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Praktek

Semester
Nama
NIM

: Motor Diesel
:V
:
:

Judul : Labelling engine


Tanggal :
Waktu : 2 x 45 menit
Lab
: Otomotif

Nilai

1. Tujuan Praktek
a. Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan apa itu bagian/komponen motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder.
b. Mahasiswa dapat melakukan running test single cylinder diesel engine procedure.
c. Mahasiswa dapat menginspeksi inspeksi motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder.
2. Alat dan Bahan
a. ..
b. ..
c. ..

d. .......
e. ........
f.

3. Tinjauan Teori
Motor diesel sebagai sebuah sumber tenaga penggerak memiliki prinsip yang hampir
sama dengan motor bensin (gasoline engine) dimana energi dihasilkan oleh pembakaran
bahan bakar, Ada beberapa perbedaan utama antara karakteristik mesin bensin dan mesin
diesel. Mesin diesel menggunakan prinsip auto - ignition (terbakar sendiri). Sedangkan mesin
bensin menggunakan prinsip spark - ignition (pembakaran yang dipicu oleh percikan api pada
busi). Oleh karenanya motor diesel sering juga disebut dengan compression ignition engine.
Agar dapat mencapai suhu dan tekanan pembakaran, tekanan kompresi pada mesin diesel
diusahakan mampu mencapai 30 45 kg/cm2, agar temperatur udara yang dikompresikan
mencapai 500 derajat celsius, sehingga bahan bakar mampu terbakar dengan sendirinya tanpa
dipicu oleh letikan bunga api dari busi.
Untuk dapat mencapai tekanan dan temperatur yang demikian, pada motor diesel harus
memiliki perbandingkan kompresi yang lebih tinggi kira-kira mencapai 25:1 dan
membutuhkan gaya yang lebih besar untuk memutarnya. Sehingga motor diesel memerlukan
alat pemutar seperti motor starter dan baterai yang berkapasitas besar pula. Disamping itu
motor diesel memiliki efisiensi panas yang sangat tinggi, hemat konsumsi bahan bakar,
memiliki kecepatan lebih rendah dibanding mesin bensin, getarannya sangat besar dan agak
berisik, momen yang didapatkan lebih besar, sehingga motor ini umumnya digunakan pada
kendaraan niaga, kendaraan penumpang dan sebagai motor penggerak lainnya.
Karena tekanan pembakaran yang tinggi, maka mesin diesel harus dibuat dari bahan yang
tahan terhadap tekanan tinggi dan harus mempunyai struktur yang sangat kuat. Disamping itu
getaran motor yang dihasilkan sangat besar, ini diakibatkan oleh tekanan pembakaran
maksimum yang dicapai hampir dua kali lipat lebih besar dari pada motor bensin, sehingga
suara dan getaran mesin diesel menjadi lebih besar.
3.1 Prinsip Siklus Kerja Motor Diesel 4 Langkah

Gambar 1. Prinsip Kerja Motor Diesel


1

1. Langkah pertama adalah langkah hisap. Pada langkah ini, piston akan bergerak dari titik
mati atas (TMA) ke titik mati bawah (TMB). Selanjutnya, katup hisap akan terbuka
sebelum mencapai TMA dan katup buang akan tertutup. Akibatnya, akan terjadi
kevakuman di dalam silinder yang menyebabkan udara murni masuk ke dalam silinder.
2. Sedangkan pada langkah kedua (langkah kompresi), piston bergerak sebaliknya, yaitu
dari TMB ke TMA. Katup hisap tertutup sementara katup buang akan terbuka. Udara
kemudian akan dikompresikan sampai pada tekanan dan suhunya menjadi 30kg/cm2 dan
suhu 500 celsius.
3. Pada langkah ketiga (langkah usaha), katup hisap tertutup, katup buang juga tertutup dan
injektor menyemprotkan bahan bakar. Sehingga, terjadi pembakaran yang menyebabkan
piston bergerak dari TMA ke TMB.
4. Dan pada langkah keempat (langkah buang), hampir sama dengan langkah hisap, yaitu
piston bergerak dari TMB ke TMA. Namun, katup hisap akan tertutup dan katup buang
akan terbuka. Sedangkan piston akan bergerak mendorong gas sisa pembakaran keluar.

Gambar 2. Siklus udara standar motor diesel


Sistim bahan bakar (fuel system) pada motor diesel memiliki peranan yang sangat
penting dalam menyediakan dan mensupply sejumlah bahan bakar yang dibutuhkan sesuai
dengan kapasitas mesin, putaran motor dan pembebanan motor. Oleh karenannya
performance fuel sistem sangat menentukan kinerja dari motor diesel. Seperti pada gambar
dibawah ini, sistim bahan bakar pada motor diesel terdiri dari beberapa komponen utama
diantaranya tanki bahan bakar, feed pump atau pompa penyalur, filter bahan bakar, pompa
injeksi dan nozzle.

Gambar 3. Sistem bahan bahan bakar motor diesel


2

Pada mesin diesel terdapat berbedaan yang mendasar jika dibandingkan dengan mesin
bensin, volume penyemprotan bahan bakar pada mesin diesel diatur sedemikian rupa dan
tidak tergantung dari pembukaan katup gas, hanya saja governor akan bekerja sesuai dengan
gerakan katup gas. Pada waktu pedal gas ditekan secara konstan maka putaran mesin akan
turun bila beban mesin bertambah, misalnya pada saat tanjakan, untuk mengatasi hal ini
maka governor akan menambah volume penyemprotan bahan bakar agar mesin tidak mati
dan putaran mesin dapat dipertahankan. Untuk mengontrol jumlah (volume) bahan
bakaryang diinjeksikan pada pompa injeksi dilengkapi dengan unit governor. Governor
dirancang untuk mengatur secara otomatis putaran dan daya mesin dengan mengontrol
volume penyemprotan berdasarkan beban mesin dan penekanan pedal gas. Governor bekerja
dengan menggerakkan rak pengontrol pompa injeksi dan rak pengontrol akan mengatur
langkah efektif plunyer.
3.2 Praktek Motor Diesel 4 Tak Single Cylinder

3.3 Mekanisme Katup Motor Diesel 4 Tak Single Cylinder

Mekanisme katup pada motor diesel generator 4 tak berfungsi untuk mengatur
pemasukan udara murni dan pengeluaran gas sisa pembakaran dengan cara membuka dan
menutup kedua katup. Mekanisme katup pada motor diesel 4 tak terdiri dari : poros bubungan
(camshaft), pengungkit (tappet), batang pendorong (pushrod), tuas penekan katup (rocker arm)
dan katup beserta pegas pengembalinya.
Cara kerja mekanisme katup yaitu : saat motor bekerja roda gigi poros engkol berputar
menggerakkan roda gigi bubungan sehingga poros bubungan juga ikut berputar. Karena
permukaan poros bubungan berbentuk eksentris (lonjong) maka pengungkit (tappet) yang
berhubungan dengannya cenderung bergerak naik turun sesuai dengan bentuk permukaan poros
bubungan yang menggerakkannya. Gerak naik turun tappet tersebut diteruskan oleh batang
pendorong (push-rod) ke tuas penekan katup (rocker-arm) sehingga menekan (katup terbuka) dan
membebaskan katup (katup tertutup) secara bergantian mengikuti putaran poros bubungan yang
lonjong (eksentrik). Urutan kerja mekanisme katup di atas bila dibuat ke dalam diagram alir
(flow chart) adalah sebagai berikut :

3.4 Sistem Bahan Bakar Motor Diesel 4 Tak Single Cylinder


Secara sederhana sistem bahan bakar pada motor diesel berfungsi untuk menyalurkan
bahan bakar ke ruang bakar dengan takaran yang sesuai dengan kerja motor diesel tersebut.
4

Komponen utama dari sistem bahan bakar motor diesel 4 tak selinder tunggal (horizontal)
meliputi : (a). tangki bahan bakar, (b) keran, (c) saringan bahan bakar, (d) pompa injeksi
bahan bakar, (e) pipa penyalur dan pipa tekanan tinggi serta (f) injector (katup injeksi bahan
bakar).

Prinsip kerja motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder sebagai berikut :


Ketika keran bahan bakar diputar ke posisi membuka maka bahan bakar akan mengalir ke
pompa injeksi dengan melalui saringan bahan bakar terlebih dahulu. Saat mesin mulai
berputar, pompa injeksi juga turut bekerja atau memompakan bahan bakar ke injector (a)
melalui pipa tekanan tinggi. Tekanan bahan bahan bakar yang tinggi mengakibatkan pegas
penahan katup nozzle di dalam injector terdesak (membuka nozzle) dan bahan bakar
terinjeksikan ke dalam ruang bakar (b). Setelah proses injeksi bahan bakar selesai, maka katup
nozzle akan menutup kembali (c) karena adanya tekanan pegas pengembali.
Bahan bakar (solar) yang berlebihan pada injector kemudian dialirkan kembali ke tangki
bahan bakar berkat adanya relief valve dan saluran pengembali. Dengan demikian tidak
terjadi pemborosan bahan bakar, karena bahan bakar yang tersisa/berlebih saat peristiwa
penyemprotan bahan bakar dikembalikan lagi ke tangki bahan bakar. Aliran bahan bakar
(solar) pada setiap komponen sistem bahan bakar tersebut di atas bila dibuat ke dalam
diagram alir (flow chart) adalah sebagai berikut :

TUGAS PRAKTEK TERSTRUKTUR I


1.1 Buatlah gambar sederhana (sket) langkah kerja dan diagram kerja katup pada motor
diesel 4 tak single cylinder.
1.2 Berikan penjelasan ringkas tentang gambar sederhana (sket) tersebut dengan
menggunakan kata - kata sendiri sesuai pemahaman anda.
1.3 Uraikan komponen konstruksi utama sebuah motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder.
1.4 Jelaskan langkah kerja motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder secara lengkap dengan bantuan
gambar ( gambar sketsa ).
1.5 Jelaskan cara kerja mekanisme katup pada motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder dengan
menganalisa gambar secara lengkap.
TUGAS PRAKTEK TERSTRUKTUR II
2.1 Sebutkan fungsi sistem bahan bakar pada motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder.
2.2 Sebutkan fungsi masing-masing komponen sistem bahan bakar pada motor diesel 4 tak
single cylinder secara lengkap.
2.3 Jelaskan cara kerja sistem bahan bakar pada motor diesel 4 tak single cylinder secara
sistematis.
JAWABAN
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Dosen
Teknisi
Keterangan
Diperiksa,
Jember, Desember 2014

Ahmad Robiul Awal.U ST., MT