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ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Electric Transformers

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

1. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION (Faradays Experiment)

When the magnetic flux *linking a conductor (or coil) changes, an e.m.f. is induced in

the conductor. If the conductor (or coil) forms a complete loop or circuit, a current will

flow in it. This phenomenon is called **electromagnetic induction. Two things are

worth noting. First, the basic requirement for electromagnetic induction is the change

in the magnetic flux linking the conductor (or coil). Secondly, the e.m.f. and hence

current in this conductor (or coil) will persist so long as this change is taking place.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

1. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION (Faradays Experiment)

When the magnetic flux *linking a conductor (or coil) changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the conductor. If the

conductor (or coil) forms a complete loop or circuit, a current will flow in it. This phenomenon is called

**electromagnetic induction. Two things are worth noting. First, the basic requirement for electromagnetic

induction is the change in the magnetic flux linking the conductor (or coil). Secondly, the e.m.f. and hence

current in this conductor (or coil) will persist so long as this change is taking place.

C

S

G

Fig. 15.1

To demonstrate the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, consider a coil C of several turns connected to a centre zero galvanometer as shown in Fig. 15.1. If a permanent magnet is moved towards the coil, it

will be observed that the galvanometer shows deflection in one direction. If the magnet is moved away from the

coil, the galvanometer again shows deflection but in the opposite direction. In either case, the deflection will

persist so long as the magnet is in motion. The production of e.m.f. and hence current in the coil C is due to the

fact that when the magnet is in motion (towards or away from the coil), the amount of magnetic flux linking the

coil changesthe basic requirement for inducing current in the coil. If the movement of the magnet is stopped,

though the flux is linking the coil, there is no change in flux and hence no e.m.f. is induced in the coil.

Consequently, the deflection of the galvanometer reduces to zero. It may be noted that basic requirement for

inducing e.m.f. in a coil is not the magnetic flux linking the coil but the change in magnetic flux linking the coil.

No change in magnetic flux, no e.m.f. is induced in the coil.

Note: We have seen that when magnetic flux linking a conductor changes, an e.m.f. is induced in it.

An equivalent statement is like this: when a conductor cuts magnetic field lines, an e.m.f. is induced in it.

If the conductor moves parallel to the magnetic field lines, no e.m.f. is induced. This terminology is very

helpful in visualising the concept of production of e.m.f.

2. FLUX LINKAGES

The product of number of turns (N) of the coil and the magnetic flux () linking the coil is called flux

linkages i.e.

Flux linkages

=

N

Experiments show that the magnitude of e.m.f. induced in a coil is directly proportional to the rate of

change of flux linkages. If N is the number of turns of the coil and the magnetic flux linking the coil changes (say

increases) from 1 to 2 in t seconds, then,

Induced e.m.f.,

e Rate of change of flux linkages

N 2 N1

or

e

t

Faraday performed a series of experiments to demonstrate the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. He

summed up his conclusions into two laws, known as Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction.

First Law: It tells us about the condition under which an e.m.f. is induced in a conductor or coil and may

be stated as under:

When the magnetic flux linking a conductor or coil changes, an e.m.f. is induced in it. The induced e.m.f.

lasts so long as the change in magnetic flux linking the coil continues.

It does not matter how the change in magnetic flux is brought about. The essence of the first law is that

the induced e.m.f. appears in a circuit subjected to changing magnetic field.

Second Law: It gives the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. i n a conductor or coil and may be stated as

under:

The magnitude of the e.m.f. induced in a conductor or coil is directly proportional to the rate of change

of flux linkages i.e.

N 2 N1

Induced e.m.f.,

e

t

N 2 N1

or

e = k

t

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

N 2 N1

t

d

In differential form, we have,

e = N

dt

The direction of induced e.m.f. (and hence of induced current if the circuit is closed) is given by Lenzs

law. The magnitude and direction of induced e.m.f. are given by;

e =

d

...(i)

dt

The minus sign on the R.H.S. represents Lenzs law mathematically. In SI units, e is measured in volts,

in webers and t in seconds.

d

Note. Magnitude of induced e.m.f., e = N

. For a given coil (i.e. given N), the magnitude of induced e.m.f.

dt

is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux (i.e. d/dt) linking the coil. For example, if in

Fig. 15.1, the magnet is moved faster (towards or away from the coil), d/dt increases and hence large e.m.f.

will be induced in the coil and vice-versa. If the movement of the magnet is stopped, d/dt = 0 and hence e

= 0. For e.m.f. to be induced in a coil, the magnetic flux linking the coil should change continuously.

e

The direction of induced e.m.f. and hence current (if the circuit is closed) can be determined by one of the

following two methods:

(i)

Lenzs Law

(ii)

Flemings right-hand rule

(i) Lenzs law: Emil Lenz, a German scientist gave the following simple rule (known as Lenz's law) to find

the direction of the induced current:

The induced current will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the cause that produces it.

Note that Lenzs law is reflected mathematically in the minus sign on the R.H.S. of Faradays second law

viz. e = N d/dt. The negative sign simply reminds us that the induced current opposes the changing magnetic

field that caused the induced current. The negative sign has no other meaning.

Let us apply Lenzs law to Fig. 15.2. Here the N-pole of the magnet is approaching a coil of several turns.

As the N-pole of the magnet moves toward the coil, the magnetic flux linking the coil increases. Therefore, an

e.m.f. and hence current is induced in the coil according to Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction.

According to Lenzs law, the direction of the induced current will be such so as to oppose the cause that

produces it. In the present case, the cause of the induced current is the increasing magnetic flux linking the coil.

Therefore, the induced current will set up magnetic flux that opposes the increase in flux through the coil. This

is possible only if the left hand face of the coil becomes N-pole. Once we know the magnetic polarity of the coil

face, the direction of the induced current can be easily determined by applying right-hand rule for the coil.

Motion

G

Fig. 15.2

(a) If the magnetic flux linking a coil is increasing, the induced current i in the coil will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the

increase in flux i.e. the induced current will produce flux i to op-

pose the flux as shown in Fig. 15.3. You can apply right-hand fist Increasing

rule to verify the direction of i.

(b) If the magnetic flux linking a coil is decreasing, the induced curFig. 15.3

rent i in the coil will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the

decrease in flux i.e. the induced current will produce flux i to aid

the flux as shown in Fig. 15.4. You can again apply right-hand fist

Decreasing

rule to verify the direction of i.

i

i

i

Lenzs Law obeys Law of conservation of Energy

It may be noted here that Lenzs law directly follows from the law of

conservation of energy i.e. in order to set up induced current, some energy

Fig. 15.4

must be expended. In Fig. 15.2, for example, when the N-pole of the magnet is

approaching the coil, the induced current will flow in the coil in such a direction that the left-hand face of the

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

coil becomes N-pole. The result is that the motion of the magnet is opposed. The mechanical energy spent in

overcoming this opposition is converted into electrical energy which appears in the coil. Thus Lenzs law is

consistent with the law of conservation of energy.

When the N-pole of the magnet is moved away from the coil, the left-hand face of the coil becomes Spole. Therefore, again the motion of the magnet is opposed and the mechanical energy spent in overcoming

this opposition is converted into electrical energy. When there is no motion of the magnet, induced e.m.f. and

hence current in the coil is zero i.e. no electrical energy is available. This is consistent with law of conservation

of energy since no mechanical energy is spent.

(ii) Flemings Right-Hand Rule: This rule is particularly suitable to find the direction of the induced

e.m.f. and hence current when the conductor moves at right angles to a stationary magnetic field. It may be

stated as under:

Stretch out the forefinger, middle finger and thumb of your right hand so that they are at right angles

to one another. If the forefinger points in the direction of magnetic field, thumb in the direction of motion of

the conductor, then the middle finger will point in the direction of induced current.

G

S

Fig. 15.5

Consider a conductor AB moving upwards at right angles to a uniform magnetic field as shown in Fig.

15.5. Applying Flemings right-hand rule, it is clear that the direction of induced current is from B to A. If the

motion of the conductor is downward, keeping the direction of magnetic field unchanged, then the direction of

induced current will be from A to B.

We know that when electric current flows through a conductor, there is an electric field in the conductor that

causes the electrons to acquire a drift velocity v d . When a circuit (say a coil) is subjected to a changing

magnetic field, there is an induced current in the circuit and this implies that there is an electric field in the

circuit. This is called an induced electric field. Therefore, we come to an important conclusion that a changing

magnetic field produces an electric field.

Consider a current induced in a conducting loop by a magnetic field that is changing with time (See Fig.

15.6). Here the magnetic field (dots) is perpendicular to the plane of the paper directed outward and is increasing in strength. No physical motion is involved and there is no obvious force to drive the charge carriers. Yet,

something must drive the current. This something is the induced electric field. In the present case, this induced

electric field exists everywhere in the wire and points in the direction of the induced current. The field lines go

along the wire loop, themselves forming closed circles. Note that by induced e.m.f. we simply mean the energy

imparted per unit charge. This is the same thing we mean by the e.m.f. of a battery, except that with the battery,

the energy is imparted chemically and the process is localised to a particular part of the circuit.

We can put these ideas into mathematical form. The e.m.f. (e) induced in the loop is equal to the work

done per unit charge by the induced electric field ( E ) which equals the integral of E . dl . around the closed

path. Thus,

e =

E . dl

...(i)

d B

e =

...(ii)

dt

From eqs. (i) and (ii), we have,

d B

...(iii)

E . dl =

dt

Eq. (iii) relates the changing magnetic flux to the electric field it produces. The integral on the left is taken

around a path enclosing the area through which the magnetic flux B is changing. Eq. (iii) is a more elegant

statement of Faradays law. It is valid not only in conductors; it is a general result that applies to any region

in space. Indeed, an electric field will be produced at any point in space where there is a changing magnetic

field.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

It is important to discuss the differences between electric fields produced by the changing magnetic

fields and the electric fields produced by electric charges at rest (electrostatic case).

(i) The electric field lines produced in electrostatic case start and stop on electric charges. But the

electric field lines produced by a changing magnetic field are continuous; they form *closed

loops.

(ii) We have seen that static electric fieldsthose arising from charges at restare conservative i.e.

work done to move a charge around any closed path in the electrostatic field is zero i.e.

z

z

E . dl = 0

(electrostatic field)

But when the electric field is produced by a changing magnetic field, the integral around a closed

path is not zero but is given by;

d B

E . dl =

dt

Thus the line integral of induced electric field around a closed path is non-zero. Therefore, we come to the

conclusion that induced electric fields are non-conservative. Let us discuss this point by referring to Fig. 15.6.

If we move clockwise around the loop, we gain energy all the way around. However, if we move anticlockwise,

we must do work against the induced electric field. The amount of work done in moving around a closed path

is not zero. In fact, it depends upon which path we choose. And this is the property of non-conservative fields.

When a conductor moves in a magnetic field so as to cut the magnetic field lines, an e.m.f. is induced in it. If the

conductor forms a closed circuit, induced current will flow in it. The magnitude of induced e.m.f. can be found

in three different ways.

(i) Using Faradays Laws of Electromagnetic Induction: Consider a straight conductor of length l moving (in the plane of the paper) at *right angles to a uniform magnetic field B with a velocity v as shown in Fig.

15.7 (i).

Suppose the conductor moves through a small distance dx in time dt. Then area swept by the conductor

= l dx.

d = B (l dx) = B l dx

According to Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, the magnitude of induced e.m.f. in the conductor is given by;

v sin

v cos v

(i)

(ii)

Fig. 15.7

d

B l dx

=

dt

dt

e = Blv

e = N

( v = dx/dt)

Special case: If the conductor moves at an angle to the magnetic field [See

Fig. 15.7 (ii)], the velocity at which the conductor moves across the field is *v sin .

e = B l v sin

l BIl

The direction of the induced e.m.f. can be determined by Flemings Righthand rule.

(ii) Using Principle of Conservation of Energy: Consider a conductor PQ of

length l moving (in the plane of the paper) at right angles to a uniform magnetic field

B with a velocity v towards right as shown in Fig. 15.8. The magnetic field is

perpendicular to the plane of the paper and is directed inward. The applied force F

( N = 1)

P

I

F

Q

Fig. 15.8

v

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

is toward right. Suppose that the conductor forms a part of a closed circuit so that induced current I flows in it.

By Fleming's right-hand rule, the direction of the induced current I will be as shown. Since the conductor is

carrying current and is in the uniform magnetic field, it will experience a force of magnitude B I l. By right-hand

rule for cross product, the direction of this force is towards left, i.e. it opposes the applied force F.

F = BIl

The applied force is doing work against the force B I l.

= Fv = (B I l)v = B I l v

The work being done is converted into electrical energy.

Rate of production of electrical energy = e I

where

e = e.m.f. induced in the conductor.

According to principle of conservation of energy, the rate of work done is equal to the rate of production

P

of electrical energy i.e.

+

e I = B I l v or e = B l v

Fe

(iii) Using the concept of magnetic Lorentz Force: Consider a conductor

PQ of length l moving (in the plane of the paper) at right angles to a uniform l

v

magnetic field B with a velocity v towards right as shown in Fig. 15.9. Since

the electrons within the conductor are being moved to the right, the convenFm

tional current is constituted to the left. The magnetic Lorentz force on each

electron is given by;

Fm = e (v B)

or Fm = e v B

... magnitude

Fig. 15.9

By right-hand rule for cross product, the direction of Fm is from P to Q along the length of the conductor.

Therefore, the free electrons in the conductor start moving from P to Q under the action of this force. The result

is that the end P of the conductor becomes positive and end Q negative. This establishes an electric field

across the conductor. The electric field exerts a force Fe on each electron. The flow of electrons stops when the

electric force on the electron becomes equal to the magnetic Lorentz force.

If V is the potential difference across the ends of the conductor in the equilibrium position, then,

V

Electric field,

E =

l

eV

Magnitude of electric force on electron, F e = eE =

l

Magnitude of magnetic force on electron,Fm = e v B

In the equilibrium position,

F e = Fm

or

eV

= evB

l

V = Blv

We have noted that whenever the magnetic flux linking a coil changes, an e.m.f. is induced in it. The

magnetic flux through a coil of one turn (See Fig. 15.10) is given by;

=

BA cos

where B

=

magnetic flux density

A

=

area of the coil

=

angle between B and normal to the area.

d d

=

(B A cos )

dt dt

The magnetic flux through the coil can be changed by changing B, A or . Therefore, e.m.f. can be

induced in a coil (or circuit) in three ways viz. (i) by changing magnetic flux density (ii) by changing the area of

the coil (iii) by changing the orientation of the coil w.r.t. the magnetic

field (i.e. by changing ).

(i) Induced e.m.f. by changing magnetic flux density ( B ) : When the magnetic flux density B associated

with a coil changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the coil. Thus referring back to Fig. 15.1, as the magnet is moved

towards the coil, the magnetic field B linking the coil increases. The reverse happens should the magnet move

away from the coil. In either case, e.m.f. is induced in the coil due to the change in B .

(ii) Induced e.m.f. by changing area (A): Consider a uniform magnetic field B confined to the region

KLMN; the field is perpendicular to the plane of the paper and is directed inward as shown in Fig. 15.11.

Suppose a rectangular loop PQRS of one turn is situated partially in this magnetic field in the plane of the paper.

Let PQ = l. Suppose the loop is moved with a velocity towards right in the plane of the paper and at right angles

to the direction of the magnetic field. As the loop is moved, the area associated with the magnetic field changes

(decreases in this case) and hence e.m.f. is induced in the loop. Let x be the length of the loop in the magnetic

field at any time t. In a small time dt, the loop travels a small distance dx = v dt. Therefore, the area of the loop

Induced e.m.f. in the coil,

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

decreases by a small amount dA = l dx = l v dt. According to Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, the

magnitude of induced e.m.f. is given by ;

dA

d

d

B l v dt

( BA) = B

=

=

=Blv

e

=

dt

dt

dt

dt

e

=

Blv

If R is the resistance of the loop, then induced current I is given by;

e

Blv

=

R

R

The direction of induced e.m.f. and hence current can be determined by Flemings right- hand rule or

Lenzs law.

I

Note: The induced current will appear only if the area of the loop associated with uniform magnetic

field changes. If the loop is moved in such a way that the entire area of the loop remains in the magnetic

field, no induced current will appear in the loop. It is because in that case, there is no change in the magnetic

flux linking the loop.

L

M

x

P

K

N

Fig. 15.11

Y

Fig. 15.12

(iii) Induced e.m.f. by changing orientation of the coil: Consider a rectangular coil XY of area A being

rotated with constant angular velocity in a uniform magnetic field B about an axis which is perpendicular to

the plane of the paper [See Fig. 15.12]. When normal to the coil is at an angle to the direction of the magnetic

field, the magnetic flux through each turn of the coil is given by;

=

B A cos

As the coil rotates, angle and hence the magnetic flux linking the coil changes. Therefore, an e.m.f. is

induced in the coil. This is a practical method of generating e.m.f. in an a.c. generator.

8. EDDY CURRENTS

(increasing)

in a changing magnetic field, the induced currents circulate throughout

the volume of the metal. Because of their general circulating nature,

these are called eddy currents. Since the resistance of metallic parts is

low, the amount of eddy currents may be large even though the induced

e.m.f.s are small. Therefore, the eddy currents can produce considerable

heating and magnetic effects.

Undesirable Effects: In many situations, the eddy currents pose

problems. For example, eddy currents induced in the armature of a motor

Laminations

or generator produce heat. This results in the waste of energy and the

rise of temperature of the machine. The rise in temperature may cause

the failure of insulation of the windings. To reduce the eddy currents,

Fig. 15.13

the armature is split into thin sheets (called laminations) in planes parallel to the magnetic field as shown in Fig.

15.13. Each lamination is insulated from the other by a layer of varnish. This arrangement reduces the area of

each section and hence the induced e.m.f. It also increases the resistance of eddy current paths since the area

through which the currents can pass is smaller. Both these effects combine to reduce the magnitude of eddy

currents. In electrical machines (motors, generators, transformers etc.), eddy currents are undesirable and must

be kept to as low value as possible.

Useful applications: Eddy currents find many useful applications. Some of them are discussed below:

(i) Eddy current damping: In accordance with Lenzs law, eddy currents always flow in such a direction

so as to oppose the motion which has produced them. Therefore, they can reduce the oscillations of a vibrating

system. A familiar example is that of a moving coil galvanometer. The coil of the galvanometer is generally

wound on a metal frame. As the coil swings in the magnetic field of the instrument, eddy currents are induced

in the frame. These eddy currents oppose the motion of the coil and hence the pointer attached to it. Consequently, the pointer quickly attains the final position without overshooting or oscillating violently. Thus eddy

currents dampen (reduce) the oscillations of the pointer. This is known as electromagnetic damping or eddy

current damping.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

(ii) Induction heating: The heating effect of eddy currents can be used to heat/melt those substances

which are conductors of electricity. The substance to be heated/melted is placed in a *high-frequency magnetic

field. The rapidly changing magnetic field induces large eddy currents. The heat thus produced melts the

substance. This technique is known as induction heating and is being widely used to extract metals from their

ores, preparation of certain alloys etc. Another use of induction heating is in diathermy, where heat is applied

to the human body for healing purposes. The high-frequency current is passed through a coil surrounding the

affected part of the body. Since the body is a conductor (though a rather poor one), heat is produced deep

within it, though the skin remains cool.

(iii) Energy meters: Eddy current braking is employed in energy meters. The aluminium disc of the

energy meter rotates between the poles of two permanent horse shoe magnets. As the disc rotates and cuts

across the magnetic fields of the magnets, eddy currents are produced in the disc. These eddy currents oppose

the motion of the disc. As a result of this braking effect, the speed of the disc is directly proportional to the

energy consumed.

(iv) Electro-magnetic Brakes: Eddy current braking can be used to control the speed of electric trains.

In order to reduce the speed of the train, an electromagnet is turned on that applies its field to the wheels. Large

eddy currents are set up which produce the retarding effect.

(v) Induction Motors: An induction motor has a rotor and a stator. The stator winding produces a rotating

magnetic field. As a result, large eddy currents are induced in the rotor. The interaction of these eddy currents

and stator field sets the rotor rotating.

9. SELF-INDUCTION

When current in a coil increases or decreases, there is a change in magnetic flux linking the coil. Hence,

an e.m.f. is induced in the coil. This is called self-induced e.m.f. (es) and the process is called self-induction.

According to Lenzs law, the direction of this induced e.m.f. is such that it opposes the cause that has produced

it. Now the cause of this induced e.m.f. is the change in magnetic flux through the coil (i.e. change of current in

the coil). Hence, the induced e.m.f. will oppose the change of current in the coil. If current in the coil is

increasing, the induced e.m.f. will oppose the increase in current. On the other hand, if current in the coil is

decreasing, the induced e.m.f. will oppose the decrease in current.

I

+

es

es

+

(i)

(ii)

Fig. 15.15

Illustration: Fig. 15.15 illustrates the phenomenon of self-induction. In Fig. 15.15 (i), closing the switch is an

attempt to increase the current in the coil (i.e. to change it from zero to some positive value). As a result, e.m.f. es

is induced in the coil in such a direction to oppose the increase in current i.e. induced e.m.f. acts in a direction

opposite to that of applied voltage V. In Fig. 15.15 (ii), the opening of switch is an attempt to reduce the current in

the coil (i.e. to change it from some positive value to zero). Again e.m.f. es is induced in the coil in such a direction

to oppose the decrease in current i.e. induced e.m.f. acts in the direction of the applied voltage V.

It may be noted that e.m.f. induced in a coil will persist so long as the current in the coil is changing. Thus

in the above two cases, the induced voltage eventually reduces to zero because there is no continuous attempt

to change the current beyond the instant that the switch is closed or opened.

The property of a coil (or a circuit) by virtue of which it opposes any change in the amount of current flowing

through it is called its self-inductance. This opposition occurs because a changing current produces selfinduced e.m.f. which opposes the change in current.

Consider a coil of N turns carrying a current I. Suppose the magnetic flux linked with each turn of the coil

due to this current is . Then flux linkages of the coil will be N . If current in the coil changes, the flux linkages

of the coil will also change. This will set up a self-induced e.m.f. es in the coil given by ;

d

N

es =

dt

N

Since the flux is due to current in the coil, it follows that flux linkages (N) will be

directly proportional to the current (I) i.e.

N I

I

dI

es

dt

b g

Fig. 15.16

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

dI

...(i)

dt

where *L is a constant of proportionality and is called coefficient of self-induction or self-inductance. Its unit

is henry (H). Note that minus sign in eq. (i) reminds us that self-induced e.m.f. opposes the change in current.

dI

If

= 1 A/s and es = 1V, then L = 1 H.

dt

Hence a coil (or circuit) has an inductance of 1 henry if current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per

second through the coil induces an e.m.f. of 1V in it.

A coil is said to have large self-inductance if it produces a large induced e.m.f. for a given rate of change

of current through it. The value of L depends upon the dimensions of the coil, the number of turns and the

relative permeability (r ) of the core material.

Another expression for L: When current through a coil changes, an e.m.f. es is induced in it. This induced

e.m.f. can be expressed in the following two ways:

es = L

or

b g

d

N

dt

es

es

= L

...(ii)

b g

dI

d

=

LI

dt

dt

...(iii)

N

I

Thus self-inductance is the flux linkages of the coil per ampere. If N = 1Wb and I = 1 A, then L = 1H.

Hence a coil has self-inductance of 1 henry if a current of 1A in the coil sets up a total flux of 1Wb

(i.e., N = 1Wb).

Note. Self-inductance is generally called inductance. It may be noted that inductance makes itself felt

in a circuit (or coil) only when there is a changing current. For example, if a steady direct current (d.c.) is

flowing in a circuit (or coil), there will be no inductance. However, when alternating current is flowing in the

same circuit (or coil), the current is changing continuously and hence the circuit (or coil) exhibits inductance. Note that inductance is electrical inertia of the coil.

N = LI

or

L=

Consider a long air-cored solenoid of length l, area of cross-section A and having total number of turns N. For

a long solenoid, the magnetic field inside is constant. If the solenoid is carrying a current I then magnetic field

inside the solenoid is given by;

0 N I

l

Magnetic flux linked with each turn of solenoid is

0 n I =

Inductance of solenoid,

where n =

N

l

FG N I IJ A = N I A

H l K

l

N F N I AI

N

N A

G

J

=

=

H

K

I

l

I

l

0

0 N 2 A

l

Note that this is the expression for air-cored solenoid. If the solenoid carries a core of relative permeability r, then,

0 r N 2 A

L

=

l

Note: Inductance like capacitance depends upon geometric factors. The reader may note that

inductance of a coil is directly proportional to the square of the number of turns.

Consider two coils A and B placed near each other as shown in Fig. 15.17 (i). If current I1 flows in coil A, a

magnetic flux is set up and a part 2 (mutual flux) of this flux links with coil B. If current in coil A is changed, the

mutual flux also changes and hence an e.m.f. is induced in coil B. The e.m.f. induced in coil B is termed as

mutually induced e.m.f. and the process is known as mutual induction. Note that coil B is not electrically

connected to coil A; the two coils being magnetically linked. According to Faradays laws of electromagnetic

induction, the mutually induced e.m.f. eM in coil B is given by;

eM =

N2

d 2

dt

10

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

2

Coil B

Coil A

I1

N2

N1

Coil B

Coil A

N1

I2

eM

eM

( i)

N2

(ii )

Fig. 15.17

The above discussion can be repeated for the reverse situation i.e. a changing current in coil B will

induce mutually induced e.m.f. in coil A as shown in Fig. 15.17 (ii). If 1 part of magnetic flux produced by

current I2 in coil B links with coil A, then mutually induced e.m.f. in coil A is given by;

d1

dt

(i) The mutually induced e.m.f. persists in a coil so long as the current in the other coil is changing. If

the current in the coil becomes steady, the mutual flux also becomes constant and mutually

induced e.m.f. drops to zero.

(ii) The mutual induction between two coils depends upon (a) the size and shape of the two coils (b)

their relative orientation (c) separation between the coils and (d) material of the core on which they

are wound.

eM

N1

The property of two coils by virtue of which each opposes any change of current flowing in the other is called

mutual inductance between the two coils. This opposition occurs because a changing current in one coil

produces mutually induced e.m.f. in the other coil which opposes

the change of current in the first coil.

2

A

B

Consider two coils A and B of turns N1 and N2 placed near

each other as shown in Fig. 15.18. A current I1 flowing through

coil A will set up magnetic flux. Let 2 part of this flux link with coil

N2

N1

I1

B. If current in coil A changes, the magnetic flux linking the coil B

eM

also changes. This will set up a mutually induced e.m.f. eM in coil

B given by;

Fig. 15.18

d 2

d

N 2 2

=

dt

dt

Since magnetic flux is due to current I1 in coil A, it follows that flux linkages of coil B will be proportional

to I1 i.e.

N2 2 I1

eM

= N2

dI1

dI1

or eM = M

...(i)

dt

dt

where *M is a constant of proportionality and is called coefficient of mutual induction or mutual inductance

between the two coils. Its unit is henry (H). The mutually induced e.m.f. opposes the cause that produces it and,

therefore, the inclusion of minus sign on the R.H.S. of eq. (i). If dI1/dt = 1A/s and eM = 1V then M = 1H.

Hence mutual inductance between two coils is 1 henry if current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per

second in one coil induces an e.m.f. of 1V in the other.

The mutual inductance between two coils is said to be large if it produces a large mutually induced e.m.f.

in one coil for a given rate of change of current in the other coil.

Another expression for M: Referring to Fig. 15.18, the mutually induced e.m.f. in coil B can be expressed

in the following two ways :

eM

d

N 2 2

dt

eM

eM

M I1 =

N2 2

...(ii)

b g

d

dI1

M I1

=

dt

dt

...(iii)

N22

I1

...(iv)

or M =

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

11

Thus mutual inductance between two coils is equal to the flux linkages of one coil (N2 2) due to one

ampere current in the other coil. If N2 2 = 1Wb and I1 = 1 A, then M = 1 H.

Hence mutual inductance between two coils is 1 henry if a current of 1A flowing in one coil sets up a

total flux of 1Wb (N2 2 = 1 Wb) in the other coil.

Eq. (iv) provides an alternative definition of M and in some circumstances is useful in calculating M.

Consider two long air-cored solenoids S1 and S2 of the same length l; solenoid S2 surrounds solenoid S1

completely as shown in Fig. 15.19. The two solenoids are so closely wound that they have the same area of

cross-section A. Let N1 and N2 be the total number of turns of solenoids S1 and S2 respectively.

Mutual inductance of S2 w.r.t. S1 (M21) : The magnetic field B1 inside solenoid S1 due to current I1 through it is given by;

l

S2

N

S

N I

1

n1 = 1

B 1 = 0 n 1 I 1 = 0 1 1

l

l

A

Since the solenoids are closely wound, the magnetic field inside solenoid S2

is also B1.

Magnetic flux linked with each turn of solenoid S2 is

I1

I1

2 = B1 area of each turn = B1 A

FG

H

Now,

M21

FG

H

IJ

K

IJ

K

N I A

N 1 I1

A= 0 1 1

l

l

FG

H

Fig. 15.19

IJ

K

0 N1 N 2 A

N 2 2

N 0 N1 I1 A

= 2

=

I1

l

I1

l

0 N1 N 2 A

...(i)

l

Mutual inductance of S1 w.r.t. S2 (M12) : The magnetic field B2 inside solenoid S2 due to current I2 through

it is given by;

M21

FG

H

IJ

K

N

0 N1 I 2

n2 = 2

l

l

Since the solenoids are closely wound, the magnetic field inside solenoid S1 is also B2.

1

=

B2 area of each turn = B2 A

0 N2 I2

N I A

A= 0 2 2

=

l

l

B2

0 n2 I2 =

FG

H

Now,

M12

IJ

K

FG

H

N1 0 N 2 I 2 A

N1 1

=

I2

l

I2

IJ = N I

K

l

0

2 2A

0 N2 I2 A

...(ii)

l

From eqs. (i) and (ii), we have, M21 = M12 = M.

Thus the mutual inductance between the two coils is the same no matter which of the two coils carries the

current. Therefore, no subscripts are needed.

0 N2 I2 A

M

=

l

M12

the fraction of magnetic flux produced by the current in one coil that

links the other coil.

L1

The coefficient of coupling has a maximum value of 1 (or 100%)

when the entire magnetic flux of one coil links the other. If only one half

the magnetic flux set up in one coil links the other, then coefficient of

coupling (k) is 0.5 or 50%. It is clear that mutual inductance between

Fig. 15.20

two coils depends upon the coefficient of coupling. It can be proved

that mutual inductance M between two coils of inductances L1 and L2 [See Fig. 15.20] is given by;

L2

k L1 L2

M

=

Obviously, mutual inductance between the coils will be maximum when k = 1.

(i) If two coils P and S are wound on a soft-iron core as shown in Fig. 15.21 (i), the co-efficient of

coupling is maximum. Therefore, the mutual inductance between the coils is maximum.

12

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

(ii)

(i)

Fig. 15.21

(ii) If the two coils are placed so as to have a common axis as shown in Fig. 15.21 (ii), the coefficient of

coupling is less than that of the above case. Therefore, the mutual inductance between the coils is

large but not maximum.

(iii) If the two coils are placed such that their axes are perpendicular to each other as shown in Fig. 15.21

(iii), the co-efficient of coupling has a minimum value. As a result, the mutual inductance between the

two coils is minimum.

Consider two coils connected in series as shown in Fig. 15.22.

Let

L1

=

inductance of first coil

L2

=

inductance of second coil

M

=

mutual inductance between the coils

(i) Series-aiding. This is the case when the coils are so arranged that their fluxes aid each other i.e. in

the same direction as shown in Fig. 15.22 (i). Suppose the current is changing at the rate di/dt. The

total induced e.m.f. in the circuit will be equal to the e.m.f.s induced in L1 and L2 plus the mutually

induced e.m.f.s, i.e.

di

di

di

di

+M

+M

L1 + L2

e

=

... in magnitude

dt

dt

dt

dt

=

(L1 + L2 + 2M)di/dt

If LT is the total inductance of the circuit, then,

di

LT

e

=

dt

LT

=

L1 + L2 + 2M

... fluxes additive

M

+M

L2

L1

(i )

L2

L1

Fig. 15.22

(ii)

(ii) Series-opposing. Fig. 15.22 (ii) shows the series-opposing connection i.e. the fluxes of the two coils

oppose each other. Suppose the current is changing at the rate di/dt. The total induced e.m.f. in the

circuit will be equal to e.m.f.s induced in L1 and L2 minus the mutually induced e.m.f.s.

di

di

di

di

di

M

M

L1 + L2

e

=

= L1 + L2 2 M

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

If LT is the total inductance of the circuit, then,

di

LT

e

=

dt

LT

=

L1 + L2 2M

... fluxes subtractive

Note: If the coils are so positioned that *M = 0, then, LT = L1 + L2.

Consider three inductances L1, L2 and L3 in parallel as shown in Fig. 15.23. Assume for a moment that

mutual inductance between the coils is zero. Referring to Fig. 15.23, we have,

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

iT

or

diT

dt

But

e

LT

or

1

LT

13

=

i1 + i2 + i3

di1 di2 di3

+

+

dt

dt

dt

di

di

e

L

or

=

dt

dt

L

e

e

e

+

+

L1 L2 L3

1

1

1

+

+

L1 L2 L3

... (i)

iT

i2

i1

i3

e

LT

L2

L1

L3

Fig. 15.23

When mutual inductances are present, the values of L1, L2 and L3 will be modified to include the appropriate mutual inductances and then relation (i) can be used to find LT. The mutual inductance between any pair

of coils will be +ve or ve depending upon whether their mutual fluxes add to each other or subtract. ** Dot

notation on the coils reveals this information. Thus mutual inductance M12 between L1 and L2 in Fig. 15.23 is

positive because their dotted ends are connected to the same terminal A of the supply. Similarly mutual

inductance M13 between L1 and L3 is positive. The result is that value of L1 is modified and becomes L1 + M12 +

M13. The same procedure can be followed to find the modified values of and . By inserting the modified values

of L1, L2 and L3. in relation (i), we can find LT.

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

1. CLOSING AND BREAKING AN INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT

Consider a series RL circuit connected to a d.c. source of E volts as shown

in Fig. 16.1.When switch S is closed, the current in the circuit increases

gradually and takes some time to reach the final value. The reason the

current does not build up instantly to its final value is that as the current

increases, the self-induced e.m.f. (i.e. back e.m.f.) in L opposes the change

in current (Lenzs law). Suppose at any time t, the circuit current is I and

is increasing at the rate dI/dt. The e.m.f. induced in L is LdI/dt. The

resultant e.m.f. in the circuit is E L dI/dt. Therefore, according to

Kirchhoffs voltage law,

EL

Fig. 16.1

dI

=IR

dt

dI

dt

As the current increases, voltage across R (= IR) increases and voltage across L (= L dI/dt) decreases

since E is constant. The decrease in L dI/dt means that dI/dt decreases because L is constant. The result is

that after some time, dI/dt becomes zero and so does the self-induced e.m.f. (= L dI/dt). At this stage, the

current attains the final steady value I0 given by;

or

E = IR + L

E

R

Thus when a d.c. circuit containing inductance is switched on, the current takes some time to reach the

final value I0 (= E/R). Note that role of inductance (L) is to delay the change; it cannot prevent the current from

attaining the final value. Similarly, when an inductive circuit is opened (i.e. battery is removed so that only R

and L are present), the current does not jump to zero but falls gradually. In either case, the delay in change

depends upon the values of L and R as explained later.

E = I0 R + 0

I0 =

or

Consider a series RL circuit connected to a d.c. source of E volts as shown in Fig. 16.2. When switch S is

closed, the circuit current rises from zero and attains the final value I0 (= E/R) after some time. Suppose at any

time t, the current is I. The back e.m.f. induced in L is L dI/dt. The resultant e.m.f. in the circuit is E LdI/dt.

According to Kirchhoffs voltage law,

dI

EL

=IR

dt

L

R

dI

or

E IR = L

dt

dI

dt

or

=

E IR

L

*Multiplying both sides by R, we get,

R dI

R

= dt

E IR

L

Integrating both sides, we get,

R dI

E

Fig. 16.2

E I R = L dt

R

...(i)

t+K

L

where K is a constant of integration whose value can be determined from the initial conditions. At t = 0, I

= 0. Putting these values in eq. (i), we get, loge E = K. Therefore eq. (i) becomes :

or

log e ( E I R) =

log e ( E I R) =

or

log e

R

t + log e E

L

E IR

R

= t

E

L

R

or

t

E IR

=e L

E

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

E IR=e

or

R

t

L

t

E

1 e L

But E/R = I0, the final value of current attained by the circuit.

R

I =

or

t

...(ii)

I = I 0 1 e L

Eq. (ii) gives the value of current at any time t during the growth of current in RL dc circuit. Note that

growth of current follows an exponential law [See Fig. 16.3].

R

t

L

(ii) Inspection of current/time curve (See Fig. 16.3) reveals that at first the curve is steep and as the

time passes, it becomes less and less steep. This is because initially, the rate of rise of current

is more but as the current increases, the rate at which the current increases is reduced.

Time constant: Consider the eq. (ii) above showing the growth of current w.r.t. time t.

R

t

I = I 0 1 e L

The exponent of e is Rt/L. The quantity L/R has the dimensions of *time so that exponent of e (i.e.

Rt/L) is a number. The quantity L/R is called time constant of the circuit. It is represented by .

L

= seconds

Time constant,

R

Note that here L and R are in henry and ohms respectively. For a given circuit, time constant is

constant because L and R are constant.

If the time interval

t = (or L/R), then,

R

t

I = I 0 1 e L = I0 (1 e1) = 0.632 I0

Hence inductive time constant of series RL circuit may be defined as the time in which the current rises

from zero to 0.632 of its final steady value. [See Fig. 16.4]

I

I0 =

Current changing

slowly; back e.m.f. low

E

R

I0 =

E

R

0.632 I0

R t

I = E (1 - e L )

R

t

Current changing rapidly;

back e.m.f. high

Fig. 16.3

0

l

L

R

2L

R

3L

R

4L

R

5L

R

Fig. 16.4

The inductive time constant is a measure of how long it takes the current to attain the final steady value.

The larger the inductive time constant (i.e. L/R), the longer it takes for the current to reach the final steady

value. **Theoretically, the current will reach its final steady value I0 (= E/R) in an infinite time. However, for most

practical purposes, we assume that current reaches its final steady value after time equal to 5 time constants

(i.e. at t = 5 L/R). It is a common practice to use this assumption.

R

t

I = I 0 1 e L

5

At t = 5 L/R,

I = I0 (1 e ) = 0.993 I0

Hence the current almost attains final steady value after time equal to 5 time constants.

Consider an inductive circuit shown in Fig. 16.5. When switch S is thrown to position 2, the current in the

circuit starts rising and attains the final value I0 (= E/R) after some time. If now switch is thrown to position

1, it is found that current does not cease immediately but gradually reduces to zero. Suppose at any time t,

the circuit current is I and is decreasing at the rate of dI/dt. By Kirchhoffs voltage law,

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

3

0= IR+ L

or

dI

dt

dI

R

= dt

I

L

Integrating both sides, we get,

R

t+K

...(i)

L

where K is a constant of integration whose value can be determined from the initial conditions. When t = 0, I =

I0 (= E/R). Putting these values in eq. (i), we get,

log e I =

loge I0 = 0 + K

or

log e I =

or

log e

K = loge I0

R

t + log e I 0

L

I

R

= t

I0

L

Rt

I

=e L

I0

or

Rt

...(ii)

I = I0 e L

Eq. (ii) gives the decay of current in an RL series circuit with time and is represented graphically in

Fig. 16.6. Note that decay of current follows the exponential law.

or

I

L

I0 =

1

E

R

S

2

0.368 I0

t

0

E

Fig. 16.5

L

R

2L

R

3L

R

4L

R

5L

R

Fig. 16.6

Time constant: The quantity L/R is the time constant of the circuit. When t = (= L/R),

I = I0 e1 = 0.368 I0

Hence, inductive time constant of RL series circuit may also be defined as the time taken for the

current to fall to 0.368 of its initial maximum value [See Fig. 16.6].

Theoretically, the current will reach zero value in an infinite time. However, after five time constants have

passed (i.e. t = 5 L/R), the current can be assumed to be zero for all practical purposes.

4. CHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

Consider an uncharged capacitor of capacitance C connected in series with a *resistance R to a d.c. supply

of E volts as shown in Fig. 16.7. When the switch is closed, the capaciC

R

tor starts charging up and charging current flows in the circuit. The

charging current is maximum at the instant of switching and decreases

gradually as the voltage across the capacitor increases. When the capacitor is charged to applied voltage E, the charging current becomes zero.

At switching instant: At the instant the switch is closed, the voltage

across the capacitor is zero because we started with an uncharged capacitor. The entire applied voltage E is dropped across resistance R and charging current is maximum (call it I0).

S

Fig. 16.7

E

R

At any instant: After having closed the switch, the charging current starts decreasing and voltage across

capacitor gradually increases. Let at any time t during charging

I0 =

I = charging current

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

v = p.d. across C

q = charge on capacitor = Cv

According to Kirchhoffs voltage law, the applied voltage E is equal to the sum of voltage drops across

the resistor and capacitor.

E = v + IR

or

E = v + **C R

dv

dt

dv

dt

=

Ev

RC

Integrating both sides, we have,

dv

dt

E v = RC

or

t

+K

...(i)

RC

where K is a constant of integration whose value can be determined from the initial conditions. At t = 0, v

= 0. Substituting these values in eq. (i), we get loge E = K. Therefore, eq. (i) becomes:

t

log e ( E v) =

+ log e E

RC

log e ( E v) =

log e

or

Ev

t

=

E

RC

Ev

= e t / RC

E

v = E [1 et/RC]

or

...(ii)

Eq. (ii) is the expression for voltage across the capacitor at any time t during charging. Note that growth

of voltage across the capacitor follows an exponential law [See Fig. 16.8].

q

v

q0

0.632 q0

0.632 E

t

RC

2RC

3RC 4RC

5RC

t

RC

Fig. 16.8

2RC

3RC 4RC

5RC

Fig. 16.9

Growth of charge: Suppose the final charge on the capacitor is q0. Since v = q/C and E = q0/C, eq.

(ii) becomes :

q q0

=

(1 et / RC )

C

C

or

q = q0 (1 et/RC)

...(iii)

Eq. (iii) gives the value of charge on the capacitor at any time t during charging. Note that increase

of charge on the capacitor plates follows exponential law [See Fig. 16.9].

Time constant:

v = E (1 et/RC)

The exponent of e is t/RC. The quantity RC has the *dimensions of time and is called time constant of the

circuit. It is denoted by .

Time constant,

= RC seconds

Note that time constant will be in seconds if R is in ohms and C in farad. For a given circuit, time constant

is constant because R and C are constant.

If time interval t = (= R C), then,

v = E (1 et/t) = E (1 e1) = 0.632 E

Hence capacitive time constant can be defined as the time in which the voltage across the capacitor

increases from zero to 0.632 of its maximum value [See Fig. 16.8].

The time constant is a measure of how long it takes the capacitor to charge to its final value. The larger the

value of R or C or both, the longer it takes for the capacitor to charge to the final value and vice-versa.

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

Theoretically, the voltage across the capacitor will reach the final value E in an infinite time. However, for most

practical purposes, we assume that the voltage across the capacitor reaches its final value after a time equal to

5 time constants (i.e. at t = 5 RC). It is a common practice to use this assumption.

Note: We can also define time constant in terms of growth of charge on capacitor plates.

q = q0 (1 et/RC)

If t = (= RC), then, we have,

q = q0 (1 et/t) = q0 (1 e1) = 0.632 q0

Hence, capacitive time constant can also be defined as the time in which the charge on the capacitor

increases from zero to 0.632 of its maximum value.

5. DISCHARGING OF A CAPACITOR

Consider the RC circuit shown in Fig. 16.10. First, we leave the switch S2 open and close the switch S1. As

a result, the capacitor starts charging up. After some time, the capacitor is charged to voltage E and the

corresponding final charge on capacitor plates is q0. If now switch S1 is opened and switch S2 closed, the

voltage across capacitor (as well as charge) starts decreasing. Let at any time t during discharging

v = p.d. across the capacitor

R

I = discharging current

S1

S2

By Kirchhoffs voltage law, we have,

dv

0 = v + RC

dt

dv

dt

=

dt

RC

Integrating both sides w.r.t. t, we have,

dv

dt

v = RC

or

Fig. 16.10

t

...(i)

+K

RC

where K is a constant of integration whose value can be determined from the initial conditions. At t = 0, v

= E. Putting these values in eq. (i), we have, loge E = K. Therefore, eq. (i) becomes:

t

+ log e E

log e v =

RC

log e v =

or

or

log e

or

or

v

t

=

E

RC

v

= et / RC

E

v = E et/RC

...(ii)

Again RC (= ) is the time constant of the circuit. Equation (ii) gives the value of voltage across the

capacitor at any time t during discharging. Note that decrease in voltage across the capacitor follows an

exponential law [See Fig. 16.11].

q

v

q0

E

0.368 q0

0.368E

0

t

RC

2RC

3RC 4RC

5RC

t

RC

4RC 5RC

Fig. 16.12

Fig. 16.11

Decay of charge:

2RC 3RC

q q0 t / RC

e

=

C

C

or

q = q0 et/RC

...(iii)

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

Eq. (iii) gives the value of charge on the capacitor at any time t during discharging. Note that

decrease of charge on capacitor follows exponential law [See Fig. 16.12].

Time constnat: v = E et/RC

If time interval t = (= RC), then, v = E et/t = E e1 = 0.368 E

Hence capacitive time constant may also be defined as the time during which the voltage on the

capacitor decays from maximum initial value to 0.368 of maximum value.

Theoretically, the voltage across the capacitor will reach zero value in an infinite time. However, for

most practical purposes, we assume that voltage across capacitor becomes zero after a time equal to 5 time

constants (i.e. at t = 5 RC).

Note. The larger the value of R or C or both, the longer it takes for the capacitor to discharge and viceversa.

Consider a source of e.m.f. connected to an inductor. As the current increases from zero, an e.m.f. is

induced in the inductor. This e.m.f. opposes the growth of current (Lenzs law). Therefore, electrical energy

must be supplied by the source of e.m.f. in setting up current in the inductor against this induced e.m.f. This

supplied energy is stored in the magnetic field of the inductor.

Consider an inductor of inductance L. Suppose at any instant the current in the inductor is I and is

increasing at the rate of dI/dt. Then magnitude of e.m.f. induced in the inductor is given by;

dI

dt

If the source of e.m.f. sends current I through the inductor for a small time dt, then small amount of work

done by the source is given by;

dI

dW = e I dt = L I dt = L I dI

dt

The total work done to increase the current from zero to the final value I0 is given by;

e=L

W =

I0

dW

I0

I2

L I dI = L

2

I0

1

or

W = L I 02

2

This work done is equal to the energy U stored in the inductor.

1

...(i)

LI 2

2 0

Eq. (i) gives the expression for the energy stored in an inductor when current through it increases from

zero to the final value I0. The energy stored will be in joules if inductance (L) and current (I0) are in henry

and amperes respectively. The following points may be noted:

(i) The energy stored in the inductor is supplied by the source of e.m.f.

(ii) The energy in an inductor can be considered to be stored in its magnetic field.

(iii) When current in an inductor is constant (say I 0), the e.m.f. induced in L is zero. However, the

energy stored in the inductor is (1/2) L I02.

When a source of e.m.f. is connected to a capacitor, the capacitor starts charging up. In other words,

electrons are removed from one plate and added to the other plate. The source of e.m.f. must do work

because electrons have to be moved against the *opposing forces. This work done is stored as energy in the

electric field of the capacitor.

Consider a capacitor of capacitance C. Suppose at any instant the charge on the capacitor is q and

potential difference across its plates is V.

q

V =

Then,

C

Suppose the source of e.m.f. adds a very small amount of charge dq to the plates of the capacitor such

that potential difference between the plates remains the same. Then the small amount of work done by the

source of e.m.f. is given by;

q

dW = V dq = dq

C

Total work done by the source in order to increase the charge from zero to the final value q0 is given by;

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

W =

q0

1

q

dq =

C

C

q0

q dq =

1 q0

2 C

2

1 q0

2 C

Since q0 = C V0 where V0 is the potential difference across the capacitor corresponding to charge q0,

2

1 q0

1

1

U =

= C V0 2 = q0 V0

2 C

2

2

Note that energy stored will be in joules if q0, C and V0 are in SI units.

(i) The energy stored in the capacitor is supplied by the source of e.m.f.

(ii) The source of e.m.f. supplies an amount of energy equal to q0V0 during the charging process. Half

of the energy (i.e. q0 V0/2) goes to the capacitor and the other half is transferred to heat in the

circuit resistance.

(iii) The energy stored in a capacitor may be considered to be stored in its electric field.

8. LC OSCILLATIONS

When a charged capacitor is connected to an inductor, the charge oscillates back and forth. In other words,

charge flows back and forth from one plate of the capacitor to the other through the inductor. This

results in the production of electrical oscillations (generally called electromagnetic oscillations). The

physical reason is that energy shuttles back and forth between the magnetic field of the inductor and the

electric field of the capacitor.

Consider a capacitor of capacitance C carrying a charge q. The energy is stored in the electric field

of the capacitor and is given by UE = q2/2C.

(i) Suppose an inductor of inductance L is connected to the capacitor. At this instant, all the energy

is stored in the electric field of the capacitor. The energy stored in the magnetic field of the

inductor (UB = L I2/2) is zero because the current is zero [See Fig. 16.13 (i)].

+ q q

+

+

C

L

(i)

q= 0

q + q

Current maximum

(ii)

(iii)

+ q q

Current maximum

(iv)

(v)

Fig. 16.13

(ii) The capacitor now begins to discharge through the inductor. As q *decreases, the energy stored

in the electric field also decreases. Since there is no loss of energy (inductor is assumed to

have zero resistance), the loss of stored energy in the capacitor must be transferred to the

magnetic field of the inductor. Thus as electric field decreases, the magnetic field builds up

and the energy is transferred from the former to the latter. When the capacitor is fully discharged, the electric field in the capacitor is zero, the energy there having been transferred

entirely to the magnetic field of the inductor [See Fig. 16.13 (ii)]. Since at this instant, the

energy (UB = L I2/2) in the inductor is maximum, the current is also maximum.

(iii) Once the capacitor is discharged, the magnetic field will begin to collapse and produce a counter

e.m.f. According to Lenzs law, the counter e.m.f. will keep the current flowing in the same

direction. The result is that capacitor now begins to charge but in the reverse direction. The

energy now flows from the inductor back to the capacitor as charge and electric field build up

again. Eventually, the capacitor receives all its original energy back and, therefore, is charged to

the same voltage as originally, except in the opposite direction [See Fig. 16.13 (iii)].

(iv) The capacitor will start to discharge again but in the opposite direction as shown in Fig. 16.13 (iv).

The circuit eventually returns to its initial situation [See Fig. 16.13 (v)].

The whole process then repeats, giving continuous electrical oscillations. Note that not only does the

charge oscillate back and forth but so does the energy. It can be shown that electrical oscillations will have a

sinusoidal waveform [See Fig. 16.14] of frequency f given by;

f =

1

2 L C

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

If LC circuit does not have any resistance, the amplitude of oscillations will remain constant. Such

oscillations are called undamped oscillations [See Fig. 16.14]. However, in a practical LC circuit, there are

resistance losses in the inductor and dielectric loss in the capacitor. During each oscillation, a small part of

I

Fig. 16.14

Fig. 16.15

the originally imparted energy is used up to overcome these losses. The result is that the amplitude of oscillating current decreases gradually [See Fig. 16.15] and eventually it becomes zero when all the energy is consumed

as losses. Such oscillations are called damped oscillations. Therefore, LC circuit by itself will produce damped

oscillations. It may be noted that frequency of oscillations remains unchanged since it depends upon L and C.

Consider a capacitor of capacitance C initially charged to value q0. When an inductor of inductance L

is connected to the capacitor, the capacitor begins to discharge. As it does so, an e.m.f. is induced in the

inductor. At every instant, the p.d. across the capacitor must be equal to p.d. across the inductor which

is equal to its induced e.m.f. Suppose at any time t, the charge on the capacitor is q and current in the

circuit is I [See Fig. 16.16].

q

dI

=L

C

dt

dI

q

or

...(i)

L

+

=0

dt C

The current I is due solely to the flow of charge from the capacitor so that :

dq

or

dt

Therefore, relation of eq. (i) can be written as :

I =

L

*

or

d 2q

dt

d 2q

dt 2

dI d 2 q

= 2

dt

dt

q

=0

C

C

q

Fig. 16.16

1

= 2

LC

d 2q

+ 2 q = 0

dt 2

The general solution of this differential equation is

q = A cos t + B sin t

where A and B are constants whose values can be found from initial conditions.

(i) At

t = 0,

q0 = A cos (0) + B sin (0)

or

A = q0

dq

d

(A cos t + B sin t)

=

dt

dt

I = A sin t + B cos t

I =

or

t = 0,

0 = A sin (0) + B cos (0)

or

I

+q

1

+

q=0

LC

Put

At

B=0

...(ii)

...(iii)

TRANSIENT CURRENTS

q = q0 cos t

...(iv)

Eq. (iv) shows that charge on the capacitor in an LC circuit varies sinusoidally. The current in the

inductor also varies sinusoidally since

dq

d

(q0 cos t) = q0 sin t

=

dt

dt

(a) The maximum value of varying charge on the capacitor is q0.

I =

I 0 = q0 = q0

LC

(c) The frequency of oscillating charge (or current) is given by;

f =

1

2 LC

2

=

LC

( = 2 f)

We have seen above that in an LC circuit, there is continuous exchange of energy between the capacitor (C)

and the inductor (L). If the resistance effects are neglected, it can be shown that total energy in the circuit is

constant and energy is conserved. In other words, the sum of the energy stored in the capacitor and the inductor

at any time is constant and does not depend upon time.

Consider a capacitor of capacitance C initially charged to a value q0. The total energy in the LC

circuit is given by;

q2

U = 0

2C

Suppose at any time t, the charge left on the capacitor is q and current in the inductor is I.

Energy stored in the electric field of the capacitor is

2

1 q 2 q0

=

cos 2 t

2 C

2C

Energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor is

UE =

2 2

1 2 L q0

LI =

sin 2 t

2

2

q02

=

sin 2 t

2C

Therefore, at any time t, the total energy in the LC circuit is

q2

q2

U = U E + U B = 0 cos 2 t + 0 sin 2 t

2C

2C

2

q

q2

= 0 (cos 2 t + sin 2 t ) = 0

2C

2C

UB =

q02

2C

Hence the total energy is constant and is conserved.

or

U =

( q = q0 cos t)

( I = q0 sin t)

( 2 = 1/L C)

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