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AGMA 929- A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929- A06

Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and


Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius
American
AGMA 929--A06
Gear
Manufacturers CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
Association
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
AGMA 929--A06, Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge
Radius, published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery
Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved August 22, 2006

ABSTRACT
This information sheet supplements ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03 with calculations for bevel gear top land and guidance for selection of cutter edge radius for determination of tooth geometry. It integrates various publications
with modifications to include face hobbing. It adds top land calculations for non--generated manufacturing methods. It is intended to provide assistance in completing the calculations requiring determination of top lands
and cutter edge radii for gear capacity in accordance with ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2006 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN: 1--55589--873--4

ii

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

Contents
Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
Symbols, terminology and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Input data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv
1
1
5
8

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Annexes
A
B
C
D

Additional equations from ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Stock allowance and standard cutter specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spiral bevel example problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hypoid example problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18
23
24
31

Tables
1
2
3
4
5

Symbols and terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Input variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symbols and terms from ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03, table 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear rotation factor, kE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suggested defaults for input data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

1
6
7
7
7

iii

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 929--A06, Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius.]
The Bevel Gearing Committee recognized the need for additional equations to aid in the
design of bevel gears. The equations for geometry factors found in the annex of
ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97 require detailed information on the proposed cutting tool before a
proper calculation can be performed. In addition, the minimum top land thickness is
required to aid in determining the maximum case depth allowed on carburized bevel gears.
The equations required for these values were not published in AGMA documentation, but
could be found, for some cases, in the publications listed in the bibliography of this
information sheet. AGMA 929--A06 expands on those equations to include gears
manufactured with the face hobbing cutting method.
In the case of non--generated gears, the equations in this document may yield different
values for pinion top land thicknesses and gear tooth depth at the toe and heel than obtained
on some well known commercial software. The pinion top land thickness is reduced by
curvature added to the pinion, a natural consequence of the non--generated gear member
having no profile curvature on the teeth. For the gear member, the non--generating process
cuts a rootline tangent to the gear root cone, a rootline which does not wrap around the root
cone as in the generated case. This leaves the toe and heel ends of the tooth slots shallow
compared to the generated gear case, and the gear tooth space at the ends of the teeth
narrower. The non--generated gear is the imaginary generating gear for the pinion. So the
pinion teeth, which fit in the non--generated gear tooth slots, are thinner at the ends than
their generated gear counterparts.
The cutter edge radii calculated in this document are based on the geometrical conditions
present and include a manufacturing gauging flat. Individual blade manufacturers have
standard blade edge radii and manufacturing tolerances for their products which should be
considered when sourcing non--standard radii. It is recommended to work closely with the
blade supplier to ensure design specifications and sourced product specifications are
consistent.
The first draft of AGMA 929--A06 was made in February, 1999. It was approved by the
AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee in August, 2006.
Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

iv

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Bevel Gear Committee


Chairman: Robert F. Wasilewski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arrow Gear Company
Vice Chairman: George Lian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amarillo Gear Company

ACTIVE MEMBERS
T. Guertin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J. Kolonko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T.J. Krenzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P.A. McNamara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
K. Miller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W. Tsung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

Liebherr Gear Technology Company


Rexnord Geared Products
Gleason Corporation
Caterpillar, Inc.
Dana Spicer Off Highway Products
Dana Corporation

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally blank)

vi

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

American Gear Manufacturers


Association --

Calculation of Bevel
Gear Top Land and
Guidance on Cutter
Edge Radius

AGMA 929--A06

non--generated manufacturing methods, to achieve


compatibility between publications.
It is intended to provide assistance in completing the
calculations requiring determination of top lands and
cutter edge radii in ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, Rating
the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of
Generated Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel and Spiral
Bevel Gear Teeth.
Annexes are provided for additional related
information and calculation examples.

2 Symbols, terminology and definitions


2.1 Symbols and terminology

1 Scope
This information sheet provides a set of equations for
the calculation of bevel gear top land and guidance
on cutter edge radius. It integrates the equations in
ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03, Design Manual for Bevel
Gears, and Gleason publication SD3124B,
Formulas for Cutter Specifications and Tooth Thickness Measurements for Spiral Bevel and Hypoid
Gears, with modifications to include face hobbing,
and additions for the top land calculations for

The equations in this information sheet are written in


terms generally used for hypoids. See table 1.
For other gears, the nomenclature from ANSI/AGMA
2005--D03, table 9 are used (see table 3).
NOTE: Some of the symbols and terminology contained in this document may differ from those used in
other documents and AGMA standards. Users of this
standard should assure themselves that they are using
the symbols, terminology and definitions in the manner
indicated herein.

Table 1 -- Symbols and terms


Symbol
AiG, AiP
AmG, AmP
AoG, AoP
AxG
aG, aP
aiG, aiP
aiG, aiP
aoG, aoP
B
bG, bP
biG, biP
boG, boP
bxG, bxP
boG
c

Term
Inner cone distance, gear or pinion
Mean cone distance, gear or pinion
Outer cone distance, gear or pinion
Cone distance for involute lengthwise curvature point
where normal circular pitch and slot width is a maximum
Mean addendum, gear or pinion
Inner addendum, gear or pinion
Adjusted inner addendum, gear or pinion
Outer addendum, gear or pinion
Outer normal backlash allowance
Mean dedendum, gear or pinion
Inner dedendum, gear or pinion
Outer dedendum, gear or pinion
Dedendum at cone distance AxG, gear or pinion
Theoretical outer gear dedendum
Clearance

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

Units
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

Where first
used
Eq 7, Eq 1
Eq 9, Eq 1
Eq 7, Eq 3
Eq 31
Eq 50, Eq 50
Eq 78, Eq 77
Eq 82, Eq 81
Eq 163, Eq 162
Eq 6
Eq 19, Eq 22
Eq 25, Eq 24
Eq 20, Eq 22
Eq 44, Eq 45
Eq 19
Eq 77
(continued)

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol
D, d
FG, FP
FiP
FoP
FxG
kE
N, n
pm
pn
Q
q
qi
qo
qx
RbNG1, RbNP2
RbNG2, RbNP1
RibVG, RibVP
RibXG, RibXP
RiG, RiP
RioG, RioP
RNG, RNP
RoNG, RoNP
RbNG1,
RbNP2
RbNG2,
RbNP1
RiG, RiP
RNG, RNP
RoNG, RoNP
RbNG1,
RbNP2
RbNG2,
RbNP1
RNG, RNP
RoNG, RoNP
rc
rTG, rTP
r1G, r1P
r1VG, r1VP
r1XG, r1XP
r2G, r2P
r2RG, r2RP

Term

Units

Pitch diameter, gear or pinion


Face width of gear or pinion
Hypoid pinion face width from calculation point to inside
Hypoid pinion face width from calculation point to outside
Distance from mean cone to cone distance at involute
curvature
Gear rotation factor
Number of teeth, gear or pinion
Mean circular pitch
Mean normal circular pitch
Intermediate factor
Generating angle at mean
Generating angle at inside
Generating angle at outside
Generating angle at involute curvature
Mean normal base radius, convex, gear or pinion
Mean normal base radius, concave, gear or pinion
Inner base radius -- concave, gear or pinion
Inner base radius -- convex, gear or pinion
Original inner pitch radius, gear or pinion
Inner outside radius, gear or pinion
Mean normal pitch radius, gear or pinion
Mean normal outside radius, gear or pinion
Outer normal base radius, convex, gear or pinion

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

Where first
used
Eq 140, Eq 139
Eq 25, Eq 2
Eq 1
Eq 3
Eq 38

-- --- -inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

Eq 52
Eq 79, Eq 79
Eq 27
Eq 27
Eq 35
Eq 9
Eq 13
Eq 11
Eq 39
Eq 143, Eq 142
Eq 144, Eq 141
Eq 90, Eq 87
Eq 89, Eq 88
Eq 76, Eq 75
Eq 86, Eq 85
Eq 140, Eq 139
Eq 146, Eq 145
Eq 160, Eq 159

Outer normal base radius, concave, gear or pinion

inch

Eq 161, Eq 158

New inner pitch radius, gear or pinion


Outer normal pitch radius, gear or pinion
Outer normal outside radius, gear or pinion
Inner normal base radius, convex, gear or pinion

inch
inch
inch
inch

Eq 84, Eq 83
Eq 157, Eq 156
Eq 163, Eq 162
Eq 179, Eq 178

Inner normal base radius, concave, gear or pinion

inch

Eq 180, Eq 177

Inner mean normal pitch radius, gear or pinion


Inner normal outside radius, gear or pinion
Cutter radius
Maximum blade edge radius, gear or pinion
Maximum blade edge radius for no running interference,
gear or pinion
Maximum blade edge radius for no running interference
concave, gear or pinion
Maximum blade edge radius for no running interference
convex, gear or pinion
Maximum blade edge radius that can be manufactured,
gear or pinion
Roughing cutter edge radius, gear or pinion

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

Eq 176, Eq 175
Eq 182, Eq 181
Eq 9
Eq 74, Eq 73
Eq 74, Eq 73

inch

Eq 106, Eq 103

inch

Eq 105, Eq 104

inch

Eq 74, Eq 73

inch

Eq 113, Eq 114
(continued)

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol
r3G, r3P
r3VG, r3VP
r3XG, r3XP
r2RG, r2RP
r2VG, r2VP
r2XG, r2XP
r2VG, r2VP
r2XG, r2XP
SAG, SAP
S1
Tmn, tmn
Tn
tiNG, tiNP
tLiNG, tLiNP
tLNG, tLNP
tLoNG, tLoNP
tmP
toNG, toNP
W
WBG, WBP
WBRG, WBRP
We
WiG, WiP
WLG, WLP
WMG, WMP
WmG, WmP
WoG, WoP
WRG, WRP
WxG, WxP
xiVG, xiVP
xiXG, xiXP
y
,
R
aG, aP

Term
Maximum blade edge radius to avoid mutilation, gear or
pinion
Maximum blade edge radius to avoid mutilation concave,
gear or pinion
Maximum blade edge radius to avoid mutilation convex,
gear or pinion
Maximum roughing blade edge radius which can be
manufactured, gear or pinion
Maximum finishing blade edge radius concave, defined by
maximum roughing blade edge radius and minimum stock
allowance, gear or pinion
Maximum finishing blade edge radius convex, defined by
maximum roughing blade edge radius and minimum stock
allowance, gear or pinion
Maximum finishing blade edge radius concave, gear or
pinion
Maximum finishing blade edge radius convex, gear or
pinion
Stock allowance, gear or pinion
Crown gear to cutter center distance
Mean normal circular thickness at pitch line, gear or
pinion
Gear mean normal circular thickness without backlash
Inner normal circular thickness at pitch line, gear or pinion
Inner normal top land, gear or pinion
Mean normal top land, gear or pinion
Outer normal top land, gear or pinion
Mean pinion transverse circular thickness
Outer normal circular thickness at pitch line, gear or
pinion
Finishing point width gear (Unitool and single sided)
Finishing blade point, gear or pinion
Roughing blade point, gear or pinion
Effective gear point width
Inner slot width, gear or pinion
Minimum slot width, gear or pinion
Maximum slot width, gear or pinion
Mean slot width, gear or pinion
Outer slot width, gear or pinion
Roughing point width, gear or pinion
Slot width at AxG (maximum gear or pinion slot)
Limit tooth height for interference concave, gear or pinion
Limit tooth height for interference convex, gear or pinion
Amount of fillet mutilation permitted
Pitch angle, gear or pinion
Gear root angle
Change in inner addendum, gear or pinion

Units
inch

Where first
used
Eq 74, Eq 73

inch

Eq 136, Eq 133

inch

Eq 135, Eq 134

inch

Eq 111, Eq 112

inch

Eq 118, Eq 115

inch

Eq 117, Eq 116

inch

Eq 122, Eq 119

inch

Eq 121, Eq 120

inch
inch
inch

Eq 65, Eq 66
Eq 34
Eq 47, Eq 48

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

Eq 47
Eq 189, Eq 188
Eq 192, Eq 190
Eq 154, Eq 152
Eq 173, Eq 171
Eq 49
Eq 170, Eq 169

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
inch

Table 2
Eq 69, Eq 70
Eq 67, Eq 68
Eq 52
Eq 59, Eq 60
Eq 61, Eq 62
Eq 63, Eq 64
Eq 50, Eq 51
Eq 55, Eq 56
Eq 65, Eq 66
Eq 57, Eq 58
Eq 102, Eq 97
Eq 101, Eq 99
Eq 129
Eq 76, Eq 75
Eq 17
Eq 80, Eq 79
(continued)

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (continued)
Symbol
biG
boG
bxG
cG, cP
f
qi
qo
qx
WG, WP
2
G, P
i
o
x
1
iVG, iVP
iXG, iXP

b
bi
bo
bx

BXG
iV
iX
1
2
1TG, 2TP
2TG, 1TP
1TG, 2TP
2TG, 1TP
1TG, 2TP
2TG, 1TP
G, P
iG, iP
oG, oP
xG
VG, VP
XG, XP

Term

Units

Depth reduction on non--generated gear at inside


Depth reduction on non--generated gear at outside
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at involute
curvature
Change in clearance, gear or pinion
Width of blade flat
Increment in generating angle at inside
Increment in generating angle at outside
Increment in generating angle at involute curvature
Difference between minimum slot width and blade point,
gear or pinion
Normal tilt of finishing cutter non--generated
Dedendum angle of gear or pinion
Generating angle at inside
Generating angle at outside
Generating angle at involute curvature, for face hobbing
Second auxiliary angle
Inner profile radius of curvature concave, gear or pinion
Inner profile radius of curvature convex, gear or pinion
Angle between gear root plane and plane in which taper is
specified
Sum of pinion and gear mean dedendums
Sum of pinion and gear inner dedendums
Sum of pinion and gear outer dedendums
Sum of pinion and gear dedendums at cone distance AxG
Included pressure angle
Inside blade angle gear cutter (non--generating)
Inner pinion pressure angle -- concave
Inner pinion pressure angle -- convex
Normal pressure angle, concave, pinion
Normal pressure angle, convex, pinion
Pressure angle at tip of tooth, convex gear or pinion
Pressure angle at tip of tooth, concave gear or pinion
Pressure angle at tip of tooth, outer convex gear or pinion
Pressure angle at tip of tooth, outer concave gear or
pinion
Pressure angle at tip of tooth, inner convex gear or pinion
Pressure angle at tip of tooth, inner concave gear or
pinion
Mean spiral angle, gear or pinion
Inner spiral angle, gear or pinion
Outer spiral angle, gear or pinion
Spiral angle at cone distance AxG
Intermediate blade mutilation value concave, gear or
pinion
Intermediate blade mutilation value convex, gear or pinion

inch
inch
inch

Where first
used
Eq 18
Eq 17
Eq 42

inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch

Eq 7, Eq 6
Eq 111
Eq 16
Eq 15
Eq 41
Eq 128, Eq 127

degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch
inch
degrees

Eq 8
Eq 19, Eq 22
Eq 14
Eq 12
Eq 34
Eq 10
Eq 96, Eq 93
Eq 95, Eq 94
Eq 53

inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees

Eq 28
Eq 30
Eq 29
Eq 46
Eq 5
Eq 8
Eq 91
Eq 92
Eq 5
Eq 5
Eq 150, Eq 149
Eq 151, Eq 148
Eq 167, Eq 166
Eq 168, Eq 165

degrees
degrees

Eq 186, Eq 185
Eq 187, Eq 184

degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch2

Eq 9, Eq 139
Eq 7, Eq 6
Eq 7, Eq 6
Eq 32
Eq 132, Eq 129

inch2

Eq 131, Eq 130

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AGMA 929--A06

2.2 Definitions

2.2.2 Bevel gear cutting method terminology

This clause provides supplemental definitions for


bevel gear cutter and cutting method terminologies
referred to in this information sheet. The list of
definitions given here is not intended to be all
inclusive. For more detailed information regarding a
particular cutter design or cutting method, the user is
encouraged to consult the cutter manufacturers
data or machine tool manufacturer.

completing. A machining process where the tooth


space is completed in one machining setup. Unlike
single side, single setting, or fixed setting methods
where the tooth space roughing and finishing are
carried out in separate machining setups.

2.2.1 Bevel gear cutter terminology

Formate. A term describing non--generated gear


members whose teeth have surfaces of revolution,
and straight profiles in their normal sections. Pinions
generated to run with such gears are called Formate
pinions.

alternate blade. Any multiple blade face cutter


having successive blades that cut on opposite sides
of a tooth space.
blade flat. A flat land on the end of blades required
for blade manufacturing control.
blade point. The length across the end surface of a
blade or tool (measured along a radius of a circular
cutter), bounded by the extension of the cutting edge
and non--cutting edge of the blade.
blade, inside. A blade of a circular face cutter with a
cutting edge that produces the convex side of a tooth
surface.
blade, outside. A blade of a circular face cutter with
a cutting edge that produces the concave tooth
surface.
coast side. The side of a tooth flank that is in contact
with the opposite flank of the mate when the gear set
is driven in the reverse direction.
drive side. The side of a tooth flank that is in contact
with the opposite flank of the mate when the gear set
is driven in the forward direction.
effective gear point width. Effective point width is
one half of the difference of the outside minus the
inside point diameters of a cutter. The effective point
width is not equal to the slot width produced on the
part when indexing motion occurs between drive and
coast side generation. For spread blade cutters, the
effective point width equals the actual cutter point
width. When indexing accounts for part of the slot
width, the effective point width can be negative.
fillet mutilation. Fouling of tooth fillet by the
non--cutting side of the blade tip. This is caused by a
tool edge radius or a blade point which is too large.
point width. One half of the difference between the
inside and outside point diameters of an alternate
blade cutter.

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

cutter tilt. A change in the relative position between


workpiece and cutter, measured as an angle in the
normal, or axial, or both planes of the workpiece.

non--generated method. A gear cutting process


where the tooth space is machined without generating motion (see Formate). The tooth surfaces are
formed by the sweep of a straight--sided cutting tool
and thus have straight profiles in any normal section.
single setting. A finishing method which is a
variation of the spread blade method. It is used on
wide face width gears to avoid having two cutter
blades cutting in the same slot at the same time.
single side. A cutting method which uses an
alternate blade cutter to separately cut the profiles
on each side of a tooth space, with independent
machine settings.
spread blade. A cutting method which uses a
circular face cutter with alternate inside and outside
blades to cut both sides of a tooth space at the same
time.
Unitool. A method for producing pairs of spiral
bevel, zerol bevel or hypoid gears using the same
single face mill cutter for both members. The cutters
used with this method are designated as Unitool
cutters.
Versacut. A process which requires very few cutters
to accommodate a wide variety of spiral bevel gears.
The cutters used with this method are designated as
Versacut cutters.

3 Input data
The equations in this information sheet are intended
to be as general as possible. Many of the
calculations require knowledge of the specific cutting method used in manufacture. Supplemental

AGMA 929--A06

definitions to be used with the terms described in


ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03 for proper input data selection based on the manufacturing method used can
be found in 2.2.
The tables in this clause describe the data necessary
to complete the calculations of this information
sheet. In most cases the values can be obtained
from the calculations detailed in ANSI/AGMA
2005--D03. Many of those calculations are duplicated in annex A. Additional tables are provided
here to supplement those calculations.
3.1 Input variables
Table 2 contains all the input variables necessary for
the calculations used in this information sheet.

Table 2 -- Input variables


Symbol
AiG
AmG
AmP
AoG
aG
aP
aoG
aoP
B
bG
bP
c
D
d
FG
FP
N
n
pm
rc
SAG
SAP
Tn
W
y
Symbol

Term
Inner gear cone distance
Gear mean cone distance
Pinion mean cone distance
Gear outer cone distance
Gear mean addendum
Pinion mean addendum
Outer gear addendum
Outer pinion addendum
Outer normal backlash allowance
Gear mean dedendum
Pinion mean dedendum
Clearance
Gear pitch diameter
Pinion pitch diameter
Gear face width
Pinion face width
Gear number of teeth
Pinion number of teeth
Mean circular pitch
Cutter radius
Stock allowance, gear
Stock allowance, pinion
Gear mean normal circular
thickness without backlash
Gear finishing point width (Unitool
and single setting)
Amount of fillet mutilation permitted
Term

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Gear pitch angle


Gear root angle
Pinion pitch angle
Width of blade flat
Dedendum angle of gear
Dedendum angle of pinion
Inside blade angle, gear cutter
(non--generating)
Concave pinion normal pressure
1
angle
Convex pinion normal pressure
2
angle (always negative)
Gear mean spiral angle
G
Pinion mean spiral angle
P
Inner gear spiral angle
iG
Inner pinion spiral angle
iP
Outer gear spiral angle
oG
Outer pinion spiral angle
oP
Additional input variables for face hobbing
Q
Intermediate factor
S1
Crown gear to cutter center
distance
Generating angle at inside
i
Generating angle at outside
o
Second auxiliary angle
1
Additional input variables for hypoids
FiP
Hypoid pinion face width from
calculation point to inside
FoP
Hypoid pinion face width from
calculation point to outside

f
G
P
BXG

3.2 Variable substitutions


The calculations in this information sheet are written
in terms of hypoid gears. Many of the variables for
non--hypoid bevels are subscripted the same for
pinion and gear. Table 3 provides a means for proper
substitution of these variables into the calculations
for hypoids.
3.3 Gear rotation factor
Table 4 provides for the proper selection of the input
variable kE based on the cutting method to be used in
manufacture.
3.4 Additional input data
Table 5 contains some suggested default values for
variables not described in ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03.
Other values may be used if experience dictates.

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

Table 3 -- Symbols and terms from ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03, table 9

Symbol
AmG
AmP
AoG
AoP
FG
FP
1
2
G
oG
P

Equivalent symbol
from ANSI/AGMA
2005--D03
Am
Am
Ao
Ao
F
F

Term
Gear mean cone distance
Pinion mean cone distance
Gear outer cone distance
Pinion outer cone distance
Gear face width
Pinion face width
Pressure angle -- drive side
Pressure angle -- coast side, set 2 to --1
Gear mean spiral angle
Outer gear spiral angle
Pinion mean spiral angle

Table 4 -- Gear rotation factor, kE


Generating method
Spread blade
Gleason and Klingelnberg
Oerlikon not using a roughing blade
Oerlikon using a roughing blade
Straight bevels and planing generator

Face hobbing

Face milling
X

kE
0.0
1.0
1.0
1.3

X
X
X

2 W mG
pn

Unitool and single setting

2 W mG W
pn

Versacut and standard single side

2W mG + b Gtan 1 tan 2
pn

Table 5 -- Suggested defaults for input data

BXG

Term
Inside blade angle of gear cutter (non--generated gear only)

SAP

Stock allowance, pinion

inch

SAG

Stock allowance, gear

inch

y
f

Amount of fillet mutilation permitted


Width of blade flat
Cutter radius (straight bevels)
Cutter radius (all other bevels)

inch
inch

Symbol

rc

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

Units
degrees

inch

Suggested default
Average pressure angle
For completing, use 0.000
For rough and finish, use
actual or see annex B
For completing, use 0.000
For rough and finish, use
actual or see annex B
0.002
0.008
10000
See ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4 Calculations

Face hobbing
qo = o
Generating angle at inside

4.1 General geometry

Face milling

Inner pinion cone distance


Hypoids

q i = arctan
(1)

A iP = A mP F iP
For all other bevels

(2)

A iP = A mP 0.5 F P
Outer pinion cone distance

r c cos iG
A iG r c sin iG

(13)

Face hobbing
qi = i

(14)

Increment in generating angle


Outside

Hypoids

(15)

q o = q q o

A oP = A mP + F oP

(3)

Inside
q i = q i q

For all other bevels


A oP = A mP + 0.5 F P

(4)

Included pressure angle


= 1 2

(5)

Change in clearance

Outside

B A iP cos iP
1
c P =
A oP cos oP sin 1 sin 2

(6)

B A iG cos iG
1
c G =
A oG cos oG sin 1 sin 2

tan 2

2 r c cos 2 G

(7)

For non--generated gears normal tilt of finishing


cutter
(8)

b iG =

A mG A iG

tan 2

2 r c cos2 G

A iG sin 2 q i
2 tan R
(18)

Theoretical outer gear dedendum


b oG = b G + A oG A mG tan G

(19)

Outer gear dedendum


b oG = b oG b oG

Face milling

(9)

b oG = b oG

(21)

Outer pinion dedendum

Face hobbing
q = 1 + G

(10)

Generating angle at outside

Hypoid
b oP = b P + F oP tan P

(22)

All other bevels

Face milling
r c cos oG
A oG r c sin oG

(20)

Generated gear

r c cos G
q = arctan
A mG r c sin G

A oG sin 2 q o
2 tan R

Non--generated gear

Generating angle at mean

Inside

If cP is greater than 0.75 c, or if cG is greater than


0.75 c, reduce B or increase the clearance c.

2 = BXG 1

b oG =

AoG AmG

(17)

Gear

q o = arctan

(16)

Generated gears have slightly deeper teeth at the


toe and heel ends than non--generated gears
caused by the relative rolling action between cutter
and work piece. For non--generated gear depth
reduction:

Pinion

(12)

b oP = b P + 0.5 F P tan P
(11)

(23)

Inner pinion dedendum


b iP = b oP F P tan P

(24)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Inner gear dedendum

For the third and subsequent trials iterate.

Non--generated gear
b iG = b oG F G tan G b iG

(25)

Generated gear
b iG = b oG F G tan G

(26)

Mean normal circular pitch


p n = p m cos G

(27)

Sum of pinion and gear outer dedendums


(29)

Sum of pinion and gear inner dedendums


b i = b iP + b iG

Cone distance for involute lengthwise curvature


point where normal circular pitch and slot width is a
maximum for face milling
(31)

Spiral angle at cone distance AxG (face milling)

rc
xG = arcsin
A xG

(32)

For face hobbing iterate for cone distance and spiral


angle at involute lengthwise curvature point,
AxG,where normal circular pitch is a maximum.
Initial cone distance at involute lengthwise curvature
point
(33)

A xG = A mG

Generating angle at involute curvature for face


hobbing
x = arccos

A 2 + S 21 r 2c
xG

2 A xG S 1

(34)

Spiral angle at cone distance AxG for face hobbing


xG = arctan

A xG Q cos x
Q sin x

(35)

Change AxG, until

xG

0.0001

(36)

For the second trial make


A xG = A xG + 0.0001 inch

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

F xG = A xG A mG

(38)

Face milling

r c cos xG
A xG r c sin xG

(39)

Face hobbing
qx = x

(40)

Increment in generating angle at involute curvature


(41)

q x = q q x
(30)

A xG = A 2mG 2 A mG r c sin G + 2 r 2c

Distance from mean cone to cone distance at


involute curvature

q x = arctan
(28)

b o = b oP + b oG

If AiG < AxG < AoG, calculate FxG, qx, qx, bxG, bxP
and bx; otherwise, set these items to zero.

Generating angle at involute curvature

Sum of pinion and gear mean dedendums


b = b P + b G

AGMA 929--A06

Depth reduction on gear at involute curvature


Non--generated gear
b xG =

F 2 tan 2
xG

2 r c cos 2 G

A xG sin 2 q x
2 tan R

(42)

Generated gear
b xG = 0

(43)

Gear dedendum at cone distance AxG


(44)

b xG = b G + F xG tan G b xG
Pinion dedendum at cone distance AxG

(45)

b xP = b P + F xG tan P

Sum of pinion and gear dedendums at cone distance


AxG
(46)

b x = b xP + b xG
4.2 Slot width
specifications

calculations

and

blade

4.2.1 Slot width calculations, mean


The following calculations for the mean normal
circular thickness for the gear and pinion are
modifications to the calculations in table 9 of
ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03. Backlash has been added
and the backlash is divided evenly between the two
members. If the mean normal circular tooth thicknesses are otherwise available, bypass equations
47 and 48.
Mean normal gear circular thickness
T mn = T n

(37)

A mG
A oG

B cos G

2 cos

2 cos

(47)
oG

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Outer pinion slot width

Mean normal pinion circular thickness


t mn = p n T mn

A mG
A oG

B cos G

2 cos

cos

A cos oG
W oP = oG
p b otan 1 tan 2
A mG cos G n
oG

(48)

Mean pinion transverse circular thickness


t mP =

t mn
cos G

(49)

W oG +

(56)

2
If AiG < AxG < AoG, calculate WxG and WxP, otherwise,
set these items to zero
cos

Mean gear slot width

Slot width at AxG, gear (maximum gear slot width)

W mG = p n T mn b tan 1 tan 2
2

(50)
a P a G tan
2

W xG = W e 1

Mean pinion slot width


W mP = p n b tan 1 tan 2
+

A mG cos G
A oG cos oG

B
W mG

cos
2

kE pn
2
4.2.2 Slot width calculation, outer
W e = W mG

+ A mG A xG

(52)

tan 1 tan 2 tan

cos
2

A xG cos xG
A oG cos oG

(57)

Slot width at AxG, pinion (maximum pinion slot


width)

(53)

= G
All other cutting methods.
=0

(54)

Outer gear slot width

A cos xG
W xP = xG
p b xtan 1 tan 2
A mG cos G n
A cos xG
W xG + xG
A oG cos oG

A iG cos iG
A
+ iG
A mG cos G
A mG

t mP cos iG

A iG cos iG
b
A mG cos G G

tan 1 tan 2 +

cos
2

+ A mG A oGtan 1 tan 2 tan


(55)

(58)

Inner gear slot width


W iG = W e 1

A cos oG
t mP cos oG oG
A mG cos G

cos
2

4.2.3 Slot width calculation, inner

A cos oG
A
1 oG
+ oG
A mG cos G
A mG

b Gtan 1 tan 2 +

(51)

Single side and Versacut methods

A xG cos xG
A mG cos G

b G tan 1 tan 2 +

Angle between gear root plane and plane in which


taper is specified:

W oG = W e

A xG cos xG
A
+ xG
A mG cos G
A mG

t mP cos xG

Effective gear point width

10

A iG cos iG
A oG cos oG

B
+ A mG A iG

cos
2

tan 1 tan 2 tan

(59)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Pinion

Inner pinion slot width


W iP =

A iG cos iG
p b i tan 1 tan 2
A mG cos G n

W iG +

A iG cos iG
A oG cos oG

AGMA 929--A06

(60)

4.2.4 Slot widths, minimum and maximum

(70)

Gear
W BG = W LG S AG

(71)

Pinion

Minimum gear slot width


W LG = minimum of W oG, W mG, or W iG

W LP
+ 0.001
2

Maximum for rough and finish methods

cos
2

W BP =

W BP = W LP S AP
(61)

(72)

4.2.6 Standard blade point

Minimum pinion slot width


W LP = minimum of W oP, W mP, or W iP

(62)

Maximum gear slot width


W MG = maximum of W oG, W xG, W iG, or W mG
(63)
Maximum pinion slot width
W MP = maximum of W oP, W xP, W iP, or W mP
(64)
4.2.5 Point width and blade point calculations
Roughing cutter calculations for processes with
separate rough and finish operations and cutters:
Roughing point width
Gear
W RG = W LG S AG

(65)

Pinion
W RP = W LP S AP

(66)

Minimum roughing blade point


Gear
W BRG =

W RG
+ 0.001
2

(67)

W RP
+ 0.001
2

(68)

Bevel gear blades are either sharpened on the rake


face or on the blade profile. For face sharpened
blades, the blade point and edge radius are formed
by the blade manufacturer. For each distinct blade
point, a separate cutter blade would be required. A
common practice is to consolidate similar sized
blade points into standard ones. A table of standard
blade points is included in annex B for reference.
When standard blade point is used, choose one that
satisfies the blade point equations given in 4.2.5.
Note that there may be more than one standard
blade point that would satisfy the blade point
equations. For profile sharpened blades, the
required blade point and edge radii are formed at
sharpening. Standardization of blade point is
generally not an issue.
The choice of blade point may affect maximum edge
radius that can be manufactured, see 4.3.2, and
maximum edge radius for avoiding mutilation, see
4.3.3. In general, a larger blade point allows a larger
edge radius to be manufactured. However, the
larger blade point may reduce the maximum edge
radius for avoiding mutilation. It might be possible to
select a blade point, standard or otherwise, in an
attempt to balance the maximum edge radius that
can be manufactured and the maximum edge radius
for avoiding mutilation.

Pinion
W BRP =

Finishing blade point


Minimum for completing manufacturing methods
Gear
W BG =

W LG
+ 0.001
2

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

(69)

Cutters for the Unitool method use standard blades


exclusively. For each available cutter diameter, the
corresponding cutter blades have standard blade
point and edge radius. When a cutter diameter is
chosen, the blade point and tool edge radii are also
defined.
Consult the manufacturer for available cutter
information.

11

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

4.3 Cutter edge radius calculation

Inner pinion outside radius

The cutter edge radius for a bevel gear should not


exceed the radius that would cause any of the
following conditions:

R ioP = R iP + a iP
Inner gear outside radius
R ioG = R iG + a iG

-- unable to manufacture radius on blade, see


4.3.2;

Concave

-- fillet mutilation, see 4.3.3.

Convex

Maximum pinion blade edge radius

R ibXP = R iP cos 2
(73)

(74)

4.3.1
Cutter edge radius for no running
interference
Virtual gear calculations

R iP =

cos2 iP

(75)

R iG =

cos 2 iG

(76)

Pinion inner addendum


a iP = b iG c

(78)

Change in inner pinion addendum


n cos
a P = c G
n cos + N cos
N cos
n cos + N cos

(80)

(81)
(82)

New inner pinion pitch radius


R iP = R iP a P

12


R ibVP
R iP

(91)

(92)

iV = arccos

iX = arccos

R ibXP
R iP

Inner pinion profile radius of curvature

iVP = R iP sin iV

R2ioG R2ibXG + RiG sin iV


(93)

Convex

R2ioG R2ibVG + RiG sin iX


(94)

Convex
iXG = R iG sin iV

R2ioP R2ibVP + RiP sin iV


(95)

Concave
iVG = R iG sin iX

R2ioP R2ibXP + RiP sin iX


(96)

Limit tooth height for interference, pinion, concave


(83)

New inner gear pitch radius


R iG = R iG a G

Inner pinion pressure angle

Inner gear profile radius of curvature

Adjusted inner gear addendum


a iG = a iG + a G

(90)

R ibVG = R iG cos 2

(79)

Adjusted inner pinion addendum


a iP = a iP + a P

Concave

iXP = R iP sin iX

Change in inner gear addendum


a G = c P

(89)

R ibXG = R iG cos 1

Concave
(77)

Gear inner addendum


a iG = b iP c

Inner gear base radius

Convex

Original inner gear pitch radius


A iG tan

(88)

Concave

Original inner pinion pitch radius


A iP tan

(87)

R ibVP = R iP cos 1

Convex

Maximum gear blade edge radius


r TG = minimum of r 1G, r 2G, or r 3G

(86)

Inner pinion base radius

-- running interference, see 4.3.1;

r TP = minimum of r 1P, r 2P, or r 3P

(85)

Generated gear
x iVP = R ibVP cos 1 + iVP sin 1 R iP + b iP

(84)

(97)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Non--generated gear
x iVP = c c P

(98)

Limit tooth height for interference, pinion, convex


Generated gear
x iXP = R ibXP cos 2 iXP sin 2 R iP + b iP
(99)
Non--generated gear
x iXP = c c P

(100)

Limit tooth height for interference, gear


x iXG = R ibXG cos 1 + iXG sin 1 R iG + b iG
(101)
Concave

Maximum blade edge radius for no running


interference on pinion tooth
Concave
x iVP
1 sin 1

(103)

x iXP
1 + sin 2

(104)

Convex

Maximum blade edge radius for no running


interference on gear tooth
Convex
x iXG
r 1XG =
1 sin 1
x iVG
1 + sin 2

(105)

(106)

Maximum blade edge radius for no running


interference on pinion tooth
if, r1VP < r1XP
r 1P = r 1VP

(107)
(108)

Maximum blade edge radius for no running


interference on gear tooth
if, r1VG < r1XG
r 1G = r 1VG

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

4.3.2.1 Roughing
Maximum gear roughing blade edge radius which
can be manufactured
W BRG f
sec 1 tan 1

r 2RG =

(111)

r 2RP =

W BRP f
sec 1 tan 1

(112)

r 2RG = maximum of r 2RG or 0.010 inches


(113)
Pinion roughing cutter edge radius
r 2RP = maximum of r 2RP or 0.010 inches
(114)
4.3.2.2 Finishing
The following four r finishing cutter calculations are
each defined by the roughing blade edge radius and
stock allowance for cutting processes that use
separate rough and finish operations and cutters:
Maximum pinion finishing blade edge radius defined
by maximum roughing blade radius and minimum
stock allowance

r 2VP =

S AP

2 sec 1 tan 1

+ r 2RP

(115)

+ r 2RP

(116)

Convex
r 2XP =

S AP

2 sec 2 + tan 2

Maximum gear finishing blade edge radius defined


by maximum roughing blade radius and minimum
stock allowance
Convex

otherwise,
r 1P = r 1XP

4.3.2
Cutter edge radius which can be
manufactured

Concave

Concave
r 1VG =

(110)

Gear roughing cutter edge radius

x iVG = R ibVG cos 2 iVG sin 2 R iG + b iG


(102)

r 1XP =

otherwise,
r 1G = r 1XG

Maximum pinion roughing blade edge radius which


can be manufactured

Convex

r 1VP =

AGMA 929--A06

(109)

r 2XG =

S AG

2 sec 1 tan 1

+ r 2RG

(117)

+ r 2RG

(118)

Concave
r 2VG =

S AG

2 sec 2 + tan 2

13

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

The following four r calculations are as defined by


the finishing cutter:

If any of the following values are negative, reduce


WBP or WBG accordingly:

The values of r are never negative; if necessary


reduce f:

Pinion intermediate blade mutilation value

Maximum pinion finishing blade edge radius


Concave
W BP f
r 2VP =
sec 1 tan 1

(119)

W BP f
sec 2 + tan 2

(120)

Convex
XG = y 2 + 2yW G sec 1 tan 1 (131)
Concave

Convex

VG = y 2 + 2 yW Gsec 2 + tan 2 (132)

W BG f
sec 1 tan 1

(121)

W BG f
sec 2 + tan 2

(122)

Concave
r 2VG =

XP = y 2 + 2y W P sec 2 + tan 2 (130)


Gear intermediate blade mutilation value

Maximum gear finishing blade edge radius

r 2XG =

VP = y 2 + 2y W P sec 1 tan 1 (129)


Convex

Convex
r 2XP =

Concave

Maximum pinion blade edge radius to avoid


mutilation
Concave

Maximum pinion blade edge radius which can be


manufactured

r 3VP =

Rough and finish

Convex

r 2P = minimum of r 2VP, r 2XP, r 2VP, or r XP


(123)

r 3XP =

y + W Psec 2 + tan 2 + XP

sec 2 + tan 2

(124)

Maximum gear blade edge radius which can be


manufactured
Rough and finish

sec 1 tan 1

y + W Gsec 2 + tan 2 + VG

sec 2 + tan 2

(125)

Concave

(126)

r 3VG =

Completing

Difference between pinion minimum slot width and


finishing blade point
W P = W LP W BP

(127)

Difference between gear minimum slot width and


finishing blade point
W G = W LG W BG

14

(128)

(134)

Convex
r 3XG =

4.3.3 Cutter edge radius to avoid mutilation

Maximum gear blade edge radius to avoid mutilation

r 2G = minimum of r 2VG, r 2XG, r 2VG, or r XG

r 2G = minimum of r 2VG, or r 2XG

(133)

y + W Psec 1 tan 1 + VP

Completing
r 2P = minimum of r 2VP, or r 2XP

(135)

y + W Gsec 1 tan 1 + XG

sec 1 tan 1

(136)

Therefore, maximum pinion blade edge radius to


avoid mutilation
r 3P = minimum of r 3VP, or r 3XP

(137)

Therefore, maximum gear blade edge radius to


avoid mutilation
r 3G = minimum of r 3VG, or r 3XG

(138)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

4.4 Top land formulas

Concave

4.4.1 Mean top lands

2TG = arccos

Mean normal pinion pitch radius


A mP
0.5 d
R NP =
2
cos cos P A oP
A mG
0.5 D
2
cos cos G A oG

(151)

Mean normal pinion top land


(139)

Generated
t LNP =

Mean normal gear pitch radius


R NG =

R bNG2
R oNG

(140)

Rt

mn
NP

+ inv 1 inv 1TP + inv 2

inv 2TP R oNP

(152)

NOTE: inv is the mathematical function involute. It is


the tangent of the angle minus the angle in radians.

Mean normal pinion base radius

Non--generated

Concave
R bNP1 = R NP cos 1

(141)

Convex
(142)

R bNP2 = R NP cos 2
Mean normal gear base radius

Rt

mn
NP

+ inv 1 inv 1TP + inv 2

inv 2TP R oNP


tan 2

Convex
(143)

R bNG1 = R NG cos 1

t LNP =

RT

mn
NG

mn

+ a P tan 1

+ inv 1 inv 1TG

(153)

t LNG = T mn a Gtan 1 tan 2

(154)

+ inv 2 inv 2TG R oNG


Mean normal gear top land

Concave
(144)

R bNG2 = R NG cos 2
Mean normal pinion outside radius
R oNP = R NP + a P

(145)

Mean normal gear outside radius

Non--generated
Generated
t LNG =

Generated
R oNG = R NG + a G

(146)

T mn
+ inv 1 inv 1TG + inv 2
R NG

inv 2TG

oNG

(155)

4.4.2 Outer top lands

Non--generated
R oNG = R NG a P

(147)

Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth (mean)

R NP =

Concave

R
1TP = arccos bNP1
R oNP

Outer normal pinion pitch radius


0.5 d
cos cos 2 oP

(156)

Outer normal gear pitch radius


(148)

R NG =

0.5 D
cos cos2 oG

(157)

Outer normal pinion base radius

Convex

RR
bNP2

2TP = arccos

oNP

Concave
(149)

R bNP2 = R NP cos 2

Convex

R bNG1
R oNG

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

(158)

Convex

Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth (mean)

1TG = arccos

R bNP1 = R NP cos 1

(159)

Outer normal gear base radius


(150)

Convex
R bNG1 = R NG cos 1

(160)

15

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Non--generated

Concave
R bNG2 = R NG cos 2

(161)
t LoNP =

Outer normal pinion outside radius


R oNP = R NP + a oP

(162)

Outer normal gear outside radius


Generated
R oNG = R NG + a oG
R oNG = R NG a oP

R bNP1
R oNP

(165)

oNG + a oP tan 1 tan 2

t oNG

R NG

+ inv 1 inv 1TG + inv 2

R
oNG

(172)

Generated
t LoNG =

Convex
2TP = arccos

R bNP2
R oNP

(166)

Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth (outer)

R
1TG = arccos bNG1
R oNG

(168)

(173)

(174)

(175)

Inner mean normal gear pitch radius


A iG
0.5 D
cos cos 2 iG A oG

(176)

Inner normal pinion base radius


Concave
(177)

Convex
(170)

R bNP2 = R NP cos 2

(178)

Inner normal gear base radius

Outer normal pinion top land

Convex
R bNG1 = R NG cos 1

Generated

R NP

A iP
0.5 d
2
cos cos iP A oP

R bNP1 = R NP cos 1

t oNG = b oP tan 1 tan 2 + W oP

t oNP

R NP =

R NG =

Outer normal gear circular thickness at pitch line

oNG

Inner mean normal pinion pitch radius

(169)

cos
2

inv 2TG

4.4.3 Inner top lands

t oNP = b oG tan 1 tan 2 + W oG

+ inv 1 inv 1TG + inv 2

(167)

Outer normal pinion circular thickness at pitch line

cos
2

t oNG

R NG

t LoNG = t oNG a oGtan 1 tan 2

Concave
R
2TG = arccos bNG2
R oNG

Non--generated

Convex

(179)

Concave
+ inv 1 inv 1TP + inv 2

inv 2TP

16

oNP

Outer normal gear top land

1TP = arccos

inv 2TG

Concave

t LoNP =

+ inv 1 inv 1TP + inv 2

(164)

Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth (outer)

t oNP

R NP

inv 2TP

(163)

Non--generated

R bNG2 = R NG cos 2

(180)

Inner normal pinion outside radius


oNP

(171)

R oNP = R NP + a iP

(181)

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Inner normal gear thickness at pitch line

Inner normal gear outside radius


Generated

t iNG = b iPtan 1 tan 2 + W iP


(182)

R oNG = R NG + a iG
Non--generated

(183)

R oNG = R NG a iP
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth (inner)

cos iG
cos oG

cos
2

(189)

Inner normal pinion top land

t LiNP =

R bNP1
R oNP

1TP = arccos

A iG
A oG

Generated

Concave
(184)

t iNP
+ inv 1 inv 1TP + inv 2
R NP

inv 2TP

oNP

(190)

Non--generated

Convex

R bNP2
R oNP

2TP = arccos

(185)

t LiNP =

Convex

1TG = arccos

t iNP
+ inv 1 inv 1TP + inv 2
R NP

inv 2TP

Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth (inner)

R bNG1
R oNG

(186)

oNP

iNG + a iP tan 1 tan 2

t iNG

R NG

+ inv 1 inv 1TG + inv 2

inv 2TG

Concave

2TG = arccos

R bNG2
R oNG

(187)

Inner normal pinion thickness at pitch line


t iNP = b iGtan 1 tan 2 + W iG
cos iP

cos oP

AGMA 929--A06

cos
2

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

A iP
A oP
(188)

oNG

(191)

Inner normal gear top land


Generated
t LiNG =

t iNG

R NG

+ inv 1 inv 1TG + inv 2

inv 2TG

oNG

(192)

Non--generated
t LiNG = t iNG a iG tan 1 tan 2

(193)

17

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex A
(informative)
Additional equations from ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 929--A06,

Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius.]

A.1 Purpose
This annex is to provide the user additional equations that are in or derived from those in ANSI/AGMA

2005--D03. The additional symbols used in the


equations are defined in table A.1. Also see table 1.

Table A.1 -- Symbols


Symbol
E
NS
Nc
RoG
Z
i
oo
R

i
i
o
o
1
i
o

Term
Hypoid offset
Number of blade groups
Number of crown gear teeth
Outside gear pitch radius
Gear pitch apex beyond crossing point
Pinion inside pitch angle
Outer pinion pitch angle
Pinion root angle
Shaft angle departure from 90
Pinion offset angle in axial plane at inside
Pinion offset angle in pitch plane at inner end
Pinion offset angle in face plane
Pinion offset angle in pitch plane at outer end
Second auxiliary angle
Intermediate angle
Intermediate angle

Units
in (mm)
-- --- -in (mm)
in (mm)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)
deg (rad)

inner gear spiral angle (face hobbing)

A.2 Common equations


inner gear cone distance
A iG = A mG 0.5 F G

(A.1)

inner gear spiral angle (face milling)

iG = arcsin

2A mG r c sin G A 2
2A iG r c

mG

+ A2

iG

(A.2)
intermediate variable (face hobbing)
Q=

S1
N
1+ S
Nc

(A.3)

18

A 2 + S 21 r 2c
iG
2A iG S 1

iG = arctan

A iG Q cos i
Q sin i

(A.5)

generating angle at outside (face hobbing)

o = arccos

A 2 + S 21 r 2c
oG

2 A oG S 1

(A.6)

outer gear spiral angle (face hobbing)

generating angle at inside (face hobbing)


i = arccos

First used
Eq. A.12
Eq. A.3
Eq. A.3
Eq. A.17
Eq. A.12
Eq. A.14
Eq. A.20
Eq. A.23
Eq. A.12
Eq. A.13
Eq. A.15
Eq. A.19
Eq. A.21
Eq. A.8
Eq. A.12
Eq. A.18

oG = arctan

A oG Q cos o
Q sin o

(A.7)

second auxiliary angle (face hobbing)


(A.4)

cos 1 =

A mG cos G
N c + N S
S1 Nc

(A.8)

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

inner pinion spiral angle

A.3 Spiral bevels


inner pinion spiral angle equals inner gear spiral
angle
iP = iG

(A.9)

outer pinion spiral angle equals outer gear spiral


angle
oP = oG

(A.10)

A.4 Hypoids
inside gear pitch radius
(A.11)

R iG = A iG sin

i = arctan E tan cos


A iG Z cos

(A.12)

(A.17)

R oG = A oG sin
intermediate angle

o = arctan E tan cos


A oG Z cos

E cos i sin
i + i = arcsin
A iG Z cos

pinion outer offset angle in axial plane

E cos o sin
A oG Z cos

outer pinion pitch angle

(A.13)

pinion offset angle in pitch plane at outer end

sin
o = arcsin cos o
oo

i = arcsinsin sin + cos cos cos i


(A.14)

outer pinion spiral angle

pinion offset angle in pitch plane at inner end

oP = oG + o

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

(A.19)

(A.20)

pinion inside pitch angle

sin
i = arcsin cos i
i

(A.18)

oo = arcsinsin sin + cos cos cos o

pinion inner offset angle in axial plane

outside gear pitch radius

o + o = arcsin

intermediate angle

(A.16)

iP = iG + i

(A.15)

(A.21)

(A.22)

pinion dedendum angle


P = R

(A.23)

19

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex B
(informative)
Stock allowance and standard cutter specifications
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 929--A06,

Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius.]

B.1 Purpose
This annex provides information on typical stock
allowance and standard cutter specifications.
B.2 Stock allowance
For rough and finish cutting methods, if the information on the stock allowance is not available, the
following default stock allowance can be used for
calculating point width and blade point (see 4.2.5).
Table B.1 -- Default stock allowances (inch)

Consult the manufacturer for accurate cutter


information.

Table B.2 -- Standard blade specifications, face


milled (inch)
Point width range

Blade point

0.015 -- 0.015

0.010

0.020 -- 0.020

0.012

0.025 -- 0.025

0.015

Pinion

Gear

0.030 -- 0.035

0.020

Pd < 3.0

0.025

0.030

0.040 -- 0.045

0.025

3.0 Pd < 7.0

0.025

0.020

0.050 -- 0.055

0.030

7.0 Pd < 10.0

0.010

0.010

0.060 -- 0.070

0.040

10.0 Pd

0.000

0.000

0.080 -- 0.090

0.050

0.100 -- 0.120

0.065

0.130 -- 0.130

0.080

0.160 -- 0.160

0.100

0.170 -- 0.170

0.110

0.190 -- 0.190

0.125

0.210 -- 0.210

0.150

Diametral pitch

B.3 Standard blade point table


The following table of standard blade points is used
for some of the face milling cutting methods discussed in AGMA 929--A06. The table should not be
construed to be all inclusive.

20

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 929--A06

Annex C
(informative)
Spiral bevel example problem
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 929--A06,

Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius.]

Symbol

Description

Equation

Type of gears
Face hobbing or face milling
Generated or non--generated
Completing or rough and finish, pinion
Completing or rough and finish, gear

Variables
Spiral
Face milled
Generated
Completing
Completing

Units

2.69971
3.19971
3.19971
3.69971
0.06259
0.19043
0.08122
0.24734
0.00500
0.22206
0.09422
0.03163
6.96429
2.50000
1.00000
1.00000
39.00000
14.00000
0.48518
table 5
table 5
table 5
0.14817
table 5
table 5
70.25316
63.75967
table 5
19.74684
6.49349
2.13424
20.00000
--20.00000
35.00000
35.00000
33.94561

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
-- --- -inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees

Table 2
AiG
AmG
AmP
AoG
aG
aP
aoG
aoP
B
bG
bP
c
D
d
FG
FP
N
n
pm
rc
SAP
SAG
Tn
W
y

R
f

G
P
1
2
G
P
iG

Inner gear cone distance


Gear mean cone distance
Pinion mean cone distance
Gear outer cone distance
Gear mean addendum
Pinion mean addendum
Outer gear addendum
Outer pinion addendum
Outer normal backlash allowance
Gear mean dedendum
Pinion mean dedendum
Clearance
Gear pitch diameter
Pinion pitch diameter
Gear face width
Pinion face width
Gear number of teeth
Pinion number of teeth
Mean circular pitch
Cutter radius
Pinion stock allowance
Gear stock allowance
Gear mean normal zero backlash circular thickness at pitch line
Gear finishing point width
Amount of fillet mutilation permitted
Gear pitch angle
Gear root angle
Width of blade flat
Pinion pitch angle
Dedendum angle of gear
Dedendum angle of pinion
Concave pinion normal pressure angle
Convex pinion normal pressure angle
Gear mean spiral angle
Pinion mean spiral angle
Inner gear spiral angle

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

21

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
Equation
Inner pinion spiral angle
iP
Outer gear spiral angle
oG
Outer pinion spiral angle
oP
Additional input variables for face hobbing (Table 2)
Q
Intermediate factor
S1
Crown gear to cutter center dist
Second auxiliary angle
1
Generating angle at outside
o
Generating angle at inside
i
Additional input for hypoids
FoP
Hypoid pinion face width from calculation point to outside
FiP
Hypoid pinion face width from calculation point to inside
Table 4
Method Cutting method
kE
Gear rotation factor
Table 5
Inside blade angle gear cutter (non--generated)
BXG
SAP
Pinion stock allowance
SAG
Gear stock allowance
y
Amount of fillet mutilation permitted
Width of blade flat
f
rc
Cutter radius
4 Calculations
4.1 General geometry
AiP
Inner pinion cone distance
(eq 1 or 2)
AoP
Outer pinion cone distance
(eq 3 or 4)
Included pressure angle
(eq 5)

Change in pinion clearance


(eq 6)
cP
Change in gear clearance
(eq 7)
cG
Normal tilt of finishing cutter (non--generated)
(eq 8)
2
q
Generating angle at mean
(eq 9 or 10)
qo
Generating angle at outside
(eq 11 or 12)
qi
Generating angle at inside
(eq 13 or 14)
Increment in generating angle at outside
(eq 15)
qo
Increment in generating angle at inside
(eq 16)
qi
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at
(eq 17)
boG
outside
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at
(eq 18)
biG
inside
boG
Theoretical outer gear dedendum
(eq 19)
boG
Outer gear dedendum
(eq 20 or 21)
boP
Outer pinion dedendum
(eq 22 or 23)
biP
Inner pinion dedendum
(eq 24)
biG
Inner gear dedendum
(eq 25 or 26)
pn
Mean normal circular pitch
(eq 27)
Sum of pinion and gear mean dedendums
(eq 28)
b
Sum of pinion and gear outer dedendums
(eq 29)
bo
Sum of pinion and gear inner dedendums
(eq 30)
bi

22

Variables
33.94561
36.84576
36.84576

Units
degrees
degrees
degrees

Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable

inch
degrees
degrees
degrees

Not applicable
Not applicable

degrees
degrees

Spread blade
0.00000
Not applicable
0.00000
0.00000
0.00200
0.00800
4.50000

degrees
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

2.69971
3.69971
40.00000
0.00553
0.00553
Not applicable
80.47339
74.46243
87.13405
6.01095
6.66066
Not applicable

inch
inch
degrees
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch

Not applicable

inch

0.27897
0.27897
0.11285
0.07559
0.16515
0.39744
0.31628
0.39182
0.24074

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
AxG
Cone distance for involute lengthwise curvature
point where normal circular pitch and slot width
is a maximum
Spiral angle at cone distance AxG
xG
Generating angle at involute curvature
x
FxG
Distance from mean cone to cone distance at
involute curvature
qx
Generating angle at involute curvature
Increment in generating angle at involute
qx
curvature
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at
bxG
involute curvature
bxG
Gear dedendum at cone distance AxG
bxP
Pinion dedendum at cone distance AxG
Sum of pinion and gear dedendums at cone
bx
distance AxG
4.2 Slot width calculations and blade specifications
4.2.1 Slot width calculations, mean
Tmn
Mean normal gear circular thickness
tmn
Mean normal pinion circular thickness
tmP
Mean pinion transverse circular thickness
WmG
Mean gear slot width
WmP
Mean pinion slot width
We
Effective gear point width
4.2.2 Slot width calculation, outer
Angle between gear root plane and plane in

which taper is specified


WoG
Outer gear slot width
WoP
Outer pinion slot width
WxG
Slot width at AxG, gear (maximum gear slot
width)
WxP
Slot width at AxG, pinion (maximum pinion slot
width)
4.2.3 Sloth width calculation, inner
WiG
Inner gear slot width
WiP
Inner pinion slot width
4.2.4 Sloth widths, minimum and maximum
WLG
Minimum gear slot width
WLP
Minimum pinion slot width
WMG
Maximum gear slot width
WMP
Maximum pinion slot width
4.2.5 Point width and blade point calculations
WRG
Gear roughing point width
WRP
Pinion roughing point width
WBRG
Minimum gear roughing blade point
WBRP
Minimum pinion roughing blade point
WBG
Gear finishing blade point
WBP
Pinion finishing blade point

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 929--A06

Equation
(eq 31)

Variables
5.84984

Units
inch

(eq 32 or 35)
(eq 34)
(eq 38)

50.28674
Not applicable
0.00000

degrees
degrees
inch

(eq 39 or 40)
(eq 41)

0.00000
0.00000

degrees
degrees

(eq 42 or 43)

0.00000

inch

(eq 44)
(eq 45)
(eq 46)

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

inch
inch
inch

(eq 47)
(eq 48)
(eq 49)
(eq 50)
(eq 51)
(eq 52)

0.14581
0.24691
0.30142
0.08997
0.08194
0.08997

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 53 or 54)

0.00000

degrees

(eq 55)
(eq 56)
(eq 57)

0.08997
0.07906
0.00000

inch
inch
inch

(eq 58)

0.00000

inch

(eq 59)
(eq 60)

0.08997
0.07840

inch
inch

(eq 61)
(eq 62)
(eq 63)
(eq 64)

0.08997
0.07840
0.08997
0.08194

inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 65)
(eq 66)
(eq 67)
(eq 68)
(eq 69 or 71)
(eq 70 or 72)

0.08997
0.07840
0.04599
0.04020
0.04599
0.04020

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

23

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
4.3 Cutter edge radius calculations
rTP
Maximum pinion blade edge radius
rTG
Maximum gear blade edge radius
4.3.1 Cutter edge radius for no running interference
RiP
Original inner pinion pitch radius
RiG
Original inner gear pitch radius
aiP
Pinion inner addendum
aiG
Gear inner addendum
Change in inner pinion addendum
aP
Change in inner gear addendum
aG
aiP
Adjusted inner pinion addendum
aiG
Adjusted inner gear addendum
RiP
New inner pinion pitch radius
RiG
New inner gear pitch radius
RioP
Inner pinion outside radius
RioG
Inner gear outside radius
RibVP
Inner pinion base radius, concave
RibXP
Inner pinion base radius, convex
RibXG
Inner gear base radius, convex
RibVG
Inner gear base radius, concave
Inner pinion pressure angle, concave
iV
Inner pinion pressure angle, convex
iX
iVP
Inner pinion profile radius of curvature, concave
iXP
Inner pinion profile radius of curvature, convex
iXG
Inner gear profile radius of curvature, convex
iVG
Inner gear profile radius of curvature, concave
xiVP
Limit tooth height for interference pinion,
concave
xiXP
Limit tooth height for interference pinion, convex
xiXG
Limit tooth height for interference gear, convex
xiVG
Limit tooth height for interference gear, concave
r1VP
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference pinion, concave
r1XP
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference pinion, convex
r1XG
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference gear, convex
r1VG
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference gear, concave
r1P
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference on pinion
r1G
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference on gear

24

Equation

Variables

Units

(eq 73)
(eq 74)

0.04063
0.05425

inch
inch

(eq 75)
(eq 76)
(eq 77)
(eq 78)
(eq 79)
(eq 80)
(eq 81)
(eq 82)
(eq 83)
(eq 84)
(eq 85)
(eq 86)
(eq 87)
(eq 88)
(eq 89)
(eq 90)
(eq 91)
(eq 92)
(eq 93)
(eq 94)
(eq 95)
(eq 96)
(eq 97 or 98)

1.40824
10.92822
0.13352
0.04396
0.00063
0.00490
0.13415
0.04885
1.40761
10.92333
1.54176
10.97218
1.32331
1.32331
10.26917
10.26917
19.92929
19.92929
0.33882
0.33882
3.41201
3.41201
0.02674

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 99 or 100)
(eq 101)
(eq 102)
(eq 103)

0.02674
0.05377
0.05377
0.04063

inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 104)

0.04063

inch

(eq 105)

0.08171

inch

(eq 106)

0.08171

inch

(eq 107 or 108)

0.04063

inch

(eq 109 or 110)

0.08171

inch

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
4.3.2 Cutter edge radius which can be manufactured
4.3.2.1 Roughing
r2RG
Maximum gear roughing blade edge radius
which can be manufactured
r2RP
Maximum pinion roughing blade edge radius
which can be manufactured
r2RG
Gear roughing cutter edge radius
r2RP
Pinion roughing cutter edge radius
4.3.2.2 Finishing
r2VP
Maximum pinion finishing blade edge radius
defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, concave

AGMA 929--A06

Equation

Variables

Units

(eq 111)

0.05425

inch

(eq 112)

0.04599

inch

(eq 113)
(eq 114)

0.05425
0.04599

inch
inch

(eq 115)

0.04599

inch

r2XP

Maximum pinion finishing blade edge radius


defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, convex

(eq 116)

0.04599

inch

r2XG

Maximum gear finishing blade edge radius


defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, convex

(eq 117)

0.05425

inch

r2VG

Maximum gear finishing blade edge radius


defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, concave

(eq 118)

0.05425

inch

Maximum pinion finish blade edge radius


concave
r2XP
Maximum pinion finish blade edge radius
convex
r2XG
Maximum gear finish blade edge radius, convex
r2VG
Maximum gear finish blade edge radius,
concave
r2P
Maximum pinion blade edge radius that can be
manufactured
r2G
Maximum gear blade edge radius that can be
manufactured
4.3.3 Cutter edge radius to avoid mutilation
Difference between pinion minimum slot width
WP
and finishing blade point
Difference between gear minimum slot width
WG
and finishing blade point
Pinion intermediate blade mutilation value,
VP
concave
Pinion intermediate blade mutilation value,
XP
convex
Gear intermediate blade mutilation value,
XG
convex
Gear intermediate blade mutilation value,
VG
concave
r3VP
Maximum pinion blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation, concave

(eq 119)

0.04599

inch

(eq 120)

0.04599

inch

(eq 121)
(eq 122)

0.05425
0.05425

inch
inch

(eq 123 or 124)

0.04599

inch

(eq 125 or 126)

0.05425

inch

(eq 127)

0.03820

inch

(eq 128)

0.04399

inch

(eq 129)

0.00011

inch2

(eq 130)

0.00011

inch2

(eq 131)

0.00013

inch2

(eq 132)

0.00013

inch2

(eq 133)

0.08013

inch

r2VP

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

25

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
r3XP
Maximum pinion blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation, convex
r3XG
Maximum gear blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation, convex
r3VG
Maximum gear blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation, concave
r3P
Maximum pinion blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation
r3G
Maximum gear blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation
4.4 Top land formulas
4.4.1 Mean top lands
RNP
Mean normal pinion pitch radius
RNG
Mean normal gear pitch radius
RbNP1
Mean normal pinion base radius, concave
RbNP2
Mean normal pinion base radius, convex
RbNG1
Mean normal gear base radius, convex
RbNG2
Mean normal gear base radius, concave
RoNP
Mean normal pinion outside radius
RoNG
Mean normal gear outside radius
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth, concave
1TP
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth, convex
2TP
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth, concave
1TG
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth, convex
2TG
tLNP
Mean normal pinion top land
tLNG
Mean normal gear top land
4.4.2 Outer top lands
RNP
Outer normal pinion pitch radius
RNG
Outer normal gear pitch radius
RbNP1
Outer normal pinion base radius, concave
RbNP2
Outer normal pinion base radius, convex
RbNG1
Outer normal gear base radius, convex
RbNG2
Outer normal gear base radius, concave
RoNP
Outer normal pinion outside radius
RoNG
Outer normal gear outside radius
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth outer,
1TP
concave
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth outer,
2TP
convex
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth outer, convex
1TG
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth outer,
2TG
concave
toNP
Pinion outer normal circular thickness at pitch
line
toNG
Gear outer normal circular thickness at pitch line

26

Equation
(eq 134)

Variables
0.08013

Units
inch

(eq 135)

0.08990

inch

(eq 136)

0.08990

inch

(eq 137)

0.08013

inch

(eq 138)

0.08990

inch

(eq 139)
(eq 140)
(eq 141)
(eq 142)
(eq 143)
(eq 144)
(eq 145)
(eq 146 or 147)
(eq 148)
(eq 149)
(eq 150)
(eq 151)
(eq 152 or 153)
(eq 154 or 155)

1.71177
13.28366
1.60853
1.60853
12.48256
12.48256
1.90220
13.34625
32.26164
32.26164
20.72564
20.72564
0.07175
0.09992

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch
inch

(eq 156)
(eq 157)
(eq 158)
(eq 159)
(eq 160)
(eq 161)
(eq 162)
(eq 163 or 164)
(eq 165)

2.07384
16.09347
1.94878
1.94878
15.12291
15.12291
2.32118
16.17469
32.90619

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees

(eq 166)

32.90619

degrees

(eq 167)
(eq 168)

20.77605
20.77605

degrees
degrees

(eq 169)

0.28773

inch

(eq 170)

0.15589

inch

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
tLoNP
Outer normal pinion top land
tLoNG
Outer normal gear top land
4.4.3 Inner top lands
RNP
Inner mean normal pinion pitch radius
RNG
Inner mean normal gear pitch radius
RbNP1
Inner normal pinion base radius, concave
RbNP2
Inner normal pinion base radius, convex
RbNG1 Inner normal gear base radius, convex
RbNG2 Inner normal gear base radius, concave
RoNP
Inner normal pinion outside radius
RoNG
Inner normal gear outside radius
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth inner,
1TP
concave
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth inner,
2TP
convex
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth inner, convex
1TG
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth inner,
2TG
concave
tiNP
Inner normal pinion thickness at pitch line
tiNG
Inner normal gear thickness at pitch line
tLiNP
Inner normal pinion top land
tLiNG
Inner normal gear top land

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 929--A06

Equation
(eq 171 or 172)
(eq 173 or 174)

Variables
0.05345
0.09614

Units
inch
inch

(eq 175)
(eq 176)
(eq 177)
(eq 178)
(eq 179)
(eq 180)
(eq 181)
(eq 182 or 183)
(eq 184)

1.40824
10.92822
1.32331
1.32331
10.26916
10.26916
1.54176
10.97217
30.87230

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees

(eq 185)

30.87230

degrees

(eq 186)
(eq 187)

20.62140
20.62140

degrees
degrees

(eq 188)
(eq 189)
(eq 190 or 191)
(eq 192 or 193)

0.20617
0.12940
0.08972
0.09731

inch
inch
inch
inch

27

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex D
(informative)
Hypoid example problem
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 929--A06,

Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius.]

Symbol

Description

Equation

Type of gears
Face hobbing or face milling
Generated or non--generated
Completing or rough and finish, pinion
Completing or rough and finish, gear

Variables
Hypoid
Face milled
Non--generated
Completing
Completing

Units

4.04868
4.84349
5.06560
5.64868
0.08460
0.27708
0.10327
0.33072
0.00600
0.31520
0.12902
0.04442
10.77070
3.45020
1.60000
1.83628
45.00000
11.00000
0.64475
table 5
table 5
table 5
0.18870
table 5
table 5
72.43638
68.18198
table 5
16.75611
4.25440
1.27592
15.44545
--24.55455
30.02788
47.99638
23.83723

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
-- --- -inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees

Table 2
AiG
AmG
AmP
AoG
aG
aP
aoG
aoP
B
bG
bP
c
D
d
FG
FP
N
n
pm
rc
SAP
SAG
Tn
W
y

R
f

G
P
1
2
G
P
iG

28

Inner gear cone distance


Gear mean cone distance
Pinion mean cone distance
Gear outer cone distance
Gear mean addendum
Pinion mean addendum
Outer gear addendum
Outer pinion addendum
Outer normal backlash allowance
Gear mean dedendum
Pinion mean dedendum
Clearance
Gear pitch diameter
Pinion pitch diameter
Gear face width
Pinion face width
Gear number of teeth
Pinion number of teeth
Mean circular pitch
Cutter radius
Pinion stock allowance
Gear stock allowance
Gear mean normal zero backlash circular thickness at pitch line
Gear finishing point width
Amount of fillet mutilation permitted
Gear pitch angle
Gear root angle
Width of blade flat
Pinion pitch angle
Dedendum angle of gear
Dedendum angle of pinion
Concave pinion normal pressure angle
Convex pinion normal pressure angle
Gear mean spiral angle
Pinion mean spiral angle
Inner gear spiral angle

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
Equation
Inner pinion spiral angle
iP
Outer gear spiral angle
oG
Outer pinion spiral angle
oP
Additional input variables for face hobbing (Table 2)
Q
Intermediate factor
S1
Crown gear to cutter center distance
Second auxiliary angle
1
Generating angle at outside
o
Generating angle at inside
i
Additional input for hypoids
FoP
Hypoid pinion face width from calculation point to outside
FiP
Hypoid pinion face width from calculation point to inside
Table 4
Method Cutting method
kE
Gear rotation factor
Table 5
Inside blade angle gear cutter (non--generated)
BXG
SAP
Pinion stock allowance
SAG
Gear stock allowance
y
Amount of fillet mutilation permitted
Width of blade flat
f
rc
Cutter radius
4 Calculations
4.1 General geometry
AiP
Inner pinion cone distance
(eq 1 or 2)
AoP
Outer pinion cone distance
(eq 3 or 4)
Included pressure angle
(eq 5)

Change in pinion clearance


(eq 6)
cP
Change in gear clearance
(eq 7)
cG
Normal tilt of finishing cutter (non--generated)
(eq 8)
2
q
Generating angle at mean
(eq 9 or 10)
qo
Generating angle at outside
(eq 11 or 12)
qi
Generating angle at inside
(eq 13 or 14)
Increment in generating angle at outside
(eq 15)
qo
Increment in generating angle at inside
(eq 16)
qi
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at
(eq 17)
boG
outside
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at
(eq 18)
biG
inside
boG
Theoretical outer gear dedendum
(eq 19)
boG
Outer gear dedendum
(eq 20 or 21)
boP
Outer pinion dedendum
(eq 22 or 23)
biP
Inner pinion dedendum
(eq 24)
biG
Inner gear dedendum
(eq 25 or 26)
pn
Mean normal circular pitch
(eq 27)
Sum of pinion and gear mean dedendums
(eq 28)
b
Sum of pinion and gear outer dedendums
(eq 29)
bo
Sum of pinion and gear inner dedendums
(eq 30)
bi

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 929--A06

Variables
44.98259
36.53169
51.88843

Units
degrees
degrees
degrees

Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable

inch
degrees
degrees
degrees

0.84044
0.82960

degrees
degrees

Spread
0.00000
22.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00200
0.00800
4.50000

degrees
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

4.23600
5.90604
40.00000
0.00723
0.00718
6.55455
56.36854
50.60129
61.55194
5.76725
5.18341
1.28684

inch
inch
degrees
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch

0.99546

inch

0.37510
0.35264
0.14774
0.10684
0.23870
0.55821
0.44422
0.50038
0.34554

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

29

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
AxG
Cone distance for involute lengthwise curvature
point where normal circular pitch and slot width
is a maximum
Spiral angle at cone distance AxG
xG
Generating angle at involute curvature
x
FxG
Distance from mean cone to cone distance at
involute curvature
qx
Generating angle at involute curvature
Increment in generating angle at involute
qx
curvature
Depth reduction on non--generated gear at
bxG
involute curvature
bxG
Gear dedendum at cone distance AxG
bxP
Pinion dedendum at cone distance AxG
Sum of pinion and gear dedendums at cone
bx
distance AxG
4.2 Slot width calculations and blade specifications
4.2.1 Slot width calculations, mean
Tmn
Mean normal gear circular thickness
tmn
Mean normal pinion thickness in gear normal
plane
tmP
Mean pinion transverse circular thickness
WmG
Mean gear slot width
WmP
Mean pinion slot width
We
Effective gear point width
4.2.2 Slot width calculation, outer
Angle between gear root plane and plane in

which taper is specified


WoG
Outer gear slot width
WoP
Outer pinion slot width
WxG
Slot width at AxG, gear (maximum gear slot
width)
WxP
Slot width at AxG, pinion (maximum pinion slot
width)
4.2.3 Slot width calculation, inner
WiG
Inner gear slot width
WiP
Inner pinion slot width
4.2.4 Slot widths, minimum and maximum
WLG
Minimum gear slot width
WLP
Minimum pinion slot width
WMG
Maximum gear slot width
WMP
Maximum pinion slot width
4.2.5 Point width and blade point calculations
WRG
Gear roughing point width
WRP
Pinion roughing point width
WBRG
Minimum gear roughing blade point
WBRP
Minimum pinion roughing blade point

30

Equation
(eq 31)

Variables
6.49194

Units
inch

(eq 32 or 35)
(eq 34)
(eq 38)

43.88132
Not applicable
0.00000

degrees
degrees
inch

(eq 39 or 40)
(eq 41)

0.00000
0.00000

degrees
degrees

(eq 42 or 43)

0.00000

inch

(eq 44)
(eq 45)
(eq 46)

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

inch
inch
inch

(eq 47)
(eq 48)

0.18575
0.36656

inch
inch

(eq 49)
(eq 50)
(eq 51)
(eq 52)

0.42339
0.13956
0.09886
0.13956

inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 53 or 54)

0.00000

degrees

(eq 55)
(eq 56)
(eq 57)

0.14151
0.10221
0.00000

inch
inch
inch

(eq 58)

0.00000

inch

(eq 59)
(eq 60)

0.14115
0.10369

inch
inch

(eq 61)
(eq 62)
(eq 63)
(eq 64)

0.13956
0.09886
0.14151
0.10369

inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 65)
(eq 66)
(eq 67)
(eq 68)

0.13956
0.09886
0.07078
0.05043

inch
inch
inch
inch

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
WBG
Gear finishing blade point
WBP
Pinion finishing blade point
4.3 Cutter edge radius calculations
rTP
Maximum pinion blade edge radius
rTG
Maximum gear blade edge radius
4.3.1 Cutter edge radius for no running interference
RiP
Original inner pinion pitch radius
RiG
Original inner gear pitch radius
aiP
Pinion inner addendum
aiG
Gear inner addendum
Change in inner pinion addendum
aP
Change in inner gear addendum
aG
aiP
Adjusted inner pinion addendum
aiG
Adjusted inner gear addendum
RiP
New inner pinion pitch radius
RiG
New inner gear pitch radius
RioP
Inner pinion outside radius
RioG
Inner gear outside radius
RibVP
Inner pinion base radius, concave
RibXP
Inner pinion base radius, convex
RibXG
Inner gear base radius, convex
RibVG
Inner gear base radius, concave
Inner pinion pressure angle, concave
iV
Inner pinion pressure angle, convex
iX
iVP
Inner pinion profile radius of curvature, concave
iXP
Inner pinion profile radius of curvature, convex
iXG
Inner gear profile radius of curvature, convex
iVG
Inner gear profile radius of curvature, concave
xiVP
Limit tooth height for interference pinion,
concave
xiXP
Limit tooth height for interference pinion, convex
xiXG
Limit tooth height for interference gear, convex
xiVG
Limit tooth height for interference gear, concave
r1VP
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference pinion, concave
r1XP
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference pinion, convex
r1XG
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference gear, convex
r1VG
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference gear, concave
r1P
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference on pinion
r1G
Maximum blade edge radius for no running
interference on gear

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 929--A06

Equation
(eq 69 or 71)
(eq 70 or 72)

Variables
0.07078
0.05043

Units
inch
inch

(eq 73)
(eq 74)

0.05069
0.08248

inch
inch

(eq 75)
(eq 76)
(eq 77)
(eq 78)
(eq 79)
(eq 80)
(eq 81)
(eq 82)
(eq 83)
(eq 84)
(eq 85)
(eq 86)
(eq 87)
(eq 88)
(eq 89)
(eq 90)
(eq 91)
(eq 92)
(eq 93)
(eq 94)
(eq 95)
(eq 96)
(eq 97 or 98)

2.54922
15.28824
0.19428
0.06242
0.00051
0.00672
0.19479
0.06914
2.54871
15.28153
2.74350
15.35066
2.45715
2.31868
14.73610
13.90567
15.40361
24.52927
0.43599
0.90042
3.51569
5.93591
0.03719

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 99 or 100)
(eq 101)
(eq 102)
(eq 103)

0.03719
0.09066
0.06530
0.05069

inch
inch
inch
inch

(eq 104)

0.06363

inch

(eq 105)

0.12356

inch

(eq 106)

0.11173

inch

(eq 107 or 108)

0.05069

inch

(eq 109 or 110)

0.11173

inch

31

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
4.3.2 Cutter edge radius which can be manufactured
4.3.2.1 Roughing
r2RG
Maximum gear roughing blade edge radius
which can be manufactured
r2RP
Maximum pinion roughing blade edge radius
which can be manufactured
r2RG
Gear roughing cutter edge radius
r2RP
Pinion roughing cutter edge radius
4.3.2.2 Finishing
r2VP
Maximum pinion finishing blade edge radius
defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, concave

Equation

Variables

Units

(eq 111)

0.08248

inch

(eq 112)

0.05574

inch

(eq 113)
(eq 114)

0.08248
0.05574

inch
inch

(eq 115)

0.05574

inch

r2XP

Maximum pinion finishing blade edge radius


defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, convex

(eq 116)

0.05574

inch

r2XG

Maximum gear finishing blade edge radius


defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, convex

(eq 117)

0.08248

inch

r2VG

Maximum gear finishing blade edge radius


defined by maximum roughing blade radius and
minimum stock allowance, concave

(eq 118)

0.08248

inch

Maximum pinion finish blade edge radius,


concave
r2XP
Maximum pinion finish blade edge radius,
convex
r2XG
Maximum gear finish blade edge radius, convex
r2VG
Maximum gear finish blade edge radius,
concave
r2P
Maximum pinion blade edge radius that can be
manufactured
r2G
Maximum gear blade edge radius that can be
manufactured
4.3.3 Cutter edge radius to avoid mutilation
Difference between pinion minimum slot width
WP
and finishing blade point
Difference between gear minimum slot width
WG
and finishing blade point
Pinion intermediate blade mutilation value,
VP
concave
Pinion intermediate blade mutilation value,
XP
convex
Gear intermediate blade mutilation value,
XG
convex
Gear intermediate blade mutilation value,
VG
concave
r3VP
Maximum pinion edge radius to avoid mutilation,
concave

(eq 119)

0.05574

inch

(eq 120)

0.06603

inch

(eq 121)
(eq 122)

0.08248
0.09770

inch
inch

(eq 123 or 124)

0.05574

inch

(eq 125 or 126)

0.08248

inch

(eq 127)

0.04843

inch

(eq 128)

0.06878

inch

(eq 129)

0.00015

inch2

(eq 130)

0.00013

inch2

(eq 131)

0.00021

inch2

(eq 132)

0.00018

inch2

(eq 133)

0.10767

inch

r2VP

32

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
r3XP
Maximum pinion edge radius to avoid mutilation,
convex
r3XG
Maximum gear edge radius to avoid mutilation,
convex
r3VG
Maximum gear edge radius to avoid mutilation,
concave
r3P
Maximum pinion blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation
r3G
Maximum gear blade edge radius to avoid
mutilation
4.4 Top land formulas
4.4.1 Mean top lands
RNP
Mean normal pinion pitch radius
RNG
Mean normal gear pitch radius
RbNP1
Mean normal pinion base radius, concave
RbNP2
Mean normal pinion base radius, convex
RbNG1
Mean normal gear base radius, convex
RbNG2
Mean normal gear base radius, concave
RoNP
Mean normal pinion outside radius
RoNG
Mean normal gear outside radius
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth, concave
1TP
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth, convex
2TP
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth, concave
1TG
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth, convex
2TG
tLNP
Mean normal pinion top land
tLNG
Mean normal gear top land
4.4.2 Outer top lands
RNP
Outer normal pinion pitch radius
RNG
Outer normal gear pitch radius
RbNP1
Outer normal pinion base radius, concave
RbNP2
Outer normal pinion base radius, convex
RbNG1
Outer normal gear base radius, convex
RbNG2
Outer normal gear base radius, concave
RoNP
Outer normal pinion outside radius
RoNG
Outer normal gear outside radius
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth outer,
1TP
concave
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth outer,
2TP
convex
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth outer, convex
1TG
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth outer,
2TG
concave
toNP
Pinion outer normal circular thickness at pitch
line
toNG
Gear outer normal circular thickness at pitch line

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 929--A06

Equation
(eq 134)

Variables
0.08832

Units
inch

(eq 135)

0.14445

inch

(eq 136)

0.11903

inch

(eq 137)

0.08832

inch

(eq 138)

0.11903

inch

(eq 139)
(eq 140)
(eq 141)
(eq 142)
(eq 143)
(eq 144)
(eq 145)
(eq 146 or 147)
(eq 148)
(eq 149)
(eq 150)
(eq 151)
(eq 152 or 153)
(eq 154 or 155)

3.45071
20.41456
3.32609
3.13865
19.67727
18.56839
3.72779
20.13748
26.84382
32.65236
12.27271
22.76775
0.10537
0.12372

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
inch
inch

(eq 156)
(eq 157)
(eq 158)
(eq 159)
(eq 160)
(eq 161)
(eq 162)
(eq 163 or 164)
(eq 165)

4.72947
27.64037
4.55866
4.30177
26.64212
25.14074
5.06019
27.30965
25.72501

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees

(eq 166)

31.77535

degrees

(eq 167)
(eq 168)

12.69412
22.98885

degrees
degrees

(eq 169)

0.39368

inch

(eq 170)

0.20414

inch

33

AGMA 929--A06

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Symbol
Description
tLoNP
Outer normal pinion top land
tLoNG
Outer normal gear top land
4.4.3 Inner top lands
RNP
Inner mean normal pinion pitch radius
RNG
Inner mean normal gear pitch radius
RbNP1
Inner normal pinion base radius, concave
RbNP2
Inner normal pinion base radius, convex
RbNG1 Inner normal gear base radius, convex
RbNG2 Inner normal gear base radius, concave
RoNP
Inner normal pinion outside radius
RoNG
Inner normal gear outside radius
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth inner,
1TP
concave
Pressure angle at tip of pinion tooth inner,
2TP
convex
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth inner, convex
1TG
Pressure angle at tip of gear tooth inner,
2TG
concave
tiNP
Inner normal pinion thickness at pitch line
tiNG
Inner normal gear thickness at pitch line
tLiNP
Inner normal pinion top land
tLiNG
Inner normal gear top land

34

Equation
(eq 171 or 172)
(eq 173 or 174)

Variables
0.08697
0.12842

Units
inch
inch

(eq 175)
(eq 176)
(eq 177)
(eq 178)
(eq 179)
(eq 180)
(eq 181)
(eq 182 or 183)
(eq 184)

2.58275
15.28824
2.48947
2.34918
14.73609
13.90566
2.77703
15.09396
26.30451

inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
inch
degrees

(eq 185)

32.22794

degrees

(eq 186)
(eq 187)

12.50133
22.88704

degrees
degrees

(eq 188)
(eq 189)
(eq 190 or 191)
(eq 192 or 193)

0.31092
0.17681
0.13357
0.13105

inch
inch
inch
inch

AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 930--A05

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 929--A06, Calculation of Bevel Gear Top
Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius, or indicated for additional information.

Gleason Bevel & Hypoid Gear Terminology, Publication No. SD 4053A--1971--C&T, Gleason Works.
Formulas for Cutter Specifications and Tooth Thickness Measurements for Spiral Bevel and Hypoid Gears, SD
3124B, Jan 1982, Gleason Works.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

35

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