he r-f generator and a switching device. The switching
device in this type of system i8 usually a spark gap because of the limitationa on the power-handling capacity or the br!?k-doW1l voltage of .

n.

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

other devices. The obvioug advanta!.,'!! of this system is that modnlaOOr tubea, with their heavy filament-power drain, are not required_
The spark itaelf di ssi pates very little energJ lind the power oonsumoo
by the au:tilikry controls is sm&ll, 90 that theoreticalefficiencillfl of SO
or 90 pel"Oent are pofI>ible.
(2 ) One diBlldvanta~ of the higb-Ievel pulse-modulation system is
the h.ct that there is no chance 10 improve Ihe shape of tOO plllge fllter
il. is generated_ In the vac uum -lube pul8l' modulator the pulse is gen_
erated Ilt low voltage Rnd thereafter is amplified in nonlinenr amplifiers
which BIItunt!! at the peak of the pulee. In this ease, the art.ificial
tnosmi.asi on line u9l!d to fonn the puh:ll! may be a poor approximlltion
of a real line beclI.Ul:II! irregularities in the flat top of the pulee thus
int.roduced. may be clipped in succeeding amplifiel"8. In t.he high-level
puL'lt' modulator, 00 the other hand, no such opportunity for share
oorTt'CIion exists. The line employed mUBt ~ a cloae approximat.ion
to" ('ontinuCMUI tl'1ll\llffiill!ion line.

- ---

fL-'"

(3) If aD artificial line is to meet this requirt'ment., many aections


must be ueed. Since all of t.he capacitors must withstand the high
volt.age, such a line would be very bulky. A means of nodllcing the
physical size of the line is found in th e WJe of the Ouillemin line,
Mown in figure 143. The geriea capacitor is the only one that need
be insulated for high volt.age since it is the only one charged. The
other capaciton> are pal"\l.IIeled by inductances and have voltage across
them only during charge and discharge, where they divide the applied
voltage.
(4,) When the OuilJemin line is used in high-level pulse modulation,
a very nearly rectan~lar pul!lt may be generated wilh 8teep rille and
faU, and ftat top constant within + tI percent. Modifieation~ of the
Ouillemin line whi ch Uge only a few sections have been developed.
These networks are usually encased in a metal container filled with
Insulating compound, and are called "pot.ted lines."
(tI) The basic circuit of the fixed 8park-gap modulator ia shown
in figure
The pulse-forming line, wh ich may be either the
Ouillemin line or the ordinllry artificial tran8mi!C'lion line, ~ chargMt
from the power supply IhrHugh Ll lind Vi. The inductance of Ll
and the capllcitanee of the line form a resonant circuit. 90 that. the volt.-

1"_

~ao-_4 _ 12

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

age across the line t4:nds to oscillate. At the peak of the positive swing
the line is chuged to a voltage conlliderably higber tban the d-e supply. At this instant the trigger pulae is applied to the auxiliary electrode, and the spark gap conduct.. The characteristic impedance
of the pulse-forming line is made equal to the impedance of the magnetron 80 tbat one half of the voltage. on the line is impre Ed across
the magnetron for the duration of the pulse.
(6) The spark gap (fig. If&) consis~ of two epberical ele<:trodee,
one of which is hollow. lnserted in this hollow sphere, and insulated
WlfZUION

POWUI

UP

11'<,.... 1#. Buk:

""',..

"'"*'. of

n.c~ Apart""'"

TL-"'"

","_'-'Of".

.......",.

t1.CTROOE

fL- 8...0

from it, is a third electrode. The main gap A.B is made large enough
90 that the voltage between A and B will not blUk it down. 11 the
gap between trigger wire a and electrode A is broken down by a trig.
gtlr pulse, the resulting potiitive ions will be attracted toward the electrode B and will therefore cause break-down in the space between A
and 8. The instant of discharge can be controlled accurately in this
way. Experience shows that the control of the timing of the discharge is more accurate when the hollow electrode serves as the anode,
or plate, for the discharge.. The 6~rk stops when the network is

u.
o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

Illmoet completely discharged because the volta~ acrOSlJ the gap is no


lo~r B"fIir.ient to maintain ionization.
(7) A thyratron tube lilly be used in place of the fixed spark gap
in the same circuit. The limitation of the thyratron is that this type
{JI tube cannot withstand a voltage in eJ:ce98 of 27,000 volt6, while the
B~rk gap can be 1I8I!d for practically any voltage.
e.. Beta..,.
ter. (1) The sp&rk gap is
weU suited for U8l) in a modulator circuit beeau.'!ofl it can handle peak
curnmtll of 100 amperea or more at very high voltages. However, an
arc that takes place in air produces ozone and nitrous o:zide which
corrode the metallic electrodel!l rapidly, eepeciaUy in the p~nOEl of
water vapor. The life of a fi:zed spark gap is usually 1_ than 200
hours becsuae of the rapid corr08ion of the trigger electrode.

rk_... .....

(2) Another way of breaking down a spark gap is to cause ita


electrodes to approach each other at the t ime the gap is to fire. This
can be accomplished by -rotating one side of the gal) on a wheel in
such a way that it regularly pVSIlIJ a' fixed electr.da, 18 shown in
figure 146. On tbe same bracket with the fixed electrode which
lIerves III one wrminal of the main discharge is mounted a small,
.,harpiy pointed electl-ooe called a corona ion generator. Near t he
sharp point of the ion gpnerator the voltage stress is much higher
than elsewhere, 80 that the air is more easily ionized at the point.
When the rotating electrode pee w between the fixed electrode and
the ion generator, the gap between the two main electrodes breaks
down quickly bcause of the initial ioniza.tioll pro.,ided by the ion
generator.
(3) 8inOEl the spacing of the electrodes which form the gap is not
critical, and since th.e cor1"Ollioll of the electrod88 that takes place is

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

distributed among the Beveral rotating eledrodes, the life of the


rotary spark gap i8 much longer than that of the bed spark gap.
If the COITOllive gases produced by the sp.rk .re removed either by
a carbon .bsorber or blown ....y by It fan, the life of the rotary gap
should be in ~J:Cf.88 of 1,000 hours.
(4.) Because radio frequency energy Is radi.ted h(JW thl apark,
it i8 nK75rry to indoee the mechanism .. ithin a metal container to
prevent interferenoe with other parts of the radar cif('uit. In .d
dition, chokes and filters are inserted in all leads to .nd from the
rotary gap circuit to prevent tranBllliBllion of r-f enlrgy to other
prts of the equipment. The spark gap should be kept at constant
prr ure in order to operate consistently. It is especially important
that thl pre .ure be maintained in aircraft ill5tallations, beca"uee the

Cut:

Voac""'11

.w

---

n-Int

CIIIOUIT

braakdown voltage of lir is considerably reduced It high altitudes


where the .ir pressure is 10'"
(5) The pulse. forming network ueed with a spark-gap modulat.or
m.y be eharged from either III a-e or a d-e source. Sinoe the charg8
ie stored on the capacitors in the network, a cap.citive reactanoe is
offered by the network during the ch.rging time. An inductor oon
neded in series ..ith this capacitance produces an OIlCill.lory cil"('uit
(fig. 14.7). If switch 8W is cloeed. sometime before t. (fig. 14.8), the
pulse-forming network, ... hich is represented by 0, ...ilI di.J;charg.
. through Rand 8W and the potential at A ..ill be uro. If the
switch is opened at t.. a potential of -4,,600 volu. q fJUdderuy .pplied
to the RLC circ:uit. Thia BUdden change of voltage seta up train
of damped OIlCiliation& The initi.lsurgtl of energy OIlCiJlatl!! bet.WeeD
the magnetic field around the inductor and the charge on the capacitor.
If there ..ere no rIIlistance in the circuit, the current would be .n
undamped line ...VI (fig. 14.8@), and the voltage at point A would

...

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

,
vary between 0 and twice the applied voltage, curve 0 Howev8Z',
with resistance in the J:ircuit, the voltage at point A ia .. damped
eine-wave cu", , "hicb will ultimately die out, leaving the capacitQr ch&rged to the supply potential of - 1,600 volta.
(Il) The damping caueed by the ftSilltanoe in the circuit limite the
first swing of voltage.t point A to about - 8,000 volta. The inductance
ill .djWlted to mIke the frequency of the oecillation equal to one-half
lhe pU!IIe-Nlpetition frequency, 80 that the volta~ _t point A will be-..
muimum.t time ~,. If the switch is cloeed at this inst.&nt, the voltage.
t point.do falls to uro (eurve@),and the pulse-forming network discharges through R. Since R is equal to the characteristic impedance
of the network,.. pulse of 4,000-volt amplitude is produced r.ero88 it
by the discharge.
,
to / "

,
----, ,

'r

Co)

'-;--- -

WITHOUT
O I!A
IF aLiiCII RU,'N' OPEN

[,0. WlT11

"\1

S."CM ; "'IS ~

\/'
'.

.,.,,....,. ,,.

'~

JW

'-

n-""

(7) The exact instant of strikinf[' the arc in .. rot.ry spark pp is


not easily oontrollable and the lr'C DlII.y not strike at uactly t, for every
plll.. Although the Tollage at point A doea not change"greatly .... ithin
_ ...raJ micl""08eConds before or after t .. ill ill IIOmetimes desirable to
connect a diode in the circuit to P"''t'eDt this voltage from decreuing
(fig. 14-9). Tht diode ptnnita electrons to Bow in the direction for
charging the network, but at t, when the current aU~mpta to reverse
direction (fig. 148(!) , the diode beoomllll nonconducting and pn!venta
any further change of charge on the network. By this means, the network can be charged to I1Mrly twice the applied voltage, and as it will
remain at this volt.ge then! ia no need of synchronizing the firing of
the spark gap with the period of the charging oecillation.
(8) The pul81-forming network may be charged directly from a
tranaformer when connected in a circuit similar to that lIhown in figure
160. In" thie case the circuit is not l'IlIOnant, but the frequency of the
applied power oorresponde to the d~ rMOnanOf) charging of the type
pre"riously discmnd. The rme nriationa in the basic circuit can be

....

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

"~

1
I.

-- 1

0
-

I ~~

i i! ,

I:0'

t. '

I'

It

"%

-- --

-,t
!

1
0

-,

...
I

,
IIIN(J!SIIY OJ ""JILIN

(9) lmproVemeJlt in the pedormance of apark.gap modulatora can


be had by lUling transfor1Dera It'hieh are specially dl!l8igned to pM8 a
l'ulae waveform without introducing IlUbetantial changes in iUllthape.
Such transformlll'8 serve 8everal important purp1lse& in modulator
Mfuipment. In the 6rat place they may be wed 10 chllnge the impedance
lMel in pul8ll cireuita, changing from a high-voltage, IOlf'cUlTef\t
source to a iolt'.voltage, high.current output, or vice versa. In the

,,~~~ . J
fDlSCHAII.
..r'-<.

---

+
I
I

--

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I
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second place, thll tranBformer may be. uSed 118 a polarity revening
device, a8 in the blocking oscillator discuseed in paragraph b above.
In the third place, the transformer may ee"e to isolate d-e 8OUrcfl6.
(10) The most common use of the pulae transformer is illustrated by
figure 161. The pui8ll is formed by a rotary gap discharging an ani.
Sei ..1 line through the primary of the transformer. The turns ratio
is such &II to step up the primary voltage to II much higher value to be
applied to the magnetron. Since the magnetron im~nce 118 ssen
OTT

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

by the line is stepped down as well, the polge forming network need
not be built to withstand the high voltage of the pulfle reaching the
m.gnetron, and an h.ve a lower ch.r.cteristi<: imped.nce. The volt..p of the power SOUfCe for charging the pulee.forming line is COil e!.
pondingly smaller.
(11) In m.ny ...d.r install.tions, particul.rly thOll8 in .ireraft, it
i8 de8irable to sep.rate the antenna .nd the bulky power unite of the
t ... nsmitter by. oonsiderable distanc:e. This CAn be ueompli"ed by
running. long oo.J:i.lline or w.veguide hom the magnetron to the
antenn.. However, long r f linl'll tend to make the operation of the
magnetron ufllltable and 6I.1<:h long HnM should be .voided if poeaible.
An alternative to long rf lines is to aep....te the m'gnetron from the
modul.tor .nd power supplies, .nd to oonne<:t them by a long cable
(fig. 162). It ill neeeB8lry to terminate the pul8t uble in ita eharact.e,..

.-

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istie imped.nce to prevent reflection of the pulse. Siute it is 1m.


practieal to build a <:ouialline of .. hieh the <:haraeteriBtie impedanee
is equal to the static l't'JIistance of the magnetron (about 800 ohms),
the oou:ialline must be terminated in a pulse transformer. The pulse
transformer .nd mllgnetron IJ'8 not bulky, thu it is feasible to have
them near the antenna.
(12) Two secondary windings 'a re wound on the pulse transformer.
When I pu* is applied to-the primary, the voltage induced in each
winding is negative at the t:athodeend of the ooil& The t.wo seeonda"
windings are effectively <:onne<:ted in parallel for the pulse voltage
by eapadtons eland 02, 90 that both windings aid in driving <:urrent
through the magnetron. With two seeondary windings oonne<:ted in
thi9 way, the lower end9 are nearly at ground potential. Therefore
the heater transformer need not be insul.ted for high voltagt3. This
ctlnne<:tion permits the use of oonventional heater transformer in this

...

--

On9 .. oil"""

. .
~

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

cin::uit instead of the I>pecial transformer, itlBulated for the full pulse
voltage, that was required in the transmit.ter di.scund in section IV.
(13) In figure IU is shown the circuit diagram of a complete rotary
8parlr:. gap modulator and transmitter. The puJa&.forming net"ork
is charged to 8,000 volt8 from a volt.ge doubltr through a resonantcharging cinluit oonsiBti'ng of LI, VI, Zl, 1.2, H2, Ra, and the primary
winding of TI. Although most of the discharge current fio"s through
the primary of the pulse transformer, lOme of the curnmt fio"s
through Rj .nd R3 and through L2. The output of the modulaoor i,
a positive--going {.()()().vo!t pulse. Therefore, a positive pulse of -.p.
pro:dmately J..2IS..l'olt amplitude is develop&d actUB R3 to be "sed M
the timing pulse for the rest of the system.
.
(101,) The t,OOO-volt positive pulse in the primary of the pulse tratlBfol'mtlr induces a negative 18,OOO-voit pulse in the secondary "indings.
Should the load be removed by diliCOnnecting the magnetron, a voltage
much Inger than 18,000 volta would bedeveloped acl'Olll theeeoondaries
h - UIIII 01 the poor regul.tion of the transformer. To prevent dunf.g6
to the tranaformer from the poesible high voltage, a protective spark
gap, adjuated to fiN at 25,000 volta, is oo~n&Cted acl"068 one of the
secondaries. Should the gap fire , the tralUlfonner "ould be heavily
lo.ded. and the voltage could rise no bigher.
(lIS) The pulse voltage induced. in the t"o IIIIOOndary windingl! of
the transfonner ie pquaJi'Pd by byp... capacioora Cl. C2, and Ct.
Since it ia d~ired to keep the Jo"er ends of .t118 two windings nearly
at ground potential, capacioora Cl and C2 are oonn&cted to ground.
The magnetron plate current p'MI'lII.t.hrough the magnetron to ground,
throagh IW and C3 in parallel, and the pulse transformer 8lIOOndaries.
The voltage developed acl"068 R4 is proportional to the average curmit Bowing in the magnetron .nd the damping diode because C3
JDtel'l out the surgee. If it is desired to have an .pproximate indicll.tioo. of the magnetron-plate current, a meter m.y be connected &Cl'08!I
lW. If no meter is desired, the circuit may be eimplified by the elimination of the bypaaa capacitors, and the tenter tape of the heater
Uanslormera may be grounded to provide a c1(JB~d circuit for the plate

""""
.. 8 ....e

" 11'.1'

......_.

(1) Instead of producing a low-po"er pul9l' and amplifying it, or ~nerating a highPOWel" pulse from an art ificial line, a .turable inductor can be uaed
as a pitch to oootrol the charge and dillCharge of a network: to produce
an appros:imately equare modulating pulse. The block diagram of
auoo r. By.stem ill shown in figure 1M.
(i) The timing input to the current oontrol tube is a square wavt.
During the positive portion of this square WIVe, VI is conducting, and
energy is etored in the Iield &:round inductor Ll. When the tube is

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uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

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cut off, this field colb.p81!8, charging capacitor ~ through the charging
diode. At the instant that the voltage acre : 3 the e.pacitof is a mui r
mum., the saturable inductor switch, L2., is closed and the capacitor
voltage is applied across the magnetron through ca.
(8) A 8atumble inductor can be used as a switch since it. can be
either a very high impedance or a very low impedance, depeoding on
the condition, under which it operatell. This wide change of im.
pedance is possible because the OOte of the saturable induetor, or non
line.r coil us it is sometimes CIllled, i, satumted by a relatively low
current in the coil. A graph, called a magnetiution curve, in which
the fiuz density in the core i, plotted against the current in the ooil,
i9 shown in figure 1M. The boriwntal portions of the curve are called
the saturated region because a current more positive than A or more
negative than B Ctlnnot cause an increase in the fluz density in the
core. In the region betW6ell A and B the Ouz density in the core iR

n.. _

directly proportional to the current fiowing in the ooil. Since the


volta~ acl'OS8 an inductor is proportional tc the rate of chllnge of the
magnetic fiuz that links the coil, no volta~ appeara acr068 it when the
core i, saturated, even though the current may be changing. With
zero voltage acrOljlJ the illductor, it acta as a short circuit; with
voltage induc~d in t he coil by II. changing magnetic field, it acts as an
impedance which is made high by proper design of the coil. Therefore, when the current thnmKh a snturable inductor lies in the region
between A BlId B, it may be considerod as an open switch; when the
current is ieyond either A or B, the inductor is II. closed switch.
(4,) A schematic circuit diagram of a modulator which uses a
saturable inductor as a switching devise is shown in figure 166. Note
that the symbol for the saturable inductor, 1.2, is similar to the sym:
hoi for a conventional inductor with a line through it to represent
its magnetiZluiun curve. The cnrrent control tube Vl is nonnally
cut off by grid.leak bias developed by Cl and Ri. When tbe timing
!!quare wave swings the grid of VI positive, current i, and i. begin
to flow in plate load inductol'!j Ll and L2. Clirrent i, quickly buildB

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up to a value in eJ,:ce811 of saturation value, 80 that 1.2 becomes a low


impedanoe.
At thia time, C8 quickly discharp through L9 to the voltage at the
plate of VI. Altbougb L2 ofters very little impedance to a further
change of curre.nt in this branch of the cireuit the magnitude of ..
is limited by N6istor R8. Inductor Ll i8 sbunW by a high impedance,
whether L2 is saturated"or n04 80 that most of the plate current of
VI must o.ow througb Lt. As the current i,. continues to inc. a e,
energy is stored in the magnetic field around Ll.
(5) When the current-control tube is cut off by the negative swing
of the tjming square wave the field around Ll starta to oolIapee.. A
higb voltage with polarity as shown on Ll is induced acroee L1 by
the collapsing field. This voltage is momentarily short circuited by
the low impedance of L2,
.nd the filter cal>acitance acr088 the
l,ooo-volt power supply, tending to reverse the direction of 0.011' of i,.
When i, deereage8 to saturation value, L9 beeomes a high impedance,
At this instant, the energy of the conapaing magnetic field begins to
be transferred to capacitor a. in an oecilJatory tra.mient. As energy
is transferred to a., the voltage l.C1'UI8 it builds up along a sine curve.
This voltage reaches a muimum of about 15,000 volts, with the
poluity shown in figure 28, in approIirnately 10 micro&eCOllds, which
is equal to a quai"t.el" of the period of t116 oecillation of the resonant
circuit made up chiefly of Ll and e4. The path througb which capacitor C4 is charged from Ll is through diode V2 and the filter capacitance across the l,200-volt power supply.
(8) While capacitor C4 is being charged, current i, in the saturabl6
inductor decreases from saturation value .4 to zero Ilnd builds up
toward saturation value B in the other direction. The time required
for this reversal to take place is approrimdely 10 micl"ll8&Cond&
When L2 again is saturated, it becom8ti Il low impedance, grounding
tbe positive side of C4 through capacitor
Since the capacitance
of C3 is about U times greater than that of C4, and since I.a is a low
impedanOll, approIimitely 14.,000 volta appears across the magnetroll.
The polarity of the voltage on C4 is sucb that the magnetron cathode
is made negative witb respect to tbe anode, causing oscillation.
(7) Initially inductor L8 is a very high impedance to the discbarge
of capacitor a., because tbe current in the inductor cannot change
instantly. However. after about 0.8 miclcse eond, tbe current through
this inductor has built up to an appreciable magnitude, Ilnd L3 effectively shunta the magnetron witb a constantly decreasing impedance. Since the impedance of 1.8 becomes low, the rate of discharge
of C4 is increpsed, causing the magnetron to go out of oecillation
quickly. Within the O.8-microsecond period oecillations of single
mode are produced by the magnetron in spite of the fact that the

ca,

ca.

...

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UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

plate vol~ deerea!Ei from 14,000 volte to Ilppro:linlately 8,000 volts


during this time. Although it was pointed out that the voltage imPP'SEti on a magnet.!'on should be oonstll.nt W pre%nt OflCiliation in
undl'lJired modes, it is po8IIible to operat~ improved magnetrons with
the type of voltage provided by the.saturable inductor modulator
without harmfullO!!S of power.

...
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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

Seet VI.

S""te_

H. lNTaOD1JaION.
.. GI! _ _ I. Previous sections of this manual have indicated
that the electrical characteristi('8 and physical .p~r.nCEI of n.dar
antenna &ySWn9 may vary widely. The approximate size of the!
antenna is detennined by the selection of the carrier frequency and
the type of installation. The actual design for I given equipment is
based on several considerations which control the over-aU elIiciency
and the angular accuracy of the data to be obtained.

...

~e,.

ee....erall.... (1) Maximum efficiency of

tbe antenna system demands that each link in the ptoth from traMmitter to antenna, and from antenna to receiver, waste as little Of
the r-f energy as poIIIIible. The transmi.ion line need should there.
fore hIve the smallest poasible loses, consiStent with the phpical
typ es, which can be used for a reasonable size of unit.
(9) In addition to protecting the receiver circuits from burnout and
blocking, the T-R switch incl'ell8e!i the energy transfer by guiding the
signals to their proper destination_ During the transm itted pulse the
receiver path iq dosed, Ind during the rest.i ng time the transmitter path
is closed. Thus, in each case, the energy is used to produce the deeired
I'f!IIult, without wasting power in inactive circuit!!.
(3) Finally, the over-all eBiciency can he raised if the particular
application for which the system is to he used will permit concentration
of the energy into a narrow beam.
e. h ....r .ee....ey. (1) The ability of a radar unit to
locate targets in azimuth or eleVltion depends on how well the antenna can 8611)1'$ the direction of the return signal. It has been shown
in section I that. narrow beam is better able to find the maximum
return-BignaJ direction than a wide one_ Double lobe system" still
further increase the accuracy of angular measurement.
.
(2) Back radiation and sille lobes tend to ('(Infuse the opentor,and
tbet'flfore to decrease hiB ibility to locate tar~t8. Antenna construction which wiD reduoe un1l'anted Jobes in antenna pattefll8 is usu.u.,
employed to aid in this respect.

...

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

37.. ANTENNA. FEED SYSTEMS.


a. Tw.....I _ .pea .rae. (1) TJle simple~t form of trllnsmission line to const-n lct is the two- wire line. Charllcter istic impedances from 100 ohms to 1.000 ohms lire euily ob tll ined. The most
common form uses "dl'(!s or tubing I\'hich are accurately spaced by
means of ceram ic insulntors.
( 2) At ut remely high fN!qu l.' ncies the insulllt ors Jose some of the ir
insulating qualities, ami leaka~1' fntl'(!nts IIcr0S8 them Wilsie power.
When the transmission line is nllicle reson ant, the leaknge current may
'UD

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actually heat and crllck the cernmic. Placing Ihe insulators at voltage
nodes, and making USi! of a better matnilll, such &8 polystyrene, will
sometimes redu ce losses to II reasonable point.
(8) A much more salisfllctOI'y fmm nf insulator is the stub sup port. This is simply 1\ qUlll'lf r-wave tra nsmission line shor t-circui ted
at one end. The other end presents a "ery high impedance 10 any
outside circuit. Stub supports call be applied in many v.ays. F igure
1;)7 illustrate; the use of two solid rods fa stened to t he side of II tOWH
to support a transmission line running up to the antenna. The stub
lengths are It./ 4 and the tower form s the shorting tmr. For purpose!!
of mechanical st.rengt h. t he feed line may be con nected to the support
at some dista nce f rom the open end. This is possible with 10w10!SS
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.
stubs since tJleir impedance is very high at the open end, decreasing
to zero at the tower. The connection point is selected to give I sulIi.
dendy higli impedance to avoid changing the much lower imf""'.... ee
of the feed line.
.
(4) Figura 1M! showe. method of support within the operating
building consisting of two tubes of the IIIlmll size &8 the main transmi&-

1'110 LINE

sion line which are stretched from ceiling to Boor. Shorting bani Ire
placed a qUlrter-wave above and below the feed line to present a high
impedallCfl acl'08II it. Additional shorting ban are placed. quarterwave apart to prevent the supporting line from absorbing power from
the main feed line.
(5) Open wire linea areeas-y to construct and maintain, and in addition are relatively ineJ:pensive. The proctm of matching to both the

...

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UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

antenna and the transmitter is simple, since mau:hing stubs can be


placed anywhere on the feed line. Rotating joint!! generally take the
form of concentric loops formed across the line to obtain inductive
coupling from one side to the other. The main disadvantage to the
open-wire line is thllt, because of the spacing between conductors, the
f~ lines will radiate, which results in Il.n inerease in losses. The
higher the frequency the greater are the losses.
.. C ...........,.. (1) The cOBlIia] line has the main advantage over the open-wire line of being completely shielded. The energy
is conveyed entirely within the outer conductor, so that nont of it is
radiated and l06t. At extremely bigh frequencies the saving in power
is considerable. In addition, tbe space ottupied by the installation i8
small, and the method of mounting is very simple, since the outer
surface is at ground potential.
(2) The inner conductor of the couialline is nonnally centered in
the outer conductor by means of ceramic or polystyrene spacers.
Just aa in the open-wire line, the insulators become p~rtial conductoI'!l
in the microwave region. In some lines special spacing of the il1llOlator8 ha.s heen used to minimize 1069%. The more practical method
is the use of stub supports as e!f1ployed in the radar system described
in section IV. Figure 81, B , illustrates the couial stub support.
(8) The disadvantages of the coaxial line are not great enough to
prohibit its use, but should be-considered. Since the outer conductor
completely inclosea the inner, the use ofstub matching is complicated.
Where neussary, two stationary stubs, adjustable in length, Ire used
instead of the single ~tub which can be a(tjusted in length and position.
The peak power of the transmitted pulse is high enough so that the
spacing of the conducturs must be relatively large to avoid are-over
nnd damage. It. is general practice to seal the line and fill it with
inert gaB to increll-Sll the break-down voltage. This has the added
advantage of preventing the c"ll~tion of moist ure which will lower the
breakdown point. The connection to an antenna is normally balanced to ground, while the cOllxial line hilS oue grounded side, which
results in the need for a balance converter, or bazooka.
e. W.vell.ldee. ( 1) The I( -es in I OOI'lllial line become excessive at wavelengths siloner than 10 ~-entimetcrs. Fortunately thl'
waveguide call be constructed in a reasonable size for use at these
wavelengths. The larb'l'5t. dimension ion cross sediull is normally 3
inches for 10 centimeter wavegui!les, while those for 11 centimeters are
correspondingly smaller. The losses art much smaller than for coaxiallines, and waveguide;; have the additiunal ~dvantages of simplicity
ill construction and no need for gas filling.
(2) Section Xl, TM 11-466 anll Navships 000.016 eJl:plains the
theory of the waveguide, the types which may be used, Rnd the mul"ies

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

in ..... hich t hey Illll)' be excited. The methods for cou pling energy in to
alld ou t of wln 'eguides aro also discussed. Both the rectangulil r and
roun d wanguides lue nsed exten_~j"ely. Generall y speuking. t he me

(j)

langnl ur type hlll'(' leS!! losses tha n the round, bnt the round WIl\'e
guide is "CI'Y u!lefnl in the construction of II l'Otllling joint of si mple
d,~sign. T he mode of elicit lit ion h'ls considerable effect on the I ~
which tX-"Cur, Ilnd 8.'1 Il retiult there Il re three modes whkh 1l1'!l most

..

--

0.'9' .I/rom
UNrYER~TY Of MKHKiAN

commonly used. Figure Hi9 Iihowe these modes. Of the two chculnr
modI'S, the TJJl 0" hD.s the grt'llter losses, bUi it will maintllin the pollrjUlion of the wive in plssing through I rotating joint, lind is therefore used quite often.

(3) The use of waveguides in the antenna system involves the pl'oblems of coupling energy from the r-f generator into the guide, allowing
for eIpanlion of the system u the re6ult of temperature changes, rotating of the antenna for searciling, and supplying of the power to the
Intenna proper. In the discUS8ion that follows, several possible waveguide sySWna will be uplained in order to bring out specific problems
and their solution. The illustrations al'll applications of the material
described in 8eCtion Xl, TM 11 466 and Nlvshipa 900,016.
(4.) Figure 160 shows a complete antenna system using both circular
and rectangular waveguide&. The magnetron supplies its output to a
coaliai line through a amall oonpling loop fol'llll by the inner ronductar of the line. The line is then oonneeted to the waveguide 80
that the inner conductor pa E2 through, and perpendicular to, the
wide face. The line is e:rtended to end in a short-circuiting plunger,
which is adjusted to cause a voltage maximum in the waveguide, ap
prorim.tely a quarter-wavelength away. Muimum output of tbe
magnebVn is produced by means of the mltching stub.
(6) The waveguide is ucited in a TE." mode, the guide plun~r
III!rvlng to oontrol the actual coupling by adjusting the standing waves
in the guide. A 2%- by %-inch guido is used near the magnetron for
OODlpaetne., but to incre'se e!iciency of transmission this is e::a:panded
to I 8- by I1h-iDch guide above the tn.namitter. Near the rotlting
joint, the rectangullr guide is changed to I 8-incb circullr guide,
which is e::a:cited in the TE, .. mode. .An upansion joint is fonned
.bove this point by tm-Iking the circular guide. A choke, conaillting
of a Bange on either aide of the hreak, prevents radiltion and 1088 of
energy. The side slota of the choke IJ:'e I quarttt-wave in depth, and
lees 't han AlI0 in width, 80 that they form resonant circuits which will
pl"\!8ent an open circuit It the OUUlt edges of the fllnges. The open
circuit ill re1Iected to the guide a quarter-wive away 18 a short circuit,
bridging the gap electdcaUy. The short circuit is mlintained by the ,
side slots 18 the e::a:pansion joint is opened or cloeed.
(e) The rotating joint is simillr in p6nciple to the e:a::pansion joint
ucept that the glp between sections is Bud, and one !!!'Ction tum,; with
respect to the other. Since the gap is fbed, the choke is si mpler than
for the expansion joi nt. Two flnt flanges are nttached on either side
of the brelk, with I fixed spicing of less thin .\flO. The fllnges form
the two sides of I qnarter-wave line which is open-circuited at the outer
end. The tnergy in the guide sees this high impedlnce reflected 19 I
.bort circuit which confines th e energy within the guide.

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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

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(7) The S_inch circular guide is continued up to the antenna, where


a gentle bend in the guide diT:t8 the r-f energy at a parabolic refle<:tor.
The waveguide terminates in a polystyrene window placed at the focal
point of the reBector. Muimum radiation through the polystyrene
i s ill8ured by selecting its dimensions to match properly thO! characteristic impedance of the waveguide to that of the reflector and free
space. The electric field is transverse in the circular guide (TE" ,)
so that in passing through the rotating joint the energy may undergo
a change in relative polRrity. As shown in figure 160, the electric field
is horizontal below the rotating joint, but is turned and OOcomes verti-

cal in ruching the reflector. If the antenna is rotated 00. so that it


points out of the page, the eledric field passes up the guide witlLo\lt
change and the polarization is horizontal. At other angu lar positions
of the antenna the pol!lrization .wiU vary between horiwntal and verti_
cal. This is the main difficulty encuuntt'red in using a circular guide
excited in the TE", mode 88 a rotating joint.
(8) Constant vertical polarization of the radillted energy can be
maintl.ined if the feed system is modified to use a short section of
cOIlJ:ialline as the rotating joint (fig. 161 ). The coaxial line is used
to couple a rectangular guide to n circu lllr guide. The rectnuIllllnr
guide is terminated in a ~lightly larjl6r section which is shorted at the
end. Two tun ing plugs ser ve to adjust for an impednnce match to

...

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UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

lII'lCure muimum energy transfer. The coanu line has ill; inner
oonduetor extended. into the reetagular guide as a voltage probe, fdld
into the ein:ular guide as one-half of dipole. The outer conduetor
is eItended about a qu.rter-wave into the end of the circular guide,
and has the other half of the dipole futened to it. The rotating
joint is formed by breaking the OUW oonduetor and using a ehoke to
b~ the gap. The choke slot. is bent bad on itself fdld has a total

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length of half-wa.ve, 80 that the shOrt It the end of the. slot is ~


. fleeted as ahort across the gap of the joint. P olarization is established by the position of the dipole in the c:ircular guide, It.nd is not
ehanged by rotation, since the dipole moves with the guide.
(9) Figure 182 iIIust ... tes aD antenna system auiuble for 8 oentimeter wavelengths whieh has !leveral dHferences from thoee pre"jously di!l('u.'IIIed. The magnetron ia mnnufactured with the inner
conduewr of a coaxial line in place.. This conductor is formed into

.. .

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Dn9. II"""
UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

II coupling loop inside the magnetron, and into an upanded voltage


probe on the outside. The mllgnetron plugs into the side of a rec. tanguJar guide through a collar which forms the outer conductor of
the COAxial. The length of the inner conductor is made an odd number
of qUllner-waves for the specific tube frequency.
(10) A tuning plunger in the end of the rectangular guide ia adjusted for ma][imum transfer of energy. The guide conveys the energy to a cavity rotating joint. at the antenna proper, where tbe mode
of eJEcitation is changed from TE." to TJi.". The conversion is ICcomplished by meana of a large diameter tuning plug in the end of
the cavity which rotates the electric field 90 0 in po!Iition to caU8e a
radial electric field in the cavity. A standard form of rotating joint
is USI'd with a double cholr:e to insure a good electrical sbort ae~
tbe joint. TbiJ; is Decns'ry because of the very short wavelength.
(11) A II800nd plug in the other end of the cavity OOUplM it to
the rectangular guide feeding the antenna. A metal plate is fastened
along an equipotential line llC~ the open end of the guide to !/Upport a dipole antenna. This metal pllte haa a 86C0Dd plata fastened
to itat right angles, forming I re8ector for the r-f energy. A dipole
is placl a quarter-wave length in front of tbe reflector pllte, and is
ucited both by the direct and reflected fields. It, in tum, radiatl!S
energy at the parabolic reflector, which is used to concentrate the
energy into a narrow bum. The main Idvlntage in this system is
that the feed system enters from tbe back of the parabolic reflector,
and therefore llrge metal mlsaea in front of the antenna are Ivoided.

3L T 8,.,lIcaM.
.. G.,a.,_I . . (1) Whenever a aingle antenna is used for both
tran8lllitting and receiving, the problem Irill8!l of inauring that muimum 1ll\If! ia made of the available energy. The trimpleet 1I01ution ia to
U8D a awitch to transfer the antenna connection from the receiver to
the t.ranamitter for tbe duration of the tran8lllitted pulse. As baa
be m pointed out in 8ection II, there are no practical mechanical
switc:bM available whicb can open and close in I few micl'Oseconde,
or tbat can repeat the procftl8 at a rate comparahle to the system.
PRF Electronic 8witcbea, or T-R awikhM, must therefore he used.
(2) In selecting a switch for this taslr:, it mllllt be remembered that
_protection of the receiver input circuit ia equally 18 important as the
power considerations. At frequencies where r f amplifien may be
used, the amplifier tubes can be WOllen to witbstand large input powers
without damage. At microwave frequencies the input circuit is the
mi][er, which is easily damaged by Ilrge applied signals, Ind 110 must
be more carefully protected. This is particularly true of crystal
mi'lel'B.

...

(,( Q.I

o,'gir I"""'

UNfIIlRSlTYOfMlCHIGAN

(3) Generally speaking, if the receiver input circuit ia properly


protected the remaining receiver circuits can be prevented from block
ing sa the l"Il!iult of strong signals. A very strong main pulse tJignal
still appears in the receiver output unle!ll additional precautions are
taken to eliminate it. Thia can be done by .. receiver gate tJignal
which turns on the receiver during only the desired time.
It. Ope wtre T~ ",Ite'" (1) The T R method proposed
in paragraph Hc, can be used by 6Ubstituting a simple spark gap for
the double.pole switch (6g. 163). The spark gap makes a reason
ably good switch because it is an open cireuit until sufficient voltage
is applied to cause the gap to are over. The arc is formed by caus
ing the gas or Vlpor between the electrodes to ionis&. On06 started,

, I

VOt. T4Co

TL U.7
R(CElvtR

the running voltage acr088 the gap is very low, and the resistance of
the gap llpproacheB a short eitcuit. The ionized gap voltage is inde
pendent of the applied power, 60 that ~ re8iatan06 varies with applied power. Air at atmospberic pressure requires about 80,000 volu
per inch of gap to start the arc, while the running voltage is about GO
volta. The breakdown and running voltages for inclosed gaps depend on the pressure and the gas or vapor uged.
(2) For purp0!!e8 of illustration it win be &ssumed that the char
IIcteriatic impedance of the uansmission line, the feedpoint resistance
of the antenna, the input impedance of the reeeiver, and the output
impedance of the transmitter when generating r' power, are aU !UiO
ohms. The transmitter output impedance rises between pulgeS to
~,ooo ohms. The resistance of the conducting gap is ro ohms

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

(3) The pulse from the transmitter reach~ the T -junct.ion where
it finds two patha to follow. Part of the pwse power goes down the
receiver branch, and causes the spark gap to broak: down. As a result,
a resistance of 110 ohms is placed acroes the 2M-ohm line a quarterwavelength from the T -junction_ As seen from the T. junction the
quuter-wave line terminated in ~ obms appears &8 a much higher im
pedance of;

Z input_ 250'
60 _ 1,250 ohma.
The pulse therefore bas a choice of a l,2ro-ohm path to tbe spark gap
and a 260-ohm path to the antenna, since the antenna terminates tbe
transmission line in its characteristic impedance. The pulse energy
divides 60 that most of the energy take!J tbe lower reaistanoe path to
the antenna, wbile the rest is used to keep the gap diecharging. Because the receiver branch is a resonant line, there will be a voltage distribution across it &8 shown in figure 163. The voltage acros the gap
is lower than that across the T.junction, and ia the voltage of the pulse
reaching the receiver, mnoe the rest. of the receiver line ia pNperly
terminated by the receiver. If the gap nl8illtance can be made lower,
the magnitude of the pulse reaching the receiver will be reduced, and
the TR action improved. The lower gap resistance will a180 require
1l'SS power from theT .junction.
(4) At the end of the transmitti pulse the gap ia deionized, and
tbe antenna reach the T. junction.
signala whicb are picked up
Again there is a choice of two pat.hs, one to the transmitur and the
other to the rece1ver. The receiver path has an inpat impedance of
250 obma since the spark gap ia an open circuit and doee not aft'eet
t.he receiver branch. The path to the transmitter is made a half
wavelength, and is terminated in 15,000 ohms. The halfYoave 8eCtion
acta &8 a 1; 1 transformer 90 that the T .junction se6II 6,000 ohms.
The received signal8 are divided, practically all of their energy taking
the lower resistance path to the receiver. Note that if the output
impedance of the transmitter deere-ns below 260-ohms inatead of
increasing wbile in the non08CilIating condition, the line from the
transmitter to the Tjunction is made aD odd number of quarter
wavelengths to reflect a high resistance which eft'ectively blocks the
transmitter bnnch at the T.junction.
eo btJ-T-B .wI,e". ( I ) The output impedance of the trans
mitter does not always change sufficiently to permit the US8 of a
resonant line in blocking ret-ei ved signalll from the transmitter. In
such ca.ses a second spark gap is used &8 an antitransmit-receive
switch to block the transmitter branch at the Tjunction. Figure 164
shows the TR system of figure 8 with an antiTR switch added.
The T R switch worka in the same way as in the system just dellCribed.

.y

'.7
o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

(2) The t['8.nsmitted pulse PU'M down the line to the foIltiT B
spark gap and caUgee it to II"C over. The resulting short circuit iI
redect.ed Inek to the mlin feed line &8 I high impetifollee by the qUitter.
waYe line. If the same vlluea Ire used &8 in the previous ezample,
the reflected impedanee of the antiTR gap will be l,2r1O ohms in
pa['8.Uel with the 26O-ohm antenna li ne. During the transmitted
pulse, then, the antiT-R switch simply uees a small amount of the
transmitted. power.
(8) The antiT R gap is eft'ectively an open circuit during the
r ssting period. The shorting bar which iB a quarterwaYe below

,I

RCCtlVtR

TL

.....

1'/g"IV: 16f. ,,"WI'_R .!ClteA.

the gap (fig. 1M) , is n'fll'Cted by the halfwave anti T . R line 18 a


short circuit acl"O$l the transmitterfeed line. This is reftected in
turn to the T.junetion loS a high impedance by the quarUr waVfl
section of the line, thus blue"ing this channel to I"6Ci.!ived signals.
Although the transmitler U in parallel with the antiTR branch, it
will hue no elect at thu time, sinee it is placed acrose an apparent
short circuit.
(4) Both the TR and the antiT-R switches require 80me of the
transmittedpulse power to operate them. This is undeai['8.ble, sinOil
part of their function is to increese t'fliciency. The amount of power
required. can 116 80mewhat n1dnced, and the switching action im

...

,.,

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

proved, by using trandormen to step up the voltage applied aCross


the gap. Suppoee that the signal iB applied to tbe primary of a stepup transformer, and tbe sparlt gap i8 placed across the secondary
(fig. 166). The secondary iB tuned to obtain a very high secondary
impedance .hen tbe gap iB not conducting. This impedance is
reflected to tbe primary I I an open cireuit.
(6) The voltage of the signal applied to the primary is stepped up
in the 8eOOndary, wbicb caW!fl8 the spark gap to bn!llk down sooner
than if tbe original signal wen applied directly to the gnp. The n~istanee of the conducting gap is placed across the tuned secondary,
and is stepped down into the primary I I a much lower Mistanee.

''+____,-__________________

TRANSMITTE
C

TO T-JUNCTICH
2~0.n

TL 8&48

AMUming a gap resistance of 110 ohms, and a stepdown of 10:1, the


primary will have an impedance of :I obms The:l ohms is reOected
by the quarter wave line u :

,.,.
z-

Ii -12,500 ohml.

The power taken by the gap will therefore be reduced by 10:1, 18


compared to placing the gap directly S CI'08S the line.
(6) Transfonnen of the ordinlry r-' type will not function well at
the camer frequencies used in radar, while the resonant line can be
UIlelI. 18 an 6l[cellent auto-transformer to produce the same results.
FiguI'(! 166(!) shows an open wire line which uses a quarter-.ave stub
to step up the voltage applied to the Inti-T _R spark gaP and to step
do.n ita wnducting resistance acfU1:!6 the anti-TR line.

...

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrvR5lTYOf MKH~N

The. stub can bI!o considered as two sections of transmission line. (6g.
166(!), one. of wbich is terminated in a ahort circuit, -.nd the other
in an open circuit. The shorted line is less than a quarter-wave long,
which gives it an input impedance thai is inductive. The open line,
also less than a quarter-wavelength, is a capacitance. The two are in
parallel, and since their total length is a qunrter-wave, their reactan~
are equal, thus forming a parallel resonant circuit of very high impedance (fig. 166Q). During the resting time, with the gap 11.1:tinguished, the stub high impedance has very little effect in bridging
the anti-ToR line.
(7) When energy is applied to the stub, a atanding wave of vol~
that is mn:imum acl'Oll8 the gap is set up along its length. The received
signals are normally not Jargtl enough to break down the gap. The
tnn8lllitted pulse is large enough, however, and places a low resistance
ANT .... T-R

LW'

~'N

r
.... 1

sru8

l
, /'

,,
,,
\,

Tr

\~I
l._
~,

n
UU
0

0
T~

usa

acI'Olll the open end of the stub by causing the gap to conduct. The
stub now consists of two lines in parallel acI'OS/l the anti-ToR line, each
of wh ich is inductive (fig. 166@). The result is w place a very low
indudtlnce acI'Q8S the anti_ToR line a qunner-wavelengtb from the
feed line, re8ecting the low impedance as a very high impedanoo to
the feed line w limit the energy necessary to operate the gap.
CoasJal T~R ..... te... (1) The effectiveness of a T -R
switch is dependent on the resistance of the spark gap as compared
to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line system used.
It was pointed out in the preceding d iscussion that l'I!oSOnant !inee acting
as transformers can bI!o used to decrelll!e the apparent gap resistance.
When coaxial lines are used the resonant transformers must bI!o used,
since the impedance of a conial lins is about 60 ohms aa compared
to the gap resistance of 80 to 50 ohms

...

Or>c.oi . 1/"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

(2) A limple form of conial T-R system iB &hown in figure HIT.


The magnetron is matched to the OOI.xi..lline during the transmitted
pulse by the tuning atub. The length of the transmitter b~ch is
Idjusted 80 that the impedlnce seen It the T.junction looking back
toWlrd the magnetron is high when it is not generating r-f energy.
The received signala therefore take the low impedance path to the
receiver. The receiver-feed line iI broken by the in&ertion of a 1 :1
tranaformer in the form of I half-wave line shorted at both ends.
(8) The half-wave line ia ~imilar to a tuned circuit (fig. 168), and
hu an input impedance whicb is mero at the abort circuit, ina prng

__'_"_n"":':.-__

R(('''ER
TL

e.~,

IivoIrw 1,". CooNI 'l'-R "",Ie.

to amaximum in the center. The magnitude of the impedence depends


on the Q of the halfwave line, and the connected load, in thil CIUI8 the
receiver. The coaxial linea on either side of Ihe half wave line Ire
connected to it at points which match the conial line characteristic
impedllnoe.. The receiver input circuit terminltt>!l the feed line in its
proper impedence, 80 that for received signals the receiver branch of
the transmission-line system is matched throughout.
(4) The halfwave transformer has a spark gap placed between the
inner and outer conductors at the middle of its length. The tranlmitted pull:le paNes from the T-junction down the receiver feed line,
re.chee the half-wave line., and CII.\1Se8 a large voltage at the center

...

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

which bnlalts down the gap. The gap resistance effectively short-circuits the center of the half-wave line, 80 th.t the input terminal of the
half-wave transformer is connected to two short-circuited lines., eacb
less than a quarter-wave long. The reflulting impedaDOIl6 are inductive and in parallel, which prEantIJ a very Jaw impedance to the
receiver branch. The receiver feed line branch is adjusted in length
to present the low impedance of the half-wave line as a high impedance
at the T-junction. The voltage across the gap is stepped down by
the half-wave line to a low value befon being applied to the n:lCeiver.
The use of the half-wave line therefonl reduOll6 the effective gap resistance, thereby lowering the power necesSlry to operate the T-R
swiwh and reducing the traDBlDitted signal applied to the receiver.

Tl
~re

NU

1'8. Half_WI I"'" TB no(kA.

(3) At microwave frequencies the transformer ooa:rial lines are


reduced to IlUch small dimensions that they became practically cavities,
and are usuli lly 80 oonstructed. The system discussed in section IV
illustrates the use of a T-R swiwh built into a cavity for efficient switch
ing action. The use of a cavity gives a higher Q for the trllIlllformer
and tbll8 improves the ol1lr-llll opellLtion.
e. TB _park...... (1 ) The spark gap used in .. given T R
system may vary from a simple one fonned by two dectrodes placed
across the tran smission line to one inclosed in an evac uated gll198 en
velope with special features to improve operation. The requirements
of the spark gap are t hflt ita resistance shall be very high until the Ire
is formed , and then be very low during conduction through the arc.
At the end of the t ra nsmitted pulae the arc should be extinguished
as rapidly os pt.lssible to remove the loss caused by the arc. and to
permit signals from nearby targeta to reach the receiver

...

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

(2) The simple gap formed in air has a resistance during conduction of from 80 to GO ohms. This is usually too high for WIEI with any
Itut an open wire transmission lins. The time requin:Jd for ths air aur
rolillding the gap to be completely deionized after the pulae voltage
has been removed is about 10 microaeoond3.. During this time the
gap acta as an inCralling resistance &CroIJIj the transmi88i~n line to
which it is connected. HoweVBr, in a T _R system using an air gap
the received signals reaching the receiver through the gap have half
their proper magnitude after 3 miCluH'ODds. This is known &8 re
covery time.
(8) The value of voltage to break ,down a gap, and the running
voltage during the arc, can be lowered by reducing tbe pressure of
the gas surrounding the electrodes.. T -R tubes are therefore lIsd in
which the spark gap is inclC8'ld in a gl&118 envelope and the tube is

. -----

",-'VI
~

TL

""'Nll(l9,

Hila

T. g I .. k ';1. " up-oUt>.

partially evacuated. The are is formed by conduction through In


ionized gae or vapor 80 that the tube cannot be entirely evacuated;
thus there is an optimum pressure which will give the best T-R operation. The recovery time or deionization of the gap can be reduced
by introducing water vapor into the tube rather than air. A T-R
tube containing water vapor at a pressure of 1 millimeter of mercury
will recover in 0.1i micr08('Cond.
(f) T -R tubes for use at microwave frequencies are built f,Q fit into
and be a part of the re90nant Clvity or transformer, 18 illust rated by
tbe T-R box of section IV. The high Q of the cavity and tbe vapor
in the evacuated portion of the tube reduce the power needed to maintain the gap and the power of the tnnsmitted pulse which reaches the
f'fICIeiver. The speed with which th is action takes place can be in
creased by placing a third electrode within one of the main electrodes
of the gap ( fig. 169). Thi~ electrode is known as a k eep-oUvl , and has
a potential of ahout - 1,000 volta with respect to the main gap. A

...

,.,

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

glow discharge is maintained by the keep-alive .n~ one electrode of


the main gap to provide ions for quickly forming an are att088 the
main gap when the ulnsmitted pul., is applied. The negative volt
age of the keep-alive alao prevenlJ! stray ianB from rerebing the main
gap to produce no_ in the receiver.
(I) The life of the T-R tube is controlled by two main factor8.
The first and most common ca1lge of failure is due to a gradual buildup of metal particles Itnooked toaee from the electrodes of ,the gap and
.~

..

r- 'MIIElo!'r

T\.- 54

Il'i9t<n 11/J. 0,",,1, T-R .....

spattered on the inside of th .. glftSll envelope. These pllrtic1e11 act as


~mll1i, conducting areas which lower the Q of the resonant cavity and
wute power. If the tube is continued in use for any length of time,
the particles wili begin to form a detuning wan within the cavity
which will eventually prevent. the T-R tube from functioning. The
second cause of f.ilure is due to an absorption of the gas within the
lube Dy the metal ele<:trodttl. The reault is to reduce the pressUl"t
grauulllly within the tube to the point where it beoo~ very difficult
to break down the gllp, and utremelystrong signal, are fed to the l'$-

...

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

ceiver. Because both causes of failure a,~ only gradually noticed.


the TR tube must be ch~ked carefully and periodically for efficient
operation.
L Cavity T.B ..,I.e.... (1) The majority of TR tube!i are
mounted in cyli ndrical cavities, with the metal electrodes conn~ted
to and forming part of the end walls (6g. 170). The cavity is ezei ted
in a TJi." mode in order to produce a strong el~tric field acrose: the
gap, and therefore be able to cause an arc with the minimum applied
rignal. The method of excitation used in the cavity of figure 170 i~ to
terminate a couial feed li ne within the cavity by forming a coupling
loop with the inner conductor. The coupling loop is a low impedance
acl'Oll8 the COIlzialline 90 that current through the loop is luge. and a
strong magnetic field is 86t up. The loop is placed 5(1 as to reinforce
the magnetic field within the cavity. The amount of ooupling is controlled hy rotating the loop Oil an uis formed by the inner conductor.

T_R

11),

TL . .16

Signals for the receiver are remo"ed from the cavity by a similar loop
pl.ced on the opposite aide of the gap from the input loop. This is
the coupling method used by the T -R boz of section IV.
(2) A second method of feed ing the cavity from a cou:ialline is
to U86 slots which couple the field of the line to th.t of the cavity (fig.
111 ). The output of the magnetron is matched into a coazialline
which feeds the transmitted pulse to the .ntenna. Ne.r t he magnetron
the outer conductor of the coui.l line is mude into a sliding section
h.ving a side aperture or slot in the center. The slot opens into the
resonant cavity of the T -R box on the periphery. Another alot 0 1\
the oppo!Iite side of the cavity is cut through into the receiver cOIll:ial
line, which is shorted. at the edge of the sloL
(3) During the transmitted pulse, eller~ is coupled into the cavity
Ind produces. large voltlg~ across the ga p. The gap breaks down,
formi ng lin .rc wh ich abort-circuita the CIl!lter of the cavity. The
field huilt up within th.e ('Ivity is very wllIlk becau!NI of the detuning
of the cavity during the arc, and baa the ellect of a abort circuit acro5ll

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

the transmitler feeu -line slot. Becau9l! the field is weak, very little
energy ia coupled into the receiver feed line.
(4) At the end of the transmitted pulse the magnetron imped~nce
changes, &0 that J"eived signals see a miamatch at the magnetron and
fire reAected. The position of the slot into the Cf\vity is adjusted by
means of the slidi ng joint to be pl~effi at a cu rrent maximum of the
coaxial line (fig. 172). The large current prodUee6 a strong magnetic
fie ld which leaks through the slot into the cavity to l"1!infort'e the field
of the cavity. The reeei\ed signals are not strong enough to break
down tbe gap, and the field within the cavity is not IIffl'Cl.ed by the
presence of the gap. The slot into the receiver feed line permits BOrne
of the field of the cavity to link the inner conductor of the line at a
point whi ch is a current maximum. By selecting the proper size and
shape of the slot&, the ~ived signals are passed with very little 10!l6
to the receiver. The position of the .ntenna feed -line slot can be

'"

--

"--CU ..... lNT


w,o,v(

adjusted to absorb all of the received line energy from the antenna
feed line, and thel"1!fore to pl"1!vent standing waves between the T R
Bwitch and the antenn .
W.ve....tII" T-R IIWltelt. (1) Resonant cavity T -R
switches are applied to waveguide!! both dirootly or indirectly w obtllin
switching action. TIle indire.;t method uses a ooaxilll line TR system, and then c<Hlplell the OOIU:i lll line in to the waveguide whicb feeds
the antenna. When large losses might be incurred by the use of
coaxial line, the resonant cavity can be ooupled directly to the waveguide. Figure 173 shows. direct method of cavity T-R switrbing in
a waveguide feed ~ystem. The w.\eguide terminates in the IIntenna
on one end and a shorting plate at the other. The magnetron usea a
voltage probe to e:zcite tbe waveguide. Tbe transmitted pulse trav els up the guide, spilling into the cavity through a slot. The cavity
builds up. strong electric field across the gnP. breaking it down, and
detuning the cavity. The impednnC1l seen at the slot by the guide is

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

decreued 00 an approximate short cireuit whi ch ded ively _Is the


opening and p' LB the pulse energy to the antenna.
(!it) The signals received during the resting time travel down the
guide to the magnetron and the shorting end plate, whel"8 they &re
TO ANTENNA

GUIDE

T-R 8 0 " / _ ,

~,

eOUPLING

, ,"
" .
,
",

SLOTS

I ,

,,

:, .At] '"
~

"

R~e[IVER
L1N~

-'

,
,
,

,,
,,
,

,,
,,
,,
,

...--1--

--

,,

~ --

IroI"GNETRON
PROBE

MAGNETRON
Tl.

aau

reftecUd. The 8lot inoo the cavity is placed so that it is located at a


maximum of the standing 1I'ave magnetic field produced by reflections.
The maximum field therefore links the mlgnetic field .of the Clvity.
The received. signals are not strong enough to Cluse an are so thlt the

....

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

cavity field is undisturbed by the gap, and couples into the l'eC6ivtr
OOIIxial line to give muimum energy transfer.
(3) The cavity T -R switch can also 1M! applied to branch linee of
the waveguide (fig. 174). The magnetron is coupled to the guide
by a 'l'oltage probe to produce proper excitation. In order to ilmm!
muimum U!Ie of the received signals an anti_ToR switch haa been
included. The transmitted pulse tra'l'ijla from the magnetron to the
anti-TR branch where part of the energy tums in to the gap. A
slot it placed &croa the waveguide a half-wuelength hom the main

III_liNT

c.wITy-/-1

T-II SWITCH

'TL

.a.

llEeEllllE1I

fiqtl.ff:

17~ .

Caw,,, T-R

a".,klll to br.".e'\ lin ... of _ _ We.

guide, ami passes the r-f energy through into the Clvity. The cavit,.
builds up the electric field, breab down the gaP. and 18 a l'eliult
produces a short circuit across the coupling alot. The short circuit of
the alot is rellected back to the msin guide a half-wave away to doee
the mouth of the anti-T oR branch.
(4) Most of the energy is therefore directed down the guide to thf
IIntenna. 0,-, reaching the r:eivfl:' bunch the same effect is produced
by the T-R 8Witch a half-wavelength from the main guide. Since both
openings art! e.ffootively closed by the gaps, maximum energy it transferred between the magnetron :md the antenna..

a.

o,'gir I"""'
UNfl/lRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

(6) During tlie resting time, tlie anti-ToR spark gap is not broken
down by the received signals, so that the in put to the cavity is practically an open circuit. This is reflected to the main guids as an open
circuit. The received signals are in effect turned back by the apparent
open circuit at the mouth of the anti-T-R branch setting up reflection~
which a quar1.6r-wave away at the T-R brunch produce a short or doe
ing of the main guide. The signals II.re d irected into the T -R branch
where they pass through the resonant ClI.vity to the receiver.
(6) Instead of using resonant c&vieies and T-R tubes, the branch
waveguides can use resonant slots wliich also act as spark gaps (fig.
176) . The resonant slol is a partition across the gnide .... ith an II.per

-------------'-HTIt~

--t-o.FlltCTU)H 01 It FII:UI

- +-

F~

175.

RESON .. NT

Sl.OT

8101 IIiJIfi TR ,""'do.

ture whose dimensiona make it look like a parallel resommt circuit


at the carrier frequency. The dimension in the direction of the
electric fi eld ill made small 80 that the transmitted pulse will CIluse an
arc. The arc closes th e cond ucting surface of the slot. providing a
short. circuit which is reflected hy the half-wave line to the main ~ ide.

38. LOBE SWITCHING


.. ..... te. . . . . ( 1) The accuracy of angular measurement depends Oil the sensitivity of the anlenna to a change in the
direction of the arrival of the echo signals. In parngraph 5 the idea
i8 dillC"ss! Ii of using t ....o patterns the ues of which are displnced from
each other !!Ufliciently to Cllll86 the patt.erIl5 W cross over ;J,~ less than

...

Or'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

the IllS percent maximum signll point. The advantage which is obtained is that of comparing two signals whOBll changes in mlgnitude
a~ great per degreechlnge in azimuth, and whOlie directions of change
a~ opposite. The operator is better able to select the COllect ontarget
position of the IIntenna since he sets to a position which makes tlNl two
signals equal for the target being tricked.
(2) An antenna system whi ch UIIes the double-lobe principle must
include provisions for obtaining the two patterns displaced from each
other, and some metbod for comparing the ~ived. signals from
both lobes on the indicaW. The simplest system is to use separate
anfennas, ~eivers, and. common indicat or. It is more economical,
however, to use single reciliver which can be awitched between the
lobes. Figure 176 shows thltoomponents of an elementary lobe-llwitching system.
(8) Separlte antennaa are mounted 80 that their patteI"llll overlap,
intersecting It approximately the hllf_power points. The feed line
from the two afltt>nnaa are brought t.o a double-pole double-throw
switch. The switch alternately selects the signals from Intenna I
and then from antenna 2 to be ampli6ed by the i'8C\'Iiver. The output
of the ~iver is therefore a combination of the two group! of signals
from the two antennas. These signllls are separated by a single-pole
double-throw switch 80 that they may be comparEd on the indicator.
The two switches Ire thrown in synchronism by I switch motor.
(4:) The aequenc:e of events in the 10be-8"Witching operation is
shown in figure 177. The echo signal from the target (fig. 176) indueet
a 8IIlaller voltage in antennl 1 than antenna. 2. It is lI8SILDled that
system PRF is four times the pitching frequency, 80 that two pulses
lire received wbile the receiver is connected to antenna 1, and t.wo
while the receiver is connected to antenna 2. Starting from the
instant. that the switch moves to the antenna I position, the receiver
ampliSflII two eyclflll of echo signals from antennl I, and then 61ritches
1.0 antenna 2 for two cycles. Thus the output of the receiver is a
series of pulses that are alternlltely proportional to signals received
by antenna 1 and then to signals received. by antenna 2. The indicator output switch separates the pul9llll by placing thOll8 from antenna
1 on the left deOecting plate, and thOli6 from antenna 2 on the right
deflecting plate.
(.5) During the time that signals from antennl 1 are being applied
to the indicator, the right deflecting plate is d!'ectiveiy grounded,
and the trace produoed is shown by 6gure 178Q). When the switch
is moved to Intenna 2, the left deflecting plate is grounded, and the
indica ti on is liS in . The indicat()r cathode-ray -tube IICreen hIlS
sufticient persistence 80 that wben the pitch mot or runs .1. normal
speed, the two traces appelr aimultaneously 18 in @. 'l'he operator

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

TO T"'RGt.T

Loall

Loal a

ANTEN II ...

r----- -

_00

SWITCH

RICIIY!!I

L ______

--

r t-:;::=::::-tJIHDICATOIt
n ... o

...
Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

.11"..

........ 1----------------------

...
-

djusts the poIiition of his IIntenn. in azi muth until the pulliell repre
senting the target to ~ tr.cked caW!e equal deflection to right and
left (fig. 179).
~. SI_,le _te. . . . eJlte_.Uy p .....,..
(1) The two
antenna method of obtaining double lobe!! is simple and trouble
free, but is inefficient because only half of th~ available .ntenna

Q),,"-SI:S 'AOM .... NTENN .... L@PULstS.ROM .... NTENN ....

:z.

..,,' .. I'ULK

TL UU

NORMAL

"I,~r..

/79.

scope

PICTURE:

NomJl.."",e pMt_

TARGET TO LEFT
ANTENNA ON TARGET
TARGET TO RIGHT

c:--- . . . .

IN PULSI:

TLun
space is used to receive echo signala at a time. The complete antennll
can be used for receiving all signals by phnsing one half of the
antenna against the other half to produce a pattern whOl!e uis is
shifted first to the right and then to the left.
(2) In figure lBO, an antenna four dipoles wide is used to re o
ceive echo signals from targets, and to measure their azimuth. The
antenna is divided into a left half A, and a right half, B, connected
by an external phasing section and feed line. A signal ""fleeted

".

o,,~,

.11, ""

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

from a IIlr~t at CD tmvels the SHme distance to reach A a.s it does to


reach 8. The r-f voltagat induced in A are therefore in phase with
those induced in B. The voltages of A and B travel toward el\ch
other over the pbasing 99Ction, meeting and combining at the middle
of the phasing 98Ction where the receiver feed line is connected.
Since tbis junction is equidi ~tant from A and B, the voltages are

(0

PHASING SECTION

TO
RECEIVER

still in phase and add directly to produce the voltage .w hich reaches
the rt'Ceiver.
(3) If the target moves to (!), tbe ecbo signal reaches B first, and
then travels on to A. The alternating voltages induced at A therefore
lag behind those induced at 8 , and the instant of muimum voltage
at A oceUnI after the muimum voltage at B. This is due to the
greater distance between@andAasoomparedtothatbetween@and
B. The induced voltages travel over equal-length paths to reach the
rtl't"iver feetlline, SO that their phase relRtionship remllins the SlIme 1.8
at the dipoles. The eirective voltage which reaches the receiver from

...

Q,i.v, . 1""""

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

the target at@ is 1_ than that from the target at <D because of thia
phase difference (fig. 181).
(4) If the target. is moved to@ (fig. 180) the voltage induced at
A leads that induced at B, and tM voltage reachi~ tbe f'l'Ceiver is
1_ than that produced by the target at <D. With the receiver feed

'.,
,

'.,

RtCEIYEA
~,~

'.

TARGT AT

CD

TARGEl AT

TL

F~~

181.

p~

.UllloII 01

eee~

ll,....".

-,:.--.~

SECTION
TL

eeee

line connected to the center of the phaeing section the target returns
muimum lIignal only from <D.
(6) The ditf8l'eJlce in phllse between the voltages from A and B
can be controlled by varying the distance that each voltage tnvels in
reaching the receiver :feed line. In figure 182, the target is located at
@ (fig. 180) and the receiver feed line is connected to the left of the
center of the phasing l)ection, 90 tbat the voltage from B travels
further over the phl8wg aectiOD than the vol~ from A. The addi-

...

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

tional path of travel for the voltage from B is made electrically equal
to the additional path traveled in spaoe by the echo signal in uuh.
ing A. The two voltas- at the receiver feed line are therefore
in pbase, and add directly.
(6) If tbe feed-line connection is fiJ:ed, and tbe target ill moved
to CD, the voltagaa induced in the dipoles are in phue. When tb_
voltages reach the receiver 'feed line, however, that from B lap that
from A, and the signal whicb reaches the receiver is not muimum.
Muimum reoeiver input voltage is produced onJy wben the target
is at when the receiver feed line ill connected as shown,

,,

_.

,
\

~K'

,,

,,

,,

I
I

.
. .

J
'no

,,
,

FIOINTIJ

!
I"VMre IU. " " - . 1 ,lI4tll.,

U.

: " - - - FUO POO",T a

"

pta'"'''' 4o"'k loki.

(7) A fieh! pattern of the antenna system with a phase delay in ,


lrodm'ed in the feed line to the right half, B, is shown in figure 188.
The distance from feed J'lQint CD to B is less than .. half-wavelength
murt! thlln the dihi ance lo..t. The phll$8 delay thua introduced bends
the pattern to tbe poaition of lobe (i). If the feed line i9 connected to
feed J'lQint to produce the same phase delay in the path to ..t, a
mirror image of lobe (i) is ubtained lIS shown by lobe (!). By altemat
ing the point of connection a double lobe aystem ia available for accurate azimutb measu~ment which U!:le!l the entire antenna for receiving each echo signal. The gain realized approachee twice that of a
hltlf aedion, lind the betlm width is reduced fOl" more accurate J:M.arings.
(8) The amount of pbase delay introdu~ rontroill the posi,iolU! of
the double lobes. When the delay path-ditterence is greater than a

Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

half-wllvelength, the lobes are bent toward the feed point, rather than
away, as in the example given.
(9) The problem of Bhifting the feed -point connection from one side
of the antenna w the other is a diltkult one W solve mechauically.
The phase delay can be introduced electrically by placing a reactan~
acI'Oll8 one of the branch feed Jines. Figure 184 shows an antenna fed
by a coaxial line which branches symmetrically w each half of the
uray. A half-wsve line is placed across IIII.ch brunch line to act as a
1: 1 transformer. The inner conductor of each line is terminated by

- - - ---1

,I

,r"

-.

I
+ ,oov

"'
".

telA,lOt< TA~
DU ~ [(:"HG

~"

a small plate of a capacitor, .d. and B. The other piRIe, 0, is a half


disk which is rotaled by the lobe switch motor 90 as to engage el.('h
small plate for approximately one-half of a revolution.
(10) With disk 0 in the position shown, plate A is isolated and
preaentIJ an open circuit across the left coaxial line. The open circuit
is reBectecJ down to the left bl'Knch line, and hilS no effect. The spacing between Band 0, however, is such as to form a small ClI.paciwr
whicb terminates the r ight coaxial line. This capacitance is reBected
to tht! right branch, and is Bhunted across the line to incren.se the ef
fective electricall(lngth of the line. The result is to introduce a Jag
in the echo signals received by the right half of the antenna. As
the lobe 8l\'ikh mowr rotates the lag is placed alternately on the right.
0 ..

0.'9' ~'In>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

IIlld left bronches, and tberdore causes the pattern of the antenna to
shift from right to left.
(11) The signals Ill'(! III'lpan.ted on the indicator screen by means
01 a va rillble position voltllge oontl'olled by a cam-operated lJWitch.
The cam is rotllted by the lobe switch motor at the same rate as the
capacitor disk O. The cam is ehape!l to c10116 switch D during the time
the lobe is bent to the Idt, lind to lenve the switch open while the lobe
is bent to the right. Switch D shorts resistor R, when closed 80 that
the positioning voltllge to the indicator is zero. Resistor R. determines
the voltnge to the indicator when D is open.

IItClIV [ 1I

II...UL..JI
.
,wrtP

INPUT

<

L.

'WITCH INPU

--L

T~

....

(12) The output of the ~iver consists of pulses from both lobes
of the antenna array. 10_ pul8l\6 are applied direetJy to the
vertical deflecting plates of the indicator. The hori%Ontal deftecting
plates receive a saw-tooth sweep voltage synchronized to the PRF
of the system, and the positioning voltage from switch D (fig. l~).
With disk 0 near plate B (fig. 184) , the lobe is bent to the right,
and switch D is open. The positioning voltage is positive and cauaes
the sweep trace to appear to the right of the ~nter of the indicator
to the left, Ilnd switch D is closed, shorting resistor R,. The posi.
tioning'voltage is zero, and the sweep Ince nppears to the left of
the ~nter line (fig. 186Q). As the lobe switch motor rotates, the
lobe and sweep Inee are mo\'\"d instantly from right to left, and left
to right, building up a nonnal BCOpe picture (fig. 186(!. The
am ount of separation, or sprud, between echo pip!! i, oontrolled by
resistor R., which "an be adjusted to from 0 to +60 volts &II the posi.
tioning voltage when switch D is open.

...

Q,i.v, . 1""""

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

_'eo, ..

eo S".le
te.....Uy ph ..,d. (1) The antenna
system just described provides either the left or the r ight lobe for
receiving echo signals, depending on the position of the lobe-switching
motor. Another choice of antenna system is available which produces
both lobes simultaneously, and which nses electronic switching. The
m.in advantage is to eliminate the swireh contacts, and the noise
resulting from dirt .Jld incorrect adjustment of the contacts. The
phasing is accomplished by an adjustable length line which OOIlBect.s
the inner dipoles (fig. 187). A separate feed line is connected to each

SlGHALS '"OW
<DU'T
Loar

R>aIGHAL.,IIIOW
<el1I'GIlT LO.' .

t':\IIIIUCATOII .Clltell
I.!iW'TH rCHO sr'A"ATIOH

FitlMre 186.

half of the antenna. Each feed line runs to a sep.rate input to the

receiver.
(2) Echo signals arriving at the antenna array induce voltages
which appear at A .nd B. The tot.l volt.ge which reaches the receiver over feed line A is a combination of.the voltage induced-on A
and that induced on B which travels over the phasing seetion to A_
The phase of the voltage from 8 with rl'Spect to that at A depends
on the path length from B to A, including the phasing sect.ion. The
relative phase can therefore be controlled by v.rying the length of
the phasing section.
(8) An echo signl1l received from a direction perpendiculsr to the
faee of the antenna induces inphase voltaget! at A and B. This
means that the induced voltage (JI1 the right feed (lQint at A and the
left feed point at B should be 1800 ouf. of phase. If the phasing
I'JOOtion is of uro length the induced voltage .t B travels one wave-

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

length to reach A out 01 phase 1I'ith the induced voltage at A, giving


eancelation. Resetting the phasing section to have an over-aU length
of a half-wave produeetl a llA/-wavelength patb, and the voltage from
B arrives in pha.ge with that of A to give a masimum. Setting th~
phasing IleCtion to add a length to the path from A to B 1I'hieh is
other than an odd multiple 01 a half-wave makes the pha!Jll difl'et1mce
between the voltages such u to produce marimum signrJ at aome
direction other than straight ahead.
(4:) Suppose that the echo signal is coming from a direction to
the right of the perpendieular w the anrenna (fig. 188). The signal
induOOll a voltage at A 1I'hich lags the voltage induced at B. By
adjusting the phuil)g eection to the correct length the voltage at B

+ 1-1
- -:~---I+1_ .
.

PHASING~

Sl:C l ION

'E[O lIN[

-'
F[ ElII.ltC ..

rt-t-

RECEIV E R

.
II

eaT!

can be delayed in reaching A w reduce the ph ase difference to zero.


The two voltages at A 1I'ilI add in phase w produce a muimum. The
voltage induced at A travels to B w produce a !leCond available volt-age for the receiver. The voltage from A, already lagging, receives
an additional delay while traveling to B , so that the wtal voltage
at B is not a marimum. In order to cause the receiver voltage at B
to be a mu:imum, the target moves position to the left of the perpendicular. The second position of the target is at angle to the left
of the perpendicular which is equal to the ang le of the first position
kl the r i2hL
(!i) The U96 of the interval phasing section p roduces two I~
which al'e symmetr ical aboltt tll(' perpendieular to the array. If the
total length of path from..i toB is bet....een 1 and 1% wavelellgths, the
lobe is bent away from the &ide of the antenna to which the feed line

...

is attached. If the length of pdh is between 1% and 2 wavelengths,


the lobe is bent toward the side to which the feed line is attached.
(6) In order to make use of the two lobes whoee signals reach the
receiver over separate feOO linea, the receiver 1wJ two input channela
and an electronic switch to select them alternately. The output of
these channels is combinecland applied to a conventional !JIlperhelero.

-'"I~

TARC/:l
.

'""

MA~IMUM

".

I
I

I
I
I
I

I.
V", ,
\
,I
\

lARc.(l

'""
.,.
MA"'''''''

/\-+.,

II

,,

,,

"

..n

dyne receiver (fig. 189) . The electronic swit.eh producee two l ,(J(IO..
cycleper.llecond square-wave signals that are inverted with respect
to each other. The signals an! applied to the grids of the r t amplifiel"6
a8 blocking voltages. . Since they au out of phase, r f amplifier A
conducts and amplifies while B is nonoonducting. Every hRii cycle
of the swit.ehing voltage this condition is reverged. Thus the signal .

.
~m

~
~

H_

LJl

ru
It. FI U ,.

c.m , I'lDIIi C

"",..

.
Itlc.(1VtII

mOlC,t,r Oll

..J
f l.- . .n

app lied to the single channel amplifier which comprises the rest of the
receiver ia alter nately II signal from food line A and than a signal from
feed line B.
(7) Figure 190 sho".. the ci~uit diagram of II typical electronic
switch ing system. Tubes VIOl and VI02 Rre dupMcate r- f amplifiers
for the signals appearing on feed lines A and B of figuN 187. Trans

...

On9 .. 011,,,",
UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

former OOUllling is used for th e input circuits !O maintain a bal.nced


ftoed line system. The plpte lood eireuit is common 10 bot h tubes, 110
th at thei r output!! are oombin('(1 Ill! 1III' ill put to the SeI'(lnd r f ampl ifier
of the reoei'l"llr. TIle grid of lube \'101 is retUl"lleU to grouud through

".,

,.

,~

l;

r:.o

;: ;:-

.'

.'. '
,

oo '

II'

."'.

:~

'

,"

!,

.,.,

H"

"
.e

~I

,."...'

.,

.'

,,

"

,.
,.
"

,.,

"

--..
....'.. ,.

.'

'

'1' .,
-

it

_ _QQQlIQ,

,.

II '

..

"

'

'- ,

,.

.,,.

rl~~-:I

,.

,! 0

.
L._~ ,

'';
"
'"

resistHrs RI01 and R 102, t he plale iOlld of \'103. th" firO>t swi tch am
plifier. Similudy, th e g r id of VI02 is rotU t'ILOO to ground through
r('lliator HIOf "n,1 pt.' te loud "f t h ~ second switch alllplifier.
(8) T he output of tlo .. 1.000 (.l"cle.p.. r .9CCQnd lIl ulti" iura.t or is all
approxim"te S(luare,wln'e of ~uHidellt ,uuplitude to O'o'c.rdrh 'c LUix>

n.

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNIVER'oITY Of MICHIGAN

VI03. This tube and VIM form a twostage amplifier to further


square the output of the multivibrator. The plate potential is caused
to vary between ground and a negative value by applying a negative.
plate supply in the cathode instead of a positive one in the plate.
ThUB, when the output of the multivibraror swings to I. positive muimum, tube VIM oonducta, and the electrons flow from. the plate to
ground through .resistor RI02. This caU8e8 the plate to be negative
with tespoot to ground. The negatiTe voltage change across the plate
load ia eoupled to Vlot, and cuts this tube off. Since there ia no electron flow, then! will be no voltage drop acl'Ofll RIO(! and RI06, and the
plate of VIM is at ground potential. A.a the output of the multi
vibraror 8wings negative, VI08 is cut off. and ita plate rises to ground
potential. and a positive change ia p'ned on to VIM. VlOi oonducts
and its plate voltage becomes very negative. Therefore, wben the
plate of VI08 is at ground potential the plate of VIM is negative. and
when the plate of VI08 is negative, VIOf ill at ground.
(9) The grids of the r-f ampli&rs are directly coupled to the plates
of the !!Witch amplifiers, 90 that the plate potential of VI03 ia a biu
for VIOl, and that of VlOi is a bias for VI02. ViOl operates loa' an
amplifier with cathode bi.. when VI03.ia cut off, and is cut off when
VI08 conducts. VI02 operates in the
manner with VIM. Since
VlOi inverta the signal from VI03, VIOl and VI02 alternate in operation. The signal developed acroes the common load inductor LI03
is'alternately the aignal from feed line .d and then hem feed line B.
(10) The gains and plate currents of the two r f amplifiers must
be equal in order for the switching symm to work correctly. Otherwille, the indicated equal signal position of the antenna wiu not cor
ft!l:lpood to the COrT1:lCt on-Iarget-position, and a square-wave modula tion will appear in the output. This i!$ taken care of by balancing
the gaine of the tubes, VIOl and VI02, with the individual gain controls, reeistors BI03 and RI07. The indicator i, similar to that deseribed in the previouspan.gra ph , and requires a square wave to mil:
with the" sweep voltage for spreading the echo pips. This signal
must. be synchroniRd to the switching action, and is obtained by taking the volt age drop across resisto r RI06 in thE' plate circuit of VUH.
The receiver output is applied to the vertical deJlectiug plates of the
indicator.

same

.... OOl'Vl&U. SCANNING.


II. G!.e_l. (I) The principle of lobe switching can be ut.ended to give accurate azimuth and elevation simultaneously when
appljed to antenna !!),stems l1Iling paraba)oidal reflectors. The name
given to this type 01 operation is conical SCROlling ~ause an offcenter lobe is produced which is rotated about the aJ:.is of the rellector

no
On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

(Jig. 191). The lobe axis describes a cone in apace around the u::i.a of
the rellector.
(2) The echo signal received from a target which lies on the uis
of the reflector has the elUDe IUDplitude for all position8 of the lobe.
If the target moves away from the n!8ecwr ui8 the signal 1"eOeiTed
varies approJ:imately sinUll(lidaUy with the rotation of the lobe. AI
the &.:lis of tbe lobe nean the target the aignal intrealJes, and as the
ariB of the lobe moves away the signal decreases. The relative pbue
of the signal variation therefore indicates the direction of the target
from the rellect.or uis. The magnitude of the signal variation indi
cates the distance away from the re8ector &Xi, to the target.
LOIIE IN -

~~''7

(8) Conital scanning is applied to mitrowue systems whicb are


naed for fire control against aircraft. The cireuits whith supply the
indicator tan be used simply to indicate the relative pOilition of the
target, or they can be made to tncl!: the target automatically as well
18 inditate itll position. The discussion here will be confined to the
mcthods for producing the conical acan .
... OB __ ter .'pele. (1) The simplest method to produce
conical scanning is to use a couiaiJine terminated in a dipole. The
conialline is bent suffiCiently w displ8(le the electrical center of the
dipole slightly away from the focal point of the reflector (fig. 192).
The toaxialline and dipole are rotated by a SCl'nning motor at a speed
of 20 to 60 revolutiun~ per minute.
(2) The apparent source of l'nergy for *e pnrnbl}loidlll reftec:tor is
the electrical center of the dipole 'Ssembly. Since it i~ off tenter with

.N

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

reepe.."t to the ftflect.or, the 109& produced will be off center. As the
~nter 01 the dipole rotates around the am of the reflector, the lobe
IS rotated ,,1"0.
(8) The cli.ief disadvantage 01 the method illustrated above iB that
the dipole IlS&IIIIlMy is not billanced mechanically about the nis of
rotation. A eecond method has been used in which the dipole aasem_
bly eiOlJely ft8embles t.hat 01 the system delll':ribed in section IV. The
cou:iallin~ is at the center of the Nflecwr, and is perfectly straight

TL-ee7e

and properly balanced. F igure 198 shows 8. dipole ; elemant A. is fed


in the normlll manner by direct connection to the inner conductor.
The path for energy ~ow to element B is made longer by causing
the energy to flow from the inside of the outer conductor through bole
o and around the outside of the coaxial lines to element B. This manner of feeding, plus the position of the bawoka and the fact that the
dipOle elements are of different shape, gives an uneven currentdistribution. The uneven current distribution cansee the electrical center of
the dipole to move from the physical center., Therefore the energy is
reflected from the paraboloid fit a slight angle to the niB. As the
dipole is rotated, the point at wbich the energy is directed describes

n.
Dn9,

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

a circle around the centel' of the reftector and the reradiated energy
des.",ibea .. cone giring the desired oonieaJ. _n, The liTWOIta or
qUuUr-wave b.lancing lemon mounted on the outer conductor of
the QOIIxiailine also prevent. standing wavea on the transrniaeion line.
.. W.ve....e u-1eaJ US-- (1) It is poaeible to produoe
a relatively simple system of oonical !!C&IlJ\ing with a round w"vegWde

I
/

f
/

'-PATll Of'ENEAC;Y
FROM INSIDE OF
OUTER CONDUCTOR

/
n.

eeT1

IlCtUCTO/I

".0

IlOUND

1I0TATIN"

WAyr"U'OI.

_ - WAy["u'or

. . OTOII

COA~LA~

f[lO

~, ..

which may easily be balal1ct'd lIl('Chanicllily. Figure 1M 8bow8 ant

type which i8 used.


The r-f energy is supplied to Ii fi.J:oo round wave
guide through a CO'xial line. The inner conductor extends into the
guide to act as the coupling probe, and a pluDgl!r in the end of the
A polystyreneguide is uaod to adjust the degree of the coupling.
filled roilnd waveguide is fitted in the other eod of the .waveguide.

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

(2) The inner end of the polystyrene is of tbe proper sill.' to match
the impedance of the fixed waveguide to tbat of the rotating waveguide. The rotating waveguide is bent off tbe center line of the lUed
guide in onier to produce a be'm shift by supplying energy off center
to the paraboloidal rellector_ The oonicalscan is produced by driving
the offset rotating waveguide through a plu:.iglass Bhaft coupled
to the scan motor. A smnll bole in tbe outer end of the polyst.yrene
filling helps to match the rotating ..... aveguide to the paraboloid and
to free space.
(8) The Bystem can be balanced by properly distributing the weight
of the metal plug in which the hole i, bored to form the roUting
waveguide. Radiation through the rotating joint between the fi:zed
waveguide and the meta.! plug is prevented by a groove a quarterwave1ength deep, which acts aa an r-f choke.
41. NONitIBEcrlONAL .... NTL~AS..
.. Ge_er.l. There sre a few application! of radar .nd ita associated equipment that require the use of nondirection.l antennasThis j,y pe of antenna is used ..... here a bearing indication is not neces-

sary or i! undesira.le. Nondirectional an tennae an! used in navigation aids such 89 beacons (Baoon), some forms of IFF equipment,
and in "presence" indicators, such as radar aeta for 8ubmarinea which
indicate only the range of nearby aircraft.
It. Vertle.1 lllpole. (I) One of the simplest forms'a nondirectional antenna can take i8 a single vertical rsdiator. It gives M
unifonn radiation pattern in the horizontal plane and a wide lobe
in the vertical plane. Figure 1911 shows one form of vertical dipole
antenna fed by a COA:ziai line. The characteristic impedance of the
line i8 designed to match the feed impedance of the antenna.

...

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(2) A J-type antenna is shown in figure 196. The ndiator is


continuation of one leg of quarter-_ve mat<:hing section. The
transmission line is matched to the antenna system by varying the
position of the line on the matching BBCtion. The pattern of the J
.,lItenna in the vertical p~ne is slightly broa.der than the fint...meJItioned. type of vertical radiator becaU88 of imperfect cancelation of
the field of the matching section.
e. hnladle
(1) The turnstile antenna, figure
1970, gives fairly uniform pattern in tbtl horizontal plane and hIS
the advantage of radiating bori~nt..lly polarized energy. The an
tenna is fed in such. ,.. ..y as to give. 9(10 phse shift between adjaoent

_'8-,

Tl'UO

radiating elements. The field stNngth bl'Oll.dside to one of the dipoles


is equal to the field from that dipole alone. The field strength at
point at any other angle is equal to the vector flUrn of the fielda hom
the two dipolea at that angle. The vector 8UIll of the fields from both
dipoles at any angle is nearly equal to the field strength when meg.
nred broadside to one dipole. Therefore, a nearly ci~ular horiwntal
pattern is produced as shown in figure 191@.
(2) The feed system ill shown in flg.l91(!). Element.A is fed from
the center conductor of one concentric line and element 0 ill fed from
the outer conductor of the same line. Similarly, element B ill fed
from the center conductor of the other concentric line and the outer
condUctor of this line feeds element D. The characteristic impedance
of each transmillllion line matches the input impedance of each of the
crosaed dipoles, hence standing waves are not pru-nt on the tnu.

...

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

mjssion line. In effect the two branches of trnnsmi88ion lines are fed in
parallel at the tapped point T.- The transrniB8ion line feeding this
point must have one.half theeharacteriatic impedance of the othe r lines
or the impedanee must be transformed by a matching gection to pI"&vent standing waveB on the feed line.
(8) Since the length of the coneentrie line between pointe T and S
i8 >./4, the energy at point S is 00 out of phase with that at T. The
distance from point S to dipole BD is the same l8 the distance from
point T to dipole AC. Tbe~fore element B lags element A by 90.

~i-

\
I

,
,,
,- . -- ' - 1

,,

1 71)

,,
,', 1-.,.
,,
,

1 ,.70 ,

,.

-- .~

t~

'

o
1'tt1to~

n. ......

lin.

TI....flU"

""'t""a.

Likewil:le the energy fed to element D lags that fed to by 90. As a


result, each element is 90" out of phase with tbe adjacent elementa.
II. Otller lI.peI" _ . .pratl.... (1) Figures 198 and 199
show two other antennas that may be used where a nondirect.ional
pattern i8 desired.
(2) Figure 198 shows an antenna made of two half-wave elements.,
of which the end quarter-wavelength of each ill bent back 90. The
pattern from this antenna is very much like that of the turnstile antenna. The field from the two quarter-wave sections that are bent
back are additive because they Ife 180 out of phal:le and are a halfwave apart. The advantage of this antenna is the simplieity of its
feed system and construction.

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HIGII~

...

'---''--

1'fgtt,.. J~.

B~1oI

""'...,.IIa "",--

.":~;::::::'"!.~:::':::::;." ~
,

(8) Figure 199 shows an antenna with three dipoles bent to form ..
dIXIe. All dipoles are u:cited in phase and the radiation is reasombl,
uniform in In direction&. There is .. littl& more intel'action of the

...

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

fields in this type than in the turnstile antenna. However, the inter
action is uniform and does Dot detract from the ellectiveness of this
system as a non-directionaI antenna. The dipoles are center fed to
match the impedance of the oouialline. A hazooka is included in the
system to prevent unbalance in the feeding of the dipole elements.
..... BBO BOXEs.

.. Geaer_l. Echo boll:es are rtIlOnant cavitilll!! designed to have


a very high Q, of the order of 36,000. They are used with microwave
radar sets to provide an artificial or "phantom" target which may be
Il8&d. to tWle the receiver to the transmitter in case no real targets are
available. The echo boll: may abo be used to give an approll:imate

I IL-~

ECMO_ 5IOIIAL
OM TYPt: ...., IIOCATOII

n.-alM
JI'(f1InI JOIl.

'&ppea.--"" 01

""At>-"""'' ' ' ol on ....<lor I""i"""or.

indication of the transmitter output relative to some arbitrary standard, and if accurately calibrated, it may be used to meaSUfi! frequency.
b. Th_ry ., .pt!!p_d... (1) Energy from the radar antenna is fed into the resonnnt cavity to make it oscillate. Since the Q
is very high, the cavity oscillates or rings for se"eral microseconds
after ths end of the tnlIlsmitted pulse. During the time that the (>eho
boll: ia ringing, it feeds energy back into the mdar antennll, _hich produces an echo pulse on the indicator &creen. The length of time that the
echo boll: oscillates ia dependent. on the tuning and losses in the cavity,
the pulse shape and peak power of the Iransmitter, lind the tuning of
the reci!iver. Since the echo boll: may be tuned to the transmitter
under a given set of operating conditions, all vsriables e:zcept the ret-eiver tuning may be eliminated. The receiver is then tuned by
watching for mSIimum width of the pulse that appean; on the indicator screen (fig. 2(0). False operation is prevented by designing the
&eho boll: so that it Ciln oscillate in only (lne mode with~ the desi red

..,

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

frequency t.nd. The usual form is a cylindrictal cavity one-half


wavelength long that oscillates in the TE..... mode_
(2) The ~ho box may be e:rcited directly by pointing the antenna
at a hole in the cavity. HoweV6!", the echo box i8 more useful if it ia
mounted near the indictator, and the r-f energy is fed to it over a
coaxial line which is connected to a dipole placed in the antenna
field.
(8) An echo box may be improviaed where a oomm"rcial type is
not available. A ,.-eli-tinned 1- or CI-gallon
can gives an echo of
approximately 3 mile!! width when propedy tuned by denting the
sides of the call until muimwn .response is obeernd on the indicator.

oil

\---- 'TO",

n!T

r--'rTTlI'IC

CONNl:CTINCl CA8.LI

I.OOP AD.".,,_ I tENT

_
_________~.:'~SONAHT

_~

CAVITT
ADJUSTW!HT

gCr.IVER

~vve MI .

II'r~ I~"

"".11_""

INOlCATQfI.

TI.
"""'..,~. I,. 11/...,...,1.

Coupling to the system ia obtained by removing the cap and pointing


the hole in the can at the radar antenna. The can should be held
4- to /) feet in front of the antenna to prevent overloading of the reCeiver.
eo T.AIII ,. e .....f _ . . _ .. (1) Tuning by mean,
of p6rmllent echoes can be satisfactorily accomplished where an
A-acope is aVlliiable. When the only &COpes available are type B or
PPI, tuning on permlment echoes requires judging the brilliance of
the pattern. This is extremely difticult because of the long persistence screen on auch IIOOpee. Therefore, some form of ecbo box i,
desirable because it shows by an inereued width or ran~ of echo
pulse an improvement in performance resulting from ao incrts&e in
transmitter power or from improved tuning of the reoeiver. The

...

On9 .. 01'"""

.JJNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

echo bo.z ill al80 useful with an A-ecope because it gives nfe.rtn~
echo that does not change with location or othtr oonditiolll. Fig.
ure 200 shows the retume.d aigna) on an A-800pe. and PPI-800pe.
In 80me plane and ahip installationA wben there iii the possibility
that no permanent echoes will be available., echo boses are an integral
. part of the installation, as shown for an aircraft in figure. 201. The
echo bos or pickup antenna ill mounted at a point where pickup rnay
be obtained from the radar antenna. During the normll.l operation
of the flet the echo boll; ill either detuned or disconnected from the
pickup antenna.
.
(2) An echo boll; may be uee.d for other purposu by adding a second p ickup loop and coupling a crystal detector and microammete.r
to it. W ith these additional compontnUl it it JlOIiSible to calibrate the
echo-oos dial for usa as a wavemeter. An instrument of this type
i. U*lful in transmitter adjustment because receiver tuning doee not
eDur the pictun.

...
"

"'"

Seedo. VIII
Reeelve...

43. GENBIlAL

eta...

.. lah

Improved receiver design can ina .pee the


ulMlrulne&l of radar equipment, perhaps more than any other single
factor. Only I. small part of the energy radiated from the antenn.
!!trikes a distant target., in spite of doJU to limit the transmitted
energy to a narrow beam. The reflections from the taI"gl!t are acattered
in random directions., causing too echo which returns to the set to be
extremely small. The receiver mUBt accept signals of perh.ps
microvolt or 1_ in amplitude and amplify them to useful magnitudes. The elfective iange of a radar I:Iet is therefore proportional to
the ability of its ~iver to ut.i1ir.e weak reflected signals. The weaker
the signal which the receiver can use, the greater the elfective range
of the BeL
It. 81 ' _ _ .... (1) Theoretically it is p1l ible
by using many sta~ of amplification to build .ny signal, no matter
how weak, to .ny desired amplitude. However, there are present in
aU electrical cireuits variOUll random disturbances which produce
8IDIIU voltage variations known as noise. In particular, the input
stage of the receiver generates such voltages. Tbese are amplified
along with the signal voltage in the following stages of the receiVi!r.
Noises are generated in the otber stages, but tbees are 1_ important
lIinea they .re not amplified as much &II thOlle which are Pre6ent in the
first stage. If the signal is not at least .s large in amplitude &II
tbe noise voltage at the input stage, it cannot be recognized at the
receiver output and tberefore is UBeI68S.
(2) A primary consideration in receiver design is to keep the noise
level as low a6 possible so that, for. given signal, the signal.to-noil:iS
ratio is high. If the noise level is low weak signal from. distant
. target may be detected. If the noise level is high the targ.l:t has to be
much closer before the ecbo from it ia sufficiently strong to override the
noise. ThUll tbe noise g.l:nerated in the reeeiver is a factor which .lfecta
the Ul!I!ful ran~e of the set. Reducing noise bI improved design on I.
moderstl!ly good ~iver may utend the range of the set much more
elfectively than increl.9mg the output POWe!" of the trarumlltter

...

(3) The noises which are generated 11\ an amplifier stage include
three types. These are thermal agitation, shot effect, and induced
noises. All of these include frequency components throughout the
entire frequency spectrum, and the amonnt of noise therefore is affected by the choice of bandwidth for the receiver. (See Bee. IV.) In
general, a reduction in bandwidth of the receiver reduces the noise
voltage, but does so at the ell:pense of pulse shape. The amount of
distortion of the pulse shape which can be tolerated is the limiting
factor in increasing signalto. no ise ratio by reduction in bandwidth.
(4) Thermal agitation noises are caused by random motion of free
electrons in a conductor. At any instant theN! are likely to be more
electrons moving in one direction than in the other, causing a voltage
to develop aCr0!i6 the conductor. If the temJX'rature of the conductor
risea., the agitation of the electroll!! incr6AsEli in both directions so that
the instantaneous current is greater. Since the noise voltage generated in a conductor is the IR drop from this current, the amplitude
of the noise voltage inCl'eaaea with an increase of either temperature
or conductor resistance.
(Ii) Shot effect is caused. by irregular emission h:om the cathode of
(I tube.
The electron flow in the plate circuit varies slightly in the
number of electrons reaching the plate from one instant to snother,
and in the velocitill8 of the individual electrons. This very sman
current variation produce!! a small voltage variation IlCrOll9 the load
impedance of the tube which is known as noise, since the irregularities
are entirely random. When a positive grid iB pllced in the electron
Pith to divide the electron flow with the pllte, the shot elfect is magnified because the division of the electrons is abo irregular. For this
reason multigrid tubell are noisier than triodes. Shot elJect can be
minimized by using a high mutusi-oonductance tube, since the signll'l
control. of the electron stream is greater than in a low mutual-oon _
ductanee tube for the same relative noise level. An increase in the
space char~ by higher Blament temperatures is IIOmetimes helpful in
smoothing out emission variations.
(6) StTay electrostatic and electromagnetic fields may induce volt_
1lge8 and currents in resistors, leads, and even within the tubes them!!elves. III addition to the shot elfect in the plate circuit, the irregular
electron stream causes currents to flow in the grid circuit. ~ electrons moving past the grid induce chatgl!!l on it which are dependent
on the positions of the electrons. If the dow is constant in velocity
and number of electrons, the net result of all electrons will be constant.
Actually this is not true, so that a Mlndom variation in chRr~ on the
grid occurs, with a resUlting movement of e1~trons to and from the
grid circuit. This takes place without electrons from the cathode
reaching the grid, bUI by merely passing by. The movement of elec.
680130_1

...

18

o,,~,

.11, ""

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

trona in the grid circuit produCtil a noille voltage acr088 the grid circuit
which is amplified by the tube. The magnitude of the noille voltage
on the grid resulting from the electron st.n.m inen!!' IS with hequency, eo that noisa from this source depends both on buldwidth and
the carrier frequency. Any other stray fields uternal to the tuba may
produce similar elects, in addition to voltages produced. by i"Bnl!\cienl
flltering of the plate voltage supply. Long feed lines are particularly
8WlCeptibie to stray fields. Induced noilll'! voltages are minimized by
low impedance cireuits, shielding, filtering, and short leads.
.. a-, .....
(1) The difticulty of obtaining useful
ampJjRntions becomes gl . ater u the earrier frequency bec(HlIl!lI
higher. BecaU98 of noille oonsiderations, acreen grid tubes, which ani
in common U8e at broadcast. and lower radar frequencies, are 18II!I _
ful at the higher radar frequencie&. The inductive reaet&noe of the
cathode leads at theea frequencies causes appreciable degeneration.
Tb.e mgna! voltage and part of the noille voltage Ire alected equally
by this degeneration. The noise resulting from random divimon of
current between the pllte Ind IICreeD grid, however, is not Ilecud.
because both of the currents flow in the cathode. The result is an
over-all reduction of signal. to-noise ratio.
(9) At extremely high freqUfllCiM, the eapacitive reaetance between
tuba elements becomel important. In triodel tbe grid-pate eap.citanee tends to causa instability which m&f,18t up oecillationa. 'The
grid-to-eathoda capacitance tenda also to abunt the signal voltage.
Tb, rtWUIt it to limit the poasible gain of the tuba. The facton affecting the Ibility to produce amplification have been diacul!l8ed in
l!eCtion Ill.
(8) It wu pointed out in b(6) above that the irregular amiflllioo
of the cathode e&uaee In apparent flow of current in the grid circuit without electrons reaching the grid from the cathode. Thi.
produces In input resistance to the tube which loads the grid circ:uit.
'The higher the carrier frequency, the lower is this input wist.nee.
The electron stream ia varied by the applied signal voltage u well,
aJl.d this lowers the apparent input resistance. ThUB the physieal
grid cireuit constructed from induwnoe and eapacitance ia paralleled
by the Ipparent input resistanee and capacitance of the tuba.
(4:) For the above reaaona, r f I~plifiers hIVe not baen u8ed extensively in the microwave region. At the lower radar fl1lqueneiee,
more or less 8Iltiafactory gain bas been obtained lIoy using tubes of
small pbysical size to reduce interelectrode e&pacitanoe and the eleetron transit time. Multiple abort leads to the cathode have baen u*
in In attempt to reduce the inductance. A cireuit with the grid
grounded and the siWJal applied to the clI.thode i5 al90 ul!8ful in eztemting the bigh frequency limit of r f amplifiers since tbs plate-to-grid

e.

...

,.,

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

capacitance then acts only as a load on the plate circuit., rather than
as a feedback path aa in a conventional circuit.
(5) A tubs which lends itself well to the grounded-grid type of
eirouit, or to circuits using tuned concentric linll!l, is the lighthouse
triode. The heater ~nd cathode connections aI'('! made to pins in a
standard octal tube base. The plate connection is made to the cap,
and the grid connection is made to a ring encirding the tube. about
halfway between the cap and the ahell. nis construction allows the
tube to be made rugged with Jess interelectrode capacitance for the
small spacing than in conventional triodes. A circuit UlIing this tubs
aa an r-f amplifier is shown in figul"8 202. The couial cable carrying
the signal is connected directly to the cathode shell. The signll voltage which appears across the tuned cathode circuit CI, LI, is coupled
to the cathode 8y the capacitance between the cathode and Bhell.
Sinoe the grid is grounded, the application of a sigtlal to the cstbode
controls the plate curI'('!nt of the tube. Bias is developed ~I"OB!I 1"8sisoor RI. The plate coil L2 is tuned to I"I!I:IOnanoe by' capacitor OJ.
A filter network LS, c., ~ bypmes to ground any r-f in the plate
voltage lead. The resiston R2 and R3 permit the adjustment of the
operating voltage to the proper valus of from 200 to 2tiO volta.
(6) Another r-f amplifier using a lighthouse triode and tuned by
CODC4lntric lines ill ahown in figure 200. The r-f input is tapped. directly
on the grid line. The cathode is coupled to the outer conductor of
the grid cathode line by the cs.paciton C7 and CS which are built into
the tube, and bypass radio frequency from the metal shell that forma
the ba!16 of the tube to the cathode. Grid bias is furnished by the
potentiometer Rl which is IMlt to give the correct plate current. Plate
voltage ia supplied through the filter made up of C4, C5, and R3
located inside the plate line. Coupling to the next stage is made by
meaRS of a picliup coil positioned between the grid and plate linll!l.
BecaulMl of the grid plate line some regenerative amplification may be
realiud. Oscillation is prevented by proper loading and location of
the grid input tap_
aD. leeovery" p. ( I ) The rectlh'el", though
partially protected by a T-R devi, roceives a strong signlli direetly
from the transmitter. This signlli may overdrive and block the
receiver and render it in!lllnsitive to signals which follow shortly afte rward. ThUll the minimum range may be seriously impaired by the
rectliver's inability to deted signals from nearby targets_ The blocking remtlts from excessive bias developed on one of the tubes by the
signal, usually in a video stage which is resistanoe coupled. The blocking bias may be developed by grid current, or by excessive current
through a cathode biasing ~istor if it is bypassed by a capacitor.
The stages preceding the'S2wnd detector are 1I0t U9ually subject to

. aJ_Id_.

"7

o.'g;, I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

<!

"

0
-0

>~
0

...
I

:;
,

.0

'~"-"MlCHJo.>AN

UNt'i~SlTY Of

bloc:kiug because the signal has not been amplified sufficiently to overdrive the tubes, since inducWre rather thin reeiBtora &1'6 uaed in the
grid lead., aud 00caU98 any cathode ~iasing repjstnrs are unbypa ": 2 d.
(2) Blocking in the video stages c&n be prevented, or ita e8"eet
minimized, in several ways. A gate pulse applied to one or more of
the i-f stages may either bias the tubes to cut-oft or remove the supply
voltage fortbeduratioo of the transmitted pulse. When it is ner "oiHy
to receive weak signals at the earliest poiI8ible moment after the tnLnJI mitted pulse., as in AI equipment, gating is uaed. If the 8600nd detec
tor produces negative pul9l)lj1 the jbm video stap may be nxd as a
limiter. Any signal of too great amplitude merely drives this tube
to cut-ofl' and ita output is limited to a predetermined mn:imum amplitude. If the bias is supplied from the power supply through a voltage
divider which draws a large current, any esc conduction by the tube
produces only a negligible voltage chanp in the biasing resistor"
When blocking dOO8 occur, ita duration is determined by the time constanta involved. The eBect can be made 1688 objectionable by making
the time conetants, and oonsequently the recovery time, as short as ill
practicable. By leaving the cathode resistor unbypused, ita time
constant is made practically zero.
T

44.. AUTOMATIC ftlBqtJENCY CONTROL


.. ee.e_l. Any "frequency drift of the carrier or local oedllator causes the intermediate frequency to change by the &ame amount.
To compensate for this drift. the i-f bandwidth may be incrnsed in
the desiiJI of the receiver. This increue in bandwidth will raise
the noise level, hut if the increase is not made, the pulse will be distorted owing to 1068 of high frequency component&. The performance
of the receiver can be improved by automatie "frequency control which
avoids both difficulties. If the intermediate frequency changes for any
reason, the control circuit brings it back to its proper valufl by tuning
t.he local OIICillator.
... Ope_d... ( I) In the circuit of figure 2O-l, the input
signRl is at an intermediate frequency 01 60 megacycles. A drift of
the intermediate frequency produces a d-c voltage change whieh, after
amplification, is imp' 2 nd on the repeHer grid of the klystron 0Ilci1lator to retune it to the oollect frequency. Tube VI is an i-f amplifier, wbere input eomell from the regular i-f channel. The IIOOOndary
of transformer TI is tuned to resonaDOe at the i-I frequency. The
coupling of the primary and seoondary, and the tuning of the primary
are adjusted to give a voltage ICI'088 the secondary that differs by
90 in time phase with the "primary voltage. The.primary is connected to the center tap of the secondary by means of the coupling
condenser C4.

...

Or'gir ilrnm

UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

"

...
l

(2) Figure 206 shoW!> an equivalent circuit of the discriminator and


the various volta~ reIationa for treq1enciea above, below, and at
resonanoe. As shown in the equivalent ci rcuit, (D, the yoltage applied
between the upper diode plate and cathode i!J the drop acroea the resistor between .A and D. This is the V'I!Ctor sum of the voltage acl'Olll
the upper half of the I!e('OIldary, .A to B and the voltage of the prima,."
B to D. Similarly, the voltage applied to the lower diode plate is

" ------- ......


'
,///

-'

",':..,----+.
"

" 1

I,. __ ____':..J,:,

..

------;..,,
. ,'"
. ,
.' .' ,,

..

.{

,,',,

. .

,/

,,

------_.\.'

...

(p ."".......... . . - .......-

..... ...,.. .. M.,. ....

that across Ute lower half of the seoondary, 0 t o B plus the primary
voltage. B to D.
(8) When the jf signal is at its proper frequeney, the voltage acl'(: 3
the geCondary,.A to 0 is 00 out of phase with the voltage aCfOll8 the
primary, R to D (fig. 205@). 'nlua EOB leads EBD by 00, while
EAR lags EBD by 00, Since the secondary ia center. tapped to malm
E.AB equal to E OB, tbe vector gUms are equal in magnitude: Equal
signals on the two diode plates produce equal currents in the.cathodes,
which in turn produce d oC voltage droptl acl'Oll8 R6 and Be which &re
equal but. of opposite polarity. The output to the doC amplifier 18
therefo", aero,

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UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

(4) Il the i-f signal changes in frequency , the secondary cireuit ill
no lon~r tuned to resonance, and voltage A to 0 no longer dillers by
00". Il the frequency d~rease!l, a lag of more than 90" is produced;
if the frequency increaaes, a lag of 1_ than 90" OCCUI'S. In the fonner
case the voltage applied to the lower diode plate is greater (3), and the
output to tbe d-c unplifier is negative. In the latter case conditions
are reversed (4), and a pollitive output is produced. After being
amplified, the doC voltage is used to cor~ Ihe klystron, or local oscilInlor frequency.
.
4S. SUPERBIBGIKNERATIVIK RlKCIKIVIKRS.
.. Ge _ _ l. SUperregeneration takes place in an oscillator
when oscillations are started and stopped at a radio frequency rate
that is low in comparison with the frequency of the ~nerated oscillations. Thill etr~t can be aCi.!omplished by applying a quench voltage
in the lower radio-frequency range (26 to 300 kilocycles) to the grid
or plate circuit ot an oscillator in such a way that the tube oscillates
only during a portion of the poaitive half cycle of the quench voltaga
TIll:! oecillations build up duling the positive half cycle only to be
~uppresnd or quenched as the low frequency voltage drops to value
.t which oeciUations ("ann ot. be sustained. When a !uperregenerative
oscillator is used in a receiver the incoming signal is impa ' sed on the
grid of the superregenerative stage. Since the tube is in an enremely
high .erative condit~on during the periods of oscillation the
~mplification nbtained is very great. Superregenerativll receivers are
very simple in design when compared with superheterodyne receivers
and they are utili:M!d in some instances where weight is an important
futor .
.... s.~r_._f!r_dve eeeiver eire_it. ( 1) A simplified diagrun of '" supe rregene rati \"e receh'er using I triode oscillator
and a diode rectifier or detector is shown in figure 206. Regeneration
or feedback from the piaU! to the grid takes place through the
oscillator tank circuit. Capaciwrs Cl and C2 couple the grid and
plate of thll tube to the tank circuit. Plate voltage is supplied through
L2 and the power supply is bypai9lld by capacitor
Grid biM
and the quench voltage are applied to the grid of tube VI through
lA, which oft'en' a high iml)("da nce to the high I"IlIIOnant frequency of
tbe O!JCillator, but is low enough to pass the quench frequency. Resistor Rl is a .sensitivity control that varies the d -1J bias on the oscil
lator VI. R2 .serves to give the oscillawt some self bias and limits
the8peed at wliich oscillations build up.
(2) The output. of the oscillator is taken from the tank circuit and
coupled to the rectifier or d(lt eetor lube V2 by means of ca pacit-or C4.
Ui and R3 fonn the load of the detector and the output appears
across RB.

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eo Op- ad... (U The opention of the receiver when no


signal is applied ia shown diagrammatically by the volt&Je CUrvai ill
figure 207. 'I'be noise that i. generated as I n.'.tIult of shot effect and
thermal agitati.n is shown in curve <D. CwTe shows the dectin

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noise. voltage IIIUed with a quench voltage applied to the grid. The
amplitude of the noise voltage as ahov.-n is utn'lIIely ezaggerated for
illustrative purpose! The doC bias applied 10 the auperregenerative
oe;cillator is high enough to prevent it from oec:illating until the quellClh
voltage is applied. The IlIIount of this bils determines the pointa
on the quench cycle between which the tube O$CilIates. Curve

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shows bow the oscillations lltarted by II noise voltage build up, and
curve @ illustral.ell the rectified omput from the detector stage. It
can be seen that though no signal is being received there is II small
output from the detectur stage. It can be seen that though no signal
is being received there ill II small output from the detector made up
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of pulses oc<:urring at the queurh fnoqUI! IlCY. When oscillat.ions are


started by the noise "oltaA'1l!I in the circuit, the speed at which oscillations build up depends llpon the magnitude of the noise at thnt
particula r instant. Sint-.,. there is It great chance factor in noise
amplitude, the time oscillati"n~ sta n and the llpet'tl at whi<:b they
uuild up v.,i~ greatly. pluducing the lli!lS tJu,t is tharacteristic of
lIuperregenel'llUVe recei Vl'lnl.

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(2) The action of the receiver when a signal ia applied is ilIusttliteci


in curves to @. Curve shOWI the input signal mixed with the
quench voltage. It can be 8l'I8n that the grid fel(lh efl itll critical bias
earlier in the quench cycle when there is signal applied. ThiB oe
CDl'II because the peaks of the input signal drive the grid of the tube
above the critical point. Also the voltage on the grid falle below the
critical point later in the quench eyeie when a lip .. is applied. Consequently oacillationa reach greater amplitude before being quenched
11.00 are produced in the receiver for lon~f time. For this re.!IOf\
tbe output is much greater when a signal i, being received than in the
normal no-8ignal operdion. The characteristic hi. is eliminated
when the signl.l is applied bee_UIII! oscillations are started by the petlb
of the
signal voltage giving a definite reeurrenOil time.. The noise
voltalt is eItft.me\y lJIllan when compt.red with the UlUaJ. fIignaI 80
that it has practically no effoot on the time oeeillations start.
(8) The seMti... ity control, RI, abown in figure 206 detenniDe8 the
point on the quench voltage wave at whicb tbe tube will oeeiJIate.
The time the tubEda in a regenerative condition i8 determined by tIN!
grid bias and the frequeney of the queneh voltai'<!. When a super
regenerative reeeiver i8 used where pulses are ko be received, the grid
voltage is adjusted to a compromise value between mnimum !lensi
tivity and a value at whieh tbe output pul_ resulting from noile art
not large enough to interfere with the function of the 8l!t.
(4) The diode V2 functions &Ii a detector. During the positive
half cycles of the radio frequency the impedance of the tube is .6..
tremely low and very little voltage appears acroes tbe load L6 and
B8. The coupling capacitor C4 i8 eJ:tremely small and prevents 0..
cesaive loading of the BUperregenerative stlge during tke bllf cycles
that the detector is condueting. During the negati"e balf cycle the
diode V2 dotll not conduct, and therefore considerable r-f voltage
appears aeross LIS and B8. The Degati"e pul_ of r-f "oitage cause
current to o.ow through.LlI and B8. The letion of L6 i8 to store up
energy during the peaks of the rf pnillell and to release it betwet'll
r-f pulees to keep the current. o.owing in tbe same direction. The reo
lIult ill to produce a de voltage across R8 during received lIignall! in
tbe form of pulsea all ~hown in figure 207 (8) .

1'.,

.... AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTilOL


.. Geaeral. ( 1) The amplitude at the input to the receiver of
the echo from a particular target may vary because of fading and
changing of the position of the tarjplt at a DlOfe or less rapid rate.
If the receiver has a com!!ant gain there is a corresponding variation
in the Implitude of the out put. If this changing Implitude is 0bjectionable, as ill systems where the signal is used for lutomntic

...

On9 .. oil"""

..ljNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

tracking, all automatic gain control may be used to giVII greater gain
when tho signal ill weak than when it is strong. Thus the amplitude
at the output is maintained relatively constant.
(2) A common type of automatic gain contrel, which is in use in
commercial receivenl, U8e8 the signal voltage to control th'e biM on oni!
or more tubes. A doc voltage obtained by rectifying the signal is
used for this purpose. If the signal is too strong the grid of the
amplifier tube is made more negative to reduce tbe gain, A remote
cut-olf tube is used to prevent act ' ive dis&.ortioll.
(3) The voltage developed from the sigl1al may be used to control
the gain by letting it 'regulate the ~upply voltage for the plates and
screen grids of amplifier tubes. When this method is used, several
stages of d-c amplification art! needed to furnish the AGe voltage,
the last stage being a power amplifier.
(4) In radar !lilts where automutic gain control is uged, the voltage
is developed from a particular target under observation, since the
signals from all targeta vary independently of each other. For this
reason, .. signal selector circuit chooses the interval of time which inc1udllll the echo from the de!!ired'target. Only the signal received durjug this brief time interval influences the receiver gain, Thus echoes
from targets at ranges apprecillbly dilferent from that of the selected
target have no effect on the gain,
.. TypI_I ....Ge (:Ire"t. (1) A circuit which provides automatic gain control hllsed on the signal returned from a single target
j~ shown in figure 208, The operator places Il range gate or Ilotch
under the echo pulse of the target 10 he tracked on the indicator, He
adjusta continulllly the position of thie gate to the movement of tbe
target. An AGe gate, which occurs simultaneously with the range
gate, is applied to tube VI to ~lect the proper echo pulse from the noeive!' output. The outpul of VI is amplified and inverted, rectified,
amplified by a three stage doc amplifier, and applied to the Teceiver as
scroon and plate voltage.
(2) Tube VI is II ~ntagrid converter tube to which is applied. the
AGe gate pulse, and the output of the receiver. In the absence of
gate and ~iver output, VI is bia!!ed beyond cut'olf. The gate pulse
is adjusted in amplitude to make VI barely conductive. The receiver
output ill Dot large enough to cause the lube to conduct. When an echo
signal and the gate occur sjmultllneously, the echo signal is Ilmplified.
All other echo signals are lost because VI is nonconducting except
during the gate,
'
(3) The selected. signal is IImplified Ilnd inverted by tube V2 to '
produce positive pulses. va is a diode detl'Ctor which red ifies the
pulses to produce an approximately steady positive doc voltage across

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the filter RIO and 06. The magnitude of this ,oltoge is proportionlll
to the strength of the r-f signals returnffi by the target being tracked.
(') The output 01 the diode is applied direct.J.y to the grid of V4
which in tum is directly ooupled to the grid of Vii. In order to obtain
direct coupling in these t.ubes, and to the parallel amplifier, V6 and'VT,
the required voltages for these tubes are obtained from a voltage divider, resistors H2O, R21, ROO, and R23, oonnected to - 190 volts.
Capacitors CS, CIO, and C11 remove any pulse ripple to produce II
steady d -c voltage.
(Ii) The plate voltage of V6 and VT depends on the magnitude of
the echo signals received from the chosen target. If the signals are
large, these tubes dn.w a heavy plate cu~nt, and their plate voltage is
low. If the 6igna.ls become small, the pla.te cu rrent becomes small and
the plate voltage rises. Tbe platllll and screens of the i-I amplifiers
are connected to the plates of V6 and V7, so that the gain of the i-f
amplifier is controlled directly by signal strength.
(6) The speed with whih the AGe cireuit reapond.8 to a change in
signal strength is fixed by the time oonstanta of the R-C filters used
to remove ripple. These are set 80 that successive pulses can be received with little changt' in the d-c output voltage 80 long as thei r
amplitudes are equal. If the U'erage value of the tm\ses change,
however, the result ill to produce a. change in the d-c output which
will correct the gain of the i f a.mplifier to return the selected signals
to their proper ,.Iue.

47. TIJNING INDICATOR.


.. Ge.er.l. In some eases it is difficult to tune a receiver e:nctly
to the frequency of the transmitter. This occurs in cases ..... here all
A.. &cOpe is not provided. The tuning indicators in general use are
operated hy the avera.ge voltage of all signals being received. In the
U8ual circuit the output of the i-I section is I"'IlCtified, filtered, and
applied to a !len~iti'e indicator. The indicntor may be either s sensitive d-c meter or an electron-ray tube. \Vhere only an instnntaneon8
indication of muimum signa.l is desired nnd relative measurements
are not nece380ry an indicator of the ma.gic eye type is used because
it is much leas expensi'l""e thlln the meter type.
It. M_.le eye. The magic-eye type of indicator is basically a
cathode-rRY de,ice in whieh thp electrons emitttod nt the cnthode a.re
attrlLCted to the fluorescent target, causing it to glow. A.. sketch of a
magic eye-tube is shown in figure 209. A ray con trol electrode i8
pla.ced on one side of the cathode nnd w aban el~trical shndo ..... on the
screen. The width of the shadow depends upon the d_c voltage on
the control electrode. The output of the rectifier or detector could
be applied directly to the contr ol electrode, but usually. a.n amplifier

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UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

stage is used. The amplifier may be either u:ternal or built moo the
indicator tube itself.
eo ClreaJt Iyala. A. diagram of an electron-ray tube rucuit is shown in figuf<' 210. The output of the detect.or is sucb that
the-voltage applied w the Amplifier grid becomes more negative 88 the
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signal voltage increw;es, CIlulling the potential of the amplifier plate


and the control electrode which i.e tied direetJy w ~ plate to rise
aa the signal increageS. When the potential on the control electrode
increaflell the e.1eetrons passing the electrode are deflected 1_ &Ild
the shadow angle i.e decreased.

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Section IX
IDdleaton

--------------------~4& GENEIlAL
.. Ty.- .r __ . (1) The basic types of data presentation
were briefly de&Cl'ibed in section 11. The U8e of one or more t)'fell
of scan in a radar 86J; ill governed by the application to wbich the set
is to be put. As more and more UlIIl8 are found for radar, the inditlltOI'9 ue modified from the simple basic types of scaM to more compltz _DB which fulfill speciaJ needa by pns!t\.ting all D80ser.., data
on one oecilloscope.
(2) In aearch or early-warning seta it is desirable to view as luge
III area lUI po!!8ible and to track several targets simultaneously. For
this application the PPI-9Can i8 very useful, and it is frequently BUp-

plemented with an A-scan 90 that the character of the echo may be


clI.rdully observed and both ranging and identification may be &OCODlpli.ehed easily.
(8) In fire-controI or gun-laying sets it is usua11y desirable to concentrate on only one target, 90 that IIOme form of gated A-ecao or
B-lJC&n is ofuln used. Where the target is an aircraft, the indicator
must. be designed to sbow the altitude as well as the range and bearing.
(4) A third type of application ia the use of radar in aircraft inter~ption. In this caae the radar indicator must provide enough information for onl! airplane to be pointed at another, 80 that the type
C-scan, or a moditiC1ltio'n of it, is used in conjunction with a type B-lICRn.
(1) The accuracy with which the
'"tinge of a targ1:lt must be ouillined varies with the tactical employ.
ment of the radllr set. For example, range data for tire control mUlll
be accurate to within a few yards, while fOI a reporting station the
range datR neW. he accurate only w within 2 or 8 percent of the nwge.
The angular accuracy of the bearing mea.surement is wbject to similar

... Me....... r......

lim i til. t i OTll:l.


(2) Since the range need not be determined with great preciaion in
sea.n:h radar sets, the sweep is often calibrated by the use of trail&parent overlaid seale, lUI in section III. This enables the operator
to estimate the range within the required limits of accuracy. In nth

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UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

uses marker pips are u.sed w divide the sweep into equal time inter.
vals to facilita~ estimation of the range of echoes.
(8) In applications thAt require accurate measurement of rallge,
some means is provided for introducing a varia~le delay to permit
aligning the echoes with a reference mark. The reference mark may
take the form of a hairline acI'068 the face of the ()ACiIlO8OOpe or a notch
or step in the sweep trace. In lIOme cases the precision of measurement
is improved hy observing the desired echo on an upaoded pOrtion of
the sweep.

"". RANGE ESTIMATION


a. MetII:. . . .f _d. .d (1) A given ran~ can be repl esented by the total length of the ~weep on a csthoderay tube screen.
If the tl"llnsmitted pulse occurs at the bt-ginning of the 6weep, the range
of a target may be estimated by observing the fraction of the sweep
length between the tl"llnsmitW putlle and the echo. Estimations of
this kind depend on the judgment of the open.tor, and are made less
accurate ~y any nonlinearity of the sweep.
(2) If the radar equipment ia installed in a permanent location,
there may be a number of ib:ed targetll whOl!e ranges are known.
Thus, sevenl points on the sweep may be accuMitely calibrated, and
the ranges of other echoes can be estimated with reference to these
Irnown points.
(8) Estimation of range is made IIOmewhat more aocunte by the
Uf:II! of range markel"8 which divide the tra~ into equal time intervals.
Marken which appear on the sweep itself, rather than as marks on
an overlaid !!Call'. are preferable because they compensate for the
effects of nonlinearity.
II. S._k-ell.eltetll neillator. (1) A circuit, in which the
plate current of a switch tube ftows through the induct{)r of a tank
circuit , may be Ulled to produce a damped tl"llin of oscillations by cutting off the tube, RII explained in section VII, TM 11-466 alld Navships
l)OO,OU~. The frequency stability of this type of OI!Cil1uioll is l\ZCi'J
lent because the tsnk circuit is very lightly loaded and the frequency
depends in no way 011 the actiol! of the tube.
(2) One system t hat is uaed for geneflting range marken from
the output of a shockezcited oscillator is shown in figure 211. A
negative.going square pulse drives the grid of VI below cutoft at
the instant that the sweep starts, thus setting up oscillation in the
tank circuit made up of Ll and C2. Sharp, weIl-defined marker
pul ~ aN produced hy feed ing the output of the tank circuit through
Che remaining circuits of figure 211. The damped OIlCillations are
limited Rnd amJllifiPd by Vi so that the output at the plate is a seril'll
of approzimate square waves of the same amplitude. Resisoor R2

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in serie$ with the gdd limits tbe grid current and thus I~UCe$ Rny
damping elfect on Ihe Ire ci rcuit. The cathode biaa developed across
R3 lind C8 prevents the grid from going extremely positive and thus
lIids in keeping the grid current low. A low.plate voltage ill used
to aid in the limiting action. The ou tput of V2 ill coupled to the
grid of va which acts as lin ovudriven IImplifier and produces R
good eqURI-a wave at ita plate. The peaker-amplifier tube V4 has RII
its plate load inductor J.2 shunted by resistor R9. The inductor
l-asolllites with its distributed capacitance at a frequency of the order
of 2 m(>gacycles per second. When the tube is cut off by the negativegoing eqnal'e wave Ihe l'Oil is shocked into o8!"illation. The resistance
damps the oscillation almmrt Imrletely before one cycle is completed
90 thnt a positive pulse of approJ:imately O.211-microsecond dUl'ILtion is
produced. When the grid swi ng>! positive a neA"ative pulse of smaller
amplitude appears at th e plnte. This hRII no significance since the
following tube is biased below cut-off so that only positive pulS6!l
affect ita operation. The grid of V4 is retnrned w a positive potential
rather than to ground in order to insure high conduction in the tube
just before the grid swi ngs negative. The large resistor, R8, in the
grid circu it limits the grid current to a small value. The output of
the pul!!e ~nerntor is fed to a cathode foll ower which is biased below
cut-off. By adjusting tltis bi8~ !OI) that the po!!itiv(> peaks raise the
grid above cut -off by the desired am ount, the amplitude of the marker
pulses clin be con t roll ed.
(3) If the OSCilllltiolis in the cathode circuit of Vl at1;l damped too
much to be uS<!fu l O\'er the entire ~wl'l'P, a rcgenenltive circuit (fig.
212) can be used to sust"i!) their nmplitude. The circuits are iden ti cal with those of figure 211, with V6 ami V1l1.dded. The sustaining
circuit is in the fonn of Il muliivibI'ltlor with a Illiturni frequency of
10000iliation much lower than that of the in put sign,,!. The output
uf the Ire circuit is coupled directly to the grid of V6, is amplified
in V6 and V7. nm] fed hack to th e input point in its original phll.se,
having bet-n im'erted twice. TIll> degenerat ion in the two unbypassed
cathode resistors pre'ellts exces.~ive gllin which would distort the
sin usoida l I\av~ gcllerllted in th e L C circuit. The frequency of
osoilllltion is the resonnnt frequency of Ll C2, while the Ilmplitude is
held constnut by th(> nction of tlte tnultivibrntor. Whell current
Howa in VI the oo;;cill .. li uns are uamped out and start ngain when the
current is cut off. The oa-iIlutions are used to gt'nernte po!Iitive
mll.rker pulses as discu ><Set! ill connection with figure 211.
eo M.Uhlb,..to,.. ( I ) Rs nge mnrkers may be ~Ilerated by
the type of multi,ibrnlor circuit ~hown in figure 213. 'fhe circuit is
turned off /lnl l 011 by a signal npplied through CI to the grid of VI.
A ne&alive pulse of re ln-tively short duration cuts off VI nnd renders

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.UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

the circuit inOopentti\"e until the ~i gnlll goes pOSitIVe, tit which time
the sweep alllO stutl!. When VI I.Jegins to condut.'t, its p l ~le vul tage
droPIl, and c.u~ the grid of V2 tOo s wing in lhe neb..... t he d irect ion.
T he current through V2 lind consequently the voltage a t its calhod e
decreases. T his dllmge, which takllll plllOO a lmost instantaneously, is
t'(lupled through C3 to the cat hode of VI, drh'ing it in the nega t ive
direction_ Sinoo the ~ritl of VI i~ held li t II. ",lat i' -ely rollSlllllt ,-ullage
in respect tOo ground by the charge 011 CI, the effect Oof t he voltage OlIU -

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pled thn,ul("h Ca iii 10 inCC"i!llSOl. fuc"tl,u t he t"()ud uction of tbe t ube_


T h i~ ClIlUuillth-e llCtiou CU!IJ 01 V2 very Iluickly a nd d rh-ea VI into
ISlI t 11)"11 t ion.
(:!) T ile pla te cum'lll of V J must flow through the t hree p8rn llcl
brn nclles ill t he clt hode t;i n.:uit of the t ube_ T he Cllr nmt that flOows ill
III .. brllnches ill whic h there lIre Ca lJllcilOl"8 call~ a change ill Ihe
c ha1"b'tl uf the cllpaci tor!:! by wi lhdrllwi ng eloctro lL~ from one pla te of
each_ T his fluw of current pnxluces n \"olln,ge I!.C~ lhe C\l.thode im.
l",dHUCIl that dri" e5 Ih6 cnthode positil'e relative to ground_ Since
t he th,~ branches a,~ in purallel, the ,-ohnge acl"Oli8 weh bnlllch
mu st nlll-uys be the su me_ The c hange of '-oltHge tlmt occuno acro&!
Ih" brunch colil oinillg Ll :tud C2 t"Ou tro ls the cathode potentia] be.
cuu;;c Ihe mte uf cl UlI lg" of '-u1tn b'll in l.hill lmillch is ~Iul\'er thu n in
thtl othe r!!.
238

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(8) As the voltage rises at the cathode of VI, ite current becomeli
1_ and its plahl voltage ri9llll, causing the voltage at the grid of Vi
to rise. When the point is reached at which ' Vi again conduct&, a
cumulative dect which ia the reverae of that previoURly dee:ribed
cute off V1. The tube rem..m. cut off only during the ti ...... of one
half OIflmation of L1 and 02. At the end of this time the voltage
ACl'OIB the tanlr: circuit has swung to its mu:imum negative value,
causing the start of a 8IICOnd cyde of the circuit action. Thus, V1
aDd V2 are made ()O(Iducting alternately at a frequency detenninl
hy the values of Ll and 02. Capacitor C8 ill un Ii principally as a
mum of causing the change from conduction to nonoonduetion to be
abrupt.' BeIri&tor R2 ia und to damp the oscillatory cireuit., that thll
flt()pping of OIICiUation may be controlled by the pte voltage applied
to the grid of VL
(4:) Since V2 ia cut on and off abruptly, sharp marker pnh:a can
readily be produced in the plate circuit. The action of the plate load
impedance is similar to that described in the pea!r:er-amplifier of
figure 211. lksiator R7 ia a potentiometer which provides a meal'll
of controlling the amplitude of the markers. The cathode follower
is bisned beyond cu.t-9ff BO that only positive pnln ap~ in the
output..
:N'e.-UYe ..... u ....
(1) ODs of
the most lltable of oecillaton used to generate marker pubs ia the
negative tranaeonductanoe oecillator, ohen called the tn:mritfooft. A
diacUf.lri.on of the theory of operation of the transition oecillator is
given in section V, TM 11 t66 and Navshipe eoo,OUI. Ite atability
campa"" favorably with that of a crystal-oontrolled oecillator with
the uoeption that allteady drift over a long period of time is caU!led
by aging of the oecillator tube.. It has the added advantage that its
operation can be ()O(Itrolled by a switch tube. A repres-ntativ8 circ.uit for a negative transc::onductanoe range-marlr:er system ia MOwn
in figuf6 iii.
(2) The plate current of switch tube V1 and the IlCreen current of
(i8(lillator tube Vi flow through the inductor in the tank circuit made
up of LI, ca, and C4. When the switch tube is cut off, the current
in Ll tends to change abruptly, caUlling the magnlltic field around Ll
to Btart to collapee. Thi8 collapsing magnlltic field inducea in the in
ductor a voltage which drives the screen grid of V2 positive. The
voltsge induced in LI getB up in the tank circuit oecillations that an!
maintained by the action of Vi. If the bias on VI is adjusted.to give
the proper current through L1, the amplitude of the first cyclll of the
oacillation in the tank cirettit can be made equal to the "dy slate
amplitude. When the switch tube 'is sgain made conducting, the
tank circuit is effectively shunted by low resistance and QllCillatioIlll

eta._ .,,111......

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

----

-+~

~~--

-+-"

i,

"

.,
"

"

r.

~Ii

i'

L:

--

,~

- !

-~

,I,

'

,-,
--,
-,,
I

.J-

"

----

,
,

-""

---- i.
----+.

'1

,-

Ii

~, -

"

_ _ 1_ -

~<

"

L~Ti'

-.J"

>

..J

"

""

are quickly damped out. Thus, application of negative gate voltage to the grid of VI controL, the length of time during which o8Ilil.
lationa are generated, and inSUl"8II that the 8nt alternation is alwayw
poeitive-gohi g half sine wave which IltarbJ.t the leading edge of the
gate voltage.
(8) The output of the trarurition OfIcillawr ia fed into cathode
follower because this type of circuit provides the high impedance
nSMs-ny to avoid lo.ding the oecill.tor. Since the cathode followu
is biued. the output ia. IJI!rieli of half sine "'lvtI!I, which are uui as
range markers in some appiicatioJlll. The cathode follower in aome
caeea may feed convt!lItional Ilquaring ampli6er9 and peUen to produce sharp marker pul!le8.

H. aANGB MBASUBBMENr
. . I'J _ _ I. (1) The di1lk:u1t problem of firing gun accurately can be simplified considerably if the e n d dim.nee between gun
&lid target can be determined. Ba~&r provides a means of finding
tbis distance by mea8ut'ing the time required for rot energy to travel
out to target, be reHected, and to return. Prec:iR measurement of
range require! the accurate measurement of utremely short time intervals. These intervals are measured by lOme mealUl of introdUcing
an locurately calibrated. nriable delay between the tranmitted, pulse
and the ec:ho pul_ on the indicator screen.
(2) Boveral methods of producing a variable delay to DH*8I1re
range are in U.8e in uisting radar equiplI)6D.t. One commonly U.ged
method is to shift the phase of the sine wave, which times the indicator relative to the sine wave, which timea the trallBmitter. The
pbase shift is ulled to delay the action of 90Jlle cireuit in the indicator
by a measured number of electrical deglE N, IUId therefore to mea!IUf'I!
the time in tenns of the period of one -cycle of the -.ine wave. The
pha!le-llhifting devine usually is geared. to a dial which is calibrated in
yards or other suitable units of range . .
(8) The range of a target may also be m8lllured by the U!le of a
cireuit which measures the magnitude of the sweep voltage at the po_
sitio.n at which the echo pulse appears 011 tile sweep. This method depends on the oompariaon of the sweep voltage with a calibrated variable d-e voltage, and it ill inherently not as aneurate 18 most phaseshifting methods. However, it does find oonsiderable use in _reh
radar seu in which it ill desired to meuure range to a fair degICe of
precision.

(') Other methods of measuring range inelude the U8e of a delay


multi vibrator, an aC(lustie tank employing a fixed. and a movable
crystal, Ind calibraled control of the poeitiOD of the sweep relative to
a !bed marker on the faoe of the indicator

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

(1) The voltage


obtained from a phase shifter should hi:' of constant amplitude at an
pbases to produce uniform operation of the circuita ... hich follow. In
order to make accurate measurements, one degree of rotation of the
phase shifter should produos a change in phase of OIle electrical degree
or less. 'The Helmholtz coil, described in 8IlCtion VII, TM 11 4643
and Navahips 900,016, is a common1y useti device for satiafying these
requinmenta.
(2) Another type of phase shifter using a special capacitor is alllO
satisfactory (fig. 2ICiG). The reactanCfl of capacitor Cl or C2 at the
operating frequency of 4.1 kilocycles per 8&COnd is 4,314 ohms. The
resistance of both Rl and R2 is made equal to this value. The curnmt
through either RI-Cl or R2-C2 lea.ds the voltage across the transformer 8e ;vudary by 45-. The voltage IICross either resistor is in
phase with the cunent and therefore leadl! the trarudormer voltage by
45. The voltage &CroEIB either capacitor lags the current by 90 and
therefore lags the transformer voltage by 45", If the series impedance
ofRandOiA
... Met h . , _

U ........

..............

and Xc_ R
Then Z = ../Jti+-no= R.,f2
Therefore, the amplitude of the voltage acrollS a resistor or a cap!lcitor is

E.- Ec- ZX2E"-R


T X2E.,=E.,,,/2
.
,2
where 2611 is the voltage &Cl'08II the transformer, or Ell is the voltage
hvnl N to ground. If E. is taken as the reference in the vecoor db,
gram (fig. 211S@),E.leadsE.by46 ,andEo lagsE.by45. The
vultage E,., mea.sured from P to ground, is the vector difference.
E. - E/JI' This differenCe is found by t,king - E cl as a vector equal
in magnitude to E r " but opposite in direction, and completing the
parallelogram with E.. The volt'ge E,.leads Ell by 90 and has the
sa.me amplitude. Likewise the voltage EN, which is measured from N
to ground, is the vector difference E. - E lt It i! equal in magnitude
to E. and lags Ell by 90
The voltage Eo, from 0 00 ground, is ISO"
out of phaae with Ell but equ,l in magnitude since the two point ~
are at opJ>Ol!ite ends of a transformer ... hose center tap is grounded.
(3) Thus, four voltages at 90" intervals in phase are supplied ttl
the four stator sections of the phaseshifting capacitor. The rotor
plate picks up voltage components from two or three Btator !leCtions
"imultaneously. The voltage at the output is the vector sum of the9l'l
components. In the position shol\'n in figure 215, the components
from plnles N nnd 0 uncel each other because they are equal in magnitude and 180 out of phaae. CoIlfle<J.Uently the output is 270 out
0

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

:I

J
"EI

~. @

I
I

i'"

--!

"i

i"
j

"a

...
I

,;

of phase with the transfonner volta~. The plates are shaped 90 that
the output voltage ia of constant amplitude, and that rotation through
one degl"Elfl mechanically changes the output ph'se one electrical
d......
(4) A modification of this phue shifter !l8e8voltages from the platea
and cathodes of two vacuum tubes led 00 0 out 01 phase to supply the
excitation lor the four stator plates. In sddition, a stationary output
plate which meahea equally with all staton may be used. The phase
shift is then produced by rotating a dielectric plate which varies the
capacitive coupling between the output plate and the four energized
section&.

(6) The r.ocuracy with which rangeR can be DleIllJ\lred by phase.


shifting methods depends on device used. In extreme cases, the error
of the phase shifter may be 9Ilveral electrical degrees. The time error
resulting from inaccurate phase shifting may be reduced by making
the lreqqency of the Bine wave high 80 that one electrical degiee repre86Dte an HtreDlely short tiQlA This requires a means of counting
or lIIllecting cyclee 18 well 18 a meaDe of producing an aocurate phase

wit.
e. ~ I.e_d 1 lis.

ra_ae ....er .,. p.,se .1IIft.

(1) In many applications the phase shift is used to control the starting time of the sweep, 80 that 18 the phase of the timing voltage
to the indicator is changed the trantnnitted pul9ll and echoea appear
to move along the SWl'llp. Some market" at a fUed position on the
sweep is UfIed 18 a refel'fllloo. The marker may be a hairline on the fa~
of the cathode-ray tube, or a step or notcb generated at a fixed time
after the beginning of the sweep.
(2) In figure 216(!) the timing sine wave to the transmitter and the
ph .... of the transmitWi pulse and an echo relative to this Bine wave
are shown. If the pblUle shiftet" is set to zero range., the pbase of
the indicator timing sine wave and the pbase of the sweep voltage
relative to the transmitted pulse are 11.8 shown in figure 2UXD. The
indicator is designed 80 that a hairline on tbe SCn!i!n always appean in
the middle of the sweep trace. Thus, the appearance of the indicator
ecreen at zero range is shown in figure 216@. However, if it is desired
to find the nngeol an echo, the pbll8e of Ihe indicator timing sine wave
must be changed 80 that the sweep starts before the transmitted pulBe
is sent out. Thus, if the indicator timing voltage ill made to lead the
tnnsmittet" timing voltage by the amount shown in figure 216@, the
ecbo will appear at the reference hairline as in figure 216@. Note
Ibat the transmitted pulae and echo have moved across the 8Creen
but that the sweep Btill occupies the same space on the screen.
.
(3) Some radar equipmenh use a phl8ll shift of two diBf!l"6Ilt fre
quencies to improve the accuracy of range mealJllrement.. The master

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

06Cillator of the time!' in such a system generates a sine wave whicb


is applied to a pbase sbifter to time the indicator, and from wblcb a
modulation pulse is generated to operate the transmitter. A highly
selective filter selects a volta~ of 01'\6 of the. harmonic frequenci68 of
wbich the pulse is composed, and this vol~ is al90 fed t() tbe indica
tor through a phase shifter. If the 18th harmonic is selected, one cycle
of the harmonic is equal in time t() 20 electrical degieea of the repeti.
tion frequency. The two phase shitten must be geared in an 18-t.o-l

--.
~

_. f----j L_

-~
'

1-/ :
,

..ratio 80 that the shifl Ilt the harmonic frequ~ncy is 18 times as great
lUI that at the fundamental, in order to measure the same time interval.
In tlt6 circuits following the phase sbifters the fundamental voltage ii
squared and peaked; the harmonic voltuge is limited, amplified, and
dillerentiated until only narrow pellks liPpeSI'. The peaking circuit
of the fundllnu.'Dtal ia I push-pull arnlilgement whereby two peakedvoltage wave forms, one the inverse of the other, ate obtained.
(4) A circuit, which uses tbese voltllge6 to prodU06 botb a gweep
trigger and a I'ilferenoo marker notch whose phase is always such that
it appeal'S in the center of the sweep, is shown in figure 217. The peW

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

of the harmoni c frequency are applied to the gr id of VI, and the


peaked waveforuUl of the fundamenta l frt!f)uen cy Ilrll produeed by the
short ti me oonsta nt. RC eircuit ooll s i~ti llgof 1t2 C2 1111(1 R3 C3. T he reo
sistors R4 Hlld R5 in ser ies with the grids of V2 !lml V3 limi.t t he swing
of the grids in the ~itive d irect ion. The durntioll of the IleMks from
the fuu Jamen tlil is such that olle and only one uf Ihe peaks of the
hll rmonic frequency can occur duri ng th is t ime. At the time ind io
cated. by the arrows on the wave forms the current in V2 i8 reduced
greatly wh ile that in V8 IS increased ! Iigh tly. The tota l current

=:

_",_,,' _',,j,," ....

T+;;'_:---~=~,_~

Ihrough the two tu bes ami therefore the vohnb'1l drop pcr<>s/j R8 lire
,, '<hlt..!d. The voltage dro p IIcross un ill rl,<lucl'<i, whi le Ihll t II cruSll
1t7 i~ inc",use.1. T he twu dr,,,,ts in lW and US nre in the SlIme ,lil'ec
lion nnd therefore H,ltl. while in RT Hnd R8 they lire upposite li nd
tend to cunet'l elleh other, T he result is II defini te positive pulse at the
plnte of V2 Iintl perhaps 1\ ~Iightly l}()Si t i\'e pulse lit the plnle uf V3.
The Tt,.,<luced cnr ren t in VI , c,mSL't1 by the negnth'e pnlse!! on its grid,
flows throu/!h US ami pl'<~hl(~ po,,;ti\'6 Jlulses 9.t the plates of both \'2
a"d V8 ;;OJ that the fundlillwlltlll IIl1d I,arm"";e \'"I tuges ure mixe,1,
When the polarity of the pulses 011 the grids of V2 and V 3 is re\'c l'l;<,,1

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNIVERSITYOf MICH IGA N

a half cycle of the repetition frequency later, the previously d0lJCribed


action of the tubes is reversed. The resulting wave form at each plate
is a series of pulses recurring at the rate of the harmonic frequency
with every 18th pul9l! on top of. pedestal. The two pedll8t&l voltages
are lSOo out of phase with each other, since one OQCurB at the positive
peak and the other at the negative peak of the fundamental sine wave.
(IS) Nate that the tiIne constant of the eoupling cin:uits into V4, and
VIS is extremely long. The grid leak bill8 produCfll in theee coupling
circuits, combined with the cathode biM produced &eft C7 and R~
pennia only the pulses which are on tbe pedestals to cause conduction.
The pIaU! load of V4 is an inductor wbich is shocked into oecillation
with its distributed capacitance when the tube is suddenly made
conducti ng. The indul:tor is used heca\lll8 a positive trigger pulse is
required for the thyratron sweep ~nerator which folIow8- The positive pulse is obtained from the second swing of the oecillation, 80 that
the use of a pbaae inverter tube is avoid&d. The slight delay introduced by this method is comp"nsated for in the ~ro adjustment of the
ph&98 shifter. The output of VI:I is a negative notch voltagll which is
applied to a vertical deflecting plate of a cathode-ray tube as a marker.
Since t.he marker is always generated one half cycle of the funda menta! after the generation of the !Weep trigger, it appears stationary on the screen as the phase of the sine-wave timing voitag& is
changed.
d. Ge_e_tl_ e' .ev."e __ Ie _rIler ..,. p ....!
...lft. (1) In some methods of measuring range a ma-rker is produced which is moved along the s ..... eep to the position of the echo
wh06e range is desired. The control which cau91111 this motion is
csli bral! directly in yards 80 that the range may be read from the
setting of the control. Where a pho.se-Hhifting method is used to
produ("6 the marker, the transmitted pulse and the sweep are timed
fnlm the same sine wave. The phase of t.hese voltages rellltive to the
timing sine wave i~ shown in fi/tUre 2180. The timing sine wave
is Mlso applied th roogh a phase shifter to a nnge. mark generator.
The range mark, shown 0.8 a notch in figure 218, is generated at 90me
fixed phnse of the phase-I,hifter Olltput in figure 218(!). When the
phflSe shifter is adjusted to the zero range position, the notch voltage
has the pbp9(! Nlative to the sweep shown in figure 218(!), producing a
picture on the indicntor screen like that i.1l figure 218(!). When it is
desired to ran~ on a larg...>t, the phll.!\e of the voltage to the notch
. generator is shifted &9 in figore 218@ so that the DOt(:h moves along
the swoop to the positiun of the echo. When the ecbo is centered in
the notch, as in figure 218@, the ran~ may be read from the calibrateddiaL
' 3

...

o,,~,

.11, ""

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(2) In many radar systems the timer does oot produce a sioe wa.,e.
However, advantage may be taken of the ac<:uracy of range measurement po88ible with phase-shifting method. by w;ing the circuit shown
in block form in figure !ilI9Q). The timing pulse from the transmitter
(fig. 219@A) controls the operation of a one-shot multivibrator
which prodUce8 a square-wave output, B. During the negative portion of this square wave a timing wave, C, is generated by a shock

-_ " ',__. eo

-.
......

--

,,,
,

....__..
"",

-.----"
-.

.............

.--

,
,,I / '

t ' _
' ....... "'1

.....

---

--._-

,,,

r.-. '" - . . _
>.!IIU"~ .,

'-../ :

n ....

ucited oscillator, tuned to 81.955 kilocycles per S('oC{JIld. This lIine


wave i. applied to a phase shifter of the type described in b above.
The shifted output, D, is Implifitd lind differenlitlled to form a train
of sharp positive and negative pulse!! F. These pulses are oombined
with a 811.wtooth voltage in a pulseselector circuit, O. By varying
the cathode 1)I,tentiai in this circuit the cutoff point mlly be shifU.c1 to
select any of the poeiitive pul!1e8 to produce a single output marker, B.
(3l The schematic circuit diagram of the pulse selector is shuw n
in figure 220. The voltsge dlOOp across VI is very 8lIIall in the absence
!I.8O'f1l(l -H-

lI

,.,

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

of an applied signal becaUlle the grid is connected through RI to B+.


Thenegative swing of the one-shot multivibrator cute off Vl for tha
dura.tion of the sweep, "Uowing capaciwrs
and C4. to charge
through R2 IUld R3 wward +800 volts. The timing pul_ produ~

ca

...,.-

1 =~T'"

-.-

~.cu~ --------r,

~,-

::m
,

~'K

-~

?ar"P

_.

-~

'-

C"'ON"

-~

~~

-''''lR

CD
1"I/l1I1"e !/I.

" -t---,----H-

'"

"

Block dla, ....... of mtillod 01 prodllciR, ... o~ .. &lc ra""e ...... k "

" ........, ..... 'It.

a voltage ICrG1!6 R3 which is in aeriell witb the sawtooth voltage devaloped across the capacitors, 80 that the sum of these two vo.ltage'l
appears at the grid of V2. The bias on this tube is controllfld by
potentiometer RG 90 that V2 cannot conduct until the grid voltage

...

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

rL.

-1i,
-

-,

!i

-
!

...
{

)l

nil In.
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

ri ses aool'(> """t-otT, T luil fh-s! t iminJ!' Ilul.;e whidl dlil'e8 the grid
above cu t -oil' causes a shprp drop in I'olt uge to uk e place pt the pla!e
of V2. If only R6 is "al'il. tuoo V2 will be made to conduct at
in terl' Hb correspond ing to 2.000 yards of range OOcIlUse th e f !'('quency
of the timing "01l1lge WllS made 8Ul55 ki l{)('~'c1ets per second, How el'er, since the phase of the timing I'uhuge is I'"rial. a smooth varia t ion in the lime at whirh V2 begins to crmdw:t cun be obtained if
putcntiometer R6 is gea l'ed to the phuse shifter, while th e phase is
r hllnb'e<.l so t hat the pulse one step flirth('r up or down the slope
causes conduction, T he runge mllrker is generated lit the time thllt
V2 first conducts, Th Ull the combination of pbl' se shi fter and pote nt iomete r mea~ures the in h'rI'lIl betw~TI the ! I'ull8mi Ued pulse llnd
the mllrker. T he accu l'aey of this IIlUoSllrement is improved by taper

I
I
Jl

M_

" ,~'l\'.i.'1c

CJI

t ..,...

'.0.
"

' Iltllt
ll
l f lll

,.
,=, --'

~,

,00

"

..
..
- ".
~~. -..., . "
"

---

....".,.. ., ..
. . J:

'0""''''.....
1'00-.....

If

'

.'....

,~

,.

...

"

,.,

ing po t"H liolllcter NO10 (!OmpellSllte for the nOlilinl'uri ty of the ~aw
tooth vo li n!!\! gene rlluo'tl hy VI.
(4) T he t.ype of circuit dil'Cn!ll;ed in r nool'e ilia), he a(b pted to
the !,<enl'l"lllion of a mOl'ablO! IOllllge marker Ly thO! \I~ of the ei~lIit
!"howu in figure 2'21. T he timing sine WIl\Oe fo r the r adar ~ystem and
the fortieth harmonic of the lililing fn.'tlll lI\CY lite each fed to phnse
~hi ft " I-s which lire ~nted !!lgt'ther in II 4010\ ratio, The fuudll '
llI"nlHl is used to pn,.]u re n pede61111 ,o,,1t,,!!e "lid the hllnnonk "oh"ge
is L~'nl'erted into a ~l'ies o f 8!mq) posit ive Ilwl neglll i"e pu! oes. Thl'l'l'
,"olt"g'.'s IIr'll ~ u pn (! i t h'dy roupted to the grirl .. f a tube which is biased
so thllt ollly the pulSt! on the pede~l:lt CIIII CUllse t .. mlu r t iono CII.
1>11rilor 01 is di 'lC h:U,l.'Cd t hrough VI .turin!! the t ime tlll.1 the puiS<'
makes Ihe wbe cf)n,hld. Aftt'l" the l'ul!'(! paS!'el!. C4 dll.r~'1!S :'W.in to
+300 I'oh~ tlll"Ougli no. The WOl'e f" ,'m pmrluN'd is in the form of
II step which is "pplied to a l'O!rotical.Mte<;ling pla te as a rangr lllnrker

0.'9' .11<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

(fig. 228). Tbe height of the step may be controlled by adjustin~


the bias on VI to vary the effective rerlistance of the tube during the
conducting time. The sweep is IlwlYs started It the time of the
tnnsroitted pulse, 110 tblt the !ltep moves as the phl9l! shiftel"ll are
turned.
e.. Ge.eratl f vaWe raa.., . .rtier Ire "'_.
v.l ....e. (1) A circuit which u_ the SVo"ei!P voltage to produce
II time delay for the generation of a range marker is shown in figure
222. The sweep voltage ",hOWD in figure 222 is ooupled directly
from the sweep generator to the grid of VI. This tube is operated
as II biued cathode follower. tbe bias being ~lIpplied by the voltage
divider consisting of R2, R3, and R4. The bias ia adjusted by means
of R3 to cause the tube to begin conductinll at an, imtnn! from the
beginning to the end of the sweep. The duration of the sweep ill
indicated as "'oS" in the wave forms and the variable interval between
the start of the swoop and the stlrt of conduction in VI is shown
as "'e."
(2) The voltage at the catbode of Vi (fig. 222@) remaiIl8 constant
at the level selected by delay control R3 until the instant when the
sweep voltage drives the grid more poeitive than cutoff. At this
time the cathode voltage begins to rise at the same rllte as the sweep
voltage. The cathode voltage is coupled out throu~h C2 and Rli to a
differentiating circuit consisting principally of C3 and R6. The
linear rillfl of voltage that takes place starting at time t (fig.229;
causes a sudden rise of voltllge (d) in the output of the diffe~ntialing
ci rcuit. This sudden r ise is amplified by Vi and the resulting wllve
fonn is applied to a vertical deflecting plate of a ca.thode.ray tube
10 Be~ as a range marker. The indicator screen hus the appeRrance
shown in figure 223@. The ringe is measured by varying R8 until
the lltep coincides with the left hand edge of the desired echo. The
shaft of R3 is geared to an indicator on which the range is shown in
yards or miles.
(3) The accuracy of the delay control may be checked by applying
to the 8weep range marken such as those discuStied in parllgraph
Mld. After the !peed of the sweep is adjusted to the proper value,
the delay control may be IIdjusted by variation of R2 and R4 to
compensate for slight nonlinellrity of the sweep.
f. Geaeratl.. ., "aWe raa,e ......er ~y .elay
.aldvlbra r. A oneshot multi vibrator which can be used to
provide a vllriable delay for the measurement of range. is shown in
figure 224. The operation of the cin:uit is very similar to t hat de
scribed in paragraph 26b. In the resting state VI ia conducting,
while V2 ill cut oft' by the bils provided by the voltage divider made
up of R8 and R4. Since the grid of VI ill returned to the plate of

on

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.11,

1m

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

...
l

, I

V2, it tends to be poaitive.

A chsrg\l on C2, resulting from grid cur

rent, balds the grid of VI essentially at ground potential, and the


grid CUITeDt of this tube is limited to an aV6l'age value of 1_ thaD
half a milliampenl by resilJUll'll R2 and RII. A negative pulse, gen
erated at the tilTlll of the transmitted pulse, ia applied througb CI

STEP
PRODUCED ... CI~CUlt
OI'nG.UI
/I'It1Mre !!.t.

Ran". ",ark,...

l L- U "

It~pl.

--v- I

., "0'

"1'91'",

.. .
~

..

...

..

fl

to the grid of VI.

The multi vibrator action CILU!16S .\'2 to conduct


nnd drives the grid of VI below cut--off, and the eharb'll on 02 begins
immediately to lsak off through &2. Aa II result of this leakage the
I>otentili at the grid of VI "'tums toward thnt at the pluta of V2 at
an expotential rate which depends Oil the timl' l"OllStant R2 C2. When
the potentialst the grid reaches such a value that VI ugain conducts,
"0

o,.'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

V2 is cut off, C'2 is charged quickly to its normal voltage by grid


current, and the circuit is returned to ita nonnal resting !Ilate until
another negative pulse is applied. The output, a positive pulse taken
from the plate of VI, is differentiated, and the pulse from the trailing edge is used as a range IDIIrker. Thus a time delay, equal to the
width in microseconds of the pulse from tbe multi vibrator, is 'produced.
The width of this pulse is controlled hy varying 02. The control
is made more accurate by returning the grid of VI to a positive p0tential rather than to ground, causing the grid-potential curve to hue
steeper slope at its point of intersection with the cut-off line. The
shaft of 02 is geared to a dial calibrllted to indicate range..

51. A-S::AN MO. . .IA.TlONS.


.. Gated _ _ po A sweep is said to be gated if ita duration
well &8 it/l starting time is controlled by a voltage applied to the
sweep generator. A similar voltage is u!!Ually applied to the cathode
ray tube to intensify the screen for only the duration of the sweep.
Thus echoes which return before or after the application of the gale
volt&.g1! do not appear on the screen. In some cases the gate pulse
b<ogins at the time of the transmittetl pulse and is made sufficiently
wide to cover the desired range. In other cues the gate is desigued
to select only a sman part of the total range so that undesired echoes
may be excluded from the indicator ecreen.
II. Ex . . .dfMII _ _ po (1) A. portion of the range !!Weep in
the vicinity of the rauge marker ia sometimes expanded to facilitate
accurate ranging. This T"e!lult is accomplished by increasing the speed
of the !!Weep of the electron beam across the ecreen for a part of the
time. A circuit which is uIled in conjunction with the circuit of 6guno
217 to produce a fast sweep near the range markeI'll is shown in
fij.!Ure 226.
(2) The linear sweep is generated by charging capacitoI'll CIS and C6
through RI5 and discharging them through thyratron VI. The timing of the discharge ia controlled by the OIiCillatory trigger pulse applied to the grid of the thyrstron. The positive pulse which is applied to the grid of V2 oceUI'll at the same time that the marker notch WlUl
gl"nerllted in figure 217. The width of the notch is equal to the width
of the small pulse on top of the pedestal. Therefore the leading edge
of the pedestal voltage applied to the 8weep.upanaion generator occurs a few microseconds before the marker and the trailing edge a few
microseconds after it.
(3) Tube V2, which is normally cut off by the bias provided by the
voltage divider consisting of RlS and R14, is made to conduct by the
Ilpplication of the petlestal voltage. CapaC'itors Cll and C12 dischnrge through the tube at a I'IIpid rate during a time equal to the
&8

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.11,,,,,

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

widt h of the pedestlll. 'Vhen V2 is not conducting, the cllPII.CitOl'S


cha rge at a reill th'ely slow rate t hrough R 16. The resulting wave form
i& amplified lIud inverted in va. The output of the sweep expall!.ioll
generntor i.s combined in ee r ies ,,ith the out put of the ~'lt S t ube sweep
g.<ne rato r in Ute resistllnce net work msde UI)uf RS, M9, IUld R IO. T he
resul tant vulta,,'1l is the alb'ehrHic sum of the two sawtoot h \Olh'ges.
App lication of t his s" 'ee p "Oltllge to the horiwnta l defleclinll plllies
of II. caul(x!e-rtly oscill(lljCope prodUl"@611 pbUetu on the indicH tor 8C~1!

II, -_c':::;:'e"' ~IUII

SWE.EP GEllElUIOfI

..
.
-

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SWEEP UP4NSIOH 6[NfAUQII

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r

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--

~ln~" ~rp'.....I""

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III acl"ll, " f find r.m,.,

m" ,,,cr.

like that shown in figm-e 2'26. Note thut the sweep speed is fa.~t "n
eltch ~i de of the runge n....ker. as Illay be !;eel! from the ~Iative willths
o f the echo pulses ShOWIl , and thu the trace is wider and bright..r
where the swee p speed is norm al.
(4) The sweep mill' be eXlJUnded in tlle vicinity of H movable range
mllrker by the U~ of a cin::uit like that shown in fib'llre 227. Tube VI
ill normally at ?ocro billS 11Il d the refore holds the cI", rge on Cg at a
<XInst ant high lew\. 'Vloen VI is cut off by the negllth'e sweep g"le
m Jtage .. pplied to the gr id, C6 dischar",'es through V2 at fill essent~ all)'

0.'9' .I/rom
UNrYERSITY Of MKHKiAN

1.

TII ... N~"'TT[D

py .... E

C ..... IIIIEII

NDTCH

I' I ,. . n swn~ -1-----1

''--'''::'::::_-/TL 91

II'I6l're m . 8_, ezpu ...ru '" """"'"' o( "'..,. "",,~.ber.


+4:5(1V

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.w>u, e...".... I0",

"'fOg1'l

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ncj .. "~ ..( _ N o

marker.

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UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

constant rate, producing a linear decrease of wltage -al the plate of


tho tIibe. When a posit ive pedestal signal such as that ueed in figure
221 i8 applied to the grid of V2, tho rate of discharge of C6 is incl't'tlSed for the duration of the pedestal. A.t the eRd of the peQ.estnl
the discharge rate returlllJ to iUl original value for the duntion of the
SWeE-p.

e. Pi lSe"'. . . . .eep. A form of el:panded

which is
gated so that any small portion of the whole range is made to oco::upy
the full width of the indicator screen ill termed a precision sweep.
Such a sweep may be used with the range-measuring method shown in
tigUI1! 221. The mne wave from which the pedestlll is genented is
greatly amplified and applied to 1\ double diode limiter to produce the
wal'e form shown in figure 228(!).

8WOOP

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, !

Tt.-ee'e
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Prndvctl&n of pr,""""",

''''"P.

The portion of the sine wave between the limits is nearly linear, and
it is .used as the sweep. The pedestal gener.ting circuit IlDd the sine..... ve .mplifier are .phased 90 thllt tbe step Illways Ilppears at the ~nter
of the p~isiOll sweep, and 90 that the pedestal voltage occurs during
the rilling portion of the limited sine wave. The amplification of the
sine wave is such that the precisiou sweep trl.Ce cort"eolponds to approximately 2.000 yard!! of range. Thus, under contr"l of Ih(' phase
shifter, any 2,OOO-yard portion of the range can -be examined 'Ilr, fully
and the range of the tugel IIccul1ltely determined.

:51. "SCAN.
.. Ge.erat. It has been indica~ in section II that the type
B-scan oscilloscope indkates range and II-Zimuth. U~unlly 0 cllthodl'ray tube with magnetic deftee t iotl and a long p8raistence IlCreen is ueed,
and ths tube iH intensity-mndu]ated by the signal voltage to caUtiO the
po!lition of the ta"get to be indicatffi by D bright spot on the acrei'n.
The sean covers aroctllngular a~a 011 the screen, with the range shown
."

Or.gir I"""' .
UNfIIlRStTY Of MICHIGAN

venically and the a~imuth horizolltally. Clamping may be UBtd on


the signal voltagi!!:IO that tbe instantaneous potential at the grid of the
catbode-ray tube depends only on tbe signal amplitude and not on it.
waveform.
The scanning in azimuth is at a relatively
slow rate--one slI'eep aCI'OS!i the tube for each revolution in a~imuth
of the antenna. Therefore the swaap current can be controlled by a
potentiometer mounted on the shaft which rotatas the antenna (fig.
229). If contacto['8 A and B of the potentiometer sre at the same potential, no currant flows through the horizontal de8ecting coil If the

.. ....1 .... --..

TLe1eo
P/fJ.re U9.

Sw:U I'

JKIl .... tiomt'tl'r.

potentiaill.t A i!< higher than that at B, current 6ow8 and the beam is
dcfkcted. The mninlum deflection to the right occur!! when A i~ at
the point of application of the positive voltage and B is at ground.
If the positions of .A and B are reversed, the current flow and the de
flection of the beam are in the revel'l!ll direction. The Slime voltage
rangellafe covered lI'hether the antenlla is pointing forward or backward. Therefore a cam-operated switch is used to prevent signals
receivt'd from the rear from appearing on the indicator.
eo . . . .., _ _po (1) A sawtooth voltage, which is generated
in II manner similar to the gellt'ration of an A-llCIn sweep, is uaed to
produce a l'lInge sweep by ''1lu~il1g t\ linell.f rise of current in the deflecting coils (lig. 230). This sawtooth voltage is coupled through C1

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UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

-..

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~---i

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va
vn,

to the grids of V2 and


which are operated in parallel. The clamping action of VI (see.
TM 11 '66 and Navehips goo,016) insurel:l
that the potential at the grids of theee tUQ ia at the same level .. t tbe
beginning of each sweep. Both tubes Me bia.eed near cut-oft 90 tha ..
the plate current is small in the abeenoe of a signal on the grids. 'l'hU;
small current flows through Ll, Rtf, and R16 to the 4ro-volt source.
At the same time a current 60ws from the 300-volt IJOUtUI through
the vertical deflecting coil ,t o the 450-volt SOUl"!. The magnetic
field set up by this current deftecta the electron beam toward the tIottom of ~ indicator acreeJl. The nnge sweep is made to start flUrn
the zero refen!Oce line by adjustment of BIIS which OOIltrola tho magnitude of this current.
(2) When the poIIitive sawtooth voltage is applied to the grids of
Vi and V8, the current in the tubes starts to rise rapidly. The inductance of Ll is sufBciently large to prevent the 460-volt source hom
supplying the added current. . Therefore the current iSlJIlpplied by the
300-volt source, and the currtlnt through Ihe de6ecting coil 8egiDll to
fall to zero and to ~uild up in
oppoflite direetion. ThUB .. current, whicli rises from a neglltive value to an equal positive valne
in proportion to the applied sawtooth voltage, is produoed in the
defleeting ooil.

the

liS. &.SCAN.

.. 5e_ral. The type C-acan Pn)l!l8DUI the azimuth angle hori zontally and the e1ention angle vertically. l bl chief applications are
for aircnft interception and beam landing. The grid is intensitymodulated by tbe signal. The rate of covering an area may be Iii to
20 times in azimuth for once in elevation. It is desinhle to have
a fairly large number of sweeps in one direction for one in the other
in order to gt"t gund cuvenge of the area which is being acanned. The
eireuit tor: the azimuth ~weep is e8gen tislly the same as that for the
typeB-ecan.
It. Elflvatl......M... Since the elevation swet'p is even slower
than the azimuth, a potentiometer is used for thi s sy;-et'p also. An
electrical ei rcuit identieal with that for the azimuth may be 1188d.
The potentiometer is driven by the rotRtion of the antenna in elevation_ The angular coverage in elevation may he approJ[imate1y 70
as compared to lS0 0 in azimuth, whieh makes poasible the WIQ of gun
that drive the elevati on potentiometer arm through fl8 much as 2.1i0
for every degJ:e6 of rotation of the antenna. Without ~re only
a small portion of the available vultage would be developed acl'098 the
'~JIltilct anns, becauSf' of thl' limited motion.
By the use of gears,
practically all of the voltage can be Il&ed to produce a more aocurate
t'On trol of the vel"ticlli I'0~ition of the spot on the indicator screen.

no

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

.,. . . . .e pile. Bet:alllle the motion of t.he beam is slow, tbe


length of the line INDned during the pUlse-repetition period ill very
short. All aignal.s or noise wbich reach the 9Creen during this whole
interval tend to pile up, essentially at a point. The desired aignd
cannot be disti nguished from the noise unless the signal-w-noise
ratio at the receiver output is very good. Maet of the noise or
undesired signals can be eliminated by gating the cathode-ray tube,
if the range of the target is known. The ga~ voltage should be a
pulse with a time d uration that is a small portion of a pulse-repetition period, and a starting time that is controlled by rll.nge-measuring devica For example a pul9ll which is used to produce an upanded sweep, as discllooed in paragraph lilb, may serve as a gating
pulse. Only the SigllRls and noise which appear at the grid of the
Cllothode-ray tube during the time of the pulee are permitted to reach
ths screen. Thus the elJect of noilles produced during the remainder
of the pulse repetition period is nullified and the target is distinguished more resdily.

154. PP.-SCAN.
a. Ge.'eral. The PPI-!!Can is sinlilar to the B -sean in that it
ilillicates range and uimuth. The range ~ Wel'p starts at the center of
the screen and moves outward along a l-adius in a direction corresponding to the direction in uimuth of the radiated beam. The cathode-ray
tube is of the magnetic deflection type with a loug-persistence !!Creell_
The range sweep is made linear 110 that range is indicated by the distance from the center of the screen of the spot produ{'ed by an et:ho.
A deflecting yoke whieh is made to rotate in synehronism with the
rotation in azimuth of the antenna mlly be used to rotate the range
sweep in lltep with the antenna. Since the grid is intensity-modulated
by the received signllls, a polar map of the surrounding territory is
produced on the BCl"OOn if the beam is directed in the plane of the
horizon.
It. Sel_y.
(1) Most PPI indicators U8l\ .. pair of deflecting coils whieh an! rotated llround the cathode-ray tube to produce
II rnt.ating sweep, liS in 9IlCtion IV. However, if it is desi red to avoid
the mechanical difficultiea involved in thia system, the swoop may be
rotated by the electrieal means sho"'n in figure 231. Transformer Tl
is a special selsyn transfurmer of which the rotor, or primary, is turned
mechanically lIS t he antenna is rot "ted in azimuth. Two stator, or 1iIeCondary, windings are placed at right angles to each other. As a result
the amplit.udeS of the induced volta~s vary ainWlOidally with the rotation of the primary, snd the position of the rotor whieh eauses the
voltage in stator I to be a muimum is 90 away from the position
which induces muimum voltage in stator II. Although the alterna-

_wee.,.

...

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UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

l ions "f Ihe \'Olt ~gl'" in/III~...... 1 in th ~ ~t "t ....,. ",'e nlw"y~ in plu.ilC, the
\, " I'i llt ion~ o f Ihe nmpl il ud es a l'tl e ffect ively 00 out. of phBSQ becouoo
"f the 90 Sl! plI l'H tio ll of th*! $llItOi' wimlinb"E. Since the ou tp ut. o f
~I " tor I 001111',,111 h"rizontnl delle<:tiuu Mud the out put o f stato r II
~'Ontrols vertical deJ lection , Ii c ircul ar moti on of Ihe spot. on the ilC reen
of the c~ t h/ ... lerMY l ube iii p rod uce<l in n wily I'C I'~' si milar to that
t'xl'lll iu(>d in ~""Ii"n I X. T ~ l II - W6. IIlI fl N''''ship;! 000,016.
(2) T he l1I di ol pOSilioll of the s pol lIt nny inSlant is controlled by
the wa,'d"l'IlI of th., liiglHl.l applied lO the rotor of thl) trans former.

_..

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l l~,<:" [I,",,'

..

t he ,Iefh..: t i Ill-' e"i I h"~ resist " nce 1I.w>ciHt ~.J wi th ill; i I" Io ,,:t n nee,
it i.-; IIl... '~"ry 1,,, "I'1'ly " tra pezoid,,1 \'oltllge 10 the rut u r of the ..elsyn
t nwsf"nner. T o l'n~l u ("tl " li"en r suwto"th cu r rellt i n th e de flect iug
cnil rOi' u shOl,t mllgt' sweep. the 111I1I('7.oi ,1 i ~ , l istoMI~1 by the addi t iun
"r nn .. XII'" 1H'lIk li t its leatl ill)! ", 111" 1<1 1)(>I"I" it rll~1 d ,u r,!!inl1 of t he
dist ribuh~l ':'1 "... ;llIl1l~' in the de/l('<'lil1g ooil 8<1 llmt the sweep limy
ShIrt lit thl' Im'I>tI' \"elocity Ilt Ihe tilllP of the Inlll smill~...1 pll l ~. A
!iHwt'lOth "01t"111' ("HII be lISI~1 for lu")! 1"1\11 11" ~W" "I'S l){'CulI S<' n"nl il1(>lIr
il}' of the SWl'C]I lIell l" ZI'ro I"Hllb'C is o f 110 t~)(I"'-~llh!n~. 1'1<,. $We!! p must
be gill ,.<1 I" I" " ,,' ide u I i 111" i ," "IT" Jill wh ie h t he ell ne ll! ill I he \Ielb.:t i ng
eo il eRn ret urn to it s ~1 "t1 illg \"lI ll1e.

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNIVERSITY Of MICHIGAN

(8) Since the sweep is ~nerated 800 times per seoond and the an_
tenna rotateeat a muimum speed of 1 Nlvolution per second, the output
of the stator ooib of the ae1syn transformer is 2 trains of trapezoidal
voltages of which the amplitudes aNI modulated by 2 aiDe waves 90" out
of phase. The output of stator I controls the current in the horiwntal
deftecting coils; the other output controls the current in the vertical
deftooting coils. The actual deftection is caused by the magnetic field
which is the resultant of the two fields controlied by the two outputa of
the selsyn transformer. Thus a ch.n~ in the angular position of the
antenna produces an equal change in tbe resultant di~tion of the
magnetic defleetillg field tbat causes the radisl deflection of tbe trace.
(I) A detailed cireuit for producing the horizontal oomponent of
the magnetic deflecting field is shown in figure 231, An identical
circuit, fed by atator n, is used to produce the vertical component.
The output of statar I is applied to the grids of VG and V6, two type
61.6 tubei operated ill pushpull. The windings on the deflecting yoke
aNI 8uch that when the tubes conduct equally the fields cancel. The
dotted ara:ows on the diagram of the yoke indicate the directions of
the magnetic Jines. As the curNlnt in one tube is caused to ri.se by a
signal on its grid, that in the other falls, and the reault ill a net magnetic
field in one CTr the other direction.
(G) Tubes VI and V2 are used to clamp the grid of VlI at a definite
potential in the time interval behoieen ~weeps, and va "and V4 clamp
tbe grid of V6 (see. VII, TM 11-466 and Navships 900,016). The
grid of V2 is connected to the cathode through the grid leak 90 that
during the time when no sweep is applied V2 has zero bias. However,
VI is biased by tbe drop &cross V2 since the grid of VI is connected
effectively to the cathode of V2. If at the end of the sweep time the
grid of VlI mums ta a polential bigher than the nonnal value established of VI, the bias on V2 i, increased. Tube VI then beoomes effectivelya higher resistance, but lhe biaa on V2 remains at zero flO that
lhe resistance of V2 is nearly constant, malting the potential at its
plate and at tbe grid of V~ decrease ta the nonnal value. Conversely,
a decrease in grid potential of V~ would reduce the bias on VI, causing
VI to become a lower resiSlance to raise the potential. ThUB any
change in the potential at the grid of Vii ia counteracted by a change in
the relative reaiatancea of VI and V2 which are estllb1i~ed initially by
the voltage divider ~ and &6. In a similar way va and V4 clamp
the potential at the gride of V6 during the no-sweep time ta a value
which i8 controlled by the setting of BT. During the sweep interval
the clamping tubes a~ beld inoperative by a negative pulse on their
grids in order that the sweep voltages can be applied to the grids of
V~ and V6.
MO'IlIO'

II

...

1\1

o,,~,

.11,

1m

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(6) Selsyn t""l15fonner Tl in figure 281 can be replaced with a oon


ventional selsyn generator by u8i~ the arrangement shown in figure
282. The primary winding is the rotor, as in Tl. The three secondary
windings are spaced 120 apart physically!lO that the three ma:rimuill

L ________ _
~

....... ....

induced voltages ooour at settings of the rotor spaced at like int.ervala.


The voltages induced in stators 1 and 2 oombine in the r esistanoe net.work with that induced in stator 8 in such a way that the rotor position
which caU9llS output 1 to be a maximum is always 90 away from the
pGIIition that causes output 2 to be a mazimum.

...
On9 .. oil"""
_

_ "~NrvERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

SeedOD X

PrI.ary Pewer d eab 01 Clrelll18

M. PRIMARY POWER SOURCES.


L
JIertwIre__ t.. (1) The amount of power nec-ssary to
operllte radllf equipment will depend upon the purpO!ll! for wruch
the set is designed. Present large long-range installations may reo
quire up to 20 kilowlltts of power, using It OO-t ycl ..., three-phase,
208-volt source. I nterception and gun-laying tYJ>e!I may require up
10 12 kilowatts of power'from 110 6O-eycle, 120-vo1t source.
(2) Airborne equipment is usually operated from the piine'll bat
tery and generator and requires from 40 10 125 amperes from It 24to 28-vo1t source. Since this is an excessive power drain from the
battery alone the set is normally used only wben the generator is
('harging the battery. Invert......., vibratof'B, and dynamotors are employed to convert the 24-voll direct current to the varLOU9 l-e and

d-c voltage ranges required.


~. Co
erel.1 ....."r. The maintenance of an engine.
generator set frequently requirl'l! more time and persunnel than the
maintenance of the radu set itself. Because of their convenience
and greater dependability, commercial SOUrc6ti of power are w;ed
whenever available. Transformers can be used to give any desired
vol tage, and, where power is available at aU, either single-phase or
tbree-phase can usuaUy be bad.
e. B . . . .e drlv_ ,~ae...
(1) It is standard practice
to provide an engine-driven alternator of more than Ilmple capacity
to furnish power for a TUdar set where " 'eight is not a prime consideration. This utra margin of capacity insnres good regulation and
less trouble under fipld conditiOIlS. In the larger sizes, 25 kilowlltt
and above, either Diesel or gllsoline engines may be providL"<i_ In
the smaller si~es gasoline ellgines are used eJ:clusively_ The Diesel
unit has the advantage of greater fuel economy, u ~ ing abuut half ti,e
volume of fuel as com pared to a gasoline nnit of similar rating_ This
is Il great saving ",-here transportation is a problpm. However, II.
D i~1 engine requires a more complicated or heavier starting system
than a gasoline engine_ The usuai sysh-m ill the s i~es used is to provide a heavy-duty starting motor operating from a 24-\-0It battery,

f._.

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

or an ignl110n system for starting on Il g'lsoline cycle. The engme


iJ; ru n for about one minnte on the stRrting motor or on the gllso line
cycle to IlIJow it to WRnn up, dter which it is switcllt'd over to t he
Di ~1 cycle. .From the lI ul intl!ll~llt-e ~t ll ndpoin t tile gnsol ine engine

TL-8748

is I;()lUewiJnl si l))]>le!" nnd " Il si u to IlIlmlle; howe"er, it requires ~t


tentiun oftener. A typicuJ g~ so line-ellgine genetuW. set is shuwn
in fi~lIl""e 233.
(2) An alterllll! or collsists prilllllrily of a rot~ting winding. fl sta
t ionll ry wi lid iIIg, sl ip rings, )lIld n source o f d i rn::t cur rent for the field
SUPl)ly. In the most common tYIM,S the l"OtOT is the field, di rect cllr-

..

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNrY ERSlTY Of MICHIGAN

",nt being supplied to it through slip rings. This allows the ~mall
d -c field current ttl he handled by ttv- slip rings Rnd hrllshe!l, while the
hen,y nlternating cnrrent is drawn from the stlltionnry wi nding. The
d-c fiel,1 supply i~ usually a small generator muunted on the alternator
shaft.. A three-phnse alternator has three "Talor ,,indings spR~.112O
electrical degroea allart. When such a system is used it is usually
208-volt, Y-conn~ted. The three windings an! connecll'ci IS shown
in figure 234, giving 208" volts between any two of the outside terminals, and 120 volts beh10een anyone of the outside termilllll .. and
the center or nentrai connection. This gives both a three-phase and a
single-phalle !j(1II ~ of POWH, the three-phase syslem being more de
~ irable for &orne mutor and I"i!Ctifier appliutions.

20BV

20BV

NEUTRAL

208V

TL-8749
(3) A control llllilel is Ul"lllltl'(l un the engille gellerator set or
loe.t~d at !;(lllle ~pot cun,enienl for operation. On this panel are
!"cated the \ultuwtpr.!, amllretl'rs, frequetwy melenr, Ihe voltllge I"~gu
",tur, amI Ihe s,,itchl'S 1le\"eSSllry for ollerul io n uf the generalm.
'Vh~re weight 11m' ~"uce lire of prime im j)(lrtance small high-speed
1lI.chille~ lire u~l'd.
Such gt'nelat"I'S InNy II(' open.ted lit a high hequency, oft en over 1,000 cyeleti per !;IleUm!. The use of a high il"l,"
fJ uency allows tnlllsf"rmel"S IlS well as the ,:;eneralor 10 be constructed
wilh much If'S!; iron !luln lI"oultl be nl!Ce><HIlry for 60 "yell'S, I"e~ultillg
in a much lij!;hter unit. Such a genl'r"'ur i.s shown in figure 235.
. R."ry eo.ve.-aloa ~alp_eat. (1) T o change 0111'
d-c voltage 10 1111<>lhel, direct CUl"I'ent to alternating current, or one
frequency flf nhprnllling Clrrr('111 If> annther, rolllry col1VenriOIl equipml'nt may be used. AIt<!fnllting current is converted to direct curn:nt

..,

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

th ro ugh t he use o f reel ifier><, nn ll'S!) high cnr~lI t is needed, when rotary
con version may be used .
(2) A dYIIIITI!()f()r is >l I'otll t ing' de muc h ine used to oLtn ill 1\ h igher
or lower volt ~ ~... IhlLll is obt uinnLle f rm" the source. It is diSentially

TL-87~
FjgNr~

us.

l ,l'_' ,crl/Jhf C"ViHe-d rlcc. veoocr(llor .... If"cI (I I /,200 IC(lU,. I .roo
~, . W ..,.,. .1 . " .1 ~OO ...,,'" d ln"c' "",...",t.
SUP RINGS

FIELO
WINOING, , , ,

ROTOR WlNOING

:t--"f1'"i I

"
00'''''

AC INPI./T

TL-8 7$1

mulol' IIll d b~Jjenllur Luilt in lu one unit I""'i ng two 01' more wi ndin gs
(On one 111'11111 l u l"tl and t wo 01' mort) COlli IllU lli lors. T he CQII llu u Lu tOI"!! II rc
uSlllllly locil led III "ppo;,:ilc emls of the sindt ~ IH.I the winding 1I 1 M ~'
~ u py the SHlUelltllUltlll'C ~luts. Since Loth in put Bnd output ... iud
in/-,,,, Il loe un the lW.tne nnn ll lure, the fid d is (:0111111011 10 ooth gelle r.tor

1\

...

Or'9" .11rorn
UNrYERSlTY Of MKHK>l.N

and motor winding. In some cases two 5eparate lumahlres may be


ul:ltd, rotating in a field whose windinga and pOleti are eztended o\'er
both annatures.
(8) A rotary COfI.11erttr is a machine used to change alternating cur
rent to direct current. It is very much like a d-c generator except
that two !!.lip r ings are connected to commutator !:Klgments spaced 18(1
electrical degrees apart (fig. 286).
The steady doC voltage ia equal to the peak a-c voltage if there is only
one winding. If any other voltltge ratio ill required, separate input

""

F~UY

o.t. POW~ LU08


IIf:CO'TACU FOR
CONNEIlTION TO
CONTIIOL PlUlEL
""14 ...

and output windinJ,'ti must be used. If the d-c output is a.n extremely
high volta.ge sume provision must be made to excite the doC field from
U /jeparule winding supplied
another source. The motor action
is that of a synchronous motor.
(4) The fun ct ion of II. rotary conve rter mny be reversed, opemting
,,ith direct-current input and alternating current collected from the
slip rings. It is csl1e<J an in vuter when opemting in thill manner.
When the same IIrmlltUN' lind field are used for both a-c and doC sections
the machine is very nmtnhie. For this reason the inverters found in
rndar equipment usunlly hllve two armatutl'S fllld Iwo fields, function ing as a motor and gellerator built intf) a single unit. _ Figure 237

.y

...

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.lTY Of MICHIGAN

shows a typical in verter UBed in airordt equipment. A unit of this


type requires a num~r of filter snd control circuits. Figure 238 is
a circuit diagram of an inverter uniL The field of the motor section
is compounded to give better speed regulation under a varying load
in order to provide ~ably constant frequency.
e. Vu.r.lon. (1) Another method of obtaining alternating
current from a d-c !iOun:e is to \llj8 a vibrator. In general practice.,
however, a vibrator is used iu a power supply to change direct current

,I

_=::-.==-.-:_:::'J
TL-II7!1!

fil1.re UB.

Bcllem.. ' ''' "'...... " dkl/1t"tl'" of h.......,rr.

from a low-voltage source, such as a battery, to a higher d-c voltage.


This type of power IJIIPply when used within its rated limits is very
dependable. The life of the vibrator unit itself approaches about
half that of an ordinary receiving tube. One of the chief advantag\lS
of the vibrator power IlUpply ia that the only item which has to be
replaced often is the vibrator itself, which is inexpensive and easily
installed. A full -wave vibrator is shown in figl1re 239. Vibratol'!l
are available in sizes capable of handling up to 100 watts of power.
This maJ(imum rltting Iimi,s their use to applications requiring very
little power, such as small receivers.

...

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(2) A vibrator-circuit diagram is shown in figure 240. When


power is applied to the unit, current flows t hrough one half of th e
t1"J1nsfonner primary, and through t111~ magnet coil of the vibrator.
The field set up by the coil a!tncl, the vibrator reed, c1osin/l," contact
No.1. The closing of the conlacl$ shom out the coil and CIU_ 1

co.---

OUTER
CONTACT

ARWS

Tl-67!\4
I 'IIIM,"" l.J9 . ..."U...." ..'" ttil>nltor.

.... -....,n

large cunelll to 1I0w through the Il"Illlsformer primllry. The field of


Ihe coil coUapst's because of the sho rt across Ihe coil, and relel\SIlS the
vibrator reed. 'fhe reed is benl by the allrnction of the coil, $0 that
when it is released it springs back 10 c10S1! con tact No.2. Th_ COD
tllCts connl'<'t for a short time the other half or the trnns form er wil\(ling
to the d -e power. It will be noted that the in&tant contact No.1 opens,

Dn9,

I I"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

the tidd of the mll).!lIet be).!iil ~ to IIUrIlC!. the n.""!. T he fi eld hu ilds up
~Iowly so that t he full lltll1.ct iou i~ n", felt im med illidy.
In I.dd il ioll
the rl'e(1 is posi t iuned nellrer to con tll ct No.:: t lm n 10 No. 1 lInd the
Tl'('(l need In"'el "n ly II short. di st llnoo beyond it.!! nnrnml i)()!jit.ion to
close (:on tll ct No.2. T he s witching act.ion of the ,jlm lt o r reed CII U!!!'!;
CUI"rf'n! to How firs t in Ime hlilf of thl! t.nul sforrner in one di~ tioll
IIIl1I then TO flow in tIll' other Imlf in t hl! "Ilpo~ile d irect io n. This
prod uce!! IUlaile rnnli li g fl ux which induces lin IIl te" ullting \'oltRge in

'.10-"=='--------" .~

1'111."" ft!.

8~~r~ r""oU

'1.-'''',

Dr "''fr<'<"/i /","o

d ~rQ/""

poorer

Uppl~.

ti le !!eCoutiliry. Uy pmper d t'S iJ.[1I of ~'Oll ta ct sp r.ings: "ml the ,ibrllting reed 1\ rellSOnn hle wn\"cshape, si mil"r to that show n in fil-rlJre 2"1,
lIIuy be pmducccl.
(3) A s~' ncllron"HS or i!Clf- ''-'Ct i f~in).! \ ihl"lIlor ,.;upply is shown in
figu'1l :tH. I n Ihi ~ t.ype a n n,ldi t ;urlll] set "I OOIl ," ct~ i~ pr",ided
f",. reet i f.l'i IIg. T he ,"t'Ct i ly ing COnlllCIS II re connected to the secundll ry
tof The UlIlls fmrner. "-h~n the vib"atillJ:! reed i$ drawn to olle side
and CO_hct D is c1~ , IC I'mill al tI of the ~'CO,,(III I'~' of t he Ltans
f(}l'mer is oonnt'Ctetl to g''''11I1\. T Ile pn]H r it., of tllll trll ns ronner
IlllljUg thi s 1i..,,1 hillf cycle is such thllt terllli,,"] 11 is IIcI,,'1,ti ve. D ur

..,

0.'9' .I/rom
UNrYE~.Qf MKHKiAN

ing the lIext half cycle the vibrator reVel'Se9, chllngillg the direction
of the current through the primary, lind reversing the polanty of
the secondary, terminll! 0 now being negn.tive. Clntact E is closed,
which connecU! the negative tenninal 0 of the aecondary to ground.
The ('enter tap of the aecondary, terminal B is alwllYS poaitive with
N!Sp!!Ct to the particular secondary terminal that is wounded by the
. vibrator contacts so thllt terminal B. is the positive side of the doc
out-put and ground is the neglltive side.
(4) AU vibrator units require some filtering to prevent feeding
disturbancl!6, caused by tha sparking contacts, into the rlldllr set
through the power leads. This is done by the lIir-core choke coils
and bypass condensers shown in figures 240 Rnd 242.
I:
(1) Rectifier power supplies are used for relays
and other control-circuit applications, in field supplies for rotatinJr
machinery, and in supplying all the various vacuum tubes in the
radar eet. Their efficiency will vary from 50 percent for a small unit
to approximately 76 percent for the very large ones. From the maintenance point of view a rectifier is more nearly trouble-free thlln
rotating machinery. High-vacuum rectifier tubes bave a life of
from 1,000 to 4,000 hours' depending on type &lid application, while
the life of a mercury-vapor tube may be up to 1~,000 bours.. Vanous
typea of rectifiers fwd redifier circuits are di9Cussed in section VI,
TIt: 11-466 and NavShips 900,016. A typicd rectifier for a highpower radar set is shown in figure 243.
(2) Tha power requirements for_ rectifier supplies vary from a
few watts to about 8,000 watts for some large transmitters. Clpper
oxide lind selenium rectifiers are commonly found where low voihlge
and low powers FIre tef)uired, as in C<lntrol-cireuit and relay applications, FIne] in field supplies for some small rotating machines. High_
vacuuni rectifier tubes are used where high voltages are required.
These vary from the sDlall ~eiver power supply which produces
260 volts, to a luge trnnsJllitter power supply which provides 15,000
volts. A tube capable of supplying high voltage at high power is
shown in figure 244. Mercury vspor tubes are used where a heavy
current is needed at from 700 to I'i,QOO volts but not for extremely high
voltages, beellUse the inverse voltage may cause are-back if the pellk
inverse voltsge exceeds about 10,000 volts .
.. Re,_I __ . (1) Many types of regulatOnl '~re used in
radar sets. Mllnual regulators are usually either potentiometers,
variable resistors, or varil;.ble auto transformers such Ill! VllnaCS and
transtats. Automatic regulators for holding the output voltage of a
generator or other source of primary power at a desired value are
usually me<'hnnical in nature instelld of eie<'tronic. Regulators sre
needed because all power soun;:es have some internal resistan('e or

8,.,.,.8,,_.

so.

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

re"ct,mee so Ihol,"" th ll \",ul i ~ v"l'ied. t hc "utpu t nlittlge chouges,


T IIC ouqmt \ohllj.!c of ,,11 "-c b'ellCl'lllO r is t'Q ntroll('O.\ by IIdjuSling
the licld rill'ostHt of Ihe exciter, which in !t1l'1I varies the fiel d current
of the generl, tor. A utomn t ic \'"Ituge r~guliltors con tro l the gcnt'nltor
II}" con t rolling the fi,.llI o f tile exciter, T h,.re a re three IY llI.'S III
g" nuul use: the \'iLrnt o r, the c:troon pile, :ultl the sihcn;lIIt.

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNIVERSITYOf MICHIGAN

-<

(2) When .. vibrator type of regUlator is used, the e~iter field


rheostat is eet 80 that the a-e voltage of the gwIerator is low. If the
field rheo6t&t of the exciter is shorted out the a-c output voltage incn" n: s to .. point above the normal voltage. By altemately opening
and cloaing the sbo'i-circuit around the e:l:citer field n'lIIistance., and
by varying the time open with l!spet.-t to the time closed, the average
voltage can be held to the proper value. A vibrator-type regulator
circuit is .oown in figure 2M. The regulator magnet coil is e.s:c::itt>d
by the a-e output voh ftge of the generator, producing .. 120-eyc1eper-second 6ulI: variation. 'The floating armatur.e tends to vibnte

BUMP(!!

SPRING

,,
,,
,,,
, ,

"

OUTPUT

TI.-8780

IIIIE05T"T

at 120 cycles per second becllU86 of the flu:.: variations. The vibration
of the armature ill transmitted to the contact arm opening and closing
the contacts. When the a-c output voltage is caUlled to drop by an
increased lo.d, the magnetic attraction is decreased and the weight
of the armature has more effect on the vibrator linkage, causing the
contacts to stay c101:1ed for a longer period of time during each
vibration. Closing the oontacts for a lon~r period of time causes
the uciter field reaimnce to be shorted for a 10n~r time during each
cycle and the a~ output voltage ri!le;i above its previous value. The
plVc::-nn is reversed when the voltage is too high. The magnetic
attraction on the armature is greater, causing the effective weight
of the armature to decrease, 90 that the contacts stay open longer

...

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

on each vibration and the voltage drops. In aduai operation there


ill .. slight oecillation of voltage about the proper valne, giving t11&
OOfrect average voltage output. Adjustment to the desired regulated
a.-e voltage tan be obtained by varying the voltage control whith is
in Benes with the toil of the electromagnet.
(8) The carbon-pile type regulator operatea by plating in the es:citer field cireuit II. resistor that can be varied automatically, This
resistor oolll!ista of a .tack of cubon disb and the rFihnoe &.erotJll

REGULATOR
I/JIrOIET

,
R:ICOSTAT

AI;

ALTI!:RNATOR
ALTERNATOR rl[LO
R~[O$TAT

OUTPUT

T L-1l761

the stack depends on the pressure on the stack. The pi [ ure change
is accompliahed by an electromagnet controlled by the a.-e output voltage. A schematic diagram of such a regulator is shown in figunI
246.. If the load is increased and the ac voltage drops. the current in
the electromagnet is reduced and the pressure on the diska is incn,nd..
This reduces th(' resistance and the exciter field current incl'Uaf!6. An
increal:i6 in uciter-fie1d current increases tha es:citer output and CONequently incrn'K'S R'C output voltage to the ('Orrect value. The linkage between the electromagnet and the carbon pile must be properly
OM

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

adjusted to prevent overcorrect;ng or hunting. This would cause the


voltage W oacillate about the correct value before coming to rest. A
filter usually i8 provided to prevent disturb!lnees from leaking back
th rough the power system. To set the outpu t voltn~ to desired
value the voltage-adj usting rheostat must be varied. Changing th e
exciter fi eld resistanc-e or t he 1I1tenlator field resistlmce would merely
C8Ul18" voltage variation that the regulator would try to overcome.
(4) The trilverstat regulate .. is similar in opention to the carbonpile regulator. A mu lti-tapped resistor is used in place of the stack
of carbon di sks. The taps on the ~stor are ronneet oo to silver oon.
tact8 by means of 8.t single-leaf spring conductors which are in6ulated

FI,Mr'C 2F.

S'fl."...d"t ""II~,., ",,,.utJ.to~.

from each othe r. These contllds lire arrnnged in II. row so that 1.8 the
pressure is increased on one end of the row the number of con tacts
dosed is increased, shorting out more of thl' \"eI!istll nce. F igure 247 js
a schematic diagram of a silverstat type voltage regu lator. If the
output load increases or decrel'lse!l the output voltage changes. The
electromagnel thell vnries t he pt"essure on the n lw of cont llcts, incre'll"
ing or decreasing the anlOunt of n'"Sistllnt"e in the exciter field that is
shorted out. This change in excit er field resistance varies the exciter
field current, bringing th e ac ou tput voh tlge to the proper value. A
rectifier is norm ally included in the.electromagnet circuit to eliminate
chatter of the regulator. I n orner to l"iimintlte vibration cllused by the
a-e variatioIllj, a cop~r oxide or selenium rretifier changes the ae

..,

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

output of thE! generator to pulsating direct current. The current for


the electromagnet is supplied by the rectifier through a rheostat. The
pull of the electromagnet is OOIllIt&nt &lid proportional to the output
voltage.
6&. CGNTROL .I!:VI{ES.

.. Bela,. Prlaelpl-. (1) A relay is a switch which is oper.


ated a1ootromagnetically. It is designed to open or close a circuit
when the current through it. exciting coil ie started, stopped, or varied
in magnitude. The component parta of a relay are a ooil wound on an
iron oore and an annature that operates a set of cont.act& A simple
relay and cir cui t are shown in figure 2fB. Closing the operating
switch S, allows current to Aow through the ooil, energizing the elec
tromagnet and draw ing the annature upward. The action of the
armature clOlillll the contacts, thereby aPIJlying power to the load.

OO~::::o.-

_ _-<

"
COHTACTS
" '....TURE

TL-I163
FI,,~...,

.UB. S imple rei .. , ci...,... il .

More contacts can be added to the armature 80 thlt other functions


may be accomplished.
(2) The operating speed of a relay is determined by the time b&tween the closing of t.he coil circuit and the closing of the relay con
tacts. In small, s pecially designed relays, the operating speed may
be as low as 1 milleseeond. The operating ~peed of a relay may be
increased by any system that reduces eddy currents in t.he core. An
other method is to place a resisto r in series with the relay coil and
increase the operating voltage. Th is will increase the speed of closing
becauae at the instant power is applied to the relay all the voltage
will appear a.crOOll the relay coil, cRusing the magnetic field to build
up faster. Slow action can be obtained by placing a heavy copper
sleeve over the core which is in efre(lt II shorted turn. The action of
the current in this shorted turn is to o ppoae the field as it builda up
or coUap_, thus delaying the ope~ation of the relay.
(8) A-<: relays are slow in operlL tiolllJrimarily because they mUI!t
be made rather heavy to prevent chatter and vibration callBlld by the

...

( { lQI

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

alternations of the fie ld . Vibra tio n can be elimin~ted to a ct'11.nin


exten t by placing a slot in the core and putti ng a helwy copper washer
around one ha lf of it . Thi ~ di"ides the fl ux passing Ihruugh the an natum into two 1)()11iuns about 00 Ollt uf phase. Ti le zero "alues of the
magnetic attracli()1l do nut euUle at the same lilne lind a more uni form
fon:e is app lied to the a n na lure.
(4) Various nUllcrials am used for con tacts. depending on the
amount of cu rrent to be hMlltlled. LPrge po ...er relays usualLy han'
copper contaclll and utilize a wip ing actio n to ins ure a good con'IOCtiotl. Small relays may u se si J,'e r o r !!O IIU! ~ i J,er nll".I' .... hile in !!< 11nl)
a pplicll tiotl8 tlltlJ,"StCll ur !lOme very hard mnll'riMI mil)" IX' used which
will pre"en t conlact burning or "xidatiun. In general, relnys t hll t 01)('11

and cl ~ wi th II f :H po"ili,'" II l' ck'll CHll"" tnlldlless trullb lc thlln those


t ll" l "p"1"lI le ._Iuwly .
... ",,,,'e r r e l ay" lOr elOnfae'lOrN. ( 1) H" M"y -du ty relays
CII I I(~1 oont actors lire useo:l c.'Ilt'Il!lil"t"ly fur nllI<ltc-('OloIO,,1 lhellOJoollgIwtie !l1\itching. r nr the;;e IIp]ll icat ion~ a I'd atil'ely slI ud l lllllount "f
oon trol power lllll.\' be u:se<1 to ~llergize tl, .. Ir"lding t'Uil of II e<lUlacl"r
whose COll tuctS "I"e made helll.\ ell"uj.1h to IIIIlHl1e on y 1"C(1'Iired IIU",'lInt
of I)()wer. Suc h c"utIlCI,,!"!! lire USli'd in ra<lll r for appl yi ng 1)()lI'er to
e.lec t rical devit.-~s ~u c h liS ILlulu!.", IIml filll""'''1 IIlId plllle cin:uilll of
n.ClLll)l1 tubes. For the Ipst mell1iuned usc the c"utll clor is norm" II,\'
coIHlected in the prima ry of the filament or pillte-cin:uit t r;lll~ funnel'i!.
(2 ) F igure 2-1!1 ~hows 1I11lel"Cnr~' t-on tHct l'el"y. Th i~ 1J'lltl l'e llir is
used for CII rrcut s bo'l w('(!n laud I ,. 11m 11t'1'eS. The ml' r<.ul~' lI' "I CHl lt!let S
lire sealed in /I gl lli!.'! tube thot is filled with !!01Ut) inert b'1lS to prevent

...

~80;:W _ ~. _ 10

0.'9' .11<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

the ..:unt uI:I!; from o xidizing, T he n... n'tl ry n" rln lll1y n'~t ~ in "ne end
of the t ube, Whe n Ihe Im nat ure is 1II' llIll"'," 1. the t ube is ti lteo:l and
I he me reu ry flt)w~ 10 I he III her end of I he I ubi' , "il he r ope ni nl; or closi ng
the conlads Ill't!"nl ing I" the d t'Si bm,
(3) l<'igure 2,.0 show~ II ty pica.l c" ntflct or of t he clapper ty pe, This
L'01l111Clur hilS II liwinging ntlm.l UI'e pi" " (l'I l al o ne e nd , wi t h Ihe COIIl ~e1S lit the ot her, T he clappe r IIct ;on caui!l('S t he cUllt aclS 10 c"me
In).!elllo'r with Il slid inl; mot ion which te nds 10 m,. ke t hem self-clea n in!!,
Ot her MUll i1in ry C<1I1 \D cl S for \' 9 ('io ns ('On tm l fu nct ion~ m il y be monn! 1"11
o n L'O milct OMI of t his Iype,
(4) F ig1,rt> 25] shows another type of OOll ltlctor kno"'n II.<! tl' e
~ol enoid ro! la)', which o perat e!! wi th all uJi Illo t io n in the "erl ical
p ilUl e, W llf'n t he coi l is energized t he p lll llj!'cr o r "nnllture s nM ps
u pward, clVSing the cont acts, wh id, are 1110nn too on spri ngs to insure

FLEXIBLE
JUMPERS

TL-8165
an e,'en p res.~II Nl whe re Ill ure thu n one lid " f L~lll tu ctS ~ re used , Con,
Inet",." of th is ty pe uSll nll y hll" e sih'e r-MIl"y eOlll uets which do nol
oxid ize ellsily " ud consequen t ly requ ir<l lilt III a ttcntion,
e. Clrllllil r.onfro'
( I ) A cil'cuil ..::ontrol relny is
lI!!t,<1 whac thc cirell i!. functi ons become so rulll '<lrO Il~ thllt 01""I'u ing
slI'i tches f"r each ..-ollid I.N! COlllp l lc~ Ied nn d t ime-coIIsUlning , Pe r form in g- t Ill'S{! OIl<!"ll ti"us wi t.h l-el"ys (,li",i1l'lll'8 ol"" r"I i" " 1I 1 el'ro rs
by c"using Ih,~ "" riollS funcli"ns to tnke ]ll,,~ nlll"IIlI' llcMlly ill tl,e
IJrOll<! r !it!(IIIC Il t:<!,
(2) C ircuil control rllllll's IIllly 00 l~'U~l ruCtl'd in a wiole \'Brillly
of Eh'LJ)('S "nd ~i 7.es, T he ij ll'i tehbollrd I," PC is !!hOWII in figlll'" 2'-'2,
\\' hi l<l thi s is n simple elilllllple of Ihi s kiml of I'cluy, St','('n,1 j!' Nlll pS
of cOll lm:1 ~ p rinl,!~ lIl"y 00 used lI" d II IIIl1nOOr of di trCl"(,ll t cireu ils
nUl," 00 olX'IICtI or cI'oSi.d, A c"PIIl~r 81t~ " e gi"ing th e rei ll Y a de illyed
:It",i,," is also slwwn in Ihis fi 1!urc,

ri'."".

:1-

0.'91

.'I<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

(3) An overload l't'la)' is tiesiglll)d SO t hll! it will break II circuit


whell the currellt through it. reuches II PI'edd cl'Iuim'(l vlllue. A latch
is rrequently pro\idOO to kl"CP t he Cil"C lLil o~n following tb e ovel'
lond, ill order to pn!nnt tilt: cll'Cui t fruUI being opened IUld cl"so.'.,J
re peatedly while the o\,l)dout! .. xists. All oH r luad relny mlly hanl
301

OOgtr .1 I< ""


UNIVERSITY Of MICHIGAN

push button attached for mt""ulIlicut release or it may hll"c an


additional eJect rolllllgnet for remOle push-hun on rt!iease of the latch.
Thelattcr type of rt'll\y is shown in figllre 2a3. Coil L , is oonn~ted
in the plate circuit of the tube to
protected. Coil L. is enHgized
momenta r ily to l'i!set the mechanical la.tch lifter the o.erload rel"y
has operatoo.
d. TlmP--od.. l.y _I.Y R. (1) The time clelay relay is used to

II.

'*

pro\'itlO:l

II

time inter,'n! between sepn rate up<,m t ious.

Qne COUllllon

form of time-de lay reIllY U ~ /I bimetallic element which bend ~ liS it


is hell led. TIle element is luade hy welding tOb'ther two st rip;! of

AU U _ _
CO IL

"

d i fl'c reJU melll Is ha \ jng rI i fferc nt ex pu Ils io ll nlt es. A hell ier is mounted
IIl"<Jnnd Of d %e 10 the eJ!)lt1ent. O)lllllCl8 lire lIlo llnt l'tl on the e lement
itself a nd , a s the clem>!lIt is CIIU~ to bend by the d ifferent txllH lISioll
rHles, Ihese CQ tll,u;U; dose to o pern{e II 1'Cllly (fig. 254). The d eja)'
tim e for bimetllllie s l ripS is n~ ulllly frum 1,6 10 11,6 min nl es lind i ~
" lIried by II sing metal s wilh ,lilJuelll eXl'ulls i"lI r" I.'S 01' by irH! I'ell~illg
or d('(!reD ~ ing the distnllt'f! IJl'I\\'~1l the fix ~'( 1 nnd nW" ing COllln cls.
(2) Molur.] !'i'eu lirne(M" y re lays IU 'C fr~..]ue"tly IISt'<.!. This ty pe
o f relny elJl pl o)' ~ 11 ;Hulll ] ~yJl.c hl'.non8 molor "".I H g"IIt 1I'lfin 10 oblnin
the ,k'll i"t.. 1 delll)' l ime. A !'<'I of mun lule c<" ,ltt ct~ is 1lI' "l llted Oil th e
11151 ge1l t of the t rni l! 1I ",l lhe circu il 18 d ,,,,...,1 when I hi s sel of conlnets
is I nrnl..1 enollj!h to IUllel, the sln t innar,V COl\t" c l ~ (fig, 2M) , 011 ... 1'
muto r,lr iven Ii medelay 1'c1I1Y~ lit i I ize /I ,~pring nel iu n 10 ciO!;!! the reillY
:102

0.'9'

.,I<om

UNrIIERSITY Of MKHIG.I.N

contaets. The SllI'ing is I'1!leased by the genr train after a

gin~n

time

interval.
(3) The oil da sh-pot type I'1! IIIY is used in many lime-delay appli ca_
tiona. A mObrnetic coil pulls II plunger th rough t\ dash pot filled with

oil, the oil l)us.;ing tlU'ongh

Il Slllll l1

hole in the plullger.

nUl

ti me

delny can be \,ll1"i~... 1 by chunging the si7.e of th~ hole ill the phlllj..'Cr.
T o make n rd"y of thi s type Inlllbh f,w, II sun!' acl.ion of S(lllJ(l kind
mu st be pl'V\, id ed fur I......,;il i "c closing uf the ~.... n! nc.:t.s.

0.'9'

.,I<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

eo lrealt "rr=.en r-u', (1) Some fonn of protec


tive device is needed in nearly all circuit&. In primal"J circuits where
the voltage ia fairly low and the current rather high .. cireuit breaker
or fuse ia ~nerally used, and in some C'EM both are used. This protec:ts the SOUre4 of power from overloads and short circuits, and also
.
prevents the equipment from being burned out.
(2) A cireuit breaker is a switch that opens .. cireuit wben a current
of a cemin limiting value Bows through it for a given length of time.
In th e usual form for radar primal"J circuits the circuit breaker is
operated by a heater element and bimetallic strip or by plll!lling current

.....n;!;

---r

<Zl

TlIIPPEO I'OSITIOM

n-om
th rough ths bimetallic strip itse lf to generate the heat. A typical
ci rcuit brnker i~ shown in figuNl 2.56. It consists essentially of a care
fuJly calibrated bimetallic stri p, contacts, and a means of n!"&etting.
M current Bows through this strip, heat is generated and the bimetallic
st rip bends. Under sufficient heat it bends enough to interrupt the
circuit by re leasing a trip which opens the contacts. A circuit breflker
of this type will carl"J ita rated load indefinitely, it will carl"J .. .50.
percent overlOlid for about a minute, a loo-percent overload for about
20 ~onds, and a 2O()..percent overload for about 15 seconds. The latter time usually is long enough to allow a motor to start without tripping the circuit breaker becauae of the high sta rting curnmt.. Mag-

...

Or>c.>i . 11"""
UNrvRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

netic brenkers can be obtained which open almost instantly when more
th"n ro le<! current flows through them.
(3) The most common OI'er-current ' device is n fuse, A fuse is
merely Il short length of wire or ri bt.on l1lad~ of an alloy thst has a
low melting point nnd of II size whi ch will carry a given slLlI'le ragtl
indefin itely. A larger cur rent cnu;;c.'S (l,e metlll to lIent and melt,
ope ning t he circni t to be prolll(!ted. MOIit fU;;e!l designed for other
than home usc haw" de lo y time 011 ol'erl"Il"S similllr tu thot "f circ uit

/
,

<;)

1\.-. nt

breakers. This lMo y CYU be II t"Complished I)y Illokiu/!" the fUllC liuk
of I,cal'y COllst ructio]} Cll~ pt in une or tWl'! sllO"! p"rtioll~ of its 1t~IIJ," h.
T his allow8 heat to be d rawII aWlly frolll Ihe smllll high.resi~tance POi"
lions, delaying the melting ti me, and g iving Ihe lk"l in~d delllY action.
A fuse of thi s type is shown in fib'llre 257@. Fu._ lire IIIsde in two
types : I he plug Iy pe which I'll n be obI II illed ill " "IIl(S lip 10 30 am pert'S.
alld Ihe cllrtridJ,'tl fuse which is lilsde in ~izes fr<lll1 n frllction of lin
a IIlPC'"e to 600 a'"IJ(' feli or llIure. Sizes !I b.. ,c 60 nIII p....,.,.; II 1'1' f IIrn ished
only in the kll ifc-blade cllrtridge type which pro"ides II bette r con tact
sudllce.

3.,
0.'9' .1 from
UNrYERSlTY Of MlCHK>l.N

57. CO:NTaOL t:1IlCIJITS.


.. Ge.era.. The primary functions of control circuits are to
provide convenient operation and to protect both perSOllnel and
equipment. Relays are used where it is impractical to cloee swikhes
by band because of location, voltage, size, or number of switching
operations W be accomplished. It is much more feasible w set up a
control circuit, using relays w perform switching close to the COOl ponents, thllll w bring leads carrying bigh voltage or heavy current to
.. more convenillllt operating position. A very important use of relays
is w render high-voltage circuits inoperative to eliminate the p0ssibility of peflJOnal injury when the circuits are not shielded or covered properly. Time-delay relaya G'e used W protect expensive tubes
from the injury that would occur if the high-plate voltage were applied
before the filaments bad heated sufficiently, thus eliminating pel"8Onnel
errore..
It. . . . . . . .t . . . eperatM reol_,. el..-l. .... (1) A relay
may be operated from a separate power source by closing a awitch,
but whanever pDIlGible a push-button type control is used in conju nction with a holding circuit which keeps the current flowing through the
relay coil after the push button is released. The hold-in is ~om
plished by a set of contacts on the relay it8elf which short the push
button. The "Surt" button is normally in the open position. A
-"Stop" button is placed in series with the coil which is normally closed.
Wbenever this button is pressed the relay-coil circuit is opened alUl
the relay opens.
(2) Figure 268(i) shows a&.imple push.button circuit that could be
used to operate a filament transformer or other low-power appar&.tU8.
When the start button is pres5!d the relay is energized, clOBing the eon
tacts. The action of the relay applies power to the load and provides
a hold in circuit to the relay, allowing the push button w be released.
The relay can be opened by pl'l!Slling the stop button, thus restoring the
circuit to ita original condition. This circuit haa the disadvantage
that the load current must pllS8 through the push-button oontacts between the time the button is pushed and the time the relay is closed.
This limitll the ]>Ower-handling capabilities of the circuit.
(8) Figure 258{!) shows a cireuit 3Uitable for a high-voltage power
supply. The push button cannot operate relay 1 until relay 2 is
clO6ed. Relay 2 is opel1l.ted by the fil ament and interlock cireuitll.
With relay 2 closed, relay 1 will close when the start butwn is pressed.
An alternste path through the coil of relay 1 is provided by the lower
set of contacts 011 relay 1 !iI) that when th~ start button is released
relay 1 holds in. In this case the load current dOO!l not flow through
the surt bUllon.
3M

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

eo h ..... .r.he .... (1) Some form, of protection must


be provided for high.voltagtl equipment to prevent overiOl.ds caused
by mi ... djU8t.ment or to prevent.damage to other componenta in cue
one fails. While a great many refinement. may be added to overload
relays, IIIch 18 deJa, and automatic rea rtti ng mechaniSJDs, the lIimple
type is usually found in radar equipment. A circuit giving overload
protection for a high.voltage system ill lIhown in figure 269.
(2) The ove rload relay is connected in the ground or low.potential
side of the power aupply to eliminate the necnity of high-voltage
START

MITTON

o
IUTTON

"ELAY

......

",

--- ------ -- ---- - -HAIIT a VTTON


"[LAY" TO

INTE"LOXK
ellteUIT

r ...

insulation. It is 110 adjusted that when the current reaches a rtllin


point tbe armature Jifts, opening the contacts.d. ThiB opens !he
power.relay cireuit and disconnects the primary of the high.voltage
t ransformer. A.. latch is provided to prevent the amlature from
dropping and closing the contacts before the cause of the overload
hl8 been ascertained.
(8) Some radar uni ts U6e an over.voltage relay to protect the equip_
ment from voltage 8urgf'l cllused by poor regulation. The coil of
this rela, is mounted in ~ries with a spark gap. Tbe two are placed
NT

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

bet1l\"l!en the high.voltage supply and ground with the coil at the
ground end. When the volta/.'e builds up 10 a value that. is too high,
an are ill formed across the spark gap, causing current to flow through
t.he relay. Thill opens the contacte and dillOOnnecls the high-voltage
primary.
II. TI
Time-delay relaya are used in cir
cuita to provide a definite time intf'rval between operations. The
most. common \lSI! of the time.delay rday in radar is to allow a
definite time to elaJ>llll after filament voltage i.1I applied before plate
voltage is turned on. A circuit of this Itind is shown in figure 260.

II .el.,. drew....

>

TL-nu

Power is applied to thl' filllment l"iro:-uit at the same time thllt power
is applied to the heater unit of the time~elay relay thn,ugh itll
dropping resistor and the lower conlacts of the time.llelllY relay, Af
ler the proper interval the bimelal strip bends sufficienUy to clO!le
contacte O. CIOIOi ng contncts 0 energiZl'!! both the holding relay and
the high.voltage control relay connecting the high-voltllge power
Inmsformer to the power source. Operution of the holding relay
disconnects the heater unit 90 that the bimetal strip may cool 10 its
nonnal position to prevent the high voillge from being removed
and su(ldenly reftpplied. The holdinJl: relay keeps the high voltage
relay energized while the contact.\l 0 are open.

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

e.

"til: I. n. elreallla: Interloek circuibi are 1lIMld in .. radar


set to prevent one unit from being turned on before anotber, wbere
damage might ooeur if this order were not followed; Sucb circuit.
are abo ~ to prevent highFvolta~ equipment from being turned on
before protA!Jctive covel'll are placed. on the equipment to prevent.
the latter case, switcbes Ire mounted behind
peI"90n..t injury.
the doors and panels in $I1cb I manner that they In!" cloeed ... ben the
COV6l1l &re in place. The swiic:hes are placed in aerier! with the holding
"coil of the highnvoltage control n!lay. An interlock circuit is shown
in llgure jill. Power is .pplied directly to the Ililment supply .nd to
the time-delay rel.y. After the timendel.y rel.y has cloaed, power

In

,....~

_:0

n~~

Fjg.rt Mil.

Tk e '~"' ...,/1> .veo.1I.

pam. from point A through the tillle--delay rellY oontacta, Ind then
through the door .nd panel interlock IIwitches. From here the cu rrent
goes to the tnllll!llitter Ind pa
through the oontacls of. rel.y ... hich
is c10eed by .pplying power to the transmitter lil.menu. The current
7.

then pU3M1 through the overload relay and the higbnvoltage trail&-former control rel.y coil to the other side of the line. If all s-witehes
and contacla Ire c10eacl the control rel.y .pplies power to the highnvolf...
.ge transformer.
c.........te..............,
l. Some l.rge tubes reF
quire .... ter to dissipate the heat generated .t the plate. A system of
this type requires a pump, a fan radiator, Ind an lutoinatic control
that will cut oft' the plate .nd filament voltage in case the water ceases

'0

_.t...

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

to tlow. T his is 'If,,,,m pl i ~h~. 1 by thl! i"w _!,,"t!!'>!llI"t! ""ntrol ilhLbLrHted


in li~'1lre 262. T o ~IRrt operolion the power is a pplied ILnd t he Sinn.
button i~ prt.~d 10 clo;w. the /lI1'1"t:llry liwitch. The slllrt hu\tnn is hel.l
in place unlil the wil ie l' pn'Sll llre is 511Ili"ienl to ,;nuse the bell"ws to
expllntl ILnJ hoM Ihe swjt"h .,,'m in the c l, lOieo.l posi tion, '1111'1 st llrt
. C -"

-,
I

"""
"

, ..,~

...."'"

8ELLOWS

TL-87TT

10 WATER
SYSTE IoI

button ClllI then Ilt' 1'1'1" .. "".1. ::5h"lIlo1 the p l"t:~~lIre drop becn u!'C of
!'''IllP r" ilul't'l "I' II leuk. II", hell"ws ~-':lI l1" llct~,llnd Ihe llle ~IIIT s witch
"pens, t utuil\!; o lf th , I I'U lI ~ m ill er pi" I I!~ It lu i Ii I" Inelll ~. , A ~ i lIli I," , 1111;1
<'1 111 be us<... t tn 1111'11 II ... ;..', " If in """" tl, ~ l"'''''-~'''"t! ht.'(.'U!Ul'S too high, as
woulli be thO) C"~ j f the wUler li nes wei',: bkoeked.
!l 10

0.'9'

.'I<om

UNIVERSITYOf MKHIGAN

SecdOD XI
Data TraD8_881oD and Servo SY8tem8

aa.

REMOTE INaICATOR SYSTIlMS AND SERVO


SYSTEMS
.. fie _ _ I. (1) In the operation of rndnr equipment it is
often nec:essary to have the angular motion of a shaft follow accurately
the motion of another shaft yome distance away. If the shafts are
not too far apatt the motion CKII IJe transmitted by means of a mechanical linkage. H owever, this method is in genernl cumbersome
and uneconomical, particularly whl'n! lnrge amounts of torque and
power are to be transferred. A method which ill more flexible and
more commonly used is to convert the mot ion of one shdt int.o electrical
currents, tTansfer these currentll vin wires. and fOllvel1- them back to
mechanical motion of a second shaft.
(2) Two major app1icntion~ ill r"dnr of such MmversioIl8 of shdt
motion to electrical currents and bnck to ~hnft motioll are found in
remote indiClitor system and in servo systems.
(8) The term "remole indicntor ~y~tem" refers to a device used for
transmitting data or informntion bej,''feen two points. Examples are
the reading of a meter dinl, the p~ition of an ant enna in nzimuth or
elevation, tem]X'rnture rea.lings and similnr infonnntion. For such
indication~ very little torque nnti ellHgy are involved.
(4) The term "'servo systl'm " rl'fers 10 a medmnism ,,heff'by a oontrolled shaft deli'fen< much InO rl' power thnn the controlling sha ft , Ind
the Iction of the power-amplifying device is regulated by the (JrrOT or
discrepancy in angular ptlSition bet.w~n Ihe two ~h ah s. An example
of the servo ~ystem is the ordinary rn(lnt nntennn oontrol. H~re II
small hnndwheel is turned, lind the angulnr ... rrur in (\l'gTl'eS between
a reference point un it and a rdeN::nce I)oinl on the rotating antenna
mount controls II power amplifier furnishing power to an nntenna drive
motor. When the two reference poinL~ nre lllij!ned, 110 error is present
and there is no output from the poWH alllplifier. At any other point
the power amplifier produces an olltput which swings the antenna into
IIUgnment again. Thus the seM"" system hn~ two functions; It CRUses
ODe shaft to follow nnother in angulnr motion, nud it amplifies the
torque and power between the two.

on

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

... p,ete ___ Id_ la4leater u: ..,.


Ile . (1) A basic position indicator and servo system for a radar
antenna is illustrated in figul"1l 263. In the position indicatol:' block,
01 is a device which convertB the position of a shaft attached to the
antenna inw electrical currents. These CUJTenU are tt-ansmitted by a
cable to MI which converts them back to sbaft rotation. The shaft ill
attached to a pointeI:' which indicates the antenna position on a dial.

-_.
~::;l
--=
-.,

_.
_..,

-_.

.. ,........_.

For every position of the antenna the direction of the beam in azimuth
thus is given by the diall'eading. A similar arrsngement can al80 be
applied if desir-ed to an elevation indication or to any other data
transmission problem.
(2) In the servo system block 02 converts the position of the
handwheel intn an electrical indiclltion which is transmitted to CTl.
CTt is a deviC1! which compares the l'elative position of the antenna
shaft with the position of the hand wheel as conveyed electrically over

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

the. cable, and .... hich develops an errol' voltage proportional to the
difference betwl'i!n the positions. This error voltage is applied to
the control ampli8er which controls the power flow to the servo motor
which rotates the antenna. Whenever the error voltage is present,
the Intenna is rotated in such .. direction as to make the error voltage
lees. ThUl l\'hen the antenDa position oorresponru. to the hand wheel
position, there is no error voltage and th,' antenna comes to .. stop.
The control amplifier supplies the vari.ble power to the antenna drive
motor, and usually is IlUbstantiaUy electronic in construction.
(8) The princi~l method of providing the electro-mechanical oonvemma neceprry for opention of both the position indicator and
the Ill.U"YO II)'BUI!D8 is the use of the .ellyn.. In simple indiCl,tor systems

.. potentiometer also is ulMld fnquenlly w obtain .. volta~ propor.


tional to the displacement of .. IIh.ft.
eo Aatlll_t M . . . .e ...
(1) One problem in the application of the servo system ill that of hunting. Hunting refers to
the tendency of a mechanical a,mm to oscillate al.xJut a nonnal
po!Jition. Thus in figure 2M the steel ban, if depressed from ita
nonnal position and suddenly relea~, O9Cillatl\!l vertically because
of its inertia and the forces IIXertoo by the springs. In time the
oecillation is damped out by the frictional losses of the oscillating
syatem.
(2) A Bimilar eft'ect is noticed in ~chr equipment using a servo
!ystem to drive the antenna. Since the connection between the handwheel controlling the antenna position snd the antenna it8elf is
eft'ectively somewhat elastic because of the action of the electrical
and magnetic circuita involved, the inertia of the moving antenna

tl....

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

causes it to overtravel its required position. An error voltage is


developed in the !!ervo system in the opposite direction and the
antenna reveraea. Sue<:e!IIlive overtrave18 by the antenna would be
less and lese. and ~he mechanical oecillation would die out except for
one factor: there may be a time lag in the !!ervo system which causes
reinfon:ed oaeillations. In such case, the antenna would continue to
()9CilIate or hu"t aboUI its normal position. This t Weet is equivalent
to regenerative feedback in radio circuit contributing to the setting
up of an oscillatory condition.
.
(8) In order to eliminate hUnting, which would cause harmful
mechanical vibration of the entire antenna rotating system, an anti
hunt device or circuit is introduced. These commonly consist of
arrangementa to slow up the dr;ive motor II the antenna approaches
its final position. If the drive plwer is reduced f!OOn enough the
inertia of the moving pam cau.aee the antenna to coast into its final
poei6onwithout any overtravel. In other words, the position control
is made nonOllCiliatory, and is thus equivalent to degenerntive feed
back in a radio circuit.

58. BBAaING-INDICATION B4tUIPMENT


.. T ........ttl _ . reeelv", _I.,..... (1) A lei.",.
is a device used for the electrical transmission of an angular position.
Although the word selsyn (from !!elf-synchronous) is actually a

m----_
F4I.r~

265.

,-M~d a'''''''l

4dul/. of .d......

trade name, it is commonly used to denote all apparatus of the sume


general type. Other names and trade names in current use include
'lInCT()~ie, auto,!!n, and '!/flchro (United States Navy) .
(2) Eesentially the IlIllsyn has the form of small two-pole alternatof. The rotcw ( 6g. 265(! is turned by a shaft mounted on ball
bearings, Rnd has a single coil 01 wire wound on an iron core, whieh is
constructed of thin sheets to min imize eddy eurrenlS. The ends of
the coil are eonn~ted to slip rings and thence to tenninals RI and Ri
<1.

0.'9'

~Ih-m

UNIVERSITY Of Io'J{HlGAN

on the frlllIle. The daio .. is fiud in poaition lind may act as part of
the frame. It alliO ill. constructed of tliin iron sheets, and has uni formly spaced slots (fig. 26!i(!) into which are wound thnoe separate
eeila. The coils are spaced 100 apart around the stator snd distributed in severtll pail'll of slota. A corresponding end of each coil
ia connected to a common point and the other ends are connected to
terminals Sl, 82, and
on the frame.
(3) If an altemating cun-ent is supplied to t-he rotor of a selayn,
the average magnetic Beld during a particular hal'f-cyeJe ia a8 abown
in figure 266@. The total eft'eet and direo::tion of the field for this
half-cycle are rapresented for convenience as the arrow in the simpli-fied diagram of figure 266(!). If the rotor is placed within the stator
Ilt A in figure 266@aud turned at the angle shown, the three coila are
subjected to an alternating magnetic flu,; which induces voltages in
the coila by meanA of trandonner action. The v~ltag\16 induced in
roil 1 and coil 2 cause cun-enlS to flow in the direction shown by the
arrows. No voltajZl! is induced in coil 8 since it is cut by no magnetic
ftuJ:, as it is perpendicular to the i1uJ: of the rotor. Assuming that
the voltage generated in-coils 1 and 2 is 45 volta, the voltage between
the terminlls of S:r and S2 is 46 volts plus 411 volu, or 90 volta &8
indicated. Similarly the voltsge between the tl.'rminals of 82 and
is 415 volta plus 0 vol~ or 411 volta, ~d between the tenninala of
and 81 is 0 volts plu8 46 volts, or 415 volts.
(4) By applying these three line voltages to the proper terminals
of the stator of a second selayn at B, the stator coila set up magnetic
fields in the dire<:tious shown by the dotted arrows. The combination
ef the fields gives a magnetic field in the center of the stator at B which
has the same di~tion and, because of loans, IIOmewhat 1_ mllJPlitude
than thl.' original fil.'ld produced by the rotor at 14..
(II) Figul"1! 266G) shows that a shift of rotor poeition at A produces
different induced voltage6 in the coils of the stator. The ftlll: of the
rotor now indut'ell equd but opposite voltages in coila 1 and 2; henC1l
the line voltage between the terminals of 91 to S2 is zero. Howenr,
coil
has a muimum voltnge, and therefore the voltagtlll between
S2 and
and betwoon
and Sl both equal 78 volts. Again thoee
voltages tranderred to stator B prodUC1l a combined field which has
the same direction liS the rotor field in .A, as shown by the dotted
arrows. The same n'asoning Iljlpliefl to the rotor poailion in figure
2"@.
(6) The diagrams of figure 266 can be carried out for any rotur
po6ition. The n'sults show that by means of the three varying line
voltages there is a resultllnt mllgnetic field genernted in B which always
has the same direction as the origind rotor field in A. ThuB a me chanical motion of a shaft at A is transferred to a motion of a magnetic field at B. In order to transfer this atator-field motion back to

sa

sa
sa

sa

sa

sa

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

;31

..

..

f!

",

... 1

,.

"

..

",OTOII Of" ..... c"'"TOII AT u


T~

OtO

__

mechanical motion, It Iii na'essary only to place another rotor at B


which acts as an eleetromagnet and aligns itself with the stator field.
The rotor fields must alternate in direction because the operation of
the selsyn depends on the tnmsfonner action between rotor and stator.
Since the rotor fields ate alte rnating, they murt always be in phase
if the two selsyns are to keep in step. This is easily accomplished by
connecting the rotor at B to the same a_c supply source as the rotor at A.
(7) Figure 267 shows a $l'lsyn -transmitter and receiver in a simplified diagram. Any motion of the shaft at A causes motion of the
stator field at B and therefore a motion of the rotor shaft at B as the
rotor attempts to follow the changing field direction. The twist. or
torque on the shatt depends on the angular dil"erence between the
!lat.or and rotor field directions.. So long as the rotor shaft at B is
free to tu rn without any fr ictional dr ag or load, any slight movement
of the stator field develops sufficient torque to cause the rotor to follow_

up

l
"

"

---- -- --

I,

A eelsyn designed for a freely turning rotor wou ld probably overheat


if the rotor were held fixed ..0 that the angle between it and the stator
field became gnater than 20 0
(8) The traIll!lIlilter selsyn A (fig. 267) is frl'fJuently called a Belsyn
generator, and the receiver $l'lsyn B, a selsyn motor. Electrically, the
Belayn generator and the selsyn motor are identical. Physically, they
dill'er somewhat in that the motor haa mounted on its rotor shatt an
oscillation damper. This damper consists of a Iud ring . mounted
within friction plates all a sleeve which is secured to the rotor shaft.
The lead ring has a large amount of inertia and can be rotated on the
sleeve only with considernble difficulty. Any violent oscillation of the
rotor rotates the sleeve. The lead ring cannot follow this motion
immediately because of its inertia, so that a largll damping ellect is
produced on the oscillating rotor which quickly stops the movement.
It should be noted that R selsyn genentor does not nece6liarily rotate
continuously u do most electrical genel'8tors, but mRy merely change
ita position by a few degrees. Similarly a selsyn motor may not rotate

s ..

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

continuoualy, but

follow~ In

step with any movement of the selsyn


~nerator. Gu~nla in the three wires oonn~ing the selsyn statOl'll
have their l1luimums at the same time, but vuy in magnitude according to the rotor position. Therefore, the a~ voltages and cu~ntIJ in
I16byna are ~ingle-phue.
(9) In radu appliC8.tiona the selsyn ~ystem in figure 267 is f~
quently used to trarwnit the antenna position. The input shaft. of A
is connected to the antenna turntable in 8uch .. manner that the position of the antenna in uimutb may be ooDtinuoualy transmitted to B
wbicb operal.ell a dial and pointer .. t the operator's location 90IIle distance away. If the antenna can be tilted in ele"ation, a aeoond identicalll6lsyn system may be used to tranBmit the elevation angle .. well .
(10) Some selsyn appliCII~ions an! made in which enl't'mely aceu . rate angular indication is dero.ired. In ~u('h ca.._ two 8IIbyn system'

fI..-

"0.

J'fpre 168. BoIor ....flCAllI' Of .ltrn-noUa' ,,,,,",

may be uaed. one dietly coupled to the shaft from which position
information is desired and the other coupled through a gear ratio of,
for example, 86 to 1, 110 that the 8elsyn generator makN 36 revolution!!
to 1 of the &fIlenna shaft. The antenna position then is given on two
dials. The coarse I'\I.Mding is given by the first I16lsyn system and the
fine reading by the second. The fine-reading pointer makes one com
plete revolution for each 10'" angular movement of the antenna. The
disadvantage of such a system is that the two selsyn systeIl1ll may 1M' .
turned out of eU!p when I,he pc)'...er is 0, 90 that the 86-speed ~ystem
may synchronize at !lOme multiple of 100 out of step when power is
again applied. Certain special circuits ll.lld de"ioes have been developed to remedy this disadvantage by producing a oombinatioD
COllr'8e and fine system which is completely 8elf-llynchronizing.
It.
(I) The dilenmtial selsyn is similar to the basic !lelsyn eJ:Cept that the rotor bas, imvfod of a single

".e__tlal _1_,..__

s.s

,~ _ _

Dn9,""~

_ UNrYOOTYOf~{HiGII~

coil, a three-coil wind ing si m ilar to that Oil the stRtor. The rotor
core, therdor~, is ~lol1ed 10 a(~"ltlmod"te the dist ribll100 winding9
(fig. 268). The 1'000ition of tile rot o r field Hill[ with refipt'Ct to the
stR lOr is the n detHmi ned by twu factors: the mechauical posi tion of
the rotor shaft , ami the electr ica l pos it io n of the field flUl[ wi thi n the
rulUr it!lel f MS determined by the t hr('C Nltor in pu t \o h ages. The
d i tre ~ntial !lel~yn is dc.;ij!IlMteti aij b",ne ra tor or ""'tm , the on ly d iffer
ence being the add ition of a (hun ping d~"i<!e on the motor sh,dt. 'nl~
difl'e~n t i HI 6f'lsyn is uOied wil<!n' Ihe ~ei"ing selsy n i~ to be controlloo
by two or more tran~miHing selsynll.
(2) A control or imlicator sy~tem in which a di fferential selsyn
generator is used is shuwn in fign ~ 269. The pos it io ns of t.he rotOI"8
of the genera tor "nd of the d ilfenm t ial gene rator are co ntrolled by
the conn ech od llppllralu ~. ~nd the algebrai c s um of Ihe effects of th ese
t wo mll chine~ .leterminl'S II", p.:..;it ion of t he r"I'lr "f the moto r. The

'--._.-

_._.

I.

~tDl o r

of the difTeren t ial gene ra tor i~ ene rgizoo by the output from
th e stMtor of the sel ~yn genl' rulor, 80 th at a:ll'>! of the slH to r fields of
t hese tv.o mllchines . re IIlways in th~ ~ "lIIe dirl!<:tio ll. '[lIe vol tll!;''>!
indu<!ed in the N.tor of th.~ di fft!l'ell lia l sei~Y Il cI .~ te l'1 uin~ the di~tion
of the stator field of the mutor. nnd hen<.'e Ihe pos.i t ion of tho rotor.
(3) If the ~y . t e Ul i~ "t 1"f'~1 and HII n.tor!! ",,(, fn.-e tu turn, 1111 the
rotors will be III the 7.ero l>Ofi'i l i,," (fig, 210). I f the rotor of genen.tor
G is turn ed 60 ciol'kwiS(' while the rotor "f d ifferen t ial i;<;lsyn gen
erator bO is lil' l.1 fi l[ ~-..I, the ~1" lul' 6ehl of 0 is rotated thruugh the
SlU'le lingle (fig. 271). Clusing tl.e sill lor fie ld of 1)0 wls.. 10 be
rututed OOQ, T Ill' ,"Ih~..,~ in,lncl!<l in the rotor of DO II~ now such
as to call86 the st.lOr fi.I.1 of motor ,]I 10 be as shown. so that thl'
rotor of ,V turns 60 clockw ise. T Ill' sa nl<' efTl'Ct can be l'r(){iu('('(1
by hol ding the rolnr of 0 lix"']lIud tlll'lliu!! the rt>t"r "f DO coun ter
elockwise (fig. 272,) since this rotlotion ca u!!l'll the ~om e relllth'l! ~hj ft
Q

...

0.'9' .11<om

UNIVERSITYOf MKHIGAN

between the nit! of the rotor and the direction of stator field of DO
as was 'm ade in the first ""I'.
(') If the rotors of both 0 and DO are turned 60 0 cloekwise, thel'&
iIJ no change in the yolt.agea induced in the rotor of DO bec'W!8 there
La no relative shift between the nis of the rotor and the direction of

DG

NlIOk

OiillEC 10.. Off

STATOR 'iQJ)

1'..,.., n/l.

R I_
~

... ""dUM

Of

Ish,..

11"''''''.

the lltator fiekl. of DO (fig. 213). All a resu1t, the rotor of II reml.iaa
at zero.
(6) Thus, the effect of the dilfenmtial selsyn in the control system
is to
the motor to turn through an angle which is equal to the

cause

DG

",
iIIOTOIil
POSITION

DIII.[CTIOH OF
STATOR "ELD

TL_ 07
J/'19"T~

nI.

0 f""Ofor /",." ... 60 ' cloCk......,. DO TOlor M ill ,,' /I' .

relative shift between the Ui8 of the rotor and the di~tion of the
stator field of t.he dilferential ~nerlltor. Two furt,her examples of the
action of the differential generator are shown in figure 2740 and @.
In Q) the rotor of the A:encrator is turned 46 0 cloekwiS6 and the rotor
of the dilferential generator is turned 30 0 countercloekwige. As a

n.

I lQ,k
-

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHI(Jo.N

result, there is a clockwise shift of 75 0 between the uiB of the rohlr


and the di~tion of the stator field of DO, which causes the rotor of M
to klrn 75 c c1ockwill8, In @ both rotora are turned oounurcloekwillfl
80 'that the effects of the two motions 8llbtract.. Thus, the rotor of the
motor turns only 150 , which is lea than the motion of either of the
othe r machines.

"

"
'\

n-_
""Mr~

nt. 0 ""or IIdd ftl 0', DO rotor I.,.,. .... 60 ' COtI"Iert!lod,wf.

(6) It should be noted that Ihe effect of the differential generator


in the ei~uit may be reversed by exciting the DO rotor from the
selsyn generator instead of the stator as in 6gure 269. In this connec
tion the DO rotor must be turned dockwiee in order to neutralize a
~unterclockwise motion of the 0 rotor.

00

"

n.-,_
PI,.F'fl t13. f1 rotar 11"" DO rolor kIlL l.rMd 60 <'lock"".

(7) A control or indicator systl'ffi in which the output ill taken


from the shaft of the differential eelsyn may be built hy replacing the
motor in figure 269 with l genel'lltor, and by making the d ifferential
machine a motor (fig. 275). The two end selsyns have shafts pOIIitioned by equipment. The rotor shaft of the dift'erential se1i1yn trans

On9 .. 01'"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

mil.8lhe desired information, wbich is the sum or dijferenceof theot.ber


two r0t0r-9haft poeitions.
(8) Figures 28D and 216 8ho1V that the ditrerential aelsyns are sup
Rlied with power from a selsyn genentor. For this reason the selsyn
generator u-:I with dijferential selsyns may be of heavier design to
prevtmt overheating. Such machines are called ~;rcit" "~, In
G

DO

"

~-

.. IQ.D

(i)

P'OSl1'1ON

G ..... Ok TURNED ~~. CUX:KWIX. OG ItOTOtI


""'"

.' )0'

~L.DCII'MK

....,....

POSITION

(i) G

1101".... nAClI ~~. COUNTtJiIC&DC.KwIX. DC; 1tQ'OIt


"'-"'HIL) l(l' (OI.Hf'UICU)CJIWIX
.
n.-a.I(I

1'1# .... ru.

"_114

8 _ (1I0Il dltrernot:f! m<JIi(l~


eIW7'GIDr.

~V lOCI/Oft

0/ ditr""IW

the calle of eompJeJL 8y8l.ems involving !levenl ditr('nmlial selayns,


capacitors may also be placed across the lead8 to the ditrerential &e18yn
stator to counteract the lagging IIXcitation current. Whue linea b&tween &elsynll are long, tbis practice reduces voltage dro(>ll and power
l~s8e8 which may become an appreciable part of the total power
eonaumed.
-

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

eo

SeJ.,.. _."NI

tra. . . .r

.,r. (1) Although dift~I'1!11t in

application, a eelsyn control trandorm~r is NSeJltially the same in construction .. a sclsyn generator (fig. 276). In the co:.introl transformer
the rotor ie held fi ..ed, eithe r by being attached to a shaft or by being
clamped to the frllme of the selByn itself. Thp rotor winding, then,

1'1,..,. 175.

-_'or.

/"dloator ' I/d_ ""f'\ Joco co..troU/",. .,.,.". all me "",,,frolk4


,AMf MIf"" dltrtf'C1lf"" .<'1....

n.-8912.
n,,~,..,

IN.

li'dor~

N:m1 ..... II ....... lo""~r """'If.

instead of being sUPlllied by the a-e line, supplies to an ampl ifier or


meter an alternating vohag~ which varies with the angle between the
stator field and the u:is of til e rotor.
(2) The oonlrol transformel' is used to produC'e an t N'Or voltage
for control purpO>;l'll in servo ~ystem~, si nce this transformer producetl
a voltnge prupoJrtionnl to thp di!ICl'1'pnllcy between the stator field
position alld the mechanicl1.J poo;ition of the rotor.

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

.,..'I!! .

P.lelld eter
One of the simplest methods of
data traIlllJllillrion is to IllJ6 a potentiometer the resistance of which
ia varied by the'rotation of the antenna, The indication may be.
obtained by the reading of a mete.. (par, 24e(6 or the output of the
potentiometer may be used to give the azimuth or elevation 8Weep of
a type 8 - or C-sclln oscilloscope.
M. WARD LEONA-. SYSTI!:MS

.. W.I'\III.I , . . . . . . .rlve. (1) In rada .. applications it frequently i~ IIP,:e.'5ary, to drive heRvy rotary equipment at varying

CO"''--NT YOLTAG(
o-c SU~LY

ARMATUIIE YOUAOE - CONSTANT rlELD rLUX

,- ,
CONSTANT YOLTMI:
0- C SUPPLY

MO TOII

l,--_______-JI-~V'~'" ~~
CONSTllIT AliIUoTUIIE

YOLTlGE - YAIIIA.Lf

II MEOSTAT

r tELO n.ux

MIN IMUM rlELO


YOLTAGE',
"""-MlXIMUM flELO YOLTlO[
""

WUUff/U#///?$UffM :

,
MOTOII

...

...

SPUD

:::>

IIl .. GES
TL ,

f'lf1Ilre t H o }ja. l" 01'<--.:4 , ..."/" (>/ Of d-c "' Olor, .

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

and in either direc::tion of rotation, and in mOllt CIlllt8 to maintain remote control over BUch drives. Since the ordinary single-pb_
or ~phalle a-e motor is inherently a COD8tant.4wl device, the
direct CUlT8f\t motor is commonly WIed for controlled drives. The
dinlction of .rotation can be cbanged JUdily by reversing either the
armature current or tbe field current but not both.
.
(i) The *peed can be controlled by at least two methoda; either
the voltage on the armature can be varied ali in Ilgure 277(!), or the
fidd volt.ge can be varied .. in ~ 277@. The 6ret method
gives the moIlt stable oootrol and the IIlO8t delirable range of speli
(fig. 277(!), but if a variable reeilitor is used in series with the arma
ture, heavy power 10lJ8e8 will aceur, especially in tbe larger motor
sizee. The aeeond method pennita control with a physically _all~r

SIl!! is

11111 ....

rt,wn I'/B.

~.w~z-anllllrlw.

resistor and g. LPUy reduced power 10 T, but the available motor


aped- range from a certain miRimum value upward (ftg. 277@),
rather than from a certain mu:imum value downward to lero II is
deaired (ftg. m). The motor will alao be relatinly unstable in
ita higher spted ranges since tbe fieJd is very wm.

(3) One 8Olution to tbe problem is to use the ci~uit of figura 277(j)
but to nplace the resistor with a Voltage red\U:ing device which will
have comparatively low powu 10&ieS. Tbe cif'CUit shown in figun
278, commonly Imown I./iI the Ward-Leonard aystem, aecomplisbl!$
this rMUlt. The d-e motor in this circuit is fed direc::tly from a d-c.
generator which. is operated at a constant "klUiI. The d-e field
wpply to the genuator is varisbla in both magnitude and polarity
by means of a ".heo6tat and raversing switch 18 shown. Therefore,
the mol.Ol' armature is aupplied by a ~DeRt.or having amoothly
77

au

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNiVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

varying voltage output from zero to full-load value. The motor


field is suppli&d with a constant voltage from the Ullle lIOurce as that
supplying the generator field~ The genentor drin power could be
from a single-phase or three-phase a-c motor, from an engine, or
from any other eonstant 8fl ~ed 1IOI.Ir'Ce. In the 8am6 way the d-e
field -supply can be supplied from I rectifier, from an ueiter on the
I"nd of the generator shaft. or from any other Buitable d-e IIOUrce.
It. Ap.lI_d f ....'e Wanl.' e '" ..rt... (1)
The .dvan~ of the Ward-Leonard system is that by meanIJ of the
variation of !I. small field curnmt a smooth, ftexible. yet stable control
Cln be maintained over the sPeed and d ireetion of rotation of a d-e
motor. Such sylitWlS Ire applicable to ship propulsion, hoists and
elentors, Dieael electric equipment, and to the rotation of gun tur~t.s, radar antennas, and similar heavy equipment. The action of
the system is very much like that of an amplifil'f sinOI' a very small
amount of power is u!led to control greatly incwnsed power. .
(2) A simple WardLeonard drive for a radar antenna is shown in
figure 279. The d..e generator in this system is driven by .. 23()..volt
single.phue ....e motor. The same ac line aupplies a I'1lCtmer wbich
furnishes 6eld supply for botb the d..c genl"rator and the d..e motor
6elda. Howe'fer, the generator field i. connected to a potentiometer
in such .. w..y that the magnitude and polarity of the applied "ol~
can be varied. By varying the eetting of the poWntiometer control
knob, the antennl tan be rotated in either direction aoo at any speed
from uro to full rate.
(8) In practical installations the motor generator set at A could be
at any coM'enient locntion. The 'drive motor at B woUld be on the
antenna to"er at the bast of the rotary antenna mount. The control
boll: 0 "ould be located near the operator and tbe ~ifler E would
probably be near or in the oontrol bos:.
e. W .....I u ..... ..,rYe.yatea. (1) The basic Ward
Leonard system bas a number of limitt.tiolls "hen applied to antenna
control for radar aystema. Aa a rule, it ia desired to control the dinetion in "bich tbe antenna points. The antenna may be required to
. rotate continuously for normal searching or to be turned only a fe"
deg' ccs in uimuth in order to determine the bearing of a target..
Where the antenna ielarge, the driving system should be capable al80
of supplying aufficient po"er '" make the antenna rotIte in atop with
the controls in spite of varying wind pressure. The adaptation of the
WardLeonard drive to the 8ervo system abown in .6gun) 280 81til:lfies
the requirements of a radar antenna control system.
(2) The 1-<: driving mot{)r, dc generator, and tbe antennl drive
motor in figure 280 make up the fundamental WardLeonard drive.
The field 8upply for both the anteuna drive motor and the d..c pera-

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

tot' is obtained from an eJ:citer,. small 9I!if-e:s:citeti d.e generator which


abo is driven by the I-e driving motor.
(3) The field supply voltage for the d- c generator ia obtained from a
Wheatstone bridge made up of Rl. H2. RB, ami R4. If the resistance
.

--,,

<

"

<

"~

'~

00

,!
"
<

"
~

,t

I,

e:

~'
!o

'.

0<

,
~

2
0

"~

." g
<0

"L'+- - --

' - -_ _ __

---4_ _ ~

of RI-R8 and R2-R4, the bridge is balanced and the voltage between pointli.A and B is zero. In this condition, the output of the doc
generator is zero, so that the .ntenna driving motor is stopped. How.
ever, if the resistllm:e of RI is decruaed by ~hort-cil'(!uiting part of tbe
,

on

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

resisto r , the bridge becomes unbalanced, lTlRking point A posi ti vI! with
respc(:t to point B. T he "olhb'6 aet oS!! A B ill impressed on the 6eld

of the d -c generator, causing the IInterml dr ive Illotor to rotate.


speed III wh ich the d r ive motor rotates is depen den t on ho w much

Th~
th~

n n o,

"
res i"tullCtl o f R I is 11l,lut't!<l. T he "!l tt' UIl" muy I.. "",,\t' 10 ....,lHle III
the o pposi te di,~'Ct ion by rt.'<:luciul{ the resistoonre of U2.
( 4) Resistors R I !t nd U2 " I'e tap ped III sen~ I',,1 p" illls which lire C"llneeled to Il pllir of Siln-rHlIl rom n,dOl'S as ~hown. T he resis("nct'
of either H I 0 1' R2 is .-edutocd Ly 1. 11 UU lourlt , h, pcmlent on how mUIIY

0.'9' .1 from
UNrY ERSlTY Of MlCHK>l.N

contacts are closed. The Silverstats are operated by a lever ann, L,


which is geared to a differential 1161syn motor. Thus, the speed and
dire<ltion of rotation of tbe antenna are determined by the lever ann
which controls the voltage impressed on the d-c generator field.
(5) When the anteMa is stopped, the rotor of DMI is in a neutral
position such that no contacf.l:l on either Silverstat are eked, and the
Wheatstone brid~ is. balanced. If the handwheel on the rotor of
se\syn gooerator 03 is turned, the voltagefl induced in the stator will
change. Sinoe tbe rotor of the difl'erential selsyn motor is energized
from the stator of 03, the rotor of DMI turns when the bandwheeI is
turned. The rotation of DM1 causes a deSection of the lever arm. by
the connection through bevel gean. This deflection caUge8 tbe Silverltat toco:hange the resistance of either R1 or R2, 80 that thed-c generator
produotlll a voltage which causeti the drive motor to turn the antenna
in the same direction that tbe handwheel was turned. Since the rotor
of tIIiliIyn gtlnerator 02 is geared to the antenna drive motor, the r0tation of this motor changes the output from the stator of 02. This
change in output cau&ea a rotation of the stator l!.e1d of DM1 which
tends to bring the rotor of this machlne to its neutral position.
(8) Thus, if the handwheel i, turned only 100 , the antenna will tum
only IO~ and stop. However, if the handwheel is turned continuously,
the antenna will turn continuously because the rotor of DM1 is kept
out of its neutral position by some constant small angle. 'Ibis sman
angle, or error, is relatively large if tbe hUldwheel is turned fast so
that the antenna will also turn fast ; the error i, small if the handwbeel
i, turned slowly.
(7) The position of the antenna may be indicated at a distance by
the use of the selsyn SYltem made up of 01 and MI. If deeiri, selsyn
generator 01 may feed signals to several selsyn motors to indicate the
antenna position at several places simultanoously.
because
(8) In an actualantennacontrol system, hunling may
the inertia of the antenna may cause it to overshoot the desired po.
sition. If it doee so, the voltages in the stator of 02 caUge the lever
ann to be displlced from its neutral position in a direction opposite
to the displacement which caused the rotation. The overshooting
causes the drive motor 10 reverse, and again the inertia of the system
may cause it to overshoot, but in the other dire<ltion. Thus, overshooting develops a small error sipal which causes the whole system to
oecillate about the desired position. The amplitude of the oscillation
is insuffiCient to inlerferswith the operation of the radar set, but the
mechanical vibration uet up by the hunting can cause laHuN of the
antenna system.
(9) The lever arm which operates the Silverstat in the WardLeonard
eervo system msy be modified by the addition of a gyroscope (fig. 281)

occur

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

to reduoe the bunting of thl8 system. The gyroscope and ita dri'ring
maWr are mounted 1.8 a unit ~n trunnions on the 118ver arm. The
position of the gyroecope relative to the lever arm is fized in the static
condition by pair of balancing springs. Projec:tion A on the gyro8I!ope I.8!Mlmbly operatea the contacts of t be Silverstat in a manner
similU' to the .ct.ion of the lever itself in figure 280.
( 10) The rotor of the gylO8OOpe is turned at high t pud by the dri"e
motor. By virtue of ita great mom8lltum, the gylO rotor t.M!.dt to remain fixed in space. If the lever arm is turned about if41 piYOt, the
gyro ~nds to prec- or rotate, .bout the a:ria through the trunnions..
(ll) The overaU action of the eervo aystem is th~ same wbether
r

- ~ ~''''

n-_

the gyt08COp8 is used or not, but the gyro ~ndt to eliminate hunting
and to increase the speed of reaponae to the eontrols. For uample,
if the hand ... hee1 is turned 8Ilddenly, the rotor of DMI immedi.tely
tends to turn to a new position. The Budden motion of the l8V8l'
.rm moves A., which unbalanON the Wheatstone bridge by the ope...
tion of the Silverstat. In .ddition the gyl'0900pe pref? - ~ .bout its
trunnions, causing. further motion of A in the same direction, which
further unhalaneft the bridge. Thus any sudden change of the oontrol.!! C.U88B high acceleration of the ,m~n na-drive maWr because of
the additive tiled of tb~ precession of the gyro.
(12) As Ihp IIntennl!. rolales lind the "error n in the field poBitioflll
within DMI decreaees, the geared lever .rm turns baek toward iu,

Dn9.

II"""

UNrI'R'i.ITY Of MICHIGAN

neutral poslt.lan. The gyroscope is pulled to its norlllal positiun by


the bltlllncing sp rings, and then it precesses in the opposite direction
"8 the lever arm moves to .... ard neutral. This tilting reduces Ule
unbalance of the Wh eatstone bridge by pulling A bacok to ....ard neut.rd
more quickly than is pOSliible with the hover .rm alone, causing the
Ilntenn.-drive motor to slow do .... n as the unttonna approaches the
desired position. This ~etion tends to prel'ent. Ihe anl('lIna from
overahooting or from oecillating "bout the dl'Sired posit.ion. Thus,
Ihe action of the gyroseope is to cauSt' the antenna-drive motor to be
accelerated rapidly 10 slart the onlenna turning. 'nd to coause the
antenna to II.pproach ... desired position slowly 1(1 prevent hunting.

.. E1ee._.ae ". _1

W.MI.' .......

_rvY"

2 . (1) The control function may be performed electronically in


II. servo system using the W ard-Leonard drive.
In such II. case, the
difl'enmtial selsyn, gyrtl!lOOpe, Silvuslat, and Wheatstone bridge of
figure 280 can be replaced with a !II!\syn control transformer and an
ell"Ctronic emplifier .... hich converts the selsyn a-e voltage to direct
current of su!lcient po"'er to control the dc ~Ilerutor field in the
Ward-Leonard drive..
(2) Figure 28'l is a block dillgtalll of thL~ type of system. The
position (If the hnndwheel and rotor of the selsyn generator G2
determinea the poeition of the fi('ld in thn stator of the selsyn control
trnnsfonner. No vollage is induced in the rotor of Cl'l.if it is at
right. anglea to the stator-field AUll:. H01lfe"'er. if thr rotor .is in any
other position, a voltage is induced in its windings, which is fed to
the oontrolamplifier. The output of the amplifier CII.UI!6S the antenna
to ~ rotated 90 that the rotor winding of OTI is turned to a porIition
nt right angles to the stator field flul. Therefore, the volta~ no
lonrr is induced in the rotor of OTl, lind t.hE' InlE'nnl!. driving power
is reduced to zero.
(8) The directiun rectifier is a circuil in 1Ifhich the phase of the
error voltage output of Ihe control trandorml'r is compnred with II
1"efe1"frlJ)~ '!Joltn'lt to determine the pollrit.y of the control amplifier
output. If the two voll.llgeB an! in phase, the antenna ill turned in
one direction; if the t ..... o voltnges are 180 out of phase, the antenna
if. turned in the other direction. The amplitude of the output of t.he
control transformer determines the magnitud~ of the voltn,lZtl applied
to the field of t.he doC generator, and therefoTt> the speed. of the antenna-drive motor.
(4) The feedback circuit acts to prev~nl hunting by roollcing th~
amplifier gain as the voltage on the control motM dE'Creases, tl\us
causing a further dl'Crease of voltage to the motor. In this way, the
rite of sntenna rotat.ion is rapidly reduced as the desired porIition
is reached, and th .. antenna is prevented from over-traveling.

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

D CC ' o()N

"tt"""

,.,

81.

A~'PUDY.NE

A_p.h.y. "

SER~'8

TL- 19"

S"STEMS.

( 1) T he "mlllillyne dri\-e is
6i ll,jb.r to the Wa n l-Leonard d ri l'l\ (par. GO ) el(c~ pt thllt a s pecial
d c generotor called 1111 umplidyfUl (I lrIule 1l81Ue) is used ill piRce
of the regul ar d-c generator. Th e prind pal dilferent<il bet ween tIle
II mpl id yn e IIll ll tile ordinary gelle rator i~ tlillt the lield of the ll111pl id y ne r('([lli l"('S '"1[, . h sma ller Millount o f l'()nlrol po wer for the same
\'" Ju ~ of output power. I n othe r words, the amplidY ll1l functions

a.

,~."r.t.r.

0.'91

.,I<om

UNIVERSITYOf MKH IGA N

as aD electro IllfIChanical power amplifier in which the amplification


is YfII'J muth 1ft Fter than in the Ward-Leonard gMerater.
(I) The ordinary generator can be regarded as a one-stage ampH 6er as ahown in figure 283(D, in which a 8JD 1 n power input to thl.'
field controls a large power at the output terminals. The additional
po'tlt'er supplied to the generator shatt by an engine or motor in this
cotlt:l8p<)nda to the po'tlt'er IUpplied to the plate of a ,..cuum-tu~
amplifier. In order to inci 7" the amplification the output of one
generator may be UMd to supply the eontrolfield of a 8fIC07ld machine,
as in Iiguf'fl288@. This arrangement acta, in elect, as a second stage

1'_

"""'"

TO 7NO

aTE
'$T $TAO(
AWUflCATIOfII

..

""""~
""',

TL- ... .
,,~ .....

!s".

o"",,",klr. <u """',..-..,..........., ."',".......

of amplification and the total power gain of the eystem is the gain
of the6rst stage multiplied by thai of the eecond. The Ward Leonard.
generator may be compared to CD and the amplidyne to 0. However, instead of having two 8eparate armatures, the amplidyne has
bern dfllligned to incorporate both ~tages of amplification into the
one umatuf'fl.
(3) Figure 284 shows the rnagnl.'tic fields in a conventional d-c
generator ~upplying a load current of 100 ampere9. The field current
required to create the necessary e:zcitation OUll: may be in the neighborbood of li amperes. .Becz,u!Je of this BUll:, labeled ~. in thfl drawings,
there is a north pole in the mRChine frame at the left and a lIOuth pole
in the framfl at the right. Since the armature I'ummt of 100 amperell

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

also Row s til rougil tUl'IlS of wire on an iron con', tile nma ture itself
OOeoml!S an electromagnet. Magnet ic fluI generated in this matt er
is tenned anJIIltUnI reaction flux and is shown ill figure 284(!} by the
fluI loops lal:ll!lcd f)., If the Jirl!Ctioll " f the ('U I'ren t ill the nmature

QlM(NT,

GENERATOft

" ?DlU

FI,M", t84,

Jla,n cllc

(i)

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

fI~'d.;~

C<>H<r.U""",

~-c

TL_ UtO

re"""tar,

('olld ndol'!! is cOlIsidHetl. it i8 e\'idelll that the al'llIature reaction


flux is at right Nngl e.s to the (,lIcitatioll nUll as in figure 284@ ,
(4) If the eJ.terllallond is removed fmm t he arUlature circuit alld
II sha lt cirmit is co llnl!Cted aCI_ the hl'lI shl"!< (fig, 2&), the ucita
tion or con t rol livid ~ u ..."t!nt Illl'-~t be ,,,'C],,ced g,"eNt ly 10 preve nt damage to the gene'"ator because of eJl cCSlii" e a.-mature curren t, The on ly

0.'9' .11<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

resistance in the armature circuit in thill CI.9II is' that of th e armat.ure


('Onductors, of the bru~hes, and of the 8ho~il'Cuit connection. TIlI"rE'o
fol'll, only a very small voltage need be induced in the armature to
produce 100 amp{'retO in thl" armat.ure circuit., and the control field
current must be reduCl'd from 5 ~mpen!ll to perh"p~ lIS low PS ':o

IIRO

:uw: NlD

<D CAJ 55-SECTDI fS GEJrlERATOft

IlLELfT

\flO"

a.

..

ampe~

Figu", 2M(!) aho"" thl" magnetic fields set ul' in a shortcircuited d-c w:nlltator. If the armatuff current ill limited to 100
amperes by reducing the cont,rol field, the magnitude and di~tion
of the armature reaction Bill[ are the same as in the iOlwed generator
of figure 284, bUI the con trol BUll is very lIDlall. The curnmtll thll
Bow in the armnture ~'Ond uet()l'S because of the IIhort. cireuit are such
that the umature reaction Bu:.: remains fbed in space, jWlt as though

...

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

the aMl)atun 'll'en a' stationary coil with it.ll uis a, right angles to
the nis of the control field windings.
(6) Since the armature conductm's are unifonnly distributed about.
the armature, it is evident that some of these conductors will cut across
the reaction o.ux at the ~me rate 1.6 others cu t acl"OSli tbe excitation
o.UI. However, because of the location and dirocti on of the two mag
netic fields, the muimum voltage caused by the cutting of the rellCtion
fila appears across the annature at right angles ro the voltage devel.
oped by the excitation o.ux. Therefore by placing a second set of
brushes at right angles to the short-circuited brushes (fig. 286), suf.
ficient voltage is available ro supply another 100 amperea ro an eaternal
load, in addition ro the 100 amperes Bowing through the short-eittuited
path. Since the control field Bux hIS to build up only to .. 10'11' value
and since the resistance of the short-circuited. armatUNI is very small,
1H000T CiiiCUI'T

..........
'""

n-_
'",,"!8I.

AUWO.. of '(!Co I' pair oj fl'r"ullef 10

,lIorl-elr""il~' ....,~.

fullload current may be olitained in an exceptionally short time.


Thua changes in the controlfield CUrNlnt aTe amplified almost in
stantaneously by the smplidyne.
.
(6) However, the din:ct.iOtl of the load current is web that it produces a second annature reaction ftux (-'. in fig. 286) which is at
right angles to the short--eireuit armature ruction ftUll t'., and in din'd
opposition to the original control ftILJ: D.. The load armatll reaction
o.ux will be much greater than the control o.ux, and would prev~nt the
<."Ontrolfield eurrent from controlling the output. It is "ery important
that the small control Bux not be aft'ected by the arm l tu re reactien if
it is to retain control over the output. Therefore II series compensating
winding through which the load cu rrent flows ill wound around tlw
control 6eld poles. The DUmber of turns in this winding usually is
adjusted 80 thlt the c:ompellSllting flux (fJ. in 6g. 287) e:aactJy cancels
the load armlLtUfi! reaction ftUll for all values of load currellt in the opel'
aling ronge. In this case, the effective magnetic fields are as shown
in 6gU'l'e 288. If the compensating o.u,; is slightly under the value for
3M

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

complete neutrlllization, the machine has reduced power gain and acts
as a degenerative amplifier; however, the operation may ~ !JOmewhat
more stable. Overcompensation, on the other hand, ereatea the e.!feet
of re~nerative amplification, and the operation of the machine may
easily become unstable.
(7) Since any ",,"dual magnetism along the axis of the oontrol field
woald have a lar~ e!feet on the ampJidyne output, it is nrot'62'ry tQ
demagnetize the ..,ore material. This demll.gnetir.ation is accomplished

.....

...... HOL

2iL

n.._

OOii.ML

n.- ....
"'Igwre iSS.

H,, lh>e .....:"""ic lid'" I"

a",pli<l,n~.

by attaching an Alnico magnet on the end of the armll.lure. The mag


net revolves within a se parate field winding and generates a small II.-C
voltage which is applied t() two sets of opposed ,,indinga on the field
poles ( fig. 289) . ThUs the generated alternating current neutralizes
any reaiduat magnetism .. hen the control field eUI"I'tlnt is zero. The
e!fect ()f this demagnt izing system is similar to thai created by an ae
coil used tQ demagnetize watches.
(8) Returning to the diagram of figure 283@, it may be noted that
the production of t.he short.circuit cu rrent alld its a!lSOCiati armature
reaction flux by a >;lUall colltrol fie ld represents the finlt siage of am
.

On9" oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of ~Hj(Jo,N

337

plification, which can be regarded lUI prineipally current amplification.


The use of this large curTelltand the Sux it producee to induce sulicient
voltage to dn't'e an equally large current through the external load
circuit repr !8ent8 the eeoond stage, which can be regarded aB IlII&Ilntially
't'oltage amplification. The compensating winding, in addition, an
be rega.rded .. a feedbaek circuit, where exaet compelll..tion oorreaponds to Iel'O feedback.. The power gain of an ampJidyne may rtnge
from 3,000 to 10,000 and perhaps higher in certain machines. This is
in contrast to the gain of ordinary generators which wiUlikely be in
a range of from 25 to 100.

A'C Df:H ... ~,1ZING WNlwas

TL:e9H

.. A..p".YJI"lIrI"e. (1) The ampJidyne drive llIoommonly


ueed oonsistH of the buie system III shown in figure 290. Note that
the symbol used for the amplidyne generator is similar to that of the
conventional d-e generator, except that an extra llet of brushes connected by a curved shorting bar has been added. The amplidyne generator is ordinarily driven by an a-e molor. The control field is lIho'lfn
as a split winding, as it is common to supply the fields by melUl6 of a
control amplifier having separate outputs for each polarity of the
applied aigrial. The series oompen61ting winding is UHually omitted
from IlChematie drawings to avoid complication. The field of the d-e
motor CIIn be supplied by II rectifier or by a pllir of permanent magnets.
In motors ha't'ing a pennanentmagnet field the heavy annal ure cu rrent creates a large armature reaction !lUll: which teuda to demagnetiae
the permanent magnets. To prevent thi6 demagnetiution, campen

... .

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

snting ,..inuin.,.." tll'll ~-oIl1tt:<:ted ill .~ries ".i t h the 'l1"lIID tllre lind "'""url
on thl' r"cl'!l of the field poles to IWlItrl. lize th. ,. rmature reaction nll~.
(2) F igure 291 sho"'", the b!o.s ic ty pe of oolilrol Dmplifier which is
ore! i1111 rily U!wd to slI p!, l}" 1hI' Bm p Jidyne co nI 1"(11 fie ld. Suc h In nmpli ficr is conlr... lhd by ('OHl plir ili g an II-C error 'DOII(l9 f f ...."') II I'I'lsYIi ron-

n -. ...

~"""

"""....

~~

FlEtD catS

TL-8921
n"w r~ t 9 1.

Ih,~k ""'I"id"M~ ","fro/ amp/lf"'''_

Irol Iraslo l'mCf 10 lIlI II-C ref elY! /lce lJoll(J9t fUI"I,j sh~od oy the Q-C line
supply. Actu ~lIy t.he 1l0-v ... lt, GO-cycle, a-c line s upplies both of the
tran s forme r input s, out Ihe erro r '-o llllg\! in put to '1'1 IUDy be varied
in mllgni tude ' "r re.-en;l,<i in phMSI) with I"CSllI.'(!l to tIll" rdcl"enoo ,""It~/,'1) in pnt of T-2 or 'lIc:",~ of til\" ;oebyn o"nsfolmH. The p lurity
s i~ns 'U"e ..h"WII fOI' " pal1icuiu illsla"t.. It is IlSSIlI U...od thut there is

0.'9' .1 from
UNrYERSlTY Of MlCHK>l.N

no phase-shih and therefore bo(h a-c input voltages are in phalli!.


The plates of both tubes are positive, but the grid of V2 is below cutol!', lind the grid of VI is above cut-oK. Therefore, electron flow is &8
shown by the arrows from VI, and the field ooil 1 is energit.ed. On
the neJ:t half cycle the plates are both negati.e and no cunent flows
n'gudlel!ll of the grid .oltages, which hll.e also reversed. Thus
the output is that of a half-wave rectifier supplying ooill; coil 2 is
inopel1ltive.
(8) If the phase of the voltage input to grid tnnsfonner Tl is
shifted 180-that is reversed-while the phase of the a-c line input remains the same as before, the cireuit acts asa half-wave reCtifier for
coil 2, and coil 1 is inoperative. If the two ooils are both wound on
the amplidyne field poles, hut in opp06ite directions, a 1800 shift in a-c
grid voltage changes ~e direction of the control field fluJ: &lid henoe
ebll,llgeB the polarity of the amplidyne output. The magnitude of the
amplidyne output is thus controlled by the magnitude of the ..-c error
voltage, and the polarity by the phaee of the error .ultage. .
eo A II_tl _. A..lltly.e .rive t_ Sent_ S,.
(1) The buic amplidyne dri.e (fig. 29Q) may be applied to a 8el"fO
system as shown in figure 292. Considerable similarity may be noted
between this sytltem and ,the Ward-Leonard IIYStem (.fig. 282). The
primary difference is the U!ll! of the amplidyne to ~pla~ the doc gen
erator. The control amplifier is basically the same &II that shown in
figure 291 eJ:cep~ that an additional stage of amplification and an antihunt cireuit have ~n added.
(2) To illustrate the action of the control amplifier, assume that the
handwheel ill turned through some angle. The rotor of the selsyn
generator 02 induces in the Bldor winding a new direction of field
which is transmiUed to the stator winding of selByn oontrol tram;fonner CTl. The rotor winding of
which has been in a position
of zero induced .0Itag1! now develops &II error .oltage which is fed
to the control amplifier inpUL -Depending upon which way the handwheel is rotated, this .oltage is either in phalle or 1800 out of phase
with the 1OO-volt a-c line voltage. For the purpose of describing the
control action, an in-phase condition will be assumed as shown by the
8IIIan sine waves of input voltage in figur~ 292.
(8) A ,p06iti.e half-cycle of the .oltage from the rotor applied
to transformer Tl causes point A to be p06itive while point B is nega
tive. Hence the grid of VI is positi.e while the grid of V2 is negatiV'e. During the 8IIme time a poeitive half-cycle is applied to transfonner T2 causing points C and D to be positive with respect. to
groun.d,80 that the pl.teos of both VI and V2 Mre positive and the tubes
conduct according to the grid voltages. ThUll, VI conducts more
heavily than V2. The incre&5ed IR drop through R6 chargee cap~i-

!_.

crl

3ft

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

,rt

tor CI ,,ith u 1")luity lUI "ho wn ill tiJ....


292. Du ring this SR Ule posi.
ti,e h .. lfcycle, lUbes V 3 and V~ reHiliin inoperative lJec1lU5e the cath.
odes are posil in l 1"eIBtj,'e to th& plal.ftl.
(4) On the foll owing negative hBlf -<:ycle the grids of VI and V2
interchange iu polarit.y, bu t sill<-"e poiut D on t ran sformer 1'2 is I1 "W
negutive, VI aud V2 hue a negative \'olt age 0 11 t hei r pla tes due to
Ihe reversed polarity on 1'2 and conduct if Ihei r grid vol tages al"i"
1100\'1' cut-off. The biases on the J.,'Tids of v a and V4 ure produced
!J~' the c",uhiua liOIl of II IH.JIjiti,'" vo1t"g~ exi st iug \.M.>tWef!11 C aud D on

,,
,
I

..'

L..:~-===i=-=:-
tI'Nr~ ~!'.! . . . I m l~ id~w~ .., ~r"

_,"" IN.

the trllns f"tmet wimli,,)! ill St'ries with ncgllli" e ,oltuges c" " _ 1 hy
the chluges 011 CI IIIllI (.'2. Si",e CI lo a ... a grelller chlltg., 110,,,, <::'2.
the g r id of
is more negatin) tltlln 11",1 "f V4. T he I"eo! ult is Ih .. 1 V4
conducts more Ih lll1 V3. E<lu l, 1 t;lIn-en IS in the pl"le circuil~ of V3
Rnd \'4 won ld 1'l"Ollncl' e<11I1I1 Olll>Ol5illl,: fiehl ~ in tl", " m l'lid~ ne. M
Nhown h.' the 1II"1"",,"S lind Ihe n " lIlum li ... I,1 wuuld \.M' 7.Hn. H",,"en't.
whf' n V 4 '"(>I1rh ll"l ~ mUte hi''' vi IY I h" u \ '3. I h(N! is ~ 11<>1 fit hi !lux '111(1 t he
1I.11IJ1lidYIll' fllrll isheJ< IXI"(' r 10 thi' d t i .... motor. T" 1"III tl' Ihe drive
1111>1 nt ill I he ')P I" ",i I r rl i ",,1 i .. n. \'~ "m~ t ,"lIti "(>\ nWI~' I It 1111 V 4. Th i.~
.:()1tIIi,j"n is b,,,"!-!h1 ,,\.M'III b~ " n inl'''' i" l .. '1'1 inve rted in ph~ se fwm
the input MSI! UllH'( 1 in t he fUI..,going di80.:u ss;ull.

va

."
Or>9' .1 from
UNrYERSlTY Of MlCHK>l.N

(6) As 800n IS the drive mot.or baa rotati!d the antenna &0 that the
rotor .... inding of CTt ill again at right &lIgla to the mtor &eld, the
input voltage to Tt is again
and the drive motor stope. To pre
vent o't'ershooting of this final antl'Ma position, ... ith ita conaqoent
huntinc eft'ectB, a f~back 't'oltage is taken from the amplidyne output
terminals and placed acl'06S the 't'oltage divider R12. A portion of
this voltage a applied to resiBton RI and B2 in eeries by meUlll of
capacitor 0.. RIa and C8 comprise a filter net...ork to reduee ~ner
ator ripple.
(0) If, as In exlmple, the Implidyne vOltlge begins to build up IS
.. rewlt of In input voltlge from the 8I'Jsyn rotor, C4 starts to ehargtl
through RI Ind H2. 8inC1l RI is in the gt"id-eathode circuit of VI and
in eeries with the split secondary ... inding of the t.-andormer, any
-yoltage developed acr<Mli RJ appeanl III additionll grid volta. on
VI. The SlIDe is true of H2 .... ith I"efipe<:t to V2. The pollrity of the
feed.eIi: voltage is such 18 to lid the etror voltage whicb ie Ipplied to
the grids from the secondaries of Tl. The utra amplifier unhalanet
caused by the ffledback voltage is small at the start, but the effect is
cumu1ative. The faster the amplidyoe voltage incre'qa, the greater
the unbalance becomes to caUllS even further ineftue in output. In
tha manner the i.ntenna--drive motor receives ntra po...er to accelerate
the antenna turntable.
(7) Tlle charge on C4 reaches a muimum as the amplidyne output
voltage levels oft' to a substantially constant value, and the feedback
voltage drops to rero. As the antenna approachee the. final poIIition
required by the 6eld position of 02, the row .. of CT1 supplies a dimini.bing 't'oltage to Tl. Aa soon 18 this (lCCun capacitor C4 begins to
discharge through resistors RI and H2, and volt&gel are producM
ICf'088 RI .ad R2 ... hich IN the ruelee of thoee pi eBent during tM
charging of 04. The feedback DO.... tends to oft'8flt rather than to aid
the error volt. in the secondaries of Tl. The ""vented ft@dbaek
voltage resulting from thl'. dillChlrge of 04 redUC811 the amplidynt
output still further. Since the action a again cumulative, the result
is a rapid decrease of amplidyne output.
(8) With ft@dback potentiomet4'r RI2 properly adjusted, the output of the &/llpJidyne fall s to zero ill time to compensate for the inertia
of the driving motor Ind rotating antenna part&. In such CI88 the
-.utenna stope so that no trror voltage ill induced in the rotor of CT1
to unbalance the !l.mplifil'r further. If the amount of feedback, IS
determined by R12 i8 too grelt, the Intenna stops too soon, with the
rotor of CTI out of the zero voltage position. The drive motor then
starts up rapidly Ind a condition for high frequency hUlltinc i,
estahlished. On the other haRd, iNNfficient feedback prevents the
anti-hunt circuit from eurting ellough eifect to overcome inerti.., and

zero

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

the system bunta at BODle low frequency.

A. QOndition of violent

h unting e&D also ariee if the feedback yolt&i6 is not of the proper
polarity.
4. M.e4I
(1 ) In BOrne instances the motion of ..
target may be such that its rate of eh.uge of bearing may be constant..
The operator can follow the ta rget by cOnt,inuous adj ustment of the
band wheel. but he will be able 00 concentrate better on the task of
observing the,9Cf'een if thE' antenna is kept on target by BOme mechan
ica l means. A. system for providing thia aided tracking is sbown in

tran-...

"

'"
I

"

!
I

I
., !

... Cw, ....

I
I

. . ......

figure 293. The rest of the a mplidyne !leI'VO system is shown only
in block fonn beeauee it is identical with the flervo ayatem in figure

".

(2) The potentiometer controls the Bpeed of .. malI d-e ~otor.


usually called a Blewi ng motor, which is used to tum the rotor of
!lelsyn generaoor 02. T his rotation llrodut'e!l a rotAting field in the
stator of the control transformer. The output from the rotor of
caWI:I!IB the !leno motor to turn thE' antpnna in such a direction
t.bat the error voltage will fall to zero. There must always be .. BIllall
lag between the uis of the rotor of CTl and the am of the stator
field in order to pr oduce an error voltage while the rotor of 02 is

crt

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

being torpedo Sip~ the potentiometer contro1e the 4wl of the


slewing motor, it also controls the rate at wbicb the antenna turPS.
Thus, the opentor may adjust the potentiometer to the proper rate
and then eon~ntrate on tbeecreen of the indicator.
(3) The inshncee in which the alewing motor is U8eful to provide
aided tracking aN somewhit infrequent. However, the II&IDe ch:'Cuit
is very U86ful in providing a means of continual ....reh. For uample, the antenna of a system using both PPI- and A SCln indicators
might have the aided tracking attachment. In _rehing for a tarrt-,
the antenna ia rotated at a constant n.te under the oontrol of the
potentiometer. When it ia desired to detennine carefully the range
and bearing of tha target, the slewing motor ia di900nneeted and the
antenna rotated by use of the hapdwh~l, and the range is determined
fl'OJll the A-lIC&n indicator.
(4) Aided tracking BY........ have l t tn developed to a point when!
the traclting be<:OmM. completely automatic, that is, the receiver i.
gated so that the echo 'signals from a lJelected target may be used
to control the &ervo system. Thus the' antenna beam lock. in on
the target and follows it in awputh and elevation within the Iimita of
the rtdar set.
e. Ta.e_... eI.d.e.e ....... (1) TheNf.hcertainradar
applications where the entire mount supPorting the radar equipment
may change itli position with respect to the target. In sueh cases it
may be desirtble to add lUI automatic compensating feature which
keepe the antenna on target. Such devicea are needed especially for
rtdar illltalldions aboard ship.

(2) Figure 2ll4<D illuatrtlee a ship'. eouree which i. 030 true,


tUV7W' t~ I't!ferring to deglees eloelr:w:iae from true north. The
radar antenna is trained on a target. X which bears 86 relative, defI"U' l'elotiw Nftrring to degulf!8 clockwise fl'OJll the bo" of the ship,
or OM true. Tht ship now changes ita oourae an additional 111 to
the right (fig. 294(! and proceeds on thi. new course of ()(.5 trut.
Therefore, to keep on target the rtdar antenna on the ehlp will hne
to be rotated Hi" to the left in order to keep the bum pointed 016"

un-

(8) The antenna shift may be performed automatically by Nplacing Beisyn generator 02 (fig. 292) with diBerential selsyn generator
DOl, as !!hown in figuN 295. In G2 (6g. 292) the position of the
lI!ator field which establishes the antenna po6ition is determined only
by the mechanical position of the single-winding rotor which ill
turned by the hand"heel. In DOl (fig. 2911) the direction of the
rotor field can be varied by two melns : mecbanically by means of
the bandwheel, and electrically by meana of the voltagl!tll impnad
on the three rotor windings.

...

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

Electrical positioning is accomplished by transmitting a true


bearing indication from the ship's gyro COropaSll through eelsyn ~n
erator G3. For eumple, in the c&IJe of the ch&r\g'l in the ehip'a course
(fig. 294) the ship'a gyro transmits the 111 chan~ in course to the
right to the rotor of 03 which produces the Hi- ch.an~ in tha rowr
field of Dl, hence in (''TI, and on through the control aystem. The
antenna, therefore, would be shifted automatically 15 0 to the left
(fig. 294(j).
(5) If an emergency make!! it impossible to operate t he radar
aystem with the .true bearing connect.ion from the ship's gyro, a pro(4,)

vUlion is made 10 supply the three-willuiug rotor of 001 from the


i20-voll. a-c line. 001 then acts as a simple selsyn generator instead
of lUI a differential seisyn (fig. 296). For true \x>llring operation,
switch 81 i8 thrown up; for emer~ncy operation 81 is thrown down,
and only relative bearing can be shown. An auto-trausfonner is
provided to furnish 78 volts, the correct voltage for the seJ"yn windings. For the trut bearing operntion the excitation supplied to DOl
comes through 03, but for relative bearing operation the excitation
come!! directly from the l-C line supply.
(6) It is common with systems employing true bearing correction
to provide also another complete selsyn indiCtltor s)'5tem which tunsmits a true bearing indication from the 8hip'~ gyro compass. The

...

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

information from both indiclI\or 6y6tl'ms is Ihl'l1 pllll'l'd 011 D. spEeial


bell ring indicator dial (fig. 296). The outer dial is fixed. The selsyn
at the antenna controls the potiition of t he diamond -shaped pointer,
cftlled ft bllg, and tht inner dial is rotated by II. seJsyn controlled by

.'
r

.-'j'.-

"

-,
,,-

",.

"I

-!

1/.
,
Ii'

-.,

,- ,

-j '

-",-

!,

-!
!

I.

,~

.-,-

.'

the ~hip's gyro cumpass. Thu ij the N'lld ing on the outer din l opposite
the pointer i", the Irue bellring. In fi.l!"UN} 295, MI II nrl 01 form 0111'
indicator 6.vSII' IIl tnn ~mitlillg Il"tenrm """IiI ion, ftnd ltI2 and 02 form
Ihe sy~tems giving the gyro COlllpllSll I~i ti on.

0.'9'

.,I<om

UNIVERSITY Of MKHIGAN

"

62. YW').P.ASE

A~C

SERVO SYSTEMS.

.. Tw... ph._ a.e ._.er. (1) The output d rive motor in &
$t'('VO systtm should be u sily reversible and should have variable
~peed over Il fairly wide rllnge. Ordinarily, All a-c mot or cannot ful fi ll these requ irements compll'teJy because t.he range of speed cont rol
is limited. Rowel-et , the use of all Il-C motor mlly provide a much
simpler d rive system. especially whe re an a'e power 1j01II"Ce is available
and where some Qcrifice in range of speed control can be made.
(2) An a-c motor which can be adapted for serv()-sysrem use is the
two-phase induct ion motor. This mowr con~ i st9 of two stator wind.
ings spaced 90 eledrica.lly from eReh other and ei ther II. wound rooor
or a squirrel cage rotor. The latter type of rotor is proba bly the rnOllt
common. It consists of heavy conducting bars set into the ann.ture
sl018 and shorted by con(lucting rings at the ends. The schematic
Iliagram for such a motor ia shown in figure 296. The voltagtlf! fed to
the twu stator wind ings must be 00 0 out of phase. This 90" phase
MOf30'_44_

..,

21

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

dtffe1'\!noa pll13 the6fl'eet of the 90" mechanical spacing of the windings


results in I. rotating Illagnetic field. The rotating field induces a
voltage in the rotor by transformer action, and he~ the rotor is
tu.rned.y the intenction of the magnetic fields present.
(3) Sinoa I. two-phase a-c supply is rt.1'\!ly available. it is customary
1.0 operate the two.phase motor from a eingle-phl.98supply by placing a
phase-splitting ct.pacitor in series with one of the stator coils. The
current through this coil then leada the voltage by !lOme angle 1_

,~.

n un

than 90", while the CUrt;ent through the other ooillags by an angle
1e8S than 90" because of the reactance of the winding. If a capacitor
the proper size i8 chosen, the current in the two windings ct.n be
made to bave nearly 90" phase dile1'\!nce., ..s required for the rotating
Seld.
(4) Since the ca ptlcitora required for induction motor applications
a1'\! large ilt size, an equivalent effect may be obtained by the use of a

of

T~ - "U

1'4"" ... "8.

A.. ' ...' ....Mf"""" ad ""PG"ltor ... ~"

f(>r

,A...... plWIIl9.

smaller, higber voltage capacitor Md a 8Dlallauto-transform~. FigU1'\! 298 showl! the circuit frequently used. The .uto-transformer can
be regarded as an impedance changing devise which reduces the high
re.ctance of sm.ll capacitor between A and D to the lower retetanee of a large capacitor between A and B. The output termin.le uf
the auto-transformer and capacitor may be connected to points A and
B in tlgu1'\! 291 instead of the ".apacitor .Ione.
(IS) In order to give wider range of speed. control .nd better torqur
characteri!ltica for radar anteDoa-drive applications, it is p!:*Iible to

...

o,'gir I"""'
.JJ~f\I[RSlTY Of

MICHIGAN

make certain other modifications of the two-phase motor. These include increasing the resililanoe of the rotor bars Ind U96 of the stator
coil connections shown in fi~ 299 10 give mol'6 starting torque and
grelta rotor ,zip over the operating speoJ 1"&lIge6. This dilgrllm
dift'en; from that of figure '"297 in that the phasesplitting capacitor
is placed in parallel with one coil, and the comhilllltion is placed in
!!!eries with the seeund coil. The curNnt through coil 1 is made up of
the current that passes tbrough coil 2 and capacitor C via. thB autotransformer. Since the current througb too eapadtor is lellding the
current through coil 2, the totai curNlnt through ooil 1 leads that
through oail 2. The capacitor is chosen to gin approJ:imately a 00
phase shift between the-current in coils 1 and 2. ThUB, tbe desired
rotating magnetic field i.a produced. A motor so connected tende to
give a more constllnt. current input over its speed range, and a much
wider range in speed. The Iffidency, however, is relatively poor.
0

~"

aPlILE

l'/vtf~

1!IS.

Tsco-plU,U ... 01 .... wi/II

f"w.

11._""
l/a/or"";l ...... ~mo:o...

(6) The direction of rotation of a. two-phnse motur is revened


either by reversing the connections to one stator coil or by shifting
the capacitor from one ooil to the other. The speed of the motor is
varied over I limited range by changing the voltage applied to the
motor. The voltage m"y be chan~d by placing a variable iinpedance
in series with one or both phases. The effeCt. of such an impedan('6
ill to lower the vollage, and hence the current , input to tbe windings
without absorb ing an excessive amount of power in the control
device.
It.
.-e r . . .IIMI _ _
( 1) A tJervo sysleu) which is to be used for radar Ultenna control
should provide an output that is variable in both direction and speed of
rotation. H<Jweve r, in -Mpplications where it is desired only to tum
tlie antennl to a certain bearing, as in an IFF interrogator, without
the neeesity of continuoUll rotation undel" control of a handwbeel,
the servo output need not have a wide range of speed vgrigti<Jn.
Since a two phllJ;e g-e motor hilS a limited range of speed variation,
it OlIn be adapted to a servo system which i.a designed primarily

.,..Ie....

Tw_p"_

...

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

for I.....,i,ioll control. T he hMs ic .... ..:l ll il"\.", "~1I1 s fOT ~1I<h II system lire:
.. lIlenns of II sing nil error si!,;"uill 10 "p ry all iml'etiulloo in series \I'i,h
the mOlOr in ordt'r to conlrol the speed, IIl1d II Ul(',ms of comparing
Ihll phM!M' of the er ror sib'lllli with a ['('ference vohab"e in orde r to
c<,mrollhe di,'t'Ction of rotll t ion of the 1I:010 r.
(2) The bloc!!: diagr,ulI of a Iyp ical sc,vo system in which II IWf,
ph ll 5e a-c llIul or is u!;('d I" [l I"O"idp II", ""lpU I l'"wpr is show n ill fi,:::ute
300. A 8elsYIl control 1l"Hllsformer. C'1'1 . i~ 1ISt'<1 to [lro,.jd~ 1111 p.rror
signal which is I'Ioporli""111 1o the di tr~nmce between th e II Clll,, 1

......

'."
.

~ ~ O'''''

+==:;-1

cOO'_ .,. .........

..

...........,
~,

..

",.....
.-,

Th(' rotor "f CTI is


g~"I"L"d to Ihe ""t"IlIIH so th at rotatiun of lhe Qntl'UIlII !.U,ns the n,lOr
towllrd tIlt' ,,,,siti,,,, in which II" "rno,. ,"It:,)!", i. imlm"d. T he 11 11
IClIlIll is rotlllcd by tu...,ing th e con trol h"ndwllI~1 nn !'('ls.l"n ~"""Hot."r
nIl. since this shiftll the stllior field of the conlrol 'r!lns foJ1l1(,T lind
dlU~ canses 811 eTl"Or ""luge to be indulNt in the rfltor. The (,Tro!"
\o!ta/-.'"Il is fed to the t'ont rol "mplifi.:r wlwl"e it is npplied in M bias
:lInpl ifil!T which \'ari('s the illlped,,"ce in ~Ti('lj ... ith th~ ae moto, I..
("OllIrol the SI--..t of r<,larion. The error \'oltage i ~ "Iso fed to "
Ilil"l'Ction :lI l1plifiu when' it~ ph,,~ i_~ ':"Illpnred wilh the phllse of II
,~f"",,"~e \'olt"ge in o rder to contrul the direc t ion of rorution. TIll'
Il ntennft pO!:liti"l1 and th e dlos ir!'(1 puSili"ll.

:loSe

ongor .1 I< ""


UNIVERSITY Of MlCHK>l.N

Joe.d on the direction amplifier circuit is tbe coil of .. relay which


selecta the stator winding with which the ph88e-8plitting capacitor
is connected in serles.
(8) The IiChematie eircuit diagram of the control amplifler is
shown in figure SOl. The e.-rot signal ie applied to T1 in the biu
amplifier. The output of the biall amplifier is .. volta~ that oontro18
the conduction of tube VIS, which is acroee the primary winding of
transformer Ta. The turns ntio of 1'8 ia 60 to 1 step down from the
primary. 80 that the impedance IN.nsform&tion ratio is .ppros:im.~ly
2,500 to 1. When Vii is conducting heavily, it is etrective1y a low
impedance, 80 that tbe impedance in sefits with the motor is very low,
causing it to rotata It full speed. When V6 is cut off, the impedanoe
acl'<l8S the primary of 1'8 is very high, 80 that .lm06t .U of the
line voltage appears across the secondary, preventing the mowr from
rotating. In other states of conduction, the impedence refkct.ed into
the ~nd.ry ClIlBt8 the motor to rotate It I speed which is dependf'nt,
over a limited range, on the amplitude of the error lrignal Ipplied to
the bils ampli8.er.
(4-) The billS amplifier aetl! part,ly as I rectifier and filter network
and partly II a doe amplifier. The input stlge il connected IlS I
fullwlVe rectifier in order that the error signl' mly be elective,
irrespective of itl! phase. The conduction of V2.1 il controlled by
thil rec:ti8.ed error voltage, and this conduction determines the
voltage to which Cl is chlrged. The following three stages of the
biu amplifier are similar to the first, 80 that the cha~on the capacitor
in each &tIge is dependent on the vOltlge to which the preceding capacitor w&8chargeci. F or ,uample, when the error signal is zero, V2.1
is Ilmost. cut off by the tIIllf bias developed 11:l'0II:I C2 and R4. In thie
condition, most of the plate voltage IppMrs acroes V2.1 and the voltage ICr08S Cl i8 very smill. The following stlge is nearly at lIfO
bias, then, 110 thlt C3 il charged to a high voltege which euUl off
VB.I. By I simBlr analysis, it mey be found that the vOltlge ICI'OIII
CII ie muimum when the error signal is uro, so that VI5 is cut off in
this condition, p~venting the motor from rotating.
(15) In the direction amplifier the phase of the error signal that is
applied to TI5 is compared with the phl./le of the me~nce voltage
which appears lel'086 T6. If thftle voltages are in phaee, V3.2 conducts heavily on alternate half cycll'!fi, caUlling C8 to be charged to a
large ,oltl gt. The voltage aCf(lll8 C8 p~vents conduction of V4-.2 80
that CIO is able to diecharge. ThUBt va is operated at uro bilS and
the relay is operated by the plate current of V6. The relay connects
the phue-aplitting capacitor in serill6 with &Itor windiJlg SI, caUlling
the motor to rotlte clockwise. If the error signal is 180 0 out of phase
with the rderence voltage, V6 is cut off by the voltage that appeal'll
N'

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

I
1

I '"
I ,
,

-.,-,
.-,

!
~
-

il

-_'-1 - _ . -

:Jno..

~.Im,,,,

UNriERSITY Of MKHIGA~

CIO, .nd the reIa, closing coil is not energized. In this condition, the relay connecte the ph&8e-aplitting capacitor in aerillfl with
stator winding 82, causing the motor to rotate counterclockwise..
(6) It is deairable that the antenna approach the deaired poeition
slow)y 10 that it may eome to rest ",ithout exC? _. ive hunting. This is
accomplished by the U8e of 0.2 and R4 in the cathOde of V2.1. Capacitor 0.2 charges through V2.1 while the error signalanowa the tube
to conduct, but the e.pacitor mUllt discharge through R4 when V2.1 is
cut off. As the antenna approaches the desired position, the ampli.
tude of the error voltage decnl!! i 80 that the output of the biall
amplifier caueea the motor to dow down. At some time helon the
desired position is reached V2.l is cUt off becauSe of tha increr sed
voltage &Cf'OI!8 0.2. ThUB, the antenna must. coast toward iu ultimate
position.
(7) The R-C circuit in the cathode of Vi.2 h ... a aimilar dect on
the direction amplifier. As the error voltage decreases, the eharge on
CIO either builds up or d_y., depending on the direction of rotatien.
At the time when the antennl!. p&1IIJe& through the desired poeition the
relay mapa to ita other poeition, causing the motor to nverse to eounterac:t the inertia of the moving antenna. In awitching from one
poeition to the other, the B contacts on the nlay an momentarily
doeed. This action reducea the time conmnt of the discharge of C2
by Hhunting R6 aerOlJil R4, 10 that the billl! on V2.1 is reduced to appro~
imately ifll normal magnitude. The overtravel of the antenna cau_
an error voltage to be produced which energiUII the motor to bring
the antenna beck to the desired poeilion.
(8) The systA!m is purposely designed to operate with lIIDall overtravel because the eritical damping condition is too hard to maintain.
The amount of oveishooting that takea place is adjusted to a .tisfactory minimum by the setting Qf the bias amplifier senHitivity eontI'Gl
and the direction amplifier sensitivity control, RIS.
a.cr068

as

ea.

BV.IU.UUC IVB.
.. 5ie."ra). (I) Hydraulic IDfl:hoda of position control were
in use before the electrieal servo syalems were developed. Because
hydraulic systems are capable of controlling large amounta of power,
they are widely used to tum the ruddel'll of ship!! and to control other
heavy mechanisms. The hydraulic system haa the advantage of low
inertia in ite moving parts which enablet\l .. very fast responf!e to be
obtained. However, it hlU! the disadvantage that the ftuid system i..
di1lkult to keep in good working order. The high pressUrl.\ll involved
tend to cause lelb at rotating joint/!' and utNme temperatures afl'ei:t
the _
with which the hydraulic ftuid can ftow.
(2) The hydraulic drive con6ists _ntially of a high-pre88Ure
variable-ftow pump uaing lIOme ftuid Illlch Ill! oil and a hydraulic motor

...

Q,i.v, .1 """"
UNIVERSITY Of MlCHK'JIH

oonnC(;too to the pump by pipes. A typical vn r ill],J,,f!ow ]luln]l is


shown in figure 30'2. It oon~i sL<! of a rot"cing C~'limhiclll Mock COIIwining seVei'll I pistons uniful'mly SpliCed ill a circle around the (!enter
o ~ I he block.
(3) Thl' H:t.S of tIl<' sma.Il cylinders into which tht:se pistons fi l IU-e
p"rollel 10 the lix i;, of tht: cyli nder bl!xk. Tlw whol" osstmlbly is
mounted : n a lilt oo:t or cylinder head in whirh the cylin der block
rCl1:ltes. As the block t UI'ns, the small cylinder openinb'" pass under
inl,,: and out let ports in a ,"ail-e plate. The cylinder block is elrin,,,
by a. d r ive pillte through II. unh'ersal joint_So thai the II xis of the block

......

__ .

-............
......."
lIlay be changed by 1111 Hngle of liS milch 'IS 30' eit he r side of the main
dr ive ~haft C1' nh, line. T his IIl1gle (-IIUoWS the sm KlI p; stOIl~, Rtt llcllNI
to Ihe dri,e plole hy lmll"ml-soc ket juinls. to lIIu"" in nml out of th ..
hlock liS it rohles. The grellter the lIngl,. of tht: block. the longer t he
piston strokll; the slII"lIer the a"l;lc, Ihe ~ho rln ,lie stl"Okt:. AI ZPTO
" "gle Iher" i~ no relalil'" 1Il0tioli ht-tWt.... 1I t he I.i ~t <ln a nd the cyJiwl('r
block lIud Ih,, '~fOl~ no pUlIlping aCl iun. As the lingle of the block
I hrough zero 10 the oppo;;;le side of the drive-shll ft cen ter lill~.
the !xos ition of Ihe pistons dlan~'l'!l wi t h re;; lx-ct to the inlet li nd ou lII,t
],or1& T he piston whidl "":o ~ on cOln l'n"",~iull str"flk. is now on sucliun stl"Oke. This position chRn~<e I~sult s in II reverslll of direct ion u!
I he l'ulIlpiug :oc t iOIl.

1"'_

Or;gtr .11< ""


UNIVERSITY Of MKHKiAN

(t) The pump is opuatl at a constant speed with the pumping


action depeDdent OD the angle of tilt. Thus a change of the angle
by means of a mechlJlical linkage 8erl'es to control both the amount
and direction of !loW'.
(Ii) The hydraulic motor is similar in coDBlruction to the pump,
but the cylindl!'f block has a bed IDgla of tilt of approximately 80 0

"no
O- t

'"~O

sUPPu
"'~

._n,u

TO IUtflllCAl.
COfIT-' SYSTE"

vu,, ....[ ,~ow


..... DIt.IIUUC _

T~-""

with rttipect to the dril'e shaft. Other types of pWDJlII and moton are
in Ufle, but their principles of operation are in general similar to
those just discussed
... Appll_tt. . . . . .,."_"Ie "rI",," (1) A comparison of
the hydnulic drift and a simple Ward-Leonard drive is sho~ in
figure IQ. The controlled doC field aupply for the Ward;Leonard

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

generator is replaced in the hydraulic drive by mecluLnism which


variN the pump angle. Such. mechanism can be operated electronically from I seJsyn error voltage III in the Ward-Leon.rd or amplidyne servo system.
(g) At present, hydraulic dri"ea find limited Ipplication in radar
.work and are confined ehielly to stabilir.ation contl'ols for main battery Ilre-control antennas aboard Bhip. They &1"6 IlIIed frequently,
hO"8ver, in controls for large guns and other ordnanoe equipment.

M.. ~YBA.T.Ol'i MO..... atNTaOL


. . . . .Ie ",. 'r _hlr.rtve. (1) A type of d-c motor
control whicb is u9&d in eome radar applicatiollll employs thyratron
tubes. The basic cireuit for t.hi~ system is shown in figure II04(D. If

"-

CD .THYRATRON

....
-"""...

""'lOR CONTROl,. CIRCUIT

C'%l PLATE VOll'AG AT THYRATRON


TL-8940

the grid of the thyratron Vl is biMlt'd above the critica1 grid-volt.ge


value ' which correspond! to cut-oft' in an ordinary tube, the tube acta
&8 II. half-way rectifier. Therefore pulsating direct current is supplied
to the armature of the d oe motor aplll'OJ:imately in aooordance with
the voltage curve (fig, ~), BOII'ever, if tbe grid bias is made
su!k:iently negative, the tbyratron will be blocked lIId the motor
amiature will receive no currellt.
OM

o,,~,

.11,

1m

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

(2) In the circuits as shown, the thyratron thus performs two


functions. It acts as the reetiJier for the direct-curN!nt supply to the
armature, and it acts lUI a switch to turn the supply on and ojf accord
ing to whether the thyratron grid is biased above or be10w the critical
value, which controls the firing of the tube (sec. IV, TM 11-466 and
Navships 900,016). The transformer (fig 8o.t(D) may be omitted in
certain instances, although if standardvoltage d--c motors are used,
a transformer is usually neces8llry.
(3) Providing the grid voltnge is properly modified, the third
function ",blch the thyratron can accomplish is that of qeed con
trol. The motor s1*ed can be controlled by varying the rhoostat
in the separately e;J.:cited field circuit if the armature is supplied. at
a reasonably constant voltage. It is more common, however, to con
trol the armature current and either ezcitl! the fields 86parately at
some constant value or provide seriee fields through which the con
~
trolled armature current may fio",.
(4) The grid of the thyratron doee not directly control the magni.
tude of the current Bow through the tube, but merely thl! firing point
or the value of pillte-to-eathode voltagl! at which tube current startll
to Bo"'. Therefore, the bias on the grid can only cause the tube to
act as an ojf-on switch. However, it is possible to !!Uerim~ lin
a--c voltsge on the grid bias lind cause the tube to conduct during
various portionll of itll conducting half-cycle.
(6) Figure SO!J@ shows a bias voltage 1', which is more negative
than the critical voltage, tc j therefore, no appreciable' current ean
110'" through the tube. The horizontal line at e. , in figure 305(!) rep_
reeenia the minimum plate-to~athode voltage thet can maintain ioniution in a thyratron, irrespective of the grid potential. This voltage
is c.lled the eztinguishing voltllge. In figure 306@t, has been made
less negative, and the tube conducts over a major portion of the cycle.
Conduction does not begin until the grid voltage is mOrll poeitive than
the critical value and the plate-to~athode voltage is sufficient to main
tain ionization of the gas in the tube. CAnduction stops after the voltage haa dropped below the deionizing point. Therefore, the shaded
area (fig. 3050) does not occupy quite the entire half-cycle_ The curve
.f the critical grid voltage, tv, is not a straight line because this voltage varies according to varying plate-to-cathode potentials. For
eJ:ample, at the peak of the applied voltage wave, to must be considerably mOf!! n~gll tiv~ than at the haH-voltage point on the wave, and at
very low plate-to.cathode potentials the grid must be positive to cause
the tube to fire.
(6) Figure 806(D sho",s the result of applying an a-c grid voltage,
ta, superimposed on the biaa voltllge 1' ,. At time X , the inst.antanooua
grid voltage rlliches the itic.l value shown by curve tQ and C&WlefI

0.>9' ~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

sa,

the thyratron to conduct. Since the grid then loeea control, the tube
conducts to time Y when the platetocathode voltage beoomll8 80 low
that ionization ..nnot, be maintained The a-e grid voltage (fig.
806CD) ill of the lI&IDe frequency Mud in ph&l'lll with the a -e aupply to

Itff'flUDIT.
WHICH TUllE I '

TL-.MI
JI'4g" .... 3M.

QlMtrol

or ooa4lOCf"''' or ,11...... ,...,.. bJ' grl4 &1''''''.

the tube plate. If the bias is kept the same, &8 well 18 the frequency
and magnitude of ea. but tb~ phaSl' is caused to lag the plate aupply by
46, the condi tion shown in figUI"'l! 806 reswts. The time .t which
the curve of til intel""lM.lCb that of el'. ill later than in figu~ 806@ and
therefore the tube cond ucts during leIIS of the half-cycle. In figure

...

Oti-v' .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

806(!) the lag is 110" 80 that the point. of intt-uectioD of tu"flII ~II and eo
illllill farthu to the r ight, and the tube conductB over a still smaller
portion of theeycle. In fa~ at a lagging phillie angle of, for eumpla,
HO" (fig. 306(i) the grid 't"oltage is never P1!1ciently positive at, the
right time to CS U!:lt! the tube to cond uct at aU, The ea.me eHeet. ean be
~

Ij,

I'I,Mrt JOO,

COHlroi "f

,"/N, p"I~1 of 'h,r.'r"~

b, ,IR~ lea DOl "" ,rid,

aehieved by nu king t he bias more negative (fig, 306(! or by r'l'dueing


the amplitude. of the a-e eompo nent of grid voltage ( fig. 806).
(7) I t eft n br !leen from the fo~going di~uAii on that by e&UlIi ng
the thyn tron to lire at variou8 pointt; in ill conducti ng balf-eycle, thtI
tube can be u.sed not only as .. Slt'itcil and .. rectifier, but abo as

...

t "

device to oontrol the average amount of current ftowing. Thus, the


thyratron (fig.804@) can control the starting, stopping, and 4 eeil of
the d-c motor by controlling the 80w of. the cumnt to the tmlUIture.
(8) Figure 307 ilItlBtntes the way in which the thyratron may be
fired by mMnlI of a trigger pulge.. In orde-r to oontrol the thyratron
output, it is nect!S!'.ary t(l have a phase.llhifting device to vary the

(j)

"o

"
~

">o

"o>

t,..

position of lhe pulse with reference to


The bias and pulse Ilmpli.
tude are adjusted 90 t.hat the pulse rilll'S above the 'r curve a~ bef(lre.
(9) Up w this point no mention has been made of how the di~ti(ln
of rotation of the motor of figuloc :IDl(D is to be changed. Since a
single thyratron can function only as a half-wave rectifier, no modification made on the grid voltage can change the polarity
of the outo
put. In order to reverse the mowr, then, it is necessary eitber to
reverse the polarity of the field lIupply or W reverse the polarity of
the annature ~upply

...

0ri9,""~

UNNoo.ITYOf ~{HiGII~

808 shows a motor-eontrol cil'CUit UlIing two thyra.tron&. VI provides current for one direction of Innltore rotation,
Ind V2 provides current for the oppmite direction. It ill quite important in this type of cittuit thlt only one of the tubes be permitted
to conduct at a time. If both grids Ire su!k:iently pmitive to fire
the
on both halves of the cyele, the annature is subjected to an
Ilternating current, IIld 8I!rious dlmage to the m!?for and thyratrons
may occur. TbeJleld supply remains find in polarity Ind magnitude
in this cittuit.
(11) Any eircuit, IItK!h IS aboWD in figure 808, ueing I .~l'Ite1y
ucit.ed field Ind supplying' l fairly large d-c motor, should have a
relay interlock arrangement. ThUll, if the Jleld supply becomes open(10)

Figu~

to_

cittnitAld, the annature cil"'l"Uit is alllO opened. The interlock ia nec


_ I ' ) ' because the speed of a shunt motor increases enonnoulIly, and
the annature draws eJ:~ive current when the fil!ld au falls w sero
sin~ the counter-emf which limils the Innature current becomes ~ro,
IIld the Il"Illature resistance is uaually 100 low to prevent I damaging
surge of current.
.. Applleatle.
tIIIy_t.'
(1) The reversible thyratron controlled motor (fig. 808) can be applied. in a
remote-eontrol radar antenna system with the addition of the proper
grid control circuits. An example of such a drive ia shoWD in figure
809. 'rbe control eection is shown in block.dilgram fonn for sim plicity.
(2) The grids of thyratron~ VI and V2 are supplied an alternating
voltage which is superimpooied on a d-e bilS. The bias voltage ia
adjusted to a value that will produce the required speed of rotation
when the mnimum signal is applied. The magnitude and pha8e of

e'

_ete. ""veo

...

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~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

tho QC ,"h llge III "lIch grid is IIdjUSIl'iI SH Ihlll Ill'i lhn ti ll,)(. (t>mhlds
ill the a\:ol;.en cil of a ll.igna l.
(8) T he motor is made 10 mia le by Ihe si gl1ll1 b"e nertlled in the lIIagneto. If the IlIllg UC(O i~ llll'ned cluckwise, II doC n'lt age is b..,lI"rlu",\
wh ich I~UC~'lI th" billS "II V I, lind there lore ca u~s V I to condnct ; i f
{he magnel" is III riled t'OUIl1 \rdockwise, I he onl p ut is o f OPI)(/Sile po lK1' _
ity, COI usi IIg V2 10 t'OlI dllCt.. Siuct' th" II \'\'l"~ ge c urr{'llt 81111plied to 1Ill'
armpturtl of the motor is d"IJe ndl'nt 011 t he frll ct ioll of Ihe cycle durill).:
whi ch til(> Ihyrl.II'On comluets. II grt'lIler outpnt from the II1l1gll('I"
CIIII _ II I"rb"er cu rrell t to I.ot~ SUpplil'<l j() lhe motor lJec"nStl the t ime o f
firing is IId" .. need loy this highn V('[ tllge. T hus, the flls te r the II1Rg~
nelo is I n rned. the f allt e r the 8 nt.t'lliUI I u rnl!.

(4) Sin~ t he clilTenl-Clirryilig cllplleil)" of I h ~ I hy n.lrulI~ is limit ed ,


too g"~ lIt a dm nb"e of billS CIIII.""-'<1 1.1 )' lh" .;iJ,'11 111 f rum t he mag1ll'to tIllI)'
CIIU8e d"m.j,"I~ to Ihlose t.nbes. TheTl'f(OJ"e, II Jimit"r i~ incorpu raled in
t he billS ~l1i'ply ll.yst ell\ lu pre"ellt Ihe bi"s 011 the tily rallt)ll s from becoming less Ihan Iliftl which "" II ~'" Ih"lIulellllll lO rota l.. al fi,'e revoluI.ions per m iuule. As II result . tilt> Im lenlla t;Nllllnl rola le fll.\!I{'I' Ih" ll
five rel'olnt ioliS 111' 1" minul{' ," 'e ll thuugh Ihl." ""'gllelu III lIy pr.:>1iuC(! "
ve ry III r).:e "1iI 1J111 I'olt"g l!.
(5) T he 11111"111111 rolates only as lon lt Q~ 11." hllll<lwl,,:'\)1 on the Inll ).! lIelo is I IIJ"1I\~J. WI":Ii 1he mU!;II\'t" is ~I' .1'1 ......1. 1he g r ids o f 1001h 1hyn. t runs liN rt:t urn~.J to their lIurllllll l,iM, lind no oon<lllcl ion Ilikes "I"ce,
/;lI using the molOl" 10 stop. T Ilt> I'\.o;;islur ~I"I cal'ltei!o!' t'OIII"~c h', 1
aC1"U1iI! th .. mutor are llse<.1 10 It bl;ud) Ihe t rllnsient prudnc('(1 when tlu>
Ulutor is stopped s uddl."lIl y.

Or;gor .11< om
UNIVERSITY Of MKHKiAN

APPENDIX

Glo ery of Radar Terlll8

u. s. Xuy

pl'1! lb: to do.-sigll ate ai rborne equipment, EXRmllletl:


ASH, airborne !;I'u'Ch null",; ABK, airborne identification equipmen t ; A YD, ailwnle altimeter equipment,
AFO. Automatic frequency control. (Se .. Fl'I'quency control.)
AOL. Aircra ft guu layiug ; rlldar for plam".to-planl' fil'1! control.
AI. Aircraft intl"rt"l'ption, Rlldar which l'nable!! a night fighter to
dl'tect and close with an elll'Ill,\' airerafl.
Airf~d trar/':;"g. A "ystem bf trucking a signal in uhnuth. elevation,
01' range, or all three variubles tOb'l'lhl"r, in .... hich a colI"t ant rate of
motion of the tra cking rnedllwism is maill!tlinoo by mechunica)
ml'BnS such that all ...quivllll"nt COll~hn t rate of mution of th e target
can 00 followl"'<I. Till" ol)('rlil or "dju~t s the rBW by controlli ng an
I"rror .. olta~.
Alignment. ( 1) The procl'S.~ of adjusting thl' tuned ciITnit~ of a tuned
radio-frequency recl'iver to u pl'1!dt'!!i~nBted Ilaiurnl fl"l'qlll"ncy.
(2) The process of adjll~ting two or more Cum polll"nts of a system
!KJ that th eir fnnctions al't" propl'rly sym;hronized; for example,
antenn a orient.ation, and PPI sweep,
A"'l~/id!lIl", A ~1)('('ial l .\' I lf" " f rI -c gt'lll'r!ltof used lIS a POWl"f amplifil"r
in which I hI" rl'><pouse of I he (>lItPUt "olt IIge to chllngt"~ in fil"ld I"llrita.
tiull is very I'lIllid. USt'(ll'llle]l~i\l'ly li S Bft of a :lervo systl'm.
A rIIl>lhl!/ ntJ gew rotor. Sa Amplidyne.
AII,QIJJ(Ir rot .. , Sa Ra tl" of o:htln~1" of bPnring,
A"t"'"14 (,~umbl!l' Thl" complete equil'!1ll'nt associatoo with projl"etillg radtlf l'nl'rgy into Spllct" 1\ nd ret'l"i \ing it, consisting in genera I of
a mUlinting bll"'" geaN and motoT'!:! fur rottlting thl' l'adiatol', !l('isyn s,
potentioml'ters. the antl'mlll IJI'ol)("r.llnd rt!fl~tI(lr. togethl'l' with tlS!IO('iated switchl"S,
Atlte'ma mat('hh'9 d,,i(',. A dl"vice wh ich ma tchl'S the an!:t-"n na to its
trllll~mi ~~ioll line hy illlrod uri llg' lin impf"dance which, togethl"f
with the impffillnce of the antenna, equals the chartlcleristic im
pedlilice of the line.
Ant", na ref/f('tor. T hll t Jwrtion of a d irectional nl'my, frequl'ntly indirectly excited. whi ch J'l"du('('s thl' fil"ld intensity behind the II frny
and im'l'ease~ it in the for\\'aro dil-ection.
A -.

~130' -H

...

24

On9 .. oil,.,.,.
UNWERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

AnkftnG I'Witching unit. &~ T-R switch.


Afttihunt cjrcuit. A circuit in which a portion of the output ,,"oitage
of a 1:11.'"0 system, which is used to drive a rotating antenna systan,
is fed back into the output circuit in BUCh a phge and magnituck
18 to prevent the antenna from oscillating about &Oy position.
Ant"T-R Bow. Su Anti-T-R switch.
Ami-T-B noitdt.. A spark pp and tnDllDliasion line comhination
which prevents radar echOlll from feeding into the tran8mitter of
a radar 1IJ1'I'n.

'ABO. Lightweight r&dar ran~ finder.


Arl~ cklray l'-. Su Delay line.
A,.ti~ tranfmwnon l~. Su Pul8l-forming line.
A-lIIft. An indicator with a horiZontal or vertical sweep, gi-ring range
only. Signals appear 18 vertical or horizontal deftections on the
time scde.
A~. Su A-8CII.D.

ASV. Aircraft to surfao&

v~1.

Radar to deteet surfaea ,,"easel!!

from patn>l aircraft.


Atee7lUdtitm (win). The decrease in amplitude with distance in the
direction of wave' propagation.
AtIMUGtOf'. A device fOl' controlling the amplitude of a signaL
Automatic tmckmg. Tracking in which the
mech&oiml folloW8
the signal automatically, and keeps the rada.r bum oriented on the

."0

AutOolY"- A Ir&de name. (Su Selsyn.)


A VO. Automatic volume eontrol. Automatic ,,"oltage eontrol.
A.timutA. Su True bearing.
A.tInUtA f'iJU. 8u Rate of change of true bearing.
Al!imulh,/4l)f7iud PPI. The presentation of the radar signlls on I
PPI tube 80 that north (magnetic or true) is always at the top of
the tubl-.
B-. U. S. Navy prefb: to designate identi1ication equipment. EJ:amples: ABK, BK.
Buck nciftg. A portion of a pulse in which the voltage rdllfta in the
direction oppoeite to that of th e main body of the pullle, and oce_nI
at the end of the main body of the pulse. Compare Tail and

Overshoot.
Bandwidth. The number of cycll'S per eeoond npl"lSlling the dilerence
between limiting frequeneies at which the desired fraction of the
mazimum output is obtained (usually detennined by the half
power poi-nt in the frequency spt:<:trum). Term applied to receiven
or transmiUel'$.
Bait lim (ORT). The hoiir.ontal (or vertical) line formed by the
movement of the sweep on the A-scope.

0.'9'

~11ntm

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

B(ll/ooka. A tE'rminating device used to convert all uubalunced line to


.. bala!lCE'd condition.
B e(JC(m. An automatic transmitter operated by a radar signal wbich
E'nables an aircraft to determine i~ a:r.imutb and ran~ witb reepeet
to the beacon.
Beaded IUpport. Ceramic and plastic beads u8ed to BtIpport the inner
conductor in CGazial tra nsmission linea.
B eam tJJidth. Tbe width (the angle between half-power intensities)
in an azimuth of the elfectivE' radiation from an antenna. Used in
describing directional radiation.
Bearing. The direction of the line-of-sight from obse rver ( radar
alltenna) to the target. Bearingll may be measured N'ative to own
fore lind aft nis (own Ireelline), Nlative to true nortb, or Nlative
to compll88 nortb. All bearings, unlf!1i8 otherwise stated, an measured clockwise at the poBition of the obeerver, from 0 to 360.
Bed&pring8. 8 ee Billboard type antenna.
BiUbOMd type anknM. A broadside array witb flat reflector.
Blanking vOltage. 8u Indicow r gating.
Blip . Su Pip.
Blocking o,ciUafor driv..,.. A circuit. which develops a square pul9l"
used to dri v~ the modulotor tubes, and usually contaiIUI a lin~
controlled blocking osc-iilnwr, that shapes the pulse in to the square
"'ave.
Bolometer. A type of del'iee used in radio frequency men ~urem@nts,
for determining stnnding-wave ratio. The sensitive element absorbs r-f power, its temperature changt'll, and consequently it>! re.
sistance is altered

Boot,trap drilJlJ1'. A special type of vacuum-Wbe circuit used to produce n square pulse wh ich drives the modulat.or tube. The dura
tion of the ~nan! pulse is determined by the pulse-fonning line. The
circuit is called a bootstrap driver because voltllg611 on both sid611
of the pulse-forming line are raised !imultanl'lOusiy with voltages
in the output pulse, but their relative difference (on both sides of
the pulse-forming line) is not alected by the conside rable voltage
rise in the output pulse.
B-rca'fl. Type of "~Illntion in which signal nppearIJ liS II bright
spot with u:illluth angle as the horizontal coordinate lind range
as the vertical coordinate.
B-uope. Se<' B-sean.
Oalihrafio-n marker. Su Range murker.
. Out tohi"ker. A wire which touchu the crystal in a crystal detector.
(Su Whisker.)
O(l.1)ity N!~oMt()r. A hollow metallic cavity in which electromagnet,ic
oeciUationa can e1:ist wilen properly eJ:cited. These determine the

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

oecillating frequencies of it1ystrons, McNally tubes, and Shepprd


tuhEe. Frequenq is determined bythe pbyfieal dimensinns nf the
resonator.
0~11ring diod~. A damping cireuit used in 80m! tJf !S nf PPI
indicators. (Btl Clamping cireuit.)
O~imdt'r tC(I1h!'f. Bee Mierowl1'es.
Ohoke-flange joint. A form of wobbly nr nonriaid connectinn bawto:n
twn wlVeguidM, containing an L-ahaped cavity.
OJwJu joinh. Metal fittings constructed to giV8 InwtransmiSllinn
l'lssee whtn jnining l!e<:tinns nf WAVeguides.
OIC. Combat infnrmatinn <:enter. U. S. NavY ' designation for the
oomputment aboard ship in which all radsr infnrmation is ncr lIned
and difl&eminated. Corresponds to U. S. Army filter 'nter.
Oircul4r 1CatWIing. The asia nf the r f beam rotates through 3410 0 in
a single plane.
.
Olamping cif"CUit. A circuit which damps either amplitud8 mreme
nf a w.ve form to given refenon('e level of potential.
Olampitlg. tooe. Se~ CJamping circuit.
OliplMT" circvit. Be~ Limiter.
00 'pl dry load. Btl Sand load.
Cqlor t7'(lb( crl. Bu Dark trace tube.
Of)flwn~tctor circuit. 8e~ Direction rectifier.
(Jompau bt aring. Bearing mtlsured relativ8 to magnetic nnrth. (8u
Bearing.)
ComptJN bearing NUl. Btl Rate nf chan~ nf compass bearing.
Oompau
01". The angle fnrmed by the north-south complSll line
and the true meridian pUlling through the center Df thll compaSll.
Oonical 'Od1.,-.ing. A type nf seanning in which the tilt angle iJJ bed
80 that the uis '1f the rf bf.am ~nerates a OO~ with a verteJ: angle
usually from ISO to 10 .

Oontiwuity It!d. An electrical tI!6t to determine the prmnce nf a


broken connectinn.
Oontrol central. Bu Timer.
Contf'"6l tF'll1Uformer. A eelsyn in which the IIlectrical DUtput of the
rotor is dependent upon both the ahaft poIlition and the electrical
input to the stator. (Su Selsyn.)
CQUCant-6quaNd ht m1\. A radar beam pattern designed to gil'e ap
proJ:imately unifDrm signal intensity fnr echoes received from distant and nearby obj~ta. Such a bf.am is genented. by a spun barrel
reftectnr. Tht beam intensity varies as the square nf tbe C(JBI~.nt of
the elevatinn angle.
Coun.tw circuit. A ci ...... llit which l"f(1!ives unifnrm pul_ nopno!lenting
unitl to he counted and produces a voltage in proportion to their
frequency.

e.,

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

Cry~tallmrn' c>ut.

rf power.

The impllirm~nt of. crystal by uposure to excessive

Cry~tal d~ lector.

A system comp'osed of Il metal wire lind. crystal,


which offers a hiJther resistance to (' nrrent in 'me direction than to
current in tbo other direction. Conduction depends upon trllee8 of
impurities.
'
{Jryltal mi:ur. A housing containing the crystal, inputs for signal
and local oscillators, and i f output. Used in heu>rodyne d~tion
for converting the received ("aJIIt ~ignal to a lower frequency fur
amplification.
Cry,talvitk6 receivf'T. A brolld tuning receiver consisting " I Il cry~tll l
detecwr, followed by a high grain video .mplifier.
C-~can. Type of presentation in whi ch the signal appears 1.9. brigllt
spot with azillluth angle lUi the horitontal coordinllte .nd elevat.ion
.ngle as the vertiCill oourdinllte.
C-6~. Su CIIC.n.
Cutkr feed. A resonant cavity at the end of a waveguide. which feeds
rf energy to the rl'l!.ootor of thl' ~ pilllll'r a_mbly.
Cut-off IDaveknr/tA. Thl' 10ngl'St 1!l'ace wavell'ngt.h which can be conducted down IIny given wave~uide.
(Jut paraboloid. See Truncau-.I pl.rllholoid . .
Dark tractJ tuhe. A CRT with a screen composed of a halidl' of $0dium o~ potll8!!ium, thl' tUt-e>l of which may be enlargOO by projl'Ct ion.
(See aJ~o Skitl"On.)
DecWtl (db). The unit used to es.pretlS power rot.io: db -lO log P,/P.,
wh ere P, and P, are thl' two powers hl'ing compared; for enmple,
3db down nlellllS a 50 percent 1m!!! of power.
D...' rutorer. See CIRlllping ,in-lli r.
D~fkcUon yoke. Yoke used in mnglletic ~ht hoo.e-ray tubes. It ha~
coila wound on it. Illld c"ntrol" thl' el ...dnm-hl'nlll lIe8",."tion.
Delay circuit. A circuit wh ich introduces a (iml' :lelay in the passage
of current frolll 0111' part nf the drl'uit to nnotMr.
Defay liTUl. Usually .11 artificial transmission line nsed w introouee
a short time del"y ill the transfer of Il signal from one cirellit to
another.
Delayed "1J~ep. S u Sweep.
[)itfe~ntial ultryn. A o,oe lsYII in which hath rotor and sh.tor hBVf
similar wind illl;.'S that are spread 120 apart. Thf posit ion of the
rotor cortl'SpOlids to the algebraic sum of the fields produced by the
stator and rotor.
DiffeTffltinlQr circuit. A circuit wllich proo.u('(!!! Il11 output voltnge
substantially ill propurtion to the rat e of chllnge of the input volt.age. of current. Ditferelltillting cinouits employ sho rt. time COIIstant<! compared w the time dUrlltion of the pul9il Ilpplied.

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UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

Diode clipper. Su Limiter.


DiofU miu,.. A mixer in the form of I tube containing cathode lind
anode, which fill into the r-f line in much tbe same ",ay IS a crystal
mber and performs the same function_
Dip~r. A coupling system. wbich allows a radar and a communication transmitter to operate simultlneol18ly or separately from the
same antenna. Not to be confused with the dupluer.
Dipok antenna. Two metallic elements, eacb approximately onefourth ",aveJength long, which radiate the r-f energy fed to them
by the transmillSion line.
Direction rectifkr. A rectifier which supplies a doe voltage vlrying
in magnitude and polarity with tbe magnitude IDd relative polarity
of an a-e aelByn elT(lr voltage.
DiflW'imifUltor. (1) Radar: A circuit that produces a reaponae "'hieb
depends upon the frequency of the input signal.
(2) Beacon: A circuit which accepts pul: : 3 of proper duration
and 1"fljeeU others.
Did. Su Paraboloid.
Difpiay. A CRT fJCreen and dials which preeent the information
obtainable by the radar set; for enmple, range. uimuth, elevation.
Double nwding. Frequency jumping; changing abruptly from one
frequency to another, at irregular inte"als.
D(J1jbi~'ttdJ WMr. Two lJlubs., UlJUally bed three eighth 'llt'l1'elength
apart, in parallel with tbe main transmiel!ion line. U8fld in matching an impedanes to a transmission line, such impedanee being, for
eumpJe, the antenna or transmitting tube.
Drift. See Warm.up drift.
Driwr. The circuit in the tranSlllitter which produces a pulse to be
delivered to the control grid of the modulator stage.
D-IICfJn. Pnaentation combining Band C types.
The signal appears
18 a bright spot with uimuth angle IS the horilOntal coordinate
and elevation angle III the vertical coordinate. Each horilOntal
traes is expanded s1ighty vertically hy a compn ad time lI1It'eep
to facilitate separation of signal from noise and give a rough range
-indication.
D-.C()pe. Su D-fJCID.
DuplUl oavity. S ee TR swikh.

Dtlplcring tUumbly. Combination of T-R s-.ritch, and lIOIIletimes an


anti-ToR swikh, with transmission linea.
OtUy cycle. The ratio of the pulse width to the pulse repetition time.
Echo. The portion of the energy of the transmitted pulee ",hicb is
re8ected back to the IIOUrce by a arlI"1.
Echo m. A high Q resonant ClvilY which HCeive8 r-f energy through
a pickup ante~na during the traDl:iIDitted pulse and reradiates this

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UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

energy through the same an~nna immediatlll,. after the pull!le.


The reradiated energy is picked up by the rad&!' set. Since this
energy from the echo box diM off U:ponentially, it will appear on
an A-ecope indicator &II a Bat-topped pill ..., resulting from the
saturation of the recei..,-er by the high energy return, follo1Ved by
an n:ponflJl.tial curft.
El~ct1'OfliD _pliflg. The method of coupling elect.ri~1 energy from
one circuit to another through the stream of electrons in a tube.
El~1HJtWn. Angle of the urget, abo..,-e or below the radar set.
Errw fJoltag~. A vol~, usually obtained from a eelsyn, the magpitude of which ill proportional to the difl'erence between an actual
poaition and a deaired position. Thia voltage controls a servo IIYS~m 80 that the f'eI!Iuit&nt motion ~nds to reduce the error in position.
E-.~. A modification of B-l'ICan. Signal appears as a bright spot
with nnge as the horizontal coordinate and elevation .. the vertical
coordinate.
E __~. Su E-ecan.
E~T)(I.'Nled ,f)O~. A magnified portion of a given type of CRT preeentation; for e,;ample, POI.
E7ptmtkd ItDUp. A sweep in 1Vhich the mon-moot of the electron helm
&Cr'06II the I'ICreen iS lipeeded up during a !lI!lected portion of the .weep
lime.
F -. U. S. Navy pMlfill: to designate IIhipborne fire-control radar. ElI:amples: FC, FD, FH, ete. Designation later changed to Mark III,
&flrk IV, Mark VIII, ete.
FifterunUr. U. S. Anny designation for infonnation center at ..hieh
all radar and other observed infonnation concerning the movement
of friendly and enemy plan~ within a certain sector is IiCreened and
di.eminated. Correspondll to U. S. Navy CIC.
Firing (all applied to magnetr9n and T-R switeh). The ucitation of
the device during a brief pul....
Fru-TtMIniftg trWlfi"ibrafor. A muitivjbl"lloor oscillating at the frequency determined by ita o..n circuit Nnstanu,.
FrMJW1lCY C01\I1"Ol. The regulation of the frequency of a ~nerating
eyatem 1Vithin a narrow range.
F~ya.. German early-warning radllr set.
F_FI. A eingle signal only. appeuing as a bright spOt. Azimuth
error angle (relative bearing) appears as the horizontal coordinate,
elevation angle a8 the vertical coordinate.
K -8t;0tn. '8u F -scan.
Gate. A 9fJuare-voltage wan which switches a cir<:uit on or off electronically. usually by application to I grid or cathode.
GOA. Ground control of the approach of an aircraft to an airfield.

Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

001. Ground oontrol of.interception. The technique th.t is .ccomplished by coordin.tion bet...een a land-bued radar set and fighter
airuaft equipped with their own rad.r 1IdII.
OOL. Ground control of the l.nding of .ircraft..
'OAon ';[ffUJh. SignaJa .ppearing on the 8C~ of the radar indicator,
the cause of ... hich cannot readily be determined.
OL. Gun laying. Information supplied by GL equipment (ran~.
be.ring, and elev.tion) is uBeCI to direct gune .nd to control their
firing.
GUlk patA. The rad.r beam for Dying or instrument l.nding of
ircraft.
~. Su Noise.
Grid puhing. A circuit .rrangement of the r-f oecillator in ...hich
the grid of the oeew.tor ie biuecJ IJO negatively that no oeciU.tione
take pl.ce even "'hen pl.te voltage ia applied to the tube, and pul9jng
ia .ccomplished by removing 'hi! negative biu through the .pplication of a positive pul. on the grid.
O~-grid tf"iode mit sr. The triode in ... hich the grid forms p.rt
of grounded eleet1'08t&tic !JCret!n bet"'EJIln the .node .nd cathode.
It ia UlIed III mixer for centimeter .... velength..
Orovnd cWtU1". S Ground return.
OrotWl n~ Radi.tion ... hich ia reflected from the ground .nd ia
returned 18 an echo to the radar set.
0 -1CafI. A single signal only, .ppearing 18 bright apot on which
...ings gro... 18 the distance to the target is diminished. Amnuth
.ngle .ppears 1& the horizontal coordin.te, elevation .ngle ." the
nrtical coordin.te. This hlB bun ' referred to as M.rk V1
indication.
O-.copt!. S ee G-III":an.
Ovide VHWeUmgth. The .... velength of eifdromagnetic energy conduded in a ...aveguide. The guide .... velength for .n air-filled
guides ill 1l1....ye greater than the corresponding hee-ap~ ....."ftlength.
Ouilkmin. line. The net ...ork ueed in high-level pulse modulation in
generating. nearly squ.re pulse ...ith sttep rille and fall.
OyrofCO"fH. An instrument ... hich utili_ .. rotating ma/16 to maint.in
a st.ble equilibrium.
B t lical.JCantdng. The fleanning motion in ... hich a point on the r-f
beam deecribefl a distorted helix. The antenna rot.tes continuously
about the vertical nis ... bile the elevation .ngle chan," 1I10...1y
from the horizontal to the vertical.
Bollott:J '7XJ o,cillator. Btl! Cavity reaonator.
Homing. The process of flying to.... rd a transmitting station by
means of A radio direction finder or radar. AltiO homing on ..
target in .. radar -equipped .ircraft.

n.
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)~ I( _ _ --"
UNIVERSITYOf"'JCHlGAN

An lIutellllll tihuped lik.e II horn.


Bot mag"nt!t1'On. A magnetron generating r-t energy.
B -1IMn. A modification of B-scan. Signal r.ppellr8 as a bright line
the slope of which is proportional 10 the sine of the angle of
elevation. Azimuth appears &II the horizontal coordinate., and
.... nge as the vertical coordinate.
B-lCOpe. Su H-lICan.
l-P. Su Intermediate fnquency.
IPP. Identification of frit'nd from foe. System ueed in conjunction
with radar for distinguishi ng between friendly and enemy aircfllft
or surface vessels.
llidicalor gllU_ A rectangu h.r volt .. ge to the grid or cathode circuit
of an indiclltor cathode-ray tube Iu sensilir..e it during the desired
portion of the operating cycle.
/oodnta"fU!OW. A qualifying term indicati ng that no delay i8 pur. poaely introduced in the IIction of the device.
In tenrity rrwdulaJam.. The method of signal indication on a cathodemy tube used in certain types of radar indicators, such as types
B, C, and PPI. in which the grid or cathode of tJ1C CRT is connected to the output. of the final video amplifier. During the
~ ..... eep time the CRT is biased just. beyond cut-oif and video sisnllis
intensify the tube, producing bright spots w indicate the targaUi.
/ Ii/erlock. A switch plllced in t.he door of II cabinet, which mu~ b&
cloeed before this swiwh will make contact lind pennit the high
voltage to be thrown on_
h li ermediaJe f~twy (i-f). The frequency which is t he difference
hIotween thllt of the magnetron (or tnlllllmitt.er ) tube, and the local
oscillator tube. I n radar t he interml.'diate frequencies rllnge from
Hi to 60 megacycles per second.
I n.teMity gah. See Indicator gRte.
[nterrQgalor relponlJor. A unit in the iuentificlltion syst(!m which
consisll! of .. transmitt(!r inurrogat.or and receiver rel!ponse operating on IFF frequencies Imd synchronized with 80me type of
radar equipment. The l-eceiver is designed w receive t he $ignal
from the IFF I'quipmt' llt. on the ship or plane illurrogllt(!u and apply
th at. signlll to the radar indicator.
/ -6(;an. Used to depict. range and direction for It system with a conically scanning antenna. Signal appears 118 a bright circular segment with radius proportional to range.. The circular length of the
!legment. is inversely proportional to the error of aiming t.hi! fiy!tern and its position indiClites t.be bearing of t he target. True aim
results in a com plete circle. .Also referred to as RTB indication.
I -MOpe_ S ee I -scan.

Born radiator.

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UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

IfOlating diolk. A diode ulild to pua: signals in one diNction through


a circuit lrut which pl'flveDUi signale and voJtap from being trans
mitted in the opposite dirtdion.
14mming. Inwtionai intflrfllr'l'!DCe with normal operation of radio
communication or radar equipment.
IUter. Instability of the lignaJ on the CRT !!Crean.
J -6Cfl1I. A modi6cation of type A in which the time sweep produces a
cireular rangs acale near the drcwnfuence of the CRT face. The
signal appears ... a ~dial dl!8ection of the time trace. No bearing
indication is given.
I -4C0fH. Su J scan.
JvnctiOfi 00lll'. An inelosed distribution p&Ilel for connectingor b~ncb
ing one or more correaponding elecric circuits without the 11M of
permanent eplices.
K up-allfn. An auxiliary electrode iIi the T.Rswitch, to wbich a negative d-e potential is applied. The keep.alive is turned on before the
mr.in rf power, and furnishes sul5cient ion~ for almost instanta.
neous diecharge ICI'OIJS the main gap wilh 8IIIal1 leakage power to
the cryatal.
Kly~t1'O'n. A tube hi which oeci.llatiOJUl are gene~ted by the bun<:bing
of eleetroll8 (i. e., velocity modulation). This tube utilisea the
tnnsit time itetween two given electrodes to deliver pulaating
energy to a cavity resonator in order to sustain oecillatioWl within
the cavity.
Kuan.. A modiBcation of type A-flean for aiming a double lobe system in uimuth (elevation). A horizontal (vertical) time l'Weep is
displaced slightly in the direction of the antenna lobe in uae. 'The
signal appeara I I a douhle vertical (horiu!ntal) d~8ection of the
time sweep with the ['8tio of I.IIlplitudes indicative of the error in
aiming.
K-u:ope. S ee X-scan.
Land Htw-n. Bee Ground return.
l&Jky _eguide. A waveguide with a narrow longitudinal slot permitting a continuous energy leak.
LigAVtowe tube. GIMa and GUM, pt.rallel element tubes. When
uSlld in a suitable cavity combination, is useful &IJ an r-f amplifier
and OIICillator in the microwave region.
Limitn-. A circuit which limitll or clip! either or both the positive or
negative portion of a waveform at a predetermined level.
LifWl".rctm. A radar helm which tflnders one arc or circle only.
LiM balance converter. See B azooka.
LiM-of-right c011erage. The distance to which ",dar Ilnd ~Ieviaion
86ta are, in general, limited, that i8, do not follow the cunrltUN of
the earth, like broldcast radio. Refflction eft'ects on ~dar beams,

ST.

similar to mirage elJec~ observed with visible light, cln tlLke pillce
under oertain'atmospheric conditions.
LiM-<J/-rigAt .tabil~ A method of oompensating for roll and
pitch of the veseel or aircraft by changing the elevation of the spinner in oroer to keep the radar beam pointed at the horizon.
Lobf! plJitching. DinlCting an r-f beam rapidly back and forth between
two poeitioIllJ,. Uaed for lIXurate dinlCtion finding.
LOfXJl ~()1'. Radar operator's indiClltor IS contrlUlted with nwote
indicator for pilot or navigator.
Locking. (1) Controlling the frequency of an oecillator by means of
an applied signal of constant frequency.
(2) Automatic following of larget, by I radar antenna.
Lom1\. Radio system for long-range navigation.
LOllI'!! UM. A cable having large attenuation per unit lengtb.
L-lleaA. .A modification of type A -sean for aiming a double -lobe sYIItern in azimuth (elevation). A vertiCal (horizontal) time switch
indicatee range. The signal from the left (lower) lobe Ippean as a
horizont.1 (vertical) deft~tion to tbe left (downward) ; the ~ig
nal from the right (upper) lobe as a horizontal (vertical) deflection
to tbe right (upward). The ratio of signll.! amplitudes is indicative
of the error in homing. British Mark IV.
L-/ICOpe. SUI L-scan.
iflagndrtm. .A transmitter tube which produces the mll in pulse of
ultra-high fl1lquency energy . The 80'11' of electrons is controlled by
an applied m.gnetic field.
Main, bang. See Transmitter pulse.
Jiain puUe. See Transmitter pulse.
Malter mn/tivibrator. A HIIISler oscilhltor us ing mjlltivibralor circuit.
M(JJJU r ()8Cillator. A timing oscillator which controls other ci rcuits.
Matching diaphragm. A window consisting of an aperture (slit) in a
thin piece of metal, placed transversely across the waveguide; used
IS a matching device. The orientation of the slit (whether parallel
1(1 the long or short dimension of the waveguide) deienninos whether
it is res~tively eapacitive or inductive.
Il(Nally 'ube. A local oscillator tube. A single-c&vity, velocitymodulated tube, the frequency of which may be controlled over wide
ra nges by electrical methods. (See Klystron.)
Meqocycle. One million cycles. Often used conversationally to mean
m~gaeycl6S per second.
N icroucond. One-millionth of a second.
Mkrowavu. Radio waves, the lellgth of which is less than appro:limately 1 meter.
Mizer. The stage of a micro wave amplifier circuit, into which the signal voltage and a voltllge from a local oscilllltor are fed, and from

...

Or>c.>i . 11"""
uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

which the i-f cornell out to the first stage of the i-f amplifier. Common miIers are crystal mixers and diade miJ:ers. They are mad~ in
such a form that they can be insened in the transmiBSion li~es which
are Uli0d for the r-f circuits.
Mock-up. (1) A dummy airplane built for study of structural and interior arrangements prior to the construction of a real model.
(2) A dummy radar set, or part of a set, built for a preliminuy
study of the arrangements of oomponent&
Nodf!. Difrerent t)'Pffi of electromagnetic waves that may be sustained
in & given resonant system. Each type of vibration is deeignatl
as & particular mode, and has itt! own particular electric and
rpagnetic field configuration.
Modulator. The part of the radar set wbich oontrols the appliClltion
of plate voltage to the tranl!lTlitter.
lIodld4tordriver. See Driver.
MQf1itor. To perform a cheek on a given system by measuring or observing voltages, or waveforms, or recurrence rate.
Moniu)ring anUonna. Used to pick up r-f output, for purposes of
checking the system.
Y-uan. A modification of type A-8C1n for accurate rangtl finding.
A horizontal time sweep is displaced slightly vertically stepwise.
The signal appears as a vertical deftection of the time 8weep. An
auxiliary device for ccmtrolJing the phase of the signal or tbe step
is used w bring them into coincidence, at which point the device
registel'S range.
Y-lCOpe. Su ]4-lI('an.
Ntdtivihrator. A form of relantion oscillation, essentially .. twostage amplifier with feedback. Will oscillate of its own accord, or
lH a l'IlIlult of the application of an eJ:wnaJ synchroni:cing voltage.
Naile. A random voltage appearing at the output terminals of the receiver with no impr@53ed signal, if the amplifier bas sufficient gain,
On the A-scone, noise appean as random spikes (grass) on the
sweep line. It is due w random motion of electrons in the grid
circuit of the fint amplifier tube , to 8nctuations in emission, shock
noise at the plate, etc.
.
North-liobilized PP[. Usffi in conjullction with a gyro compaSfi, to
keep the PPI pauern oriented to tlue north, and does not cbanga
when the direction of the ship or airc~ft siten. (See Azimuth
stabilized PPl.)
N'8can, A I'Ombination of type K and M -sean.
N-8COpe. Su N-scan.
Overllhoo!. An I'J:ce.;sj"e potelllial IlltainM by a portion of the main
body of a pulse. Compare Back swing and Tail.

...

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'1..,(

~11n>m

)~ I_'_ _ _ UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

OU'n dip'. Cl)Vr6~ bU6 (0. S. 0.). The able which feeds the output
of a selsyn generator controlled by the ship's gyro oomplS!! to the
radar set for producing indication of true bearing.
.
P"ntograph (radar). System for transmittipg and aut{)matirally rl'>'
cording data from CRT to a rem<lte point.
Paraboloid. A rel\ecting surface fonned by rotating a I)arabola ,bom
ita &:lis of symmetry. Paraboloidal reftector or dish.
P~aking circuit. A circuit used to sharpen .. wave of any form,
wherel.ll a differentiating circuit is duigned to sharpen a squar.e
wave.
Pencil beam. A radar bellm in which l"nergy is C(ln6ned to a narrow,
approximately conial ponion of HJlal.
P~1lCil miur. A form of crystal mixer.
PhaMtron. A precision delay circuit.
PhanWm gnaz" S ee Oh08t. signals.
p!umttnn target. Su Echo box.
POI. Expanded PPI presentation.
Piu b~ anti'lnn4, A DBrrow cylindriclll parabolic antenM. with plain
parallel ends.
Pip. A tenn used to designate a Ilignal or 8~ia l ma.-ker on the A.
scope type of p~ntntion.
PkAn rtptaler indicator. 8~e Remote indicator.
P'at~ pu/6iflg. A ci~uit arrangement of the rf oscillator in which
the plate voltage is normally reduced to sucb a low value or completely removed, so that no current flows w the plate llnd no oscillations oc=r. A pulse equMi 00 tbe full plate voltage is then introduced in series with the plllte. Oscil1l1ti01U; begin and IMt for the
duration of the pulse. This circuit requi.-'l's a modulator <'Ilpable
of supplying full plate power.
Plumbiflg. A term used to designate wa.veguides or COllrial lin e>! and
accessory equipment for the transmission of r-f energy.
Plunger_ Su Wllvegnide plunger.
Polyp/eiDer (aircraf t). A system for oombiniflg the OI>f'rlltiollS of
both duplexing and lobe switching in certain radar equipmenta.
Polyrod anten fla. An Ilnlenna in which the radia.ting element is a
rod of polystyrene. Similar to the D<,tion of \I ll'aky waveguide.
'Potted liM . A pulse-forming network immerseq in oil and inclosed
in a metal container.
PPI-nxm. Plan position ind icator. The sweep is a radius of the tube
face (from center 01 face), Ilnd moves al'Ol.lUd through 360. It
gives azimnth by dir';;t ion of the ntdial line. and range by the distance of the signal from the center of the screen.
PPJ-ICOpe. Su PPI-8ClI.u.

.n
Dn9,""~

UNrYOOTY Of ~{HiGII~

.
Pre4mpUfolr (pnI-4mp.). A. small unit containing the first. two or
three stageII of the ltdfoT rooeivu. It is located near the mixer 10
t~ tlH! jt ligna] is at high enough 16ftl to be transmitted over
appreciable dist.~ tp the remainder of the ~ver without being
al!'ected by extnneous noiae.
p~ IVJU'P. A lillian portion of norma] sweep, llIIUaUy 2,000
yards, seJected and u.:panded over the entire IICreen in order to
permit precise range measurements.
fru~ The form which the radar echo signals are made to
take on the CRT IICI'\'JIIJl, which is dependent upon the nature of
the sweep circuit utilized. Enrnpl~ : A.-acan prnntation, PPI
scan preeentation, etc.
p,.~ ~e. 8u Range.
Prururiud oomporunt. The filling of a radar component with dry
air or other pees at .. pressure greaUr than &tmospheric. Ita
purpoee is to prevent breakdown of the component It high alti
tudetl, and to protect against transmission Ie : ] 28 call8ed by materiab
in the atmosphere, such 88 dirt and water.
'
PRF. PulIl8 recurrence frequency. (&e Repet.ition rate.)
Pwibe. A projecting rod plated in the 8lotted section of an r' line
and used to piek up rt energy,
in the determination of standing.
,
wave ratio.
,
P-IICIM. Se~ PPI_ee ID
P~C(Jpe. Su PPI __ n.
Pul.e. A sudden chlnge of voltage or cnrnnt of ebort duration.
~ ampli~. Video amplifier which amplifies th~ pu..!. wlveform
withQUt miterillly I'eeling ita shape.
PvlH 01illat0f'. An oaeillitor which is mlde to operlt~ repetitively,
uflUIlly at alow-duty eycl~ (i. e., hiving the puhlee short compared
with the intervals between them).
PvlIe-/Dmlmg Une. A combination of inductors I nd capacitors used
to produce I &quare pulse of controlled dun.tioo.
PvlIe-fMdtdation 'Y,tt m. Radlr system in which ths tnnl!lllitter if:
turned off before th~ re8eeted energy Irrives back from th~ tarrt.
Pvh, rate. Se, Repetition rate.
Pulu f'e~titWn !r-tfJVlC!l. Su Repetition rate.
PTJlN trunI!omter. A specill transformer df'Signed to have I fre
queucy f'eIlponse mitable for pusing a pulse without mlterialli
altering its shape.
Pulu 1J1idth. The time duratioo of I pulse IS meleUrOO. at half
amplitude.

Racon. A radar beacon.


Dado,.. An abltre.iltion for radio direction Ind ranging.
RtJdmo ro1I9', Su Range.
,

.T.
l lQ,k

On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(,AN

Range. Distanee from the radar set to the object giving an ooho.
Ro,dar ~d ~. A combination lIynchroecope and oseilloecope pro
vided with f&.!lf, sweeps, which enables the examination of waveforms
and voltages throughout the radar set..
R~. A gsneral. name for radar turrets which inc1096 antenna
aa<M!mblies.
R ange mark. A mark on the CRT aereen whidl indicates distances
from t.he radar 8Ilt of the various echoes appearing on the 8I(ll"OOn of
tReCHT.
Rapid 8C4nniflg. The U86 of narrow beama in the horisontal plane,
scanned 10 cycles per second or higher for applic.tion to gun.laying
radar.
RaU of change of Dl!aMng. Bearing rate; azimuth rate. The rate at
which bearing (true or compass) is changing with respect to time.
as a result of relative motion bet1l'een target and antenna po~ ition.
It may be stated in degloP per second, or in other units of angular
measure.
RiZU of change 01 CompMl Dearing. The rate at which compass bf.ar
ing is changing with respect to t ime, as a result of relative motion.
Ratl! of change 01 tl'm beuring. True bearing rate; uimuth rate. The
rate at .... ltich true bearing is changing with respect to time, as a
rem it of relative motion.
ROM. Radar counte r measures.
RDI'. Radio direction finding. British abbreviation for radar.
Receiver gating. Applying operating voltages to one or more stages of
intermediate frequency amplification in a receiver during that part
of a cycle of operation when reception is desired.
R!O'IJery timlh (1) Of receiver: The time required for the receiver
to recover to half llensitivity~ after the end of the transmitted pulse.
(2) Of T-R switch: Time required ~fter an r-f pulse has fired
the gap in the T-R switch, for the received signal to reach half its
muimum ampJit.ude.
R eaurNJ1ICe rate. See Repetition rate.
.
R efert1lCe voltage (servo systems) . The a-c live voltage used to deter.
mine the in. pha9ll or 180 G out-of-phRSe condition of the selsyn error
voltage in order to provide .. directional sense to the servo system.
R~fkz klY8tron. Su Klystron.
R elativll Dearing. Bearing measured relative to the heading of vil-'lSill
or aircraft. Measured clockwise from 0 0 to 3600
RIl11l()te indicator. Additional indiutor located at .. station remote
from the operator's equipment.
RepetitUm.lrequency. See Repetition rata.
RepetitUm. rate. The rnte (usunUy given in cycles per second) at which
pulses are trallBlllitted from the radar set.

0.'9'

~Ilrm

UNIVERSITY Of Mi{HIGAN

Rept'O(l. Su Duplexing _mbly.


R~.ollMiOJl ill .-i-.lA. The angle by which two target8 must be sepa.rated in azimuth in order to be distinguished by t.De radar set, when
the t.~ts are at tbe same range.
Re,ol",ti(}ft. if\.
The distance by which two ta~te must be aepI-

'1ItlfI,.

rated in range in order to be dilltinguished by the ndar eel, wben


the targets Ire on the same line of bearing.
Rut>Mnt charging cAoke. In modulatol'8, denotM the induetor, wbil'!b,
with the e!eclive capacitance of puhle. forming network, is ueed
to set up an oec:ilIation of. given charging frequency.
HUO'll4lIW,

SN

Cavity

~nator.

&e Interrogltor I'ftlpon80J'.


RF-IF cml-t1erler. Set Preamplifier.
RAvmbo.~ Su Cavity resonator.
Rotary .pork gap. A devi~ in which eeveraJ electrodee mounted on
.. wheel Ire rotated put. bed elec:trode producing spark diaeharges

B t lpD'M(YI'.

periodically.
RoWing joiN A device for permitting one lIflCtion of tunamillfrion
line to rotate continuously with rf!llpoot to the other and stillllllm
lain electrical continuity.
BTB ~ Su I -lICln
RT bOlt!. Su Anti T R switch.
RT rttJi/cA. See Anti-TR hitch.
8-. U. S. Navy prefix to de&ignate shipborne &lelreh radar. Examples: SA, Be, SJ, etc.
Sand load. An attenuator uled 18 a terminating section to dissipate
power. The aplce between the inner and outer oond uctors of I
oouililine or in I wlveguide is filled witb I ..00 Ind carbon mi..zture which lets 18 I characteristic impedence.
Satwrohd ngnal. The muimum possible signal thlt mlY be obeerved
on a 8OOp& due to ..turation limiting in the video output of the
receIver.
8a:zaplwM. A vertex-fed linear array antenna giving a ocsec'ntlICluared radiation pattern.
Scanning. The procese of directing the r f energy mt( ively over
aU pointe in. given region or spa06.
SOl. Ship-oontrolled inten'tption. Compare CCL
SOR. U. S. Army prefix for SiPlai Corps radio and radar equipment. Examples: SCR-268, SCR- 582, etc.
Sl<lrd.light control rodar (SLe). Equipment for directing . .reb
lights onto aircraft. Pe~ite making interceptions by illuminating
the aircraft. AlllO permits accurate antiaircraft lire through optical
tracking.
75F

8..

Q,i.v, .1 """"

UNIVERSITY Of MlCHKJo.H

Be4TChligAting. Projecting the radar beam continuously at any given


object or targf!t, inste:d of illuminllting it once during eaeh IICI.D
period.

Sea-return. A signal reflected back from the sea.


S~lJlI()1Iin!J. Overcoming a temporary unsteadiness of the magnetron
which may appear when it is first installed.
SectO'/' tean.. Motion of the 3.ntenn& lllgembly back and forth through
limited anp:le. In oontra!Jt to continuous (860'0) rolation.
S~kctjvity. The ability to discriminate between radio wavea of dit
fennt frequencies.
Sell-.-ynch7'07W1l.l. 8t~ Sclsyn.
&11111' A einp:le-phllMl self+8)'nchronous machine which CODYert8
mechanical position into electrical signal, or vice .enol.
SeZlyn gemraifn'. A selsyn which has an e!l!(:tricai output proportional to the position of its rotor: (Su Sclsyn.)
8ekyn. nwt07'. A seJsyn in l1'bich the rotor-shaf~ Fositioll is depend.
ent upon the el9C'lrical input. (Bee SeI5yn.)
Sel.yn nceitl"_ Term sometimetl U8ed to designate a sels)"Jl motor.
Se1run trannnitter. Term sometimes used to designate .. Sl'15yn gen
erator.
Sl1lllitivity. A meQuft of the minimum signal to whit-h ded~
shows .. measurable responM.
S lrtJO #!I,tmT/,. A complete electroml'Chanieal system for amplifying
and transmitting .ccurate mechanical position from one point to
another by electrical meana.
Sltl ppfJrd t'l<bl. The Sheppard. Pierce tube ... trade n.. me for IUl ..11metal velocity modulation tube. (Su Klystron.)
S;d~ band.. When the amplitude or frequency of a highfrequency
wave is v.. ried at a oomparath'ely low rate, the high-frl!quency WlJ,ve
is said to be modulated. The resultant wave has a component of the
high-frequency plus other frequencies that depeml on the modul ..
tion. These are the side bands.
SUk lob~. A portion of the beam from .. radar antenna, other than the
main lobe, and usually much smaller.
SigNJl-e~ftOue !'(Itio. The Mltio. at any point of the circuit, of signal
power to total circuit-noise power.
SiZV' bullet. A ailver.plated, bullet-shaped connector, flM' joining
two similar coaxial lines.
Singk.,tuh tv7Ier. A 6hort section of transmission line terminated by
a movable ahart-circuiting plunger or bar. It is attached to the
main transmission line as an impedent:e.matching device.
Ski/ron. A color trace tube for projecting pUipo:S!S. (Su Dark tl'ace
tullto.)

.,.
Or'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN


SUlnt range. The di$tance from II poaition on the ground to an aircraft
or to any other object not at its own level. Used in contrast to
ground range.
Slotted ucti.m. A slot in a transmission Jine along wbkh probe i8
moved, to meaau re standing. wave ratio.
Sparkgap. An arrangement of two electrodes between which II disruptive discharge of eleetrieity may take place, and such that. the
iru;ullltion is self-restoring after the PAssage of II dillCh.r~
Spark-gap modulat(J1'. A modu lator in which the high.current switch
takes the fonn of a spark gap. The spark gap may be either 01 the
triggered or the rotary type.
Spark-~ modulator. See Sparkgap modu1ator .
Spectrum analyur. A test instrument used to show the diStribution of
thtl energy oontained in the frequencies emitted by pulsed magnatroIlll; to measure the Q of I;1!SOnant cavities or lines; lind to mn"'lre
the cold impedance of magnetron.
Spinner. The antenna assembly, including .ntenna, nfteetor, mount
for the Ntlector, motors, etc.
Spiral 'canning. A type of antenna rotation in which a point on th&
rf beam traces out a spiral. Only a small !le<:tor in the desired direction is illuminated.
.
Spun burrtll "fl~dor. A type of Ntlector used for producing a beam
narrow in Ilzimuth, which illuminates fairly uniformly a wide strip
of terrain.
"&qwtMbu wootguilk. A waveguide used in rapid scanning, the dimensiona of which can be altered periodically.
SBl'. Ship to surface vessel. Radar to detect IlUrface vessels from
patrol llUrface craft:.
8tobil~ati(ffl. (radar) . A system for maintaining II. radar beam in ..
de8ired direction in space de8pit8 the roll and pitch of the ship or
aircraft..
StobIe element. A gyroscopic instrument which maintain!! a true vertical, and develops angles of deviation of the ship's deck or aircrdt
from the true horizontal. It normally develops roll angle and pitch
angle, or level and cross level. The stable element provides input
data to ..11 computers or stabilization systems.
Stofldj"g _ t o The resulting wllve from the electric variation in a
circuit caused by periodic e:xchange of energy between current and
voltage fonns without transmi R$ion of enHIO'. In a radar set, ..
wave passing down tbe transmission line and striking an obstruction
or meeting a mismatch is reflected and returns up tbe line. The
reflected wave combines with the initial radiant wave to form the
standiug wave. Such standing waves result in increased 1. S,
and should be kept to a minimum

...

o,'gir I"""'
UNfIIlRSlTY Of MICHIGAN

8tanding-w~

dtttctor. An instrument containing a detecting device


(bolometer, t hermocouple or crystal) which enables one to determine the ratio of the mn:imum voltage (euIT6nt) to the minimum
voltage (eurrent) of the Irtanding wave.
Standing-lDfWt ratio. The ratio of eurrent (or voltage) m,,~ima to
the cu r~nt (or voltage) minima. It is determined by th e lrod
impedance Ilnd by the ehamcteristic illlpedan~ of the linc.
Stat01". The portion of an e)ect ricp,) nlachine which contains the rip,tionary part s of the Illllgmtic circuit \\'ith t/leir a.'<SOCinted windings.
St'Uh-fUpportt!d lint. A type of coal-ill) transmiSliion line in which the
inner conductur is maintainl'fi cOllx.iully with the outer .... onductor
by the use of !;tubs. The stut:. oonsist!! of a ahart-circuited section
of coaxi~ line.
Stw tunt r. S et Single-stub tuner; Double-stub tuner_
SWl!t!p (time base). Trace produced on the 8Creen of & cathode-ray
tube oy linear deflection of the electron Ueam. In rndnr, the time
mcasured along the sweep is proportional to rlInge since it normally
starts with the beginning of the transm itte r pulse. In some circuits
the beginning of the sweep is delayed for a fixed or variable time
after the firing of the tran!iD1itter. I t is then known as & delayed
sweep.
Synchro. Stt Selsyn.
Bynchronitm. The relationship between two or more periodic quantities of ths same frequency when the phase differenoo between them is
zero.
Synchrrmi~r. S te Timer.
Syn.chrouope ( rlldar). An oscil109Cope on which reeUIT6nt pulses or
wa"efonns may be o!JSen'ed, which incorporat es a sweep-generator
that produces one sweep for each pulse, regardless of freq uency,.
thu~ allowing no more than one cycle to be viewed on the screeu.
Tail. ( 1) A small pulse. following the main pulse Ilnd in the SBlDe
direction. Compare Back swing and Overshoot.
(2) Slow decaying, following main body of pulse.
Targtt. Any object I'tudndng a rlldar echo.
Thrtt-phau ' euyn. A misnomer. (See Selsyn.>
Tilt. The angle which the antenna 10nllS with the horizontal.
TiJM bait. Bu Sweep.
Timt flutter. Variation in ths synchronization of oompont'nts of a
radar system, leading to variations in the position of the observed
pulse along the time base, and reducing the aOl'Uflcy with which
the tillle of arrival of a pulse may be determined.

sa.

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

Tim~.

Thill part of the radar set that initiates pulse tranlilllission and
synchronizes this with the beginning of indicator sweepa, I_iming of
gates, range markers, etc.
T.jtl.fWtitm. The section of the transmission line between the trans
mitter to the antenna where it is joined by the tralll:lmission line
from the receiver.
Tracking. Keeping the radar beams, or the cross haits of an optical
system, Bet on .. target.
Train.. To aim or direct the radar antenna in a horizontal plane.
Tr<I-ml-rectWe. Se, T -R switch.
Trannnitter puuc. The main tronsmitted pulse, in a radar set. On
the Ascan, it appears &8 .. sIrong vertical pip at the enreme left
end of the sweep.
Tr"'fl.lp(inder. The unit of the IFF system which receives the interrogator signal and nutomalically transmits the reply.
T-R bolt. 8U! T-R switch.
T-R 81hitch_ TraIUlmit-rK'I'ive switch. A switch whicb prevenf.!l the
transmitted energy from getting to the receiver, but aUows the
rece ived energy, which is much we-ker, to reach the receiver without appreciable loss. This is nece9l!IIry when the 8I.IIIe antenna is
used for both trnnsmiSllion and reception.
Trigger pul". A pultlll which stnrts IL eyde of operutio!".
Triggemi ~par" gap. A fixed spark gllp in wh ic h the discharge passes
between two eledrodes and is struck (Slllrted) by a subsidiary
electrode, tll6 triggu, to which low-power puillell an! applied at
n!gular iutervals from .. pube nmplifier; thus closing the switch.
Triggatrrm_ High-pressure trigger spnrk-gnp modulator.
Trip. 8ee Trigger pulse..
TrtU bearing (azimuth). Benring ml'tlsuted rehltive to true north.
The angle formed by the intersection of the line-ol-sight and the
true meridian passing through the observer's pusition. Measured
clockwise at th e po~ition of the observer from the north poillt of
the hori ron; from 0 to 360".
True-bearing rtJ.t~. See rate of change of true bearing.
Truncated paraboloid. A paraboloid in which a por:tion of the top
and bottom have been cut away in order to brooden the radar beam
in the vertical plane.
1'1l1Ulble echo bOfll, An eo::ho bos: consisting of an adjustable cavity
operating in a single mode. If culihl-sted, the setting of the
plunger at resonance will indicate the wavelength.
Ttlrndile antenfla. Consists of two linear antennns-lying in a planf,
and crossing olle another without eleetricnl contllct lit their centers.
If the angle between the two is 90, the length of each hall a wave-

...

0.'9'

~11n>m

UNIVERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN

length, and the eurrenls 90 out-of-phase, the directionlll pntCl!;'t\


in the plalle of the r::diators is nppro::!:imately n eirele_
T,co-phWle-,eu!jll. A misnomer. A special selsyn hllving 11,,"0 windill",'!! spaced at right angles to each other on the atator. These arE!
excited with a si ngle-phase power.
V 0111c. British. term for a vncuum tube.
VideQ . The intelligfnce of a rodar l't"ho.
Vidro amplifir.r. An Ilmplilifr which has uniform response 10 signals
of a very wide band of ftNJ.ucnaiCll. (See Pulse llmplifier.)
Wal"l'Hlp drift. Chlll\ge in frequency of an oscillator during the
warm ing-up period.
lVa l'e(IUide. A holla", pipe, usulllly of t('Ctangulnr or round cr05.'1
Sl'l:tiun used to tnnsmil rof entrgy. Thf dil11~nsions of the p ipe
nre d"lermined by the ",nvelfngth to be transmitted.
W ulle!fUide db01ll. A prefabricated lend in a wneg'-lide.
Wa!'Pg",~ plunger. A piston which may be moved within a wave'
guide to provide It short cireuit at IIny desired point in the guide.
Whi~ker. The shllrpened metal wire in con tnct with the crystal of a
crystal mi::!:er.
Wimuhidd. In ndar, a streamlined cover placed in front of airborne
paraboloid IInlennus 10 minimize wind l'es;SlaI1Cf. The cover material is suc,~ as to present no apprecinble attenuation to the radialion of the rndar energy.
W UI:!l'zburg. Gennan fire control rndllr.
Z ero-tirru reference. Reference point in time from which the oper ations of the \'PrlOUS radar cireuits are m~:l sured .

...
On9 .. oil"""

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

badel<

A-e !"etay _______________ ___ ____ ________ ___________ _ --~


M\It. (3)

'",
,

..,
aa,

(1)

.60

430 (6)

'""
to,
"
"
".

Accu te ,..,portiog ______ . _. __ _______________________ _


Airborne radAr _. _____ _. ___ ___ ___ _________________ ._
"I",ratt wtel"eeptloll (A I) _. _______________ __________ _
Al~rneter

:A (3)
2c: (1)
2e (2)

____ _____________________________________ _

" '0

Amplidyoe:
[hive ____ ____________________________________ __

Mb

0>-

Servo .y"tem . __ _____________ ____ ______________

Ampliller
:
Bootatrap
__ ___________________________________
Grounded grnL ________________________________ _

I-L ________________________ ________________ ___


____________ _________ ________________ _

~b

Ov~ve.

Pn!-. _. _________________ . __________________ ____

'M

""

2M ( I)
22e (3)
Vldeo _________________________________________ _ 180. (3), ~
ISh, 2~f
Angu!&raccu naey ______________ ___ ____ _______ ____ ___ _

Pu la . _________ ...... __ ___...... ________ ____ _

R_'__ ________________________________________ __

'"

Antenna:
Bent dipole . ____ ________________ ... ______ _______
41d
C iNlu i&r array_ ___ __ __ __ ____ __ __ __ __ ____________ _
41d
ControlcINluiL ___ . ____ ___ ._. ___ __ ___ ._______
:we (4)
Double lobe By,te", ______ . __ ______ __ _____________
!M:
DuaL __________ . ___ . ______ _____ __ ____________
39&
Efllcle ....y __ ___ _ ______ . _____________ ___ ______ ._
35b
Feed
ITh,37
Fl'.,e-flpacc p&ttern ____ __ _______ __ . ___ __ __________
6a (2)
J-type_ . _______ __ . _ _. ___ ____ ._ _
4lb (2)
Low ",.itch l"l. __ ___________ __________________ . _39&, b, e, 40

.yate"' ____ . _______ ._____________________ __

Ofl'...,enter dipolo. ______ __ _ _.: ____ ___


________________ ____ . _______ . _. _
N o ndl~U"naL

R....,lYLnIt ______ ._._ _. _ _____ _. ____

____

40b
41
17e
$a (3)

n"""I"ing pattern _ _ _ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
Rotatlnfl meeha"i.m __ ____ __ ._. _ _ __ __ __ ____ _
17d
Single lobe '}"Item __ ____ __ ___ _________ _._
~b
Spinner _____________ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _______ __ _
24e (2)
Stacked dipole __________ ____ ___ _____ __ _. ___ lid (I), (2)
S",iteh ________ _________________________ __ _____
lie
Tilted _________ _. ___________ _________________ 6b (I), (4)
Trar .. mllting_. _______ ___ . _____ _________ __ _ .___
17e
Tum,tile_ _______ ____________ __ ___ _ ____ __ __ _____
41e

...

On9 .. oil"""

....

UNfIIERSITY Of '-'KHJ(Jo.N

...
411, 52

57, 107

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209, 213,
2111, 223

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12, 13

Anlenna-eo"t ill"cd.
Vertloal ,iipolc _____ . ___ . ___ . ______ . __ __ _____ ____

P",""""",,
flb
Yo.gI __ ____ _. _. __ . _ . ____ _____ __ ___ _________ ll d (l J, (3)

"-

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Antenna """ition indi.alor, buie_. ______ ___ ___ __ __ ____


58b
"'ntenna 'Yltem:
FUllelio,, ____ . ____ __________ _____________ ___ . __ _ 7b (1), 11
14, 21
Two ""parate antennM __ . __ .. _______ _______ . . _ __ _
17
AnUhun! __ ___ _________ __ _____ . __ . ___ _ . __ __ ______ _ __
5Se
Oy"""",I"' _____________ _____ __ __ .. _. __ . __ __ __ _ __
60e (9)
"'nti-T-R ... itch _________________ __ . _. _. __ _____ __ ___ _
380
Wa'~lI:uld~ ___ ._. _._ . __________ ._ ._._. __ ._ _____ _
38f1 (3) '
"'rtificial tr&llsmi ..io" li"e _____ ___ _ ___ _______ 3<ib (:I),. (2), d (])
]111 , 165,

A_&II ____ _____ __________________ . ______________ __ 130, 48& (2)


A......., modI60atio ... ______ _____ . _______ ____ __ . ___ . __ _
52
Ekpanded "weep ___ _______ ________ . _. _ __ __ ____ __ _
5lb
Gated . weep ______ . __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
51a
Precu.lon l.....cp ____ . . ____________ ___ ___ _____ __ . _ _
51.
ABV __ _____ __ ______ _____ ____ ___ __ ____ __ _ __ 20 (1). 21a (I)
....ymmetrioal multivibrator _____ __ __________ 30b (9), 32& (2), b ( I)
,Automatio frequency control. _______ __ _______________ _
... uto ..... llc KAln controL ______ __ _____________ ___ ___ __ _
Auto_t ran. ronner __ ._ . __________ ____________________ _
Average powei" __ ___ __________ ___ ______ ___________ _ _

."

112a (4 )
lie (2)

A&lmutb:
Det.enninatioll _______ __ __________ _______ ____ _
S~p

__ __ ___ __________________________________ _

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28, 252

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13n, 14:::',

2~6

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Balldwidtb ___ ________ ._ _____ ______ ______ .___


25a (2)
10]
Basooka ____ _____ __ _________ ___ ___ ___ __ ]7b (2), 24b (4), 40b (3) 41 , 93,225
Beacon ___ _________________ _________ _____ ___ _ .______
2e (2)
3
Bearing:
D elermlnatlon ___ ________________ ______________
5
I ndicatlon ___ ____ _______________ . __________ ____ _
59
Relatlve. __ . _ __ __ __ ____________ __ __ __ __ __ ____ ___
81e
True__ __ __ ______ __ __ __ __ __ ______ __ __ ____ __ __ ___
61e
Bent dipole . ___ _____________ __ ___ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ___
tid
Blocklng ___ . ___ __________ ___ ____ . _________ __ ___ .__ _
43d
Blocking OIeillator ________ ____ _____ __ _ . _______ . ____ __
31
Driv .... _. __ _ __ __ ____ __ ___ __ _ __ __ ______ ____ ______
35c:
Timer __ . _. __ .. _____ ______ __ _________ . __ __ __ __ __
31
Bootlltn.p amplifier ____ __ __ _________ ________ __ __ ._ __
lISb (1)
Bootlltn.p driv .... __ _. ____________ __ ___ __ ___ . _ ____ __
35b
B le&ll . ___________________________ . _______ ____ 13d, flit. (3), 52
Carbon-pile reg"lator _ _________ _: ________ ______ _____ _
Carrie. frequeucy ____ __ __ ___________ ______ . __ _______ _
Cartridge fUM ___________ __ ___._ . ___ . ___ . _. _____ . ___ _
Cathode HJt.er ________ _ __ . ___ _____ ___ __ . _. ____ ____ __
Cathode follower ______ _______ ___ ______ . ___ __ . ____ 181,
Catbod.,.n.y tu be. __________ . _.. _. _. _. __ ________ __ ___ _
. ;I...,II"O"'al\"n .,lIo _____ __ ____ _ ._. ______ . __ ____ . ____
EleetJ"GAl.atic _____ . _________ __ __________ ____ . ___ _

668; (3)
8b {lJ
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13b (2)
13b (1)

Or>c.>i . 11"""
. uNrvnsm Of MICHIGAN

...

,~.

Circuit bre&ker . ..
CIrcuIt oontrol "'lay _. _____ _. _. ____ . ______
Circul.r .,.,..y .. . .. . .. . . __ ...
Commercial power OOll ' ee __ . . . _.. _. __ __
Conleal _n_ . __ ___ ___ . _____ ___ ____ ______ __ ... __
O IJ-cen].er dipole ..... .... .. _. . .. _ . _
W.vcgu lde_ _. _ . __ .. ___ __ ____ .... . _
Cont&etoro __ __ ____ . _ _ . . ___ .. ___ _ . __ . _. _____
Control circuit .. .. . . .
A.ote ....... __ _ . _. _. __ _. _. _ . . __ .
Control device_ _ _. __ . __ _ _. ___ ____ .'. _. ___
Control relay . __ .. . __ . . . _._
Control u-.....tormer . .. . . ... _.
Coupling loop . __ .. _. _.. _._
Cryltal en,",nt meter __ _____ ________ ____ . _ _. ___
C ryatal mlx.... _. _ .. __ . _ . . _ . .. _.... ..

Me (2)

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33b
<0

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24c (3)
Uc (5)
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C. W""""" __.. ... . ... . __. ... . . __ ___ . _. ___ __ . ....... .
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Duh'pot relay ____ _ _. _....... .. . .. . ...... _---- _.


MId (3)
Delay mnltivibrator . _ _ .. _ . .. . _
Detector ___ ___ _. _ . .
III@:, Z5e
Dill'erentl ..1 .oebyn . ______ . ____ ___ _______ .
Generator . _ _ . . . ___ .. _ . ___ __ _
6Qb (1)
MotoT _ , .. . . .. . ..
59b (I )
Dipol ... ____ ______________ _ __ _. _. __ . 24d (2), U b (4)
Bent ___ . _. _ _. _. __ ____ ___ . ______ ____ .
( Ie
D irec:t ion oontTOI Iwitch _ ... .. _
24e (4)
Direc:tlon ...' dille .... .. .. ... .. ....... .. .... . ....
60d (3)
D tsc. lmin .. tor __. _._. _. _. _. __ _ _. ______ ___ ___ __
H b (2)
D ouble lobe Iyl tern . . ...... __ _ _
Drive r . .. ... . . ~ . .. .
33'
Bootetrap _. _. __ _. ___ _ _. ____ . __ .
30b
Li......."ntrolled block ing """iUator _ . _ _. __ _
30,
Singla tuba . _. _ .. . ...
Drt vet+modulator "yolem . ... . .
30
Driver tuhe ____ _ . __ __ ____ __ ___ __________ ____ __ _ _
23<1 (2)
Dual .ntenn....... ___ ____ _ . . . , . . _ .
Duty eyele . . . . . .. __ .. .. _ .
8e (3)
DynamotoT_... . _ . _. ___ . __ __ __ ______ __ __ ___ . _
65d (2)

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Echo box _._._ _ _. _ . . _


F.\eetric ..1 'In","", ..... ve .. .. . . ___ . ___
Eled ronr ..y tuba_. _ _. _ + ______ _ _ . _ _
Elev ..I1 ... " :
Determin ..tlon _ ___ __ ___ _________ _

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Exciter $C14yn .. . . .
EIlP.. nded
Extern ..1 ph ... ing . . __ . .

."""'1'- -.. _. __________ _______ _._ .... . ___ .. _

II""" ........... ..... . __ _. ___ .. .. __ .. _~ ____ +

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Coaxial line ... _ . __.
3M

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S..""p._ ... _.. __.. .... ....... _._._ .. . _. . . ...... .

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open line _________________________ ____ _
___ __ ___ ____ ___ _____________ _____ _
Fil'l! eoDtmL . __ . _. ___ ._. _____ ._._ ______ __ . ____ _
Fi~ed .anBC! multe . _______________ . _. _ . ___ ._ __
Fi~ apuk . sap modulator . _ . _____ . _. ___ . _____ . __ ___
F. M radaI" _____ ._ _ ____ ___ . _ ... __ _ . _.
Functional dlagram _________ ___ .. ___________ __ ____ ._
FU8e _____ __ ___ ._ _._ . __ . __ . . ____ __ __ ___ _
Wav~lde

Cartrid BC! type _______ . _____ .. _. __ .. __ . _ __


PIll!!: type __ _. _________ ____ . _. ___ . _____ . ________ _

Gain eontmL _ _. ___ ._ ____ ___ . __ ._ _ __


Gate :
Indicator. __ __ ._. _. ___ .. _____ ____ __ __ ____
______________ ____ . __ _ ._ . _. ____ . _____ "_
Reoel ver _________ _____ _ __. __ ___ . __ ____________ _
Gated ""'''''p. ____._. ________ _. ___ ._._._._ ... _...... _
Generator :
En8i"" drivcr _. __._._. ___ ._ . ____ . _. _. _. _ _

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b& (3)
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R-' ____________ _____________ _____ . _... _._. _.. __

Grid-leak hI ... _______ ____ __ _. __. _. _. _. ____________ _


Grid limilin' _._. ____ . ___ . _ . _. _ __ _ ' ___ ___ __ _
Omund-c:ontmlled lntercel,t ion ____ __ . _________ ___ . _ ._
GroUDded Id r-f o.mpIi6e r ._. ____ ___ _ . ___ . ______ ____ _
Ouillemin Ji"" __ _._ . _._ . _. _ . __ __ . __ __ . . _
O,.roecope anU-hunt _. __ ___ __________ __. ___________ _

22c (2)
:l:lc (41
20. (3)
43c (5)
3M (41
6Ck: (II)

flalt-powcr polnt. _. ______ __________ . __ ___ ____ 17e (II), 2M (2)


Huntlng _____ ._. _._ _____________ ___ ___ ___ . __ __ _ __ __
MIe (1 )
HydtauUe drive ________ ___ . . ____ __ __ ______ _ __
153
I_F amplifier. ________ _____________________________ _

a ' F _________________ .. _. _____. _. ___ ____ ________ ___


I_F -!&eO ____ ____ . . . _______ . _________ ____ ._ : __
Indicator:
A_an ______ __ ___ __ ._._ _. _ _ __ __ . _ __
4"- (2)
B-ecan __ ._._. ____________ . _____ . ___ . _. _ __ __ ___ _
4"- (3)
Comp<>Den t.o _____ ___ _ _ . _ . . _____ _
13/1
C_ an ___ ___ ._._. _______ . _. _. ___ ____ __ __ __ __ __ _
4Sa (4)
Function ___ ._ . ___ ____ .. _._._ . __ . _ ... _. 7b (1 ), 13
Gate_ . ___ _ _._. __ ____ __ . ___ . _____ 26<1, e ( 3); :IOb ( 4), (6)
Gat ing pu l...,_. _ . _ __ ________ ___ . ___ ._. _____ _
Po wer aupply __ . ________ . ____ _ . _______________ _

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Indi"",t t iminR_ . __ _ . _____ . _. _._._. ____ _ . ___ ._


h,duced noise __ . _. ___ . _____ . __ _ . _. _______ ____ ___ . __
!nc.en.l ty modulation _____ . _. _. ___ . __ . _. ___ __ ._. _.
In l.erloek circuit._ . ___ . __ .. ___ . __ _ ._ . ___ _______ _
Intcroai phulng __ ______ ___ . ___________ ________ ____ _

48& (2)

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13b (2)

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4tb (2)

K .... p-rJive voltr.gc. ___ ____ . _. ___ ._ ._ . _. _. _______ ___ _ _


Kipt",,, IocIJ ""dilator. _. ___ ___ _ . _ ___ _. _. _. __

38e (4)

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LlilMhou.;e tuoo _______________ ___ __ ____ . ____ .. _ . __
Umltu _________ ______ ____ __ . _. ___ . _. _. _____ . ___ _

Limiter amplifier . _______ _____ _ . .. . _______ ._. ____ . __


oonvcrtcL ____ .. ___ __ ____ _._. __ . _______ _
Lobe ... Itehlnlt _____ __ . _________ . ____ __________ ___ __
Conical _"ning __ ___ . _. ___ .. __ ____ . ___ . ___ . ___ _
D .... I .. ntennM . _ ___ _ . ____ _____ _____ ._ ... ____ _
Erlc", .. l phulnK . ____ ___ ___ ___ __ ______ ._. _____ _
Inlem ..l ph ... ing . _____ ______ ________ . _________ __ _
Pbue
__ __ ________ . ___________ __ _______ _
R....,t.rioe ph ... ing ____ ___ .. ___ ___ ________ __ _
Single &nl",," . __ _____ ____ . _ ... ______ _ ._. ______ _
lJlle-l.$~oe

del.a." ~

r..:-l (NIdl],.t" ....... _ ... .. .... ..... ..... ......

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30b (Q)
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Tllning ........ ................. ...... ...

251> (3)

MlIoIIlc ey.. .. ...................... .. ................

~7b

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MD.fInetron . __ __ _______ __

23b.34o

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M.nll.1 '""S"I.to........... .... .. .. ............... .. .

lilil\ (1)

2113

oecU1l.to. .. ..................................

22b

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M"lti,ib.. tor........ ......... ..................


321.
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Sine ... ve .. ... . . .. ... _._ .. ... . ... ......... ..
30A
127
Single . .. ing blocking D6CHLo.t.o _
31.
138
Meter, cryotal cur..,nt............. ..... ........ ..
2110 (;5)
103
Midfrequftlcy@.ln ...... .. .............. ............ .
25f. (2)
107
Mber........ . _..... __ . ___ ... ____ ....
IS.
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Cry.tal....... .... ..................... . ........
Mode. .... vegulde................ .. ............ ..... .
lJ7c (2)
189
Modulato . ............ _.. ........ ...... _... . 23e (2). e. 35a (I) 8"-86.160
. Filled "pArk gap _ _ ~
35d
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Rot.ry'pArk ~.p ____
3lie
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Satu.. ble Indue".. __ : ........ . ___ . _. _..... ...... .
SSf
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Mo,.ble ranlle mlU"ker......................... ... ...
&0<1. e, f
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Multlvlb.. tor ........... ..... .... _............... .. .
26b
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"-ymmetri".L .. ...... .... __ . ... . .. .. .. .. .
8Gb (U)
136
Delay _... ..... .. ............. ............... .
60f
271
El""'tronle ...Itch _ ___
3lk: (6)
221
Time . _. .. .... . ............ .. ..... ........ .... .
82
1411
T,lgger . ...... ... . .... .............. . ... .. ......
26b (6)
11 2
N.vig.tional .ld_ .... ..... .. ____ ... ........ ..... ... .
Negative trr.nseonductanee """i\lotor _
rce<llve .. . .. .. .................
Nondirectional .nlenn. ..... . ........ .. ............ . .

N......,.

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...,.,,,Ie. dipole ..... ... .. ............ .. _.. _.. .

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liM (3)

o.eUlator:
Muter_. _""" ... . . _... . __ . .......... ....... . . . . .
N.. ~.t,ive tr.lI8OOndllctanee . .. _. _. _. _....... _...
PilaM>-ohlfL .. . ..... ......... . ...... ......
n, bl""kin~ _. __ ....... ...... .................. .

10.,28

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TPTG . pU9b -pu lL _ _. ______ ._._. ___ ._._________
111e (3)
.,iode. __ _ . . _ .. __ _________ . ___ ___ __ __ . _____ .
34.
W icn_b rid p;e ___ ___ __ __________________ ._._ 30& (3), b (1). (2)
Overdr ive n &m plificr ___ .. . __ __________________ . ____ . _
22d
Overlolld ..,lay ________ __ __ ___ ______ _ ___ .___________
67<1
Ovenhoot_ .______ __ __ ______ __ __ __ ____ __ __ _ __ _____ _ _
60c (8)
Sln~le ~

Pu .k po .. er _ _. ______ ______ ______ ______. ________ _


Del.y ___ __ _________ ____ _ . _______ __. ___ __
____ _______ ______ ___ __ . ___ _______ _ ._ . __ _
I

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Peak . _. _____ _______________ _____ ... _ ______ _


Rel.y ______ ____ ___ ______________ ____ ._._

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Average __________ __ ____________ __ _____________ _

138, 165

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C.picit.oT ______ _________ ___ . ... __ _____________ _


Met hod 01 obtaininl _______ . ______ _____ __
o..em.tor _______ ____________ . _____ _____ ____ _____ _
Plug f Uge. __________ ____ ______________ __________ _
Potentiometer ooDtroL ____ ____________ _____ _
Pot ted line ____ __________ ___ ___ __ _____ __ ____ ___ ____

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56e (3)

35d (4)

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C.thode-BY t ube ______________________ ____ __ ._
Comme n:iaL _____ ___ _______________ ____ ._. _____ _
Com I>OUe nt.e _____________ ___ _____ ____ __ __
D i>ltribu l io,, ________ ___ _._ _...... __ __ __ ____
14.
D y"alDotor __ . ____________ __________ ___ ___ ._. ___ 66d (2)
F uucti..,, ___ ____ __ _ . __ .. _._._._ . _ . ______ ___ 7b (I ) . 'lOa
l: " ~ ine-driven g.o.ner.tor . __ . _. _. _ __ __ ______ __ __ __ _
55c
I nd icator _. _. _. ___ . _. _____. _ . . _ ... _ ._. __ .... __
20<1 . 261
M odiC,,,,, tionl ____ __ ____ . __ __ ___________ ____ __ __
20e
Pri",.ry _____ ___ ___ _____ __ __ ... . . _____________ ._
55
2011 , 25h
R e""iver __ _ _ .. _ ..... _ .. . ____ ___ ....... __ __
R ectifie r ____ . _. _. ______ ___ . _. ____ __ _____ _ __ __ __
551
R c ~ " I .to r ___ _._ . _._. _______ __ . _. _. __ _
66g
n otary .. on veru r ________ ___ _ . ___ .. ___. _. _. ___ . _
55d
T .. nomitt<l r _.. .... _ ... _ . ____ _ . _ _. ___ _ ____
n . 239
Vibr.tor ___ _. _______ __________ . __ __ . __ __ _ __
Me
PI'I..., ....,'- _____ ___ ____ ____ _____ . _ __________ 131, 4&0. (2), 54

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22e (3)
Formiu8 line __ __________ ______ ___ ____ 35b (2), c (2), d (1)

1111 , 165,

P ...... m plifie r __ ._. ____ __ . ___ ._. _____ _______________

2Sd ( I)

Prec:LII,un ...eep _______ _ ___ ... _ ____ __


Pre.u, e 00,,1' 01, ... w r cooling ayat<lm ________________ _

ProVe ___ ________ ____ _____ __ ________ . _.

30, 252.

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Modul.tion_. __ ._. ____________ ____ _______ _____ _


Repetition lreq uency _____________ ________ _____ _ _ 8<:, 161 (3)
Width. _________ ___________ ________ __ ____ _

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Action of ooeU-pubed .ystem . _. ____ ___ __ __ _" _


Methods.:. ___...... __ .. ". _.... _______ _____ ____ _
PUllh button relay ______ __ __ _._ ._ __ _ __ " __

Pulb-puU

",'~p

_____ __________ ______ ________ . ___ ___ _

Q u~T-w&Ve t"nBformer . __ __ ._ . ____ ... __ .... _. ____ _


Quench voltage _____ ___ __ ____ . __ ___ . _______ ___ ____ _

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24b (2)
f5c ( 2)

AI. _____ __________ . _. .. __ .. ___ . ___ . _. ______ . __ _

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Al.bo'l\(l. ___________ __ . __ " . ". ______ " . ___ _


Altimek ____ _______ _ _ _ ____________ .

2e (3)

Radar. ______________ ____ _________ ____ ____ ._. ___ ___ _


A.curate reportinR _____ ___ __________ ___ . __ . _."_.

2~

('l)
2<: (I)

..

ASV ___ ____ 2t (1), 21" (!)


Beacou .. _. __ ____ . . ______ _______ ._. _. _ ___ __ __
2e ( 2)

cw .. .... ........... .. ... .. . .... ... ..........

2b (lJ
F i"" co"tl'<>1.
I"M ___ ___ __ . _. .
GCI . _.............. _. _.. _......... _____ .....
""0
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2d (1)
Prineiple .. ...... .... .... .............. ........ .
Ob
8eareb ___ __ ___ _ ___ _ 2& ( I) , (4)

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melectrie .... ........... ... .................... lid (I), (6)

Typoe.... ... . . ..... .. .. .....


Range:
Contl'<>!. ...... .... ........ .... ................ .
Detennin&tioll , _
E..t.im ..tion
G.. te . .
~Ieaaurcrnen~
Sweep
Range m ...ke . . ................. . .. ... ........ ..... ..

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."ixed. _. _ _. __ __ _. __ ____ . ____ __ .


~Iov ..ble . . .
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Range m.. rke. genersto. :
Multivibrsto. ____ _. _ _ _ ____ __ ._. _
Neg.liye Ow, oeeilJatt>r......... ........ .......... .
Sboelr.-exelted oeeUl .. to ' . _
Ranging mcthodo _______
R-C bridge ... ... ...... .................. __ ..... ... .
RC pea!.:e __ __ _ _ _ . __ _ __ 22<1 (f ), to
39b (9)
~ce p~g .......................... . ....... .
Receive.:
Automatic g ..1D _troL ___ __ ____________________ _
Bandwidth_ . ______________ __ ___________ ._. ____ _
Bloeki"tI( . __ _________ ___ __ __ ._. ___ ___ ___ __ ._._

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Fu ncUD" _______________________ ______ ___ . __

0.1,, _______ ______ ___ ___________ __ ___ __ ._ . __ _


G..1n controL _______ ____ __________ ._. __ _
G.te

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PO..e opp1y _ . ___ __ ___ ._._. _. _._ . _____ __ _

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Sean typ"" ____ ______ . _. _. ___ ___ __ _ . __ ___________ . _

.......

s....nniDs motor ___ ___ __ ___ ______

351
48.t.

40b (I) "

Sea..,h . ____ ____ _ . __ ___ . ___ . _. ________ _. ___ _ . _. _._.


2& (1)
S<'!1r_reatif)"ing yib.-.toL _____ . ___ . __ __ __ __ __ ____ __ __ _
6;;" (3)
Self...ynebronlud t ranllJDitl.er . ____ . _. _. _. ___ . __ . _. _. _
28a
Belllyn ___ ________________ __ _ __ __ _______ ____ 68b (3), 59a (I)
Control traM!onneT __ __ . ___ __ . ________ .. __ . _. _ __ _
51k!
______ ._._. __ . ___._._._ . ___ . ____ _
Dill'e1"l!nt!.l sp.np. ...l.(Ir ___ _____ . _________ . . . . __

69b

DilJe~nU. L

59b (I)

Dllfc""ntlal motor . ___ ._._.________ ____ _______ ___


5gb (I)
ElIell.e1' _____ . ___ . _____ . ____ __ .... _. ___ . __ ___ . __
59h (8)
Gener ..tor. ____ __ __ ___ _______ . _ _ 26a (~, 5910 (8)
Mowr . , .. .. 26a (2), ..,9. (8)
Receive ___ _ _ _ __ __
59.
Rotor .. . . . _
5!h (2)
S"-'tor_ _ _._ _
f>9:l (~
Sw....p __ .. __ __ .. _. ... .... .
Mb
Tranoformer ._ . _. __ ____ ... ______ . ____ ___. __
Mb (6)
Trammitter_ ._. _ __ __ _. _.. ___ . _ _
59&
Servo .".tem ____ _______ _ . _____ ._. _. ___ . _. ___ .. _. __ _
MIa (.f)
Raaic . __ _________ ___ _ . _ _ _
58b
Two-ph _ _ __ ___ ._ ._. ____ ___.. _. _._ _ __
62
Waf'd-l.eonarrl . __ ______ _.. _. _._ . ____ . _. _ __ ___
6Oc:
Shoelr.-eseiud o"dllator . _.. ____ . . __ __ _ . ______ _
4gb
Shot elT.... t ____ . .. _._. _._._ . .. _ _._..... .
43b (3)
Signal ""m~riAon __ _ . _._ . _ . __ ____ ___ __ _ __ lib ( 1) . (3)
Signalto.noise ..tlo __ ___ __ ._._._. ___ ____ __ 2~ (2) , 4ab
SlIvef$ut regulator __ _____ __ ._ . ___ __ ______ . _.
5511 (t )
Sin"""'II"e timer __ __ _. ___ __ ___ _____ _._._
30
Singl&-lobe ""onem __ ._ ____ ___ __ . _. _. ____ ____ . __ __
5b
Single-tube drive __ __ ._ ____ . _. _ ___ .. __
Me
Slant .. nge ___ _ _____ ___ _._._ _. ___ __ ._ _ _.
6a ( 1)
Slot """pllnK __ __ _____ ________ . ____ _____ ____ . _ __ __ _
38f (2)
Solenoid relay __ _ _. __ ___ ._ _ _. __ ._._._._
5l1b (.f)
Spoo.rk-gap modulator :
Ftscd ____ __ ____ __________ ._ _._ ___ __ ____
35d
~

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29

RotaJ'J ___ ___ ______ __ ._ __ _ __ _ _. _ ___


Spark.gap timer . _________ . _. ________ ._. __ . ____ . _ __ _
Spinner . _____ . . __ ____ ___ ___ . _ __ _. _.
St.aelr.ed dlpole_ . __ ._ _. __ _ _. _. ___ ____ _. __ . _ lid
Stub __ . _. _._ _. _ ._ . ___ _____ ____ ._ __ ._ . _. _ _
Stub .uppolU __ ___ ._ . _. ____ _ ___
Superbeterodyne recei,u __ . ___ ________ . ___
SuperreKcnc.... tion . _ ___ . _. ______ ___ ___ . _. ___ ._ __ _
Surface oer.reh ______ ___ __ _______ _._. __ . _ __

2-tc (2)
(I), (2)

24b ( I)
87b (2)
ISb,25a
45
2a (.f)

sw....p:

Clamper ____ __ . ________ . __ ___ ___ ___ __ .. _._ t ile, B (3)


Du .. tlon ___ _. ... __ __ . . __ .. _. __ ._
I~ (3 )
Espanded _. __ __ ___ ___ _. __._. _ . _. _. ___
Expanoion lIelle..to. ___ ___ ________ . _. _._ __ . _._ .
5lb (2)
Gaud ._ . ___ __ . ______ _____ _ . __ __ . ___ _
Gene .... to. __ ._ _______________________ __ _____ _
11Ib, 26c

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MultivibraWr ______ ___ _. ______________________ _ Potent.lQmeter ___ _____ __________ ._._. __ ______ _

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Beloy n _ _____ _________ ___ _____ _______________ _

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Trlgger ____ _ _ . _. __ + __ _ _ _________ __ . _ __


Switeh tube ____ ______ ____ __ __________ _____________ __

26b (6)

Synchroni .... tlQn, Indlrect _ . _ . ____ _ _ _______ ____ _ _


8ynehl'on nua vibrator __ . _. _ __ __________ __ __

31b (I)
.Me (3)

26e (3)

The rmal aglt.&tlCln __ _____ ... __ __ _____________ ___ _


t3b (3)
Threllhold plck_lI p ___ __ _ _ __ _ __ 6b (I ), (2)
Thy ratron motor contr! _ _______ ____________________ _
Thyratron mQtor driv e ___ _ .. _____ ____ _ ._. __ _ ___ _

T ime meMu...,menL ___ _. _. _ __ ._._ __ _._.


Time-r.l.l\se relationship _________________________ ____ _

24.e
24.e
24 ..
(I ),

(b)
(11)
(5)
(4)

'"

bGd , 57a
4b (I)

Timer:
COmpon .. n"" ____ ___________________ ___________ _

.a

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'"

'"
",

.. . .

T ilt'

Indl..tor _________ _ . _ ___ __ ____ __ . _. ______ _ _


M Qtor _._ _____ ________ _____________ ______ _
PotentlClmetet __________ ____ . ____ ._. ___________ _
Tilted antenna_ ___ _ __ _ _ __ _._ _ 6b
Tlm&-delay eircuit _______________________ ___________ _
Tlme-delay ""la7 __ __________ _______________ ________ _

,'"
'",S>"

( I)

m<n

F.unetlon __ ________ . ___ ___________ __ __________ _


1b(l),9a
M uUivibraWr ___ ____________ _________ ._ ._. ___
Sinc-wave o.cUlator _________________________ __ __ _

"

""
"

Single-Awing b locking o.cillator __ __ ___ __ ___


Spr.rk gap ___ __ _ __ ___________ _______ _____ _

'"
"'"
>0,
""
'00

U, I3

12, 13

'",

",'00

'"
'"
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1', 18

Thnln"
By oeparate IInit. ___ _ ____ ._ . _______ __ _______ ___
lib
Pube , eelf-pllbled 'y.tem _______________________ 16g.1k (4)
311, !IS
8illo&l __ ___ _ ____ .. _..... _...... __ ___ __ _..
27b
Within traoami tter ____ __ ._._ __ __ ____ __ __ __ __ __ _
lie
T -jllnetlon _______________ ___________ ____ _ ____ lie (3), 38b (3)
23, 1117
T-R .witeh __ __ _________________ 11.. (1I), :u.. (2), 36b (2), 38 24,IH, ]86,
Cavity _. ___ ______ __ __ . __ .... __ . ____ ._ __ ____
COa:d&lll nc _________ _ .. ___ ___________ ',_.'" _._
Open wlre _____ . _. _. _. __ . _. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __
Resonan t , lnt. ____________________________ _._ _ _

3Sl

38d
38b

38g (6)
38e

"
'""

'"

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".
""
200

3Be (5)
2511 (2)

......""

T'?an6mi.. lnn ]ine, ..rtil'!.,.!.. __ ________ ._ .. _ 35b (2), e (2), d (1)

]6], HIli,

Sp .. rk g.. p . _. _ . __ . _. _ .. _ ... ... _ ... _._. ___ ._. _


Wnv<'l!:uid e_. __________________ _ _. __ _. __ __
T_R tu be _____________ ._. ____ .. _____________________
L ife . _. ____ ____ ________ _. __ ________ ... ....
TraMit t ime . __ __ ___ __ ___ _______________ ___ ________

38g

3Se (4)

Tran . mitter ,
E ~ternaUy puleed .... _____ _ _. ________ _ _. __
FU lletion _. __ _______________________________ _
Self.pul3ed __________ ___ .. _______ _ _____ __
Sel f_pullolllj( triode ...,illato r _ __ _________________ _
Se]f... y nc.h""niled . _____ __ ____ ___________________ _

] Ob,23
7b (I )

,,....

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300

'"
'70

UI, 84

""
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.8.

o,,~,

.11, om

UNrVR5ITYOf MKH~N

, , .a If

...

Triode OIlcHlator ________ __ ____________________ ____ ___


lTue
____ . ___ ._._._._._._. ________ . _________ _
Tu ning indicator . __________ ___ ___ _._. _. .... ... _ .. __ _
Tun ing I>lunge. ______ __ _____ ____ __ ___ ____________ ___
TprDtt.lle &nte.'Da __ ___ _____ _____ _ . ______ . ______ _
T .. o-pbue a-c mot..Jr _____________ _____ ____ ___ ._ . _
~n~

,-...
.".,
...'"

'.
..,.,
'",
,..

li7e (1 0)

Verl.leaJ. dipole_. _ .. ______ _ . . _ ....... . _ ._ ... . ____ .


Vibrato . po ... e uppl) ________ _ . _______ ____ _______ __ _
Vibrato. type n:gulaw ____ _ . __ .. __ _______ . _. _ ... .. _
VldOo amplifier __ __ _______ . __ ___ _ .. . . ..... _. _ . __ ._
Vol!.age doubler ___ ___ ____ ______ ______ _______ ___ ___ __

..,
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..
,,.
".
...'"
....'"'",

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(2)

18b, 2,)(
23<: (8)

Ward_Leonard drive _ .. . ___ . __ __ _____ ... ____ .. _.__


. Ward_Loonard sc .vo .-'".t em _____ _______ ._. _______ .____

l'>OI.
600

El""tronie control. ____ . _. . . .. . . ____ ____ __ __ __


Water-oooling .yoten>, p .... u.., controL . _.... ___ ._....

60d
117r

Wave guide :
M ode o( euitatlon ____ __ ______ ____________ ._. 370
R.ect&ngular _. _._ ..... _. __ __ _________ __ _____
Rotating joint. _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _____ _____ __ ____ _____ _ __
,Round _______ _____ __ _ ____ ._ .. ________ ._ ._____

(2),
37e
370
37e

1i7, 107

88

(II)
(' )

189. Ull

([0)

(2)

TunlnM plunger . ________ ___ ____ . ___ __ ___ _


37e ( to)
Wlen_bridge oow:illato . _. ______ , ______ . ________ 300. (3), b (I) , b (2)

yas!. -- -------------.-- -.. ----.-.-. ----.:------.--

127, 128

201.

lid (I), (3)

0.'9'

~11n>m

UN,fIERSITY Of "'J{HlGAN