Anda di halaman 1dari 172

PROBLEMS

IN
SOIL MECHANICS
AI{D
FOT]NDATION ENGINEERING
A'M'LE'(ndia);
[ForB.E.(Civil);M'E'(Civil);
Examinationsl
U.P.S.C'andotherC-ompetitive

DEBASHIS MOITRA

Departmentof civil Engineerilq


BengalEngineeringCollege DeemedUniversity
Howrah'

\|\\
,j r u"
\
{

i i ,

DHANpA_rLtcATto hls(p)' LrD.84! F_uB_


FIRSTFLOOR,.6ZI+
IT,INONAS
HOUSd
DARYAGA+TJ,
NEWDELHI-J1OOO2
PHONES:3274073

Note: This book or part thereof may not be reproduced in any form or translated
without the written permission of the Author and the Publisher.

OTHERUSEFT'LBOOKS
1. AdvanceTheoryofStuctures

N.C. Sinha

2. Concrete Testing Manual

MI. Gambhir

3. Fundamentalsof Limit Analysis of Structures

V.K. Manicka Selvam

4. Modern method of Structural Analvsis

V.K. Manicka Selvam

5. Multistorey Building & Yield Line


Analvsis of Slabs

V.K. Manicka Selvam

6. Energy Methods in Structural Mechanics

V.K. Maniclca Selvam

7. Analysis of Skucture in Earth Quake Region

V.K. Manbka Selvam

8. Dock and Harbour Engineering

S.P. Bindra

9. Foundation Design Manual

N.V.Nayak

Preface
This book is primarily intended for the undergraduatestudentsof Civil
Engineering. However, it will be helpful also to the diploma-level students,
A.M.I.E. students,and, in some cases,even to the post-graduatestudentsof
Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.

FirstEdition1993
Reprint :

1998

A thorough understandingof the basic principles of a subject like Soil


Mechanics calls for lhe solution of a large number of numerical problems. In
the presentbook a briefinfoduction to the contentsofeach chapterhas been
given, which is followed by a number of worked-out examples and quite a
few practice problems. For a better understandingof the topics and students
are required to solve all the problems by themselves.Effort hasbeenmade to
explain the basic principles underlying the solution of the problems so tlat
the students may develop the habit of having a logical insight into the
numerical problems while solving them.
Commentsand 5rrggestionsregardingthe book, from the studentsaswell
as the teachers,will be highly appreciated.

Price:Rs.60.00
Calcutta,
9, March 1993

Ptfulishedby
Prittted at

Ish Kapur for Dhanpat Rai Publications (p) Ltd.


: A.P. Of1.sc.t.
Navecn Shahdara.Delhi- | t(X)32.

DEBASHISMOITRA

1
WEIGHT.VOLUME REI.ATIONSHIPS

CONTENTS
Clwpter

Page

"{

Weight-VolumeRelationships

,/,

Index Propertiesand Soil Classification

24

,/. I

Capillarity and Permeability .

49

'g..r'
lz,

Seepageand Flow-nets

81

StessDistribution

to7

Consolidation

133

Compaction

165

Nr

Shcar Strength

181

'9J/

Earth Pressure

2r3

10.

Stability of Slopes

?54

L1.

Bearing Capacity

?33

12.

Deep Foundations

310

/J

,.

Matter may exist in naturein threedifferent states,viz.,


1.1 Introduction:
solid, liquid and gaseous.A soil massin its naturalstatemay consistof all '
three phases.The basic ingredient is the solid grains which form the soil
skeleton,while the intermittent void spacesare filled up by either air, or water,
or both. Thus, a soil massin its natural statemay be considereda three-phase
system.
1.2 Soil Mass as a Three-phase System : In a soil mass in its natural
state,tle three phases,viz., solid, liquid andgas,are completely intermingled
with one another. However, if one can determine the individual volumes of
solid grains, liquid (i.e., water) and gas (i.e., air) presentin a certain volume

: -----Water- ----:

Fis.1.1

ofa soil, the entire soil mass can be represelted by a schematicdiagram, as


shown in Fig. 1.1, where the volume of each constituent part is shown as a
fraction of the total volume. The cross-scctional area of the soil mass fo taken
to be unity, so ttat, the volume of each constituent part is numerically equal
to ib beight shown in the diagram. Again, the mass of each part may be
obtained by multiplying its volume by the corresponding density.

Thenotations used inthe diagram are defined below:

V = total volume of the soil mass

I
I

'.
\

Problems in SoilMechonics and Fonndation Engineering

particlegin the soil


% = volume of solid
in the soii
=
voids
of
volume
V,
V- = vslspe of water presentin the voids
V, = volurne of air presentin the voids

s
RelationshiP
Weight-Vofume
i.e.,

v
t=ixrWva

...(1.4)

dry soils) to 1007o(for fully


The value of s may vary from oVo (for
saturatedsoils).
"--is defined as the ratio of the
("tSp"t it'rc gravity of sotids(G".or G) : It
to the mass of an equal volume of
mass of a given lrotume of solicl grains
water, measuredat the sametemperarure'

17 = total mass of the soil


!7" = rnassofthe solid Particles
W- = mass of water presentin the voids'
The massof air presentin the voids is negligible'
Vu=V"+Vn
Thus,

G =Mny : -

1.c.,

The fundamental physical properties which


1.3 Basic Defrnitions :
below :
govern the engineeringperformanceofa soil are defined

grains
M" = massof anyvolurneVofsolid
M. = massof water of volume V'
then in the C'G'S' systen
If this volume V is arbitrarily taken as unity'
of solid grains (y') and
dersity
the
to
Lqu't
M" and M. become **..i".iry
density of water (1.) respectively' Thus'

(i)Voidratio(e):Thevoidratioofasoilisdefinedastheratioofvolurne
of voids to the volume of solids'

massolunitvolunggllglids- Ts
O massof unitvolumeof water Y-

and,

V =V r+V,

0r,

V=Vr+Vo+Vn

vu

i.e.,

"=v,

where,

...(1.1)

Thevoidratioisadimensionlessparameter,thenumericalvalueofwhich
with increasing degree of compactnessof the soil'
decreases
-aefineAas the ratio of the volume of voids to the
1i4 f-rsity (n): ttis
as a percentage'
total volume of the soil mass.It is generallyexpressed
i.e.,

fu= + x rooe,o

...(r.2)

1' However' as lhe


The void ratio of a soil may be greateror less than
a soi| mass,its porosity
volume ofvoids is alwayslessthalrthe totalvolume of
is always lessthan 100%.
is defined as
(ili) Water content(w) : The water content of a soil mass
expressedas
always
is
tne ratlo of the rnassof *.i"t to the massof solids' It
a percentage.

i.e., ,/

w...
*=frxlooVo

"'(1'3)

,/
(s) : The degreeof saturation of a soil mass is
4i{ O"gr"" of saturation
of voids. It is always
defin-eias tf,e ratio of volume'of water ro tbe volume
expressedas a Percntage'

...(1.s)

T"= G'Y'

or'

as the ratio of the mass of


(vi) Mass spectftcgravity (G,,) : It is defined
volume of water' measuredat
a siven volume of soil to theLiti'of tn equal
the sametemPerafure.
i.e.,

I ;

M*

\n

...(1.6)

where
" --'(vit\ Y= unitweightof thesoilmass'
of,thetotal
Butka"nrityl, unit weight(v): It is ogrineo15n;-ratio
KN/m
'
gm/ccor t^n- or
,o.,, of u soil to its totalr olume.Its unit is

l.e.r,

\=T

...(1.7)

as the massof soil solids per


(viii) Unit weiglt of solids(Yr):It is defined
unit volume of solids.
1.e.,

w,
Y " =%

...(1.8)

a soil mass is defiried as the


(ix) Dry density (17) : The dry density of
volume of ttre soil mass
massof soil solids per unit of the total

Problems in SoilMechanics and Foundation Engineering

ws
\d=V

i.e.,

...(1.e)

The difference between 1" and y7 should be clearly understood.The dry


density of a fufly or partly saturatedsoil is nothing but its bulk density in the
dry state.The dry density ofa soil dependson its degreeofcompactness, and
hence, on its.void ratio. But $e gnit weight of solids depends only on the
properties of iie minerals presentin it and is independentof the statein which
the soil exists.
(x) Saturated unit'weight (y.",) : When a soil mass is fully saturated,its
bulk density is tenrred as the saturatedunit weight of the soil.
(xi) Submergeddensity (y.u6): The submergeddensity of a soil massis
clefinecl as the subnerged weight of the soil per unit of its total volume.
1.4 Functional Relationships : In order to assessthe engineering
performanceandbehaviourofa soil, itis requiredto evaluatethefundamental
properties enumeratedin fut' 1.3.While some of theseproperties (e'g', w, G,
y etc.) can be easily determinedfrom laboratorytests,someothers(e'g', q s,
y" etc.) cannot be evaluated directly. However, all of these properties are
interdependent.Hence, if mathematical relationships between two or mor
such properties can be developedthen the direct determination of a few of
them will lead to the indirect detenninationof the others.Thus, the functional
relationships have an important role to play in Soil Mechanics.
The most important relationshipsare establishedbelow :

vu

"= v"
= Vv + V " , o r , V "- V

But,

vu

vr/v

"' e = v - v"= (v:W


.'.e=

v,/v

considerAlternative prool: The samerelationshipsmay alsobe deduced


(b)'
and
(a)
1'2
in
Fig'
shown
ing the schematicdiagrarnof a soil massas

(1+e)

Fig.1.2

vv
We know that,

-Vr.

[ . =

+l

V r ,= e . V r .
Let us considera soil masshavingtrnitvolume of solids'

= T ? ; t'"J
e =

" = i = 1 . "
n =

Again,

=
+, or vu n'v

=
Cqnsideringa soil masshavir:ga totalvolume V l,
- n'
V . .= l ' n = n , o r , % = V - V , = |

v,

...e=Vs

V,

vr/v,
vu
o r ' ng v J v " =
Wm=

ys

Now,

...(1.10)

n = T

(b)

(o)

L - n

Again, by definition,

...(1.11)
L + e

v . =r - "

r-i

. " n =

. ' .% = l , o t , V r = ' I = '


.'. Totalvolumeofthesoil, V = V, r V" = | 1 s

(i) Relation betweene and n :


By definitnn,

Weight -Volume Relat ionslriPs

-,5

n
l - n

newion betweene, G, w ands :

With referenceto Fig 1.1'

, = w% ' t "
Vn'\n

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

G=!,

Y" = G'Y.

Of,

ln

vn

Vn'ln

Ws

By definition,

tu

,9e
G

Wn+W,
Vr+V,

Vn.yn + V".Gyn
_

_ t v

Vr+V"

Vu+V"

(1.13)
=
From
eqn.
weBet,Tsar

Iw

(1.13)we get,fd =
From.eqn.

_ (s.e + G)/e ., = G r s ..,


ttt'
tw
(l+e)/e

V = -

Wn+W"

Wn+W"
...(1.13)

t | 9

(iv) Expressionfor y.", :

Olt

w"

wnr w'
l

or,

(V, + GV')/V,
- -F;T-q4
tn

or,
(G+e)/e

tw

- . r t

(l+e\/e

G+e
tw

l+e

w"

l a = 1 |i , o r , V = j ,ld

...(ii)

From (i) and (ii) we gel,

For a safurat'edsoil, V,n= l/,


Vy.y- r V"'G^ln
V, + G.V"
= --------------;=-'Y.
Tsar - -------i7,rlV,
Vu+1,

l+G.(I/el

...(i)

Y = - -

Again,

W n + W " vn"(n + %'Y"


= W=
Bydefinition,ysar
i
Vr+V,
ffi

t+l/e

'

We know that,

G+se

4 . r ,

#.r*

= -GTn
l;"

l+e

v' = - . v
l + e

.u

u = fi|

(vi) Retation between y and y4 :

t\r

l+l/e

+#

Foradrysoil,s=0

tw

Dividing fle numeratoranddenominator


by V, ,we get,
VJV, + G.V"/V,
s + G/e
1+V"/V,

...(1.ls)

Eqns.(1.14) and (1.15) may also be derivedfrom,eqn.(1.13) as follows :


Forasaturatedsoils=1.

Vn + G.V"
E

Iw

G^tn

Vn.\n + %.y"
Vr+V"

v = - = - = -

ot,

G/e
| + l/e

\d = TTe

0f,

The bulk density ofa three-phasesoil systernis given by,

'

Vr,+V"

(V, + V")/V, 'w

(iii) Relatian between y, G, s and e :

V".G\n

%'y"
Vr+V,

s.e = w.G

W
V

...(1.14)

G.Vs,/Vv

V"/V"

'

G + e
l-Jl'Yw

(v) Expression for y1 :

vJV,

s
G/e

.f

Ysar=

of'

=
=
vr.Gr" y" .G (vr/v,) ' c

= VJV"
c =

Weight -Vo htmeRelationshtps

tw

Y=
Yd =

Wn+W,

(.

=w'

a
Wr\

W " - ' t , = l t * W . " /l ' r o - ( l + w ) . y a


\
v

T;-;

...(1.16)

(vii) Relation between y*5 and y* :


A soil is said to be submergedwhen it lies below the ground water table.
Such a soil is firlly saturated.Now, accordingto Archimcdes' principlc, when

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

an object is submergedin a liquid, it undergoesan apparentreductionin mass,


the amount of such reduction being equal to the rnassof the liquid displaced
by the object.
Consider a soil mass, having a volume V and mass I,Iz,which is fully
submerged in water.
Volume of water displacedby the soil

From theconsiderationof degreeof saturation,a soil sample

(i) Completely dry (s = 0)

-t

(ii) firlly saturated(s = 1)


Unless otherwisementionedin the problem, a soil sampleshould always
be taken to be partially saturated.

= V(Y."r - Y-)
The apparentdensity or submergeddensity of the soil is given by,

V(Y."r - Y,r)
W'
Ysub=V =
V

Methpd 12'Given ' lT,w, C I

==+Required
' t : [Ta,
' .s,A;l'

As e and z are mutually dependent on each other, effectively three


unknown parametershave to be determinedfrom the given data. Select the
appropriate equationswhich may servethis purpose.
The value of y7 can be determinedfrom :

...(r.r7)

Y
.,. ' d - l + w
Here,

Two differentmetlods :ru

(iii) partially saturated(0 < s < 1)

Apparentmassofthesoil, W' = W - V -,{n = V.ysat - V.,{n

Ysub=Ysat-Yw

Solution:
may be :

= V

Mass of displacedwater = V . \n

or,

Weight-Volume Relationships

""t"Toyedto solvethe numerical

problems in this chapter. They are :


Method I : Solution using mathematical relationships :
This process is somewhat mechanical, one has to mernorise all the
equations deduced in fut. 1.4 and should select the appropriate equation/s
while solving a given problem. However, in most of the casesthis method
can yield the desiredresult fairly quickly.
Method II : Solutionfrom first principles :
In this method the solution is obtained using only the basic definitions
with referenceto a three-phasediagram of the soil massunder consideration.
This method always allows the student to have an insight into the problem.
However, in some casesthe solution becomesa little complicated and more
time-consuming than method I.
After going tlrough lhe worked out examples, quite a few of which
r'llustratethe use of both of tlese methods,one should be able to realise as to
which method of solution suits better to a particular type of problem. It may
be pointed out that, the methods may also be used in conjunction with one
another.
Problem 1.1. A soil sample has a unit weight of 1.9 gm/cc and a water
content of l2%.If the specific gravity of solids be 2.65, determinethe dry
density, degree ofsaturation, void ratio and porosity ofthe soil.

y = unitweightof thesoil = 1.9gm/cc


lr = water content = l2%o = 0.t2

\d = T#n=

r'6e6gm/cc

In order to solve for the other two unknowns,viz., s and e; two equations
are required. Evidently, the following equationswill serve the purpose :
vrG = st or re = (0.12)(2.65) = 0.318
Again,

or,
or,

G+se
l + e

v' = _ . l n

r.n= f41l@)tr.ol
l * e
l+e=

| .
) '
1.56,or,e=0.56

The expressionof y7 may also be used.

'{a=
of'

G'tn

y-l s,

=(f?P,
1.6s6

OT,

1.696+1.696e=2.65

or,

"=ffi=o'56

...(t

Problems in SoilMechanics and Foundation Engineermg

10

-. = 9 ! 1 9 = 0 . 5 6 8= 5 6 . 8 v o
0.56

From (i),

e
" = Ti;
Answer.

0.56

, . ;s.

= n0.36= 36vo

Dry density = 1'696 gm/cc' void ratio = 0'56


Degree of saturation = 56'87o,Porosity = 36Vo

wn
w=-w

Now,

wn
;
l

Void ratio,

"=2=ffi=os6

Porosity,

=36vo
" =+ =ffi x roovo

= rrr,
r'n

volume of 300
Problem It2-'F'nundisturbed specimenof soil has a
its weight
hours'
24
for
105'C
at
oven
in
drying
After
+66got'
"" tJ*.igh.
reducedto-+sog*.oeterrninethevoidratio,porosity,degreeofsaturation
and water conteut. Assume G = 2'70'
Solution:

Wn = o.lZgm

0r,

= l'I2gm
Totalmassofthesample, W = Wo + W4
rYr " =

Volume of solids,

v' t ' =

Volume of water,

W"

T
wn

Weight ofwaterevaporated,

Vo=V-(%+V)=0.092cc
=
.'. Volume of voids, V, = Vo t Vn = 0.12+ 0'fp.2 0'2l2cc
vn
o.r2
=

.'. Volume of air,

Degree of saturation,

t=

fr

ffix

'1"'n't' t I
cir"n,fr wg5 cf+ Required
' "

fuid, weight of the dry sample,

= o'12 - 0.12cc

v' =Yl! t- l'rz


. 9 = 0.589cc

Total volurne of soil,

Methodl:

After drying itt oven,thewater presentln m' soti"ffitatts


becomescomPletelYdrY.
W = 498 gln
Now, weight of the moist sample,

I
-W'
- 0" .' -3"7 7* c r
,, =
=
c\"= (2f5)(l)

l*

,, =+ =#F = r'6nsm'/cc

Dry densitY,

Method II:
Letusconsidera'specimenofthegivensoilinwhichthemassofsolid
1'3'
grains = 1 gm. The tnree-phasediagrari of the soil is shown in Fig'

11

Weight-Vol umeReIat ionshiPs

r o o % 5o 6 . 6 7 o

and the soil

Wa = 456 gn'
W-='W -Wa= 498 -456 = 42gm'

=
0'0921= 9'21%
Watercontent,w - Y
456
wd +G'r'u
\d=T;e
Dry densitY,
\d =

But

wa -456
= r.szpm/cc
v
300
G'tn
= L5z
l + e

\h
(0.092cc1
Vw
(0'12ccl
V
( 0 . 5E 9 c c )

1.s2(r + e) = (2.7)(r)
+1.52=2.7
L.S?z
e -- 0.78
Void ratio= 0.78

or,
or'

:-------Woter-- : ----:
- -_:_-_-_-_-_-_-_----_-

of,

VJ
(1'12gml

Again,porosity

Vs

(0.377rc)

, -

e
TT;

From eqn. (1.12), t+G= st

F i g .1 . 3 .

0.78 = 0.438= 43'8vo


,ft
or,

, = I9

LZ

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Weight-VolumeRelationships

Ort

(o.oe2r\
(2.7\
"=ff=0.319=3l.9flo

Problem !J. A saturatedsoil sample,weighing 178 gm, has a volume


of 96 cc. If the specific gravity of soil solids be 2.67, determinethe void ratio,
water content and unit weight of the soil.

Method II : With referenceto the three-phasediagrarn shown in Fig' 1.4,

V-=--:==42cc

Volume of solids,

v' s - w " - w '


Gln

AS6'

= 168'8e
cc

'

0f'

V'=V-V'

Ot,

Vu = 3N - 168.89= 131.11cc
" =

vu 131.11
= o'78
=
16s,
,"

vu
,=T=

s=
w=

Vn

fi

Again,

131.11= O . 4 3 7 = 4 3 | 7 V o
3Of

Wo
W=

42

trfu

2'67-+ | x e\(1'o) =
1'954
r + e
)
1.854+L,854e=2.67+e
0.85k = 0.816
e = 0.955

0r,

V=300cc

Total volume,

tu, = l]|.u

But,

Y"

,?in

Required
:

y,",={ =y9 =1.854gm/cr


v 9 6

yw

of'

Given,W, VEe+

Unit weight of the soil,

w...

Volume of water,

Volume of voids,

Solution:

wn=498-456=42gm

Weight of water,

13

= o32= 327o

42
=9'2lc/o
^5t=0'0921

(0L0255)
- 0.358= 35,.8vo
* =-X -

..u
t
Prcblery{.
A ftrlly saturatedsoil samplehas d volume of 28 cc. The
sample was drled in oven and tle weight of the dry soil pat was found to be
48.86 gm. Determine the void ratio, moisture content, saturateddensity and
dry densityof the soil mass.Given G =2,68.

. Solution: Given' F % e;l=+

A schematicrepresentationof the given soil is shown in Fig. 1,5.


Here, total volume

V=?3cc

Volumeofdrysoil, % =
{ 1 3 1 . 1c1
)c

Required
:

T#"c=18.23cn

Assuming that there was no changein void ratio during ovcn-drying,


volumeofwaterevaporated,Vn= V - % = QA - L8.23)cc 7,'9.77cc

w (4 9 8 g m l
Sotid

Void ratio,

v,

Ws{ 4 5 6 9 m )

=
Fig.r.4

Vn

- v " v ,
l r = - = -

o11

ffi

= o'536

l'.'v"=vnT

t4

Problems in Soil Mechnnics and Foundation Engineering


Weightofwater,

Wn = V*'\*

= (9.77)(1.0,

Wt
)Cs
=1.7889n/cr
'td=i=,"5

= 9.77 grn
Moisture eontent,

g'77

wn

|v=fi=ffi=0.2=20%b

i rral weightof thesoil,


W = Wn + 17" = (9.77 + 48.86)gm = 58.63grn
density, t*, =
Saturated
{

Drydensity, ro =Y= #

= 2.09 gm/cE

= r.745sm/cc

V v= 9 ' 7 7 c c

h(a=9.779m
W= 5 S ' 6 3 9 m
Ws=4E.869m

Vs=18'23cc

FiB.1.5
.
Problem l.rf,. An undisturbed sample of saturatedclay has a volume
of 16.5 cc and weighs 35.1 gm. On oven-drying,the weight of the sample
reduces to 29.5 gm. Determine the void ratio, moisture content, dry density
and the specificgravity of solids.
Solution :

Method I:

Given
: Vn we+
Weight of thesaturated
sample,
Weightof thedry sample,

tF,*l,d, c-l
Required

W = 35.1gm
Wa = 29.5gm

.'. Weightofwalcrevaporated,
Wn - W - Wa = (35.1- 29.5\gm

tu, = l]].t*
= q, t" ,
2.127
i

But.

2.127+2.127e=G+e

or,
or,

G=l.l27e+2.127
G'tn
I a=

tu,={-i#

-2.ryism/*

...(i)

V r

Again,

l + e

G , 1
1.788 = - ----:r + e
=
G
1.788e+ 1.788

or,

...(ii)

FromQ) and(ii) we get,


e + 2.127
1.788e+ 1.788= L.127
O.66te= 0.339
or,
e = 0.51
or,
From(i)we get,G = (1.27)(0.51)+ 2.127= 2-r
Now, l+G = s

= r8.evo
- = E = gr'}lu -*0.18e

oI'

A thlee-phasediagrarn of the given soil is shown in Fig' 1'6'


Here, wet weight of the sample, W = 35-t gm

Method II :

Dry weight of the samPle,

Wd = 29.5 gm

Weightofwater,

Wn = W - Wa = (35"1 - 29'5)gm = 5.6gm

Volume of water

Vn = V, = 5.6 cc

V = 16.5cc
V, = V - Vu = (16.5- 5.6)cc = 10'9cc
Volumeofsolids,
Total volurne

Void ratio,

" = ? =# = o s l ,

Moisture content,

* = V = # = o . r 8 e- r 8 . e %

= 5.6grn

Nou,,

15

Weiglx -Volume Relatians hiPs

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fonndation Engineering

r7

Weig ht -Vo lame Relat ionship s

was 0.54,dc&rminethc moisturccontent,dry density,bulk density,degree


of saturrtionrnd specificgrrvityof solids.

Vy15
=. 5 c c

sotriior: GiveE
,W@+
V * 1&5cc
W - 3629m

Totalvolume
Totalweigh!

Wa - 3%gm

Dry wcfhl

t -V -#

Bulk density,
Fig. 1.6

Ws 29.5
\a = V = ,rj = l.19gm/cc

Dry density,

Required
,F yr,r, ", c I

Dry density,

wd

lo-i

- Le6gm/cn

- 326 - I . 7 6 g m / c c
1g5

Weightof watercvaporated,Wn = W - W"

y" =

Unitweightof
solids,

=ffi

= Z.7ogm,/v

='#
= 2.70
of solids, c =
Specificgravity
*
/
Problen i!/ m. initial void ratio of an inorganicclay is foundto be
0.65,while the specificgravity of solidsis 2.68.Determinethe dry density
andsaturateddensityof thesoil.AIsodetermineitsbulk densityandmoisture
content,if thesoil is 5A%saturated.
+ Required:
Solution:
Given' |TZJ
Saturated
densityof thesoil,

lu, = f]f.U

to'=9o- = ff#i
-

ffiff(l)

(t) = 2'o,gm/cc

= L62sm/cc

Whenthesoil is 50%saturated,
its bulk density
G + se
2.68 + (0.5)(0.65)

Y - ffi'Y-

Moisturecontent, w
Now,

0f'

or,

Moisture contenl at SOVosaturation,


(0.5) (0.65)
.te

yd =

-(o'll-)!?'7r) -0.55 =55c,o


0.54

,/
Probleqgf.
A sample of silty clay has a void ratio of 0.8. The soil is
allowed to absorbwater and its saturateddensity was found to be 1.92gmlcc.
Determine the water content of the saturated sample.
Method I:

It is assumed &at the void ratio of the soil


absorption of water.
The saturateddensity is given by,
Ysat-

, w'e;W=0.12=127o

/
Problem \1
The volume and weight of a partially saturatedclay
After drying in an ovenat 105'C
sampleare 185cc and362gmrespectively.
for 24iho!rs,its weightreducedto 326gm.If thenaturalvcid ratioof thesoil

36
=llVo
326=0.11

I+G - S,

"-I9

Solution :

= 1'82gm/cc

- f wn
r=

G'=l=,
1 . 7 6- ,
1 + 0.54
G * (1.76)(1.54)= 2.71

Again,

= ('iltH]])
Dry density,

= (362 - 326)gm - 36gm

9*trl

1+u.o

or,

did not change due to

G + e
[J'Yr

_ r.v2
G-(1.92r(1.8)-0.8 - 2.656

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

Weight -Vo lume Relat ionships

ttG = s, we, gt,

Now, using the relation

se

| + w = 1q,
2.Ew

(1) (0.8)

w=A=ffi=0-30

4.32w=l+w

ort

Required water contenl = 30Vo


Fig. 1.7 shows the three-phasediagram of the given soil.
Let the weight rf solids be unity. kt lr be the moisture contellt of the
saturatedsoil.
Method II :

Now, ru =

W
#,

ot, Wn = w'W" = w'l

= w gm

or,

Note : Try' to solvq


/ the problem assumingthe volume of solids to be unity.
Problern L/. The bulk density and dry density of a partially saturated
soil are 1.9{gm/cc and 1.80gm/cc respectively.The specific gravity of solids
is 2.68. Determine the void ratio, moisture coirtent and degreeof saturation
of the soil.
Solution:

Volnrne 0f waler, Vw = wcc


Now, void ratio

w=0.30=3OVo

e = 0.8

*Y =
o.t
s

We have,

t d -

Here,

ya = 1.80gm/cc, y = 1.95gm/cr

l + w

105

0(,

1.80 = ;L

%-*=#=fr=r.x,..

l + w

| + w = 1.95/1.80= L.0833
w = 0 . 0 8 3 3= 8 . 3 3 9 / o

Or'

Total volume of the soil,

of'

V=Vs+Vn

=1.?5w+w=2.?5wcc

Again, we have,

yd=

G^t*
I + e

=q?9
1.80
r+e=ffi=r.cl

of,

2'25wcc

e = 0.49

Ort

vtG =se

Now,

1 2 5 v er r

O f ,

J = -

(2.68)
r,,C = f(0.0833)
f

Fig.1.7
Totalweightofthesoil,=
WW n + W d =
.
But,

(1 + w)gm

-0.456=45.69o

Problem l$.The
density of a partially saturatedsoil was found to be
1.88 gm/cc. If t[e moisture @ntent and void ratio of the soil be 24.8Voand
0.76 respectively, determine the specific gravity of solids, and the degrec of
saturation.

W
l + w
ysar=f =
LZS*
yot = 1.92 gm/cc

"

Solution:
We have
rnd,

G+se

T= 1*.:'Y,"

...(i)

ttfr = Se

...(ii)

Weight-Volune Reht ionships


Problemsin SoilMeclunics ard Founfution Engineering

397.58gmof drysoilis obtained


from

Substitutingfor se in eqn(i), we get


G+t*G
- -laz-'ln

Volume ofmoistsoil tobeused = 247.'ll cc.


,l = yd(1 + w)
Now, bulk density

G(l + w)

Y ' 1-97-'rn

0r'

= (1.605)(1+ 0.105)= I.773gm/w


Totalweightofmoistsoilrequired= y x V
= (1.773)(247.71)
gm = 439.19gm

1.88={fffirtl
( 1 . S 8 )( 1 . 7 6 )
.t -_W - 2 . 6 5 - , ;

ol'

##*

= 247.71 cc of moist soil

(ii)

A given soil masshasa moishrre contcnt of 10.SVoand


Problcn 1.{(
a void ratio of 0.67. Thc specific gravity of soil solids is 2.68. It is required
to conslruct three cylindrical test specimens of diameter 3.75 cm and height
7.5 cm from this soil mass.Each specimenshould have a moisrure content of
l57o and a dry dcnsity of 1.6 gm/cc. Determine :

Weight of water presentin this soil

= (439.19- 397.58)sn = 41.6tgm


- 59.64 gm
Weight of water finally required
.'. Weight of water to be added

= 19.03gm
Volume of water to be added

(i) the quantity of the given soil to be uscd for this purpose
(ii) quantity of water to be mixed with iL
Solution : (i) Volume of each specimen - olh

= (59.64 - a1.61)gm
= 18.03 cc

Ans : 439.19gm of given soil is to be taken and 18.03 cc of water is


to be added to it.

=_f.#:rf (7.s)cc
Total volume of three specimens,V - (3) (82.83) = 248.49 cc

Wa = V x ld

Weightofdry soilrequired,

= (248.4e)(1.6)
= 397.588ln
Moisturecontentof finishedspecimens, w a lSVo
But,

w
6r=],
wd

or, Wn-w

,Wd

Weight of water in the specimens,W. = (0.15) (397.58)


- 59'64 8m
Now, dry density of the given soil mass,
Grn

ta = 1fi

(2.68) (1)

ffi#

= I1'605
sft/cn

i.e., 1.605 grn of dry soil is obtained from 1 cc of moist soil

"-*"]

E)(ERCISEI
f
A
soil
sample
has
a
porosity
of.35Vo.Thesoil is 7SVosafiiratedand
J.l.
the specific gravity of solids is 2.68. Determine its void ratio, dry density,
bulk dercity and moisture content.
[Ans : e = 0.54,ld - L.74gm/cc,l = 2.0 gm,/cc,w -'l57ol
1.2. The mass specific gravity of a soil is 1.95, while the specific
gravity of soil solids is 2.7. If the moisture content of the soil be 22To,
determine the following :
(i) Void ratio (ii) porosity {iii) degreeof saturarion(iv) dry density (v)
saturateddensity.
, [Aor : (i) 0.69 (ii) 4leb (iii) f]6% (iv) r.597 gmlcc (v) 2.00 gm/w I
The saturatedand dry densitiesof a soil are 1.93 gm/cc and 1.47
Vl.
gm/cc respectively. Determine the porosity and the specific gravity of the
solidSris.
[Ans : n = 45.9Vo,G=z^721
l\9, A partially saturatedsoil samplehas a natural moisture content of
l7%band a bulk density of 2.05 gro/cn.If the specific gravity of soil solids be
2.66, detennine the void ratio, degreeofsaturationand dry density ofthe soil.
What will be the bulk densiw of the soil if it is :
(i) Fully saturated

,t

Problemsin SoilMechanicsand FoundationEngineering

Weight -Volume Rela t ion slips

(ii) 6O%saturated?
[Ans : Part | 1s = O.52,s = 8'77o,\ a = 1.75 gm/@Part2 : (i) 2.09 gmlcc
/
/

23

1.12. In problem 1.11,what will be thewater contentand bulk density


of the soil if, without undergoingany change in the void ratio, the soil
becornes:
(i) Fully saturated

(ii) 1'9s gm/cc l

l"/.
An undisturbedsoil samplehas a volume of 50 cc and weighs 96'5
gm. On oven-drying, the weight reduces to 83.2 gm' Determine the water
content, void ratio and degreeof saturationof the soil. Given, G = 2.65'
=72%7
[Ans:w =l6Vo'e =O'59,s
I
Lfr. The bulk density and dry density of a soil are 1.95 gm/cc and 1.58
gtn/&'..spectively. Assuming G" = 2'68, determine the porosity, water
content and degreeof saturation of the soil.
=89.2o/ol
[Ans: n =4l7o,w =23Vo,s
1.7. A cylindrical sampleof saturatedclay,7.6 cm high and 3'8 cm in
diameter,weighs 149.6gm. The samplewas dried in an oven at 105"C for 24
hours, and its weight reduced by 16.9 gm. Determine the dry delsity, void
ratio, moisture content and specific gravity of solids.
=
=
=
[Ans : 1a = 1.54 gml cc, e 0.74, w 12.7Vo,G 7'68]

(ii)807o saturated [Ans : (i) 2270;2.04gm/cc,(ii) 17.7Vo,L97gnlccl


1.13. A 4 m high embankrnent,
with a top width of 5 m and side slopes
of 1 : 1, has to be constructedby compactingsoil froln a nearbybqrrow pit.
The unit weight and naturalmoisturecontentof the soil are 1.8 tlmr ancl8%,
respectively.Detenninethevolume of earthto be excavatedfrorn the borrow
pit and the quantity of water to be added to it tbr every krn of finished
embankment, if the required dry density and moisture content of the
etnbarrkrnent
soil be 1.82grn/cc and l87a respeclively. Given, G = 2.j0.
[Ans : Vol. of excuvation= 39304m3 ; Vol. of water = 6552 m3]

1.8. Thc moisture contelt a-ndbulk density of a partially saturatedsilt


'
respectively. The sample was kept in an
sample werc l87o and 19.6 ttft
oven at 105' C for 15 minutes, resulting in a partial evaporatiou of the pore
water. The bulk density of the sample reducedto 18.3 kN/m'. Assuming the
void ratio to rernain unchanged, determine the final water content of the
sample. what would have been its bulk density if the sample was kept in the
oven for 24hours ?
[Ans : 107o,16.6 kN/m3]
1.9. An embankment was constructedwith a clayey soil at a moisture
content of 127o.Just after construction, the degree of saturation of the soil
was found tobe 55To,The soil absorbedwater during the monsoon and its
degreeof saturationincreasedto9O7a Determine the water content of the soil
at this stage. What will be the degree of saturation if the moisture content
reducestoSVo mthe dry season? Given, G =2.68. lAns:19.67o,27'9%ol
1.10. The natural moisture content of a soil massis 117o,while its void
ratio is 0.63. Assuming thc void ratio to remain unchanged, determine the
quantity ofwater to be addedto 1 m' of this soil in order to double its moisture
ContenL Given, specificgravity of solids =2.72.
[Ans : 183.3 kg]

1.11. The in-situ density of a soil mass is to be determined by the


cote-cutter method. The height and diameter of the core are 13 cm and 10 cm
respectively. The core, wien full of soil, weighs 3155 gm, while the
self-weight of the empty core is 150 gm. The natural moisture content and
the specific gravity of solids are IZlp and 2.66 respectively. Detennine the
bulk density, dry density and void ratio ofthe soil.
=
[Ans : y= 1.87 gmlcc,ya = 1.67gm/cc, e 0.591

I,
,4t)

25

Index Properties and Soil Classificatian


Wr = empty weight of PYcnometer.
Wz = weight of pycnometerand dry soil'
% = weight of pycnometer,soil and water'
I4/c= weight of pycnometer filled with water.
Now, weight of soil solids = Wz -Wt

and, weight of an equal volume of water = (Wa - W) - (Ws * Wz)

INDEX PROPERTIES,ANDSOIL
CI.ASSIFICATION

G =

Wc-Wt-W3+W2

wz-wr

...(2.r)

This is determinedin the laboratory by the


2.3 Particle Size Distribution:
rnechanicalanalysis,which consistsot

Various physical and engineeringpropertieswitb the


2.1 Introduction:
help of which a soil can be properly identified and classifiedare called the
index properties.Such propertiescan be broadly divided into the following
two categories:

(a) Dry mechanical analysis or sieve analysis: In this method the


sample is sieved through a set of sievesof gradually diminishing opening
sizes. The percent finer correspondingto each sieve size is determined and
thc resulls are plotted on a semilog graph paper to obtain the particle size
distribution curye. However, tlis method is applicable only to lhe coarser
fractionsofsoils and not to the silt and clay frictions as sieveshaving open
sizesless than 0.075 mm are practicallyimpossibleto manufacture.
(b) Wet mechanical analysisor lrydrometer analysis:- The percentage
of tiner tiactions (i.e.,silt and clay) in a soil canbe analysedindirectly using
a hydrometer.The rnethod is basedon Stokes' law which statesthat the
terminal velocity of a falling spherein a liquid is given by

(a) Soi/ grain properties: These are the properties pertaining to


individual solidgrainsandremainunaffectedbythe stateinwhich a particular
soil exists in nature. The most important soil grain properties are the specific
gravity and the particle size distribution.
(b) SoiI aggregate propertis: These properties control the behaviour
of the soil in actual field. The most important aggragateproperties are:
(i) for cohesionlesssoils: the relative density
(ii) for cohesivesoils: the consistency,which dependson the moisfure
content and which can be measured by either tie Atterberg limits or tht:
unconfined compressivestrength.

, = t"irut' ,t

The specificgravity of a soil can be detcrtninedby


2.2 Specific Gravity:
a pycnomter(i.e., a specificgravity bottle of 500 ml capacity).Fig. 2.1 givcs
a schematic representationof the process.Irt,

...(2.2)

where, y" andy- arethe unit weightsof the sphereandtheliquid respectively


D = diameterof the sphere
p = absoluleviscosity of the liquid
nl,l

Fig. 2.2 shows the sketch of a hydrorneter. After irnrnersing the


hydrorneterin the rneasuringcylinder containingthe soil-watersuspension;
I

readingsaretakenat ;, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15,30, 60, 120,and 1440minutes.Lrt 11


a
bc thereadingofhydrometerat time r. The particlesizeand thecorresponding
value of percentfiner are obtainedfrom the foilowing equations:

WT
( EmptY
Bot)

Wt
YIZ
W3
(
B
o
t
.
*
S
o
i
l
+
W
q
i
e
r
)
lBot.*DrySoit)
{ Bot + Woter)

D =\@.

...(2.3)

liig ) |

(A

26

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

and,
where,

/v=

V
(r1 + C^ - rn) x IA}a/o
W"'y-

*-''
D = particlesize in mm

...(2.4)

analysis, then the percent finer, N , of the particle size D rrun, with respect
to the total quantity of sarnple,is given by'

.|y'' = N "

= unit weiglrt of soil solids = G" . y_

Is
V
tu,

27

Index Properties and Soil Classification

w.

-T

= unit weight of distilled water at the room temperature

995

t = time interval in sec


r1 = reading of hydrometer in suspensionat time t

1000

Z, = distancefrom the surfaceofsuspensionto the centreofgravity


of hydrometer bulb at time /, which can be determined from :

10 0 5

p = viscosity of water al room temperaturein gm-sec,/cm2

ya\
r(,
Z,=Hr+;lh-;l *
^ /
where, V1 = volume
or lyoroor.t.'),n
."

...(2.7)

W . LL. e v e l Immersion
I n i i i a tW . L l

...(2.s)

A = areaof cross-sectionof measuringcylinder in cm2


Hr = distancebetweenthe surfaceofsuspensionand the neck of

j l+l lz r
t l
l, -L

'i
V h /2A
-T

bulb, in cm

lr = length of the bulb in crn

The distance fl rnay be rneasuredby a scale. However, a better


proposition is to determine.F/1
from the following e.quation:

Hr=
where,

(ra+I)-11
r4

x L

...(2.6)

r,t = differencebetweenthe maximum and minimum calibration


markson lhe stemof hydrometer
L

= lengtb of calibration( - length of stem)

In eqn.(2.4),
f{ = percent finer.
V = Volume of suspensionin'cc
I7, = weight of dry soil takenin gm
r- = readingof hydrometerin distilledwaler at roorn temperature
Cm = Ireniscus correction
If t{2,be the weight of dry soil passing through the 75 p sieve during
sieve analysis,which is subsequentlyused for bydrometeranalysis,and if
I{2,be the total weight of sample taken for combined dry and wet mechanical

Fig.2.2

Fig. 2.3 showstypical particle size


2.3.1 Particte sizeDistribution curv&
distribution curyesfor varioustypesof soils.CurvesA, B and C represeuta
uniform soil, a well gradedsoil and a gap gradedsoil respectively'
With referenceto the particlesize distributioncurve of a given soil, the
following two factorsare helpful tbr defining tbe gradatiottof the soil:
(i) Uniformity Co-efficient:
=
.^u D

g
Dto

...(2.8)

(ii) Co-efficientof Curvature:


(Dro)2

"=Dto"Doo

...(2.e)

Problemsin Soil Mechnni.csand FoundatianEngineering

28

29

IndexPropertiesand SoilClassificatian
100
90

Yd = in-situ dry densitYof the soil.

80

70 I

On thebasisof thc relative density,coarse-grrinedsoils areclassifiedasloose,


medium or denseas follows:

60

I
E

50

1!'

aul

(s)

30
20

(r

z
u-

J 0

r0

F8,2.3
where, Dfi, Dpand D6grepresenttheparticlesizesin mm,corresponding
to l0%o,307o and 6O7ofrnet respectively'
When

Cu 15, the soil is uniform


Cu = 5 to 15, the soil is medium graded.

is mcdium

t . n o 1' , thesoilis dense.


If the water content of a thick soil-water mixture
2.5. Aficrbcrg Limits:
is gradually reduced,the mixture passesfrom a liquid stateto a plastic state,
then to a semi-solid state and finally to a solid state. The water contents
corresponding to the transition from onestate to another are called Attefterg
limits or consistency limits. These limits are determined by arbitrary but
sbndardised tests.
In order to classify fine-grained soils on the basis of their consistency
limits, the following indices are used:
...(2.12)
Io = w1 - wo
(D PlasticitYIndex,

Cu > 15, the soil is well graded.


Again, for a well gradedsoil, the value of C" should lie between I' and

tn" soitis loose


f ,

f . n p . J, o" *il

t0

o.oot0.002o.oo5o.0l 0.02 0.0s0'l 02 05 o'El


P A R T I I LS
E I Z E( m m ) - - *

If OsRes

d\ptiditY

Index,

R., =
where,

o
"t*

max - min

= natural void ratio in the field.

The relative density of a soil may also be determined from:


Ya - Yddn
Ydmax

where,

Ydmax

- Ydmin

Ydmax = maximum dry density of the soil


Ydmin = minimum dry density of the soil

wl-wp

Wl-Wn

|9l-Wn

Ip

wI-wp

...(2.13)
...(2.14)

w1 t wO and ltz stand for the liquid limit, plastic limit end the
na0ral water content of the soil.

(iv) Flow Index (I): It is defincd as the slopeof the w vs. loglg JVcurve
obtained from the liquid limit test.
wl -r=w7=
...(215)
i.e.,
'II, - ,
lqls N2/N1

min = void ratio at the denseststate

n^ o =

whete,

...(2.10)

emax = void ratio of the soil in its loosest slate


e

(iiD Consistency
Index, I"

wr-wP

Ip

'

3.
It is a measureof the degree of compactnessof a
2.4. Relative l)ensity:
cobesionlesssoil in the state in which it exists in the field. It is defined as,

wn-wP

t i = T

wbere,

..(2.rr)

N1 and N2 are the number of blows corresponding to the water


contents w1 and ul.

(v) Toughnessindex,
,r -

...(2.16)

(vi)ActivityNumber,,
ffi
Soils can be classified accordingto various indices, as follows:

...(2.17)

30

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatian Engineering

a)

Clqssification according to tle plasticity index:

Plasticin Index

Degreeof Plasticity

Typeof Soil

Nou - plastic

Sand

<7

Inw plastic

silr

7-17

Medium plastic

Silty clay or
clayey silt

>17

Highly plastic

Clay

(b) Classilication according to tlrc liquidity index: A soil for which


the liquidit
i-solid or solid state.
The soil is very stiff if { = 0 (i.e., w, = wp) and very soft if .I1= I (i.e. wn =
w) Soils having I1> | arein the liquid state.For most soils, bowever,I lies
between 0 and 1. Accordingly, the soils are classified as follows:
I1

Consistency

0.0 - 0.25

stiff

0.25- 0.50

Medium to soft

0.50- 0.75

Soft

0.75- 1.00

Very soft

(")
Clottrft"ofion orrordiog
,, The activity
nurnber of a soil representsthe tendency of a soil to swell or shrink due to
absorption or evaporationof water. The classification is as follows:

Index Properties and Soil Classification

In order to detennine the shrinkagelirnit, a sampleof soil having a high


rnoisture content is filled up in a mould of known volume. The mould
containingthe sampleis then kept in the oven at 105'C for 24 hours.After
taking it out from the oven, the weight of the dry soil pat is taken and its
volume is rneasuredby the mercurydisplacementmethod.
Fig.2.a@)an<[2.4(c)representthe schematicdiagramsof the initial and
final statesof the samplewhile Fig. 2.4(b)representsthat conespondingto

I
Vo

l_

o) Iniiiot Slste

b} Af S,L

the shrinkage limit. With referenceto thesefigures, the shrinkage limit can
be determinedby the following two methods:
Method I:
Wrcn G is unbwwn :
LetVs andV1be the initial and final volumes of the sample and Wg andW6
be its corresponding weights. By definition, the volume of the soil at
shrinkagelimit is equal to its final volume. I*tWnbe the weight of water at
this stage.The shrinkagelimit is then given by,

Typeof Soil

< 0.75

Inactive

0.75- r.25

Normal

> 7.25

Active

2.5.1 Determimtion of Shrinktge Limit:


The shrinkage limit of a soil is
defined as the water content below which a reduction in the water content
does not result in a decreasein the total volume of the soil. This is the
minimum water content at which a soil can still be saturated.

c) Drystste

Fig.2.4

!. -u s = -

Activity Number

31

wn
Wd

At the initial stage, weight of water = Wo -Wa,


Weight of water evaporatedupto shrinkagelimit = (Vg - V)yn

W*=(Wo-Wi-(Vo-Viy*
- Wi - (Vo- V) t*
*^" _(Wo w
d
Method II:
Let

WhenG is lotown:
% = volume of solids

...(2.18)

Problcms k Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

V,-+

hdex Properties ond Soil Classification


A

wd
c4*

w n - ( v a - % ) r - (n' - b*)'"

But,

Va'ln
l?s

ws-

G
wd/G

.\"

- VTa ' l n

silt

so

50

v1'

"/" OF S I L T

Particle sbe (mm)

< 0.002

Fig.2.s

0.002ro 0.075

the soil is then detenninedaccordingto the narneof the segrnentin which the
inleisectionpoint lies.

Sand:
(i) Fine sand
0.075 ta 0.425
(ii) Mediumsand 0.425 to 2.0
(iii) Coanesand
2.0
tCI 4.75
Gravel

o e

...(2.20)

2.5. Cbsslficetlot Bercd on Prrticlc Sizc : Soilsrrc classifiedas clay,


silt sandend gnvcl on thc brsis of tteir particlc sizes.IS:1498 - 1970
recommendstbc following clessification:

Clay

o^^*

...(z.re)

t-e

Soil Type

o
o

10

40

o<

lYa

ws

olt

\uu

wd

Vd.ln

EO

4.75

ro 80

2.6,1. Tcfrtral Cbssiftution


Systamz Any soil, in its natural state,
consistsofparticlcs ofverious sizes.Onthebasis ofthe percentagesofparticle
sizes, and following ccrtain definite principles, broad classification bf such
mixed soil is possiblc.
Fig. 25 shows thc triangular classification chart of the Mississippi River
Comrnission, USA" It essentiallyconsistsof an equilareraltriangle ABC. The
percentagesof sand,silt and clay (ranging from0%ota L0O7o)ate plotted along
the sides AB, BC and CA respectively. The area of the tiangle is divided into
a number of segments and each segment is given a name. In order to find out
the group to which a given soil belongs, three lines are required to be drawn
from the appropriate points on tbe three sides along the directions shown by
the arrnws. These thrcc lines intcrscct at a single point. The nomenclatureof

This chart is usetul for identifying and classifying


2.?. Plasticity chart:
fine-grained soils. In this chart the ordinateand abscissarepresentthe values
t-rfplasticity index and liquid li[rit respectively.A straightline called A-line,
representedby the equation I p= a'73 (wr- 20), is drawn and the areaunder
the chart is divided into a number of segmen8. ou the chart any fine-grained
soil can be representedby a single point if its consistencylimits are known.
The segrnentin which this point lies determinesthe name of the soil.
Fig.2.6shows a plasticitychart.The meaningof thesymbolsusedinthe
chart are as follows:

M
C

L
T
H

Silty soils.
Clayey soils.
Organic soils.
l,ow plasticity
h{edium or intermediateplasticity
High plasticity

Main groups of fine-grained soils are


ML, MI, MH - Silty soils

Problems in Soil Mecfuinics and Foundation Engineering

34

Indet Properties and Soil Clossiftcation


I.S, Sieue

50

Diameter
of Grains
(mm)

35

Weight
%
Retained R.etaincd
Gm)

Cumulative To
Retained

Vo
Finer

:;

a.75mT

4.75

9.36

1.87

1.87

98.13

- 4 0

2.40mm

2.&

53.75

10.75

12.62

87.38

1.20mm

t.2n

78.10

t5.62

28.24

71.76

500 p

0.600

83.22

\6.64

44.88

55.r2

425tt

0.425

85.79

t7.16

62.04

37.96

300p

0.300

76.82

15.36

77.4)

22.60

150p

0.150

6't.02

13.40

90.80

9.20

75w

0.075

33.88

6.78

97.58

2.42

o\

OJ
C

- 3 0
>. 29
!:

ii

--+-I

M H /O H

I
ro
7
I

30

40

50 54 60

70

Liquid Limlt ("hl *


Fig.2.6
CL, CI, CH
OL, OI, OH

* Clayey soils
- Organ-icsoils.

EXAMPLES
/
The results of a sieve analysis performed on a dry soil
Piroblem*l.
sample weighing 500 gm are given below:

The particle size distribution curve is shown in Fig.2.7.


(ii) The required percentagesobtained from the curve are as follows:
Gravel:

- 1.97o
1.8770

Coarsesand:

98.lVo -927o

Mediurn sand:

92Vo-38/o

= 549'o

Fine sand :

-2.4%o
38%b

= 35.60/o

SiIt:

2.42%;2.4%
Mediumj [oqr

Fi n e
Sond

= 6.lVo

t00
90

to
70

,osf% L
l
e
t

(i) Plot the particlq size distribution curve of the soil'


(ii) Find out the percentageof gravel, coarsesand, medium sand, fine
sand and silt presentin the soil,
(iii) Determine the uniformity co-efticient and the co-efficient of
curvature. Hence comment on the type of soil.

sol
I

.E
-

rg_f s
3 o l

torl'r* t

Solution: (i) The computationsnecessaryfor plotting the particle size


distribution curve are shown below:

0.010,020.040.060.t0e 04 0.6 |
2
P q r t i r l e S i z e( m m l +
Fig.2.7

lo-{,*r.

s ro-T

Problems in SoilMeclutnics and Fortntlation Engineering

36

in a sieveanalysis'
Problem 2,/. 500 grn of dry soil samplewas used
''as
i' the steel
collcctcd
p.ssed firough tie T5 p sieve.and
178.;;;;;;i#i1
rnadeby
was
suspension
*u,-ttktn and a 1 litre
fun, ouTof which 50 grn
cylirrder
measuring
a
it
in
agent-to
^OOiogdistilled water and dispersing
'il" uoiuoit of the hydrometcr was 50 cc' the
navinl a diam,eler-of'6-15-crn'

e'Jll,:Thc
of calibrarion^9L+.*:i"
is.s.t atrdthelength
-steln

fi;d?;iilt,

Index Properties and Soil Classificatian

wc ri 090 a*d l 040 icspectivel y'

rni'iururn a*d rnaximurn rnarksiii-ft s


Ahvdrorueter{estwasthenperforrnedattberoomlenperaturtlof25"Cand
the tbllowirrg readittgswere recorded:
Elcused time (min)
Hydrometer reading

;L

l5

30

As

G =7.67,

A.1 ?-5"f,

Z,

i,i}ti

^!s=2'67gitt/cc''
1o = 0,9971En/cc,

'r l{}-1i i;l:-i-.s'r:r:ict{!2

Yr \

t\" o)

=
f,rs'tsl' 2elo6cnz
- so/zs.7o6)
= Ht +
lot.t
Z,=Ht+6'908

or,

...(ii)

Using eqn.(2.6),
H1 _ ( r a + 1 ) - r r ,L

r4

r a = t ' 0 4 0 - 0 ' 9 9 = 0'05,

Here,

L = 9.7 crn,
f 1 + 0 ' 0 5 -r1
H . ' = \l
0.05

(e'7)= 194(1.05- rt)

...(iii)

Agairr, o/ofiner on 50 grn of soil

" =,,k

r(.

Hcre,

or, ly' =

"
x i0'-"'
8.95' --.j
----=
llili- :ir'-/ ctn
p = 8.95 rnillipoises

Here

Z,=Ht+

tB24 1023 1t)201 A l 7 101310i{i ic06 1 C 8 i

o = V t s o o P" { z :

...(i)

Usingeqn.(2.5),

60

containing the
Whrrn the hydrometerwas immerse<lin distiiled *'atcr
thereading
susptnsiorr,
tilt:
in
prt:serrt
thal
as
age-nt
sanrequarrtityof dispersing
grn/ccand
is$.99'
/l
*'ater
of
ggg.5.
unitweight
lt-?s;C,the
*as found tobe
is
solids 2'67 'The
i1svfs6:osit!is 8.95 millipoises.The specificgravity of soil
meniscus correclion rnay be taken as 0'5'
to each
Find out the diameter of particles settied corresponding
ck
volumetrir':
Negiccl
fir{letv:+ltrcs.
hydroincter reading and the respcctive
expansiondue to temperaturcchange'
The terrrperaturot:orrectioll al-lrjil:r: *isittlrsiriii agent
Solijtion:
neecl-notbe applicd here'
correction
'
t/o
using eqn'
The diameier ald ccnesponding tiner rnay be <ieiermined
.
it will
int'olve'd'
are
calculations
as
repetitive
12.:; tnrougn (2.?). Howevei,
forms by sul-)stituting
t" uarrunt"!"ous to reducetheseequationsto simplified
col$tant
rernain
wbich
factors
the values of the
Using eqn. (2.3)

Y"-Y*

i/L
D -- 0'09e1 Y ;

()r,

()r,

ir,lc(rt

2.61
"
2'67 - 0.9971 +f

+ c . - r - )x l o o

x 100
x0'ee71(r1
+ 0'0005- 0'eee5)

N = ? , 1 8 2 ' 8 ( 1 1- 0 . 9 9 9 )

...(iu)

Vofiner on 500 gm of soil takeninitially

N'=N.#=0.3s77N

...(v)

Eqn. (i) through (v) rnay now be usedfor the computations'The results
are tatrulatedbelow.

/ .. ,-2.

Problems in Soil Mech.anics and Fottndation Engineering

38
Time

Hydrometef
reoding

60
120
24
480
900
1800
3600

r.024
r.023
r.020
L.Ol7
1.013
1.010
1.006
1.001

p =
t-

L
0.0ss1v
I

0.eee)
(%)

g")

5.O4

0.0625

79.57

?3.6

76.39

27.32

5.820 12.728

0.oM
o.0323

66.84

23:9L

6.402 13,310

0.0233

57.29

20.49

7.\78

14.086

0.1697

44.56

t5.94

7.1ffi

14.668

0.0126

35.01

t2.52

8.536 t5.444

0.0092

22.28

7.97

9.506 16.4L4

0.0067

6.37

2.28

r1.952
5.238 tz.16

Total weigbt of unit volume of suspension


W = W" t W- = 0.0599+ 0.9778= 1.0377grn'
Density of the suspension= 1.0377gm/cc o 1.038gm/cc.

ff='
1y'=
3182.8 0.3s77
x(yrxlV

(mm)

(cm)

(cm)

(sec)

30

Zr=
I{r =
195x H t +
(1.0s6.908
ri

/
Problem 2./. Distilledwaterwasaddedto 60 gm of dry soil to prepare
I suspensionYf t litre. What will be the readingof a hydrometerin the
susperuionat t = 0 sec,if the hydrometercould be immersedat that tirne?
Assume,densityof water= | gmlccandspecificgravity of solids=2.70.
Solution: At t = 0 sec,the solid grainshavenot startedto settle.The
havingconstantdensityat any point
tberefore,is homogeneous,
suspension,
in it.
As G = 2.7o,\" = 2.70Emlcc.

Therefore,readingof the bydrometer= 1038"


Asample of dry soil (G, = 2.68) weighing 125 gm is
Problem W
unitbrrnly disp6rsedin water to tbnn a L litre suspeusionat a temperatureof
28"C.
(!)&etermi[e the unit weigbt of the suspensionirnrnediatelyatler its
prcparation.
(ii)!*cc of the suspeusionwas retnovedfrorn a depthof 20 cm beneath
was allowedto settle for 2.5 min. The dry
tbe t6-psurfaceafterthe suspension
wt:ight of the sample in the suspensiondrawn was found to be 0.398 gm.
Determinea singlepoint on the particlesizedistributioncuryecorresponding
to tbis observatiott. Giveu,at 28"C,viscosityof water= 8'36 millipoisesand
unit weightof water = 0.9963gmkc
Solution:

#=

22'22cc'

(i) Volume of solidsin the suspenrion=

= 46.64 cc.

Consideringunit weight of suspensiotl,


Volunreof solids present

= ffi=o.o466cc

Volumc of water presenl

= 1 - 0'0466 = 0'9534 cc

Weight of 0.466 cc of solids = (O.04ffi)(2,68) = 0.1249 gm


Weight of 0.9534cc of water at 28oC= (0.9534)(0.9963)= 0.9499gm'

weight
":T.I;'fiffi
rotar

Total volumesf solidsin the suspension

39

Index Properties and Soil Classification

=1.0248
sm.

grn/cc.
Theretbre,unit weight of suspension = 1..0748
(ii)

.'. Volumeof solidsin unit volumeof suspension,

We have, frotn Stokes' law,

" =t'i*J".d

,, = ffi=0.0222cc.
Volume of waterin unit volumeof suspension,
= O'9778cc'
Vn = |' O'O222

ol'

Wightof solidsin unit volumeof suspension,


W" = (0.O222)(2m) = 0.0599gm.

Let D be the diameter of the particles settled to a depth of 20 cm at r =


2.5 min. with a uniform velocitY v.

Weight of water in unit volume of suspension,


W*= (A.W78)(1) = 0.9778gm'

p =

18p x G
Y"-T.

, = 1=
,r#*

= o.133cmlsec

Problems in SoilMechanics and Foundation Engineering

40

F = 8.36 millipoises =

8.36 x L0'3 =
8,522 x 10-6 gm-sec-,/c-m2
981

=
Ys = 2'68 gfit/c'.c, y,,, 0.9963 gm,/cc

41.

Index Properties and Soil Classificotion

55

^ 5 0
o\

(18)(8.522x 10-6) x fi133


2.68 - 0.9963

D =

crn

= 3.48 x 10-3 crn = 0.035 mm


=
Agaiu, at tirne t = 0, weight of solids present in 1 cc of suspension
0.1249 gm.
Weight of solids presentin l0 cc of suspension= l'249 gn'
=
At time t = 2.5 min., weight of solids presentin 10 cc of suspension
0.398 gm

0.398
x 100= 31.86%'
LZ4g
Hence the co-ordinates of the requiredpoint on the particle size

E 4 s \tlU=Ir3"h
o

D = 0.035mm

Water content (7o) |

L,

I
t

L l O
.J

+
CJ

35

\
30

lo

7, Irner =

distribution curye are:

/'o

zo 25 30
No.of Blows --r'

50

60

Fig'2'8
As the plasticrityindex is greater than17Vo,the soil is higltly plaslic itt
nafure.
indexis lessthan1, the soil is friableat liquid lirnit'
As the toughness
Protrlem 2S--Y^brr^tory testson a soil sarnpleyielded the followittg
results:
Liquid linit

= 547o

Plasticlimit

=25%

Natural moisturecoutent = 29o/t,


o/ofiner than 0.002 rnm = l8o/t,

32'l

(a) Determine the lkluid limit of the soiltsoil be 23To,find out the Plasticity index,
iUj ff 1tr" plastic limit ot the
comment on the nature of the soil.
Hence
flow'index anJ toughnessindex.
Solution:(a)Fromthegivendata,acrrrvebetweenthewatercorrtent
shows
and the number oiblows is plotted on a semi-log graph paper' Fig' 2'8
as
to
25-blows'
corresponding
content
watr
The
curve.
this w vs. loglg.lV
437o'
is
sotT
the
obtained from the curve, is 43%o.Hencnthe liquid limit of
-237o =20Va
(b) Plasticity index, Io= w1-wo= 43Vo

Flowindex, ,, = ffi
t,=If,=ft
Toughnessindex,
I

= = 38'687o
= o'sz'

(a) Determine the liquidity index of the soil aild courntenton its
consistency.
(b) Find out the activity nurnberand comrnenton the natureof the soil.
(c) Classify tlre soil with the help of a plasticitychart'
w_ -

Solution:

indcx'11=
(a) Liquidity
-,i

v'P

- ?-5
= o'138
= 29
54 - ,s
andis stiff'
As 0 < I1<0.25, thesoilis in theplasticstate
(b) Activitynumber,A =

% i.00,

^^

Problems in Soil Meclmnics andFoundation Engineering

42

s4-)s
o=--=1.611

of'

A s A > |..25, the soil is an activesoil.

Solution: Thc three-phasediagramsof the sample at ils liquid litrlit


and shrinftagelimir are shown in Fig. 2.9(a)and (b) respectivcly.
Let e1and e" be the void ratio of the soil at LL andSI respcctively.tct
the volume of solids be 1 cc.

---Jl e i
l 1 '
( 1 + e 1|)
r f

l
lI

{eL-e5)
-n------nF-

,$,re

:-Woter--::

--- - --I

| .t F=-wJ;-=

t l

-t_-+_
Ai L.L
(Voidrotlo = el)

AI S.L
( V o r dr o i i o = e s )

ts)

tbl
Fig.2.9

wehave,
Atliquid limit,

= er cc

.'. Volume of water present = el cc


Weigbtofthiswatcr

= t x | = et Em

W e i g h t c . fs o l i d s

= V r ' G \ n = 0 ) Q . 6 7 ) = L 6 l gm

el

2.67

+2.67 = 0.6 , or, es= (0.6)(2.67)= L6Az


e" = (0.?5)(2.67)= 0'668
Changein volutne per unit of original volume'
Similarly, at SI,

t - , _ 1.602- 0.668
= 0.359
1+1.602
l+et
AY = 0.359V = (0.359)(20)= 7.18cc

Av
v

Hence,final volume at

SL = 20 - 7'18
= 12.82cc

Probfem 2.V'' T\econsistencylimits of a soil sampleare:


../
LL = 52c/o,PL=357o,5L = l7%
to 6. 1 cc
I f a spcimen of this soil shrinks from a volume 10 cc at liquid limit
solids'
of
at plasticlimit, determinethe specificgravity
Solution:I-rrelandesbelhevoidratioconespondingtotheliquid
linrit and plasticlimit.
Let volume of solids be 1 cc.
'
.'. At liquid limit, volutne of water = l cc
= e/ grn
Weight of water

=Vr'G\n=1'G'L=Gce:

Weightofsolids

wn
* =

* = " t

w= 527o=A.52

But at liquid limit,

" = +Y,s o r , v r = e . v ,
Vu = et'l

w*
w"

w=ffiVa=0'6.

But,atII,

(c) The plasticity chart is given in Fig.2.6. The point correspondingto


=
wt 540/oand 1, = 29Vois tnarkedin the figure as P. As this point lies irr the
segrnentrnarkd Cl{"the soil belongs to the ClJgroup.
The Atterberglirnits of a given soil are,LL = 60aio,PL
Probfern {/;
= 457oand SI =25a/0.The specificgravity of soil solids is2.67. A sampleof
this soil at liquid limit has a volume of 20 cc. What will be its final volume
if the sarnpleis broughtto its shrinkagelimit?

43

Index Properties and Soil Classification

| = o . s zor,, et

= 0-52G

e s = 0 ' 1 7G

Similarly we obtain,

Now, changein volumeperunitof originalvolunie,


t - , -:T;
O.52G- 0-17G = 0'35G
LV

But,

t *o

csrd-

1 . o52G

+-{]dq=o'3e
)

44

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

yd = volum of dry soil pat = L3.97cc'


$/7 = rveight of dry soil pat = 2623'gn

Here,

,.*-qra=o'39
G = 2.65

or.

G = 2.7.

Problem 2.91 An ovendriedpat of clay weighs 26.2Ogn anddisplaces


190 gm of mercurywhen fully immcrsedin it. If the specificgravity of solids
be 2.7, determinethe shrinkagelimit of the soil.
.

Solution:

(1)
(13.e7)

Shrinkary limit = 163qc


Hence,
pnobtem !.f0(
A sarnpleof ct'ranesan6was found to havevoid ratiosof
0.8? and O.SZirrts loosestand denseststatesrespectively.The il-situ deflsity
an<lwater contrenlof the sandwere 1.95gm/cc and 23%.Dilennine the degree
of saturalionand relativedensifyof the sandin the field' Given, G = 2'66'

Fig. 2.10 shows the schernaticdiagramof the dry soil pat.

Unit weight of solids,

wn*
= --:
= :-190 = 13,97cc
'las
rJ'o
rs

= Gyn = (2.7)(1,0) = 2.7 gn/cc

Volume of solids,

v" =

.'. Volumeof voids,

Vu = 13.97 - 9.7 = 4.27 cc

w-,

G+se
1 = T;T"t-

26.20/2.7 = 9.7 cc

ws

a )j

ffi

Wc have,

Solution:

=G(l+w)-.
=G+r+6
1 * "-"{w
e
'
l
w
1 +

Accurding to the given tield conditions


Y = 1.95gm/cc, w = 0'23, G = 2'66

When the soil is at shrinkagelimit, this volume of 4.27 cc wiH be just


filled up with water.
We ight of this water = 4.27 gp
Moisture contentat that stage,

w=

',=ffi-;j=0'163

(i) Solution from first principles:

Volunie of the dry pat

45

Index Properties and Soil Classification

+0.23),,,
1.95=2.66(1
l + e
e = 0.678.

()r.

= 0'163= 163o7o

Degreeof safuration,-9 =

Slrrinkase lirmir = 16.30/0

v6 _ ({J.23\(2.66\ =
0.902 = %,Tt
0.678
e

Again, usingeqn.2.10.
Rrr=W

l + ' 2 c1c

max= 0.87,en;n= o'52,e = 0.6?8'

H*rc,

=i;11
RD
-tiJf=osj

13'97cc

2520g m

As

_f

Fig.2.10

W1

'

Rr, . i,
"

thc stiil is a iltediunrsaiiJ.

cf * givr:n-';r,;;is as fsr|la{v.i;
Prcble m 2,1.1. The.r+lt-'.pr:silii:n
Sartd= 37'/0, Sill = 39%, {\a',: = 29olcDraw a lriangularciassifitationchartand elassifytlie;oil'

(ii) Solution using eqn. (2.19):


The shrinkagelimit is given by,
Vd'fn

i.

cliait is given in Fig. 2.5.


Solutiou: Thc triatrgularclassific:ation
follorvs:
pr'.rceed
as
thc
soil,
In ortier tu classify
ihc percentageof sa$d,
(D Ortthc sideABof thechart,which represent$
choosethe point correspondingta 32%" Draw a straight line from tbat poiff

I
G

1
Y
I

46

Problems in Soil Mechanies and Foundatbn Engineering

Inde.rProperties and Soil Clossification

47

in the direction of the arrow (i.e., parallel to the side AC representing the
percentageofclay).
(ii) Similarly on the side BC, locate the point corresponding to 39Voand
draw another straight line making it parallel to 8A, These two lines intersect
eachother at P.
(iii) If now a third line is drawn from the appropriate poinr (29%) on the
clay side, making it parallel toAB, it will pass through P.
The point P then represenlstbe given soil in the triangular classification
chart. The point lies in the sector marked 'clay silt'. Hence the given soil is
classifiedas a clav sih.

EXERCISE 2
2.1 The following data were obtainedfrom a specific gravity test
performedin thelaboratory:
= 2OI-?5gm
Wefghtof emptypycnometer

During the hydrometer test, 50 gm of soil retained on the steei pan was
rnixed with distilled water and dispening agentto form a suspensionof 1"200
cc in a measuringcylinderhaving a diameterof 6.2 crn.The hydrometerhad
a volume of 50 cc. The length of its bulb and the calibrati,onon the stem were
16 cm and 10 cm respectively. The range of calibrations was from 995 to
1035. When itnmersedin distilleOwatir containingdispersingagent, the
hyctrometerread998.5. Meniscuscorrectionmay be taken as0.4. Thq specific
gravity of solids was 2.69. The viscosity and unit weight of water at the room
ie mperatureof 28"C were respectively8'36 millipoise a1d 0'9963 gm/cc.
Plot the particle size distribution curve and detcrmine the percentageof
gravel, sand,silt and clay.
i7-Draw a rough sketchof the particle size distribution curve of a sand
sanrplehaving the following properties:
= 0.17 mm
Elfective size (D16)

Weightof pycnometeranddry soil

= 298.76gm
Weightof pycnometer,
soil aid waler = 758.92gm
Weigbtof pyorometerfult of water

= 698.15gn

Detem,rine
thespecificgravityof thesoil.
2.2 The resultsof a sieveanalysisaregivenbelow:

t&s. 2.654]

Wt of Soil
Retained(gm)

Unifonnity co-efficient
Co-efficient of curvature

The total weight of dry soil taken was 500 gm.


(a) Plot the particle size distribution curve.
(b) Determine the pe.rcentageof gravel, coarsesand, medium sand, fine
sand and fine ftactions in the soil.
(c) Determine the co-efficient of curvature and the uniformity coefficient.
(d) Comment on the type of soil.

\-

= 1,2.

tOOgrn of dry soil was mixed with water at 4oC to fonn a L000 cc
-r{.5
suspension.lf G = 2.72, determine the initial unit weight of the suspension.
T<l what depth with the particles having effective diameterof 0.05 mm settle
aftcr 5 rninutes?Whatwill bethe time requiredby a 5 micron particle to settle
through L0 cm? The vlscosity of water ri4oC rrruybe assumedas 0.85 x 10-3
poisc.
2.6 T\e results of a tiquid limit test are given below:

2.3 A combined mechanical analysis was carried out on a. dry soil


sample weighing 500 gm. The following are thc results:
(a) Sieve analysis:

= 5.5

,,1
I

48

Problems in SoiI Mectwnics and Foundstion Engineering

Draw the tlow curve and detenninethe liquid lirnitand flow irrclexof the soil.
IrAts: 47%o,I8.9%l
2.7 The Atterberg timits of a given soil are:
LL = 68%o,pL = 37To,SL = 22Vo
If the naturalmoisturfcontent of this soil at the sitebe4zvo,thendetermine:
(r) Plasticiryindex (ii) Consisrancy
index (iii) Liquidiry index.
Comnent on the nature of the soil on the basis of theJe indices.
[Ans. (i) 3rvo (ii)0.83e (iii) 0.161]
2.8 A si'gle liquid lirnil test wes pertbnned with casagra.de's liquid
,
limit device on a soil sample witlr known Atterberg lirnits. ihe nurnber of
blows required to close the groove was recorded .r s:. f]l" corresponding
noisture coutcrntof the samplewas found tobeZgvo.If the liquid limit
and
plastic linrit of the soil be 74vo and4lvo rcspectively,determin. ir" tou!hr,.r.
index.
[Ans.0.231
-.2'
2-.4 The weigbt and volume of a fully saturatedsoil sample were 55.4
gm and 29.2 cc respectively.After dryi'g i'a'ove. for 24 hours,its
weight
and volume rerjuced to 39.8 gm and zt.t c. respectively. Find out trrc
shrinkage limit of the soil.
fAns.t8.8%l
2.10 If &e dry density a'cr unit weight of sorids of a soil be 1.6g grn/cc
and2.65 grn/cc rcspectively,determineits shrinkagelimit.
1ens.il,.Srf"1
z.1l A cylindrical soil sampreof 7.5 .'n height and 3.75 cm diarnerer
has been prepared at $e shrinkage limit. If the sample is now arowed
to
absorbrvaterso that irs water conlentreachesthe liquid lirnit, what will
be its
volurne? Given LL = 6ZVo,pL =34%o,SL = ?\Vi,G = 2.6g.

2.12A cvli*dricar
mourd
.f 10crninternar
diamerer
andlT;T*-l

weighs 1894 grir. The ril.,uid was filled up with dry soit, first at
its loosest
stateand then at the denscststate,and was found to weigh3zT3gm and 353g
gm respe.ctivrly.{f the naruralsoil existingat the field be subm-erged
below
the grountl rverarr
tahl* and hasa water contentof zjvodetennine riie relativc
densiiy +{ tl;t $flil and {roinrnelton ils stateof corlrpactness.Given, G = 2.65.
54'75vcl
z,tr3 l},e Allerberg limits oia Evr:r s'ii "r" u, rotto*rf,fu
LL = LVq,,
FL = Z9g/*,SL = l8.,qo
.
D;o',,..
* i;lastieitfi.ii:ir.ilud classif,vihi br-li1.
Dfirr,' a triangurarcrassificationchart ai:r1iiassiry rbe soi! rravirir,
- !:14
[he fcllowirg u:;ri;rosilion:

Sand= 43Vo.Silt=3!Vo,Clay
=26Eo.

CAPILI.ARITY AND PERMEABILITY


3.1 Capillarity:
The interconnectedpore spacesin a soil mass may be
assumedto form innumerable capillary tubs.At any given site, the natural
ground watr table normally exists at a certain dcpth below theground level.
Due to surface tension, waler gradually rises from this level through the
capitlary tubes. This causes the soil above the ground water table to be
partially or even fully saturatcd.
In Fig. 3.I, hcrepreseRtsthe maximum height of capillary rise of water
in a capillary tube of diameter d. The uppe-rmeniscus of water is concave
upwards and makesan angle a with the vertical (if the tube is perfectly clean
and wet, cr = 0). The surfacetension,?" , also acB in this direction. The vertical
component of { is responsible for balancing the self-weight of the water
column.
Now, volume of capillary water =
Weight of capillary water

nt
4

ni
4

'h'

'n"'ln

Again,verticalcoruponnl
of &e surfacetensionforce
7".il. c.os
cr
nt
-14

= Is ' fid ' cos c

t+ -

or
At

' h.'ln
'

4Lcosa

i.u

tC, T" = 75.6 dylesztm = 75.6 x 10-8 kN,/crn

and, y*-lgm/ct

= 9.80? kN/m3 = 9.80? x 10-6 kNr'cn3

."(3.1)

50

Problems in SoiI Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Cap illar ity and F ermeabi[ ity

51

Fie.t.l
Assuming the tube to be perfectly clean and wet,.cos cr = cos 0' = 1

o'=ffiiftfit'r
,-

ort

(4')(75.6 x 10-8)

0.3084
.
n, = -7cnr

...(3.2)

The value of h.may also be determinedfrom:

. = c
tt,
zzG

...(3.3)

wbere, e = void ratio


dLo= particle size correspondingto lOVo frner
C = empirical constant, the value of which dependson the shape
andsurfaci:impuritiesof th"-gd*f4
lr"$.nygglg
05cm1
3.2 Pressure Due to Capillary Water : The capillary water rises against
gravity and is held by the surfacetension.Therefore,the capillary water exerts
a tensile force on the soil. However, the free water exerts a pressruedue to
its own self weight, which is always compressive.
The distribution of vertical pressurein a soil saturatedupto a height ft"
due lo capillary water is shown in Fig. 3.2.

FiB.3.z
,
3.3 Tota[ Effective and Neutral stresses: when an externalload is
appliedon a saturatedsoil mass,the pressureis immediatelytransferredto
thc porewater.At this point,the soil skeletondoesnot shari any load.But
with passageof time, the pore water graduallyescapesdue to tbe pore
water pressureinducedand a part of tbe externalsnesJis transfenedto the
solid grains.irhe total stresso is thereforedivided into the following
components:
(i) Effective stressor intergranularpressure, o,
(ii) Porewaterpressure
or neutralstress, u.

or,
O=at+tt
...(3.4)
3.4 Distrlbution of vertical stressin various soil-water systems
(i) Free water : In free water,the hydrostaticpressuredistributionis
linear.At anydepthz belowthewaterrevel,theverticalpressureis givenby,
u=Zl_

l
i

1
I

...(3.s)

The pressuredistribution diagram is shown in Fig. 3.3.

(ii)Dry soil: In adry soil mass,thedistributionof verticalstressis similar


to a hydrostaticpressure
distribution.At anydepthz, tle pressure
is givcnby,
=
o, lz
I
It

.tt/)

Problems in Soil Meclamics and Foundation Engineering

52

53

Cap il Iar ity and P ermeabil ity

-t-

H$

FHIw

-{ I

Submerged i) PoreWoiei ii) Totulstress


Soil
Pressure

where,

t lLr,,r-*,J.1.-*,*r',Jrrro
Jlw{F-rsot H --+

Fig.3.3
Y = eft'eclive unit weight of soil
Fig. 3.4 illustrates the pressuredistribution diagram.

lL\_ t\ l\i \ \

IJ-_
f

1-

L\
* .lJn"o

iiil Effective
Stress

Fig.3.5

II

= H(Yr"r - Y-)

...(3.8)

o' = y"ub.H

or,

(iv\ Saturated soil witlt capillary water i In Fig' 3.6, the soil mass is
saturatedup{oa height/r. abovethewaterlevel,dueto capillaryrise of water.
The total stresses,pore watcr pressuresand the effective stressesat various
levels are worked out below:

II

L
1-

Fig"3.4
(iii) Submergedsoii : Fig. 3.5 showsa soil masssubmerged in water with
free waier standing upto a height Hi,lf" H be the height of the soil, the total
pressureat the bottom of it is given by'
e = Tsub.H + \n (H* + H\
0r,

o=(y*l+\o)H+\nHo

{rr;

o=Ysar'I{+Y*Hn

Pore r+'aterpressure,
.'. Eftbctivt sness

hc

+II

h
I
I

...(3.6)
...(3.7)

tr = lw(ff + H*,)

I
-Jrru61t,*t
c)*rnh
lDistributionof
EffectiveStress

q ' = ( I - l t

* ysat.Il + ynHo. - \*(H

* Hn)
Fig.3.6

,,/

54

Problems in SoitMeclunics and Foundatian Engineering

Capillar ity and P ermeabilitY

(a) Total stresses:

oa=0
og = \e1. hc

1n2

o6 = Ysat Qt + hr)

thr

(b) Pore water Pressures:


uA = - h"\n
'

-t-

lt1= 0
ilC = \nh"

(e)

Effectivestresses

O,A
6'B
d,C

= oA -

uA = O - (-hr\nl

= o B - u g = y s a l: h ,
- a6

6'c

Fig.3.7

- 0 ='{o.t,hc

At any depth z below the top of the soil mass (i.e., sec. X X)

.z t ln(z + h2)
oz = Ys*b

h,

= ysat.h + y*6.1r.

...(3.e)

and,

= ynrb(h + h"y + lnlt

ur=\nQ+12)
o'z=oz-il2

= ysrb , h, + Yn. lr + 1.u6 - h.

6'c

Flow
1 g 1! s Y r n v , 6 r d

= h"\n

uc = .[sar(h + h") - \oh,

= ysar.fi + (y"", - \)

or,

t b l U p y o r dF l o w

{o} NoFlow

= y s r b .z * ' ( n @ + h 2 ) - Y - ( z + l q )

...(3.10)

\ilater : Theshearstrengthof a soil is


ld po*uPressurein Seepage
"r""rir" ,tt.i. wn"n no flow of warertakesplacethrougb
&;;;tin"
constant.However, seepage
i soil, fte eifective stressat a given point remains
affects the stability of any
oi*.t", causesthe effectivei[ess to change' and
structure built over tle soil mass'

Theeffectofseepageofwaterontheeffectivestresscanbeanalysed
with the following laboratory experiment'
through a U-tube' The
Two containirs C1 and C2 arc interconnected
water standing to a
free
with
ft1
"oooirrtt C1 contains a soit miss of height
and may be raised
water
upwith
neignt ft2ablve it. The ontainer C2 is filied
C1 and C2 are
both
in
levels
*tt"t
or lowered as and when required.-Th"
pipes'
outlet
and
inlet
of
help
the
with
maintained at constantleveli
This condition occurs when
Csse 1 : When no flow of water nles place:
level' as shown in Fig'
the water levels in both containers are "t the same
3.7(a).

0f,

o'" = y*6 .2

'.(3'11)

Thus , at any depthz, the effective stressdependsonly on th.esubmerged


density of the soil.
case II : Downward flow :T\is condition occurs when the water level in
C1 is at a higber level than that in C2 fig. 3.7 c). At the section X-X,
az =ysub.zr\wQ+lrZ)
and

uz =\n(z+lt2-h)
o',

=62-llz

= Y s u bz. + y n . h

=Ysub'z*\w'+''
i

of,
where,

a',

= Ysub.z + 7n iz

...(3.r2)

i= hydraulic gradiefi=L

/ ' l

/(a.lt

Problems in SoilMechanics snd Foundstian Engineering

56

a
A cornparisonbetweenequations(3.11) and (3'12) clearly showsthat
increase'
to
downward flow causesthe effective stress
cc
cose III : Upwardflow : This condition occurs when the water level in
b)'
3-7
C1
in
is at a higher level than that
ig'
At the sectionX - X,

lc= constantof proportionality, tcrmed as the co-efticient of permeabilitYof soil.


of t!" t"titt
co-efficienfslpttt..9,-!{yi-U!.utut.
Jhe
againstflow of watt:rthrough its pores.
i=1, the' k=\,.
@*rr.t

where,

Tlrus, the co-efficieutof perrneabilityof a soil is defincd as the average


ve.locityof tlow which will occur u[der unit hydraulic gradient.It has the
units of velocrity,i.e., cnr/sec,or, m/day, elc.
Table 3.1 presentstypical valuesof /<for various soils :

oz =Tsub.Z+\nQ+h2)
ttz =y*(z+h2+h)
O ' , = Y s u b . Z' . \ o l t

Table 3.1

lt
= Y s u b ' z- l w
z

Thus an upward flow of water causesthe efte.ctivestressto decrease.


irr
3.6 Quicksand Condition : Eqn. (3'13) suggests that thc reduction
the
on
depends
water
effective stress at any depth z due to upward flow of
a
existing hydraulic gradient,i. Ifat any site, the hydraulic gradient reaches
to
equal
become
may
pressure
=
certailicriiical valule(i.e., i i.), the seePage
the pressure due to the self-wCight of the soil. In such cases,the effective
any
stresswill be zero. In otberwords, the solid grains will not carry any load
mass
soil
entire
water.
The
pore
to
the
transmitted
rnore, and the entire load is
soil
will tien behaveas if it were a liquid, and any external load placed on the
does
and
its
shearstrength
loses
soil
the
this
stage
At
will settle immediately.
quicksand
not have any bearing power. Such a condition is known as the
theil!9l
called
is
gradient
hydraulic
"orr*tponding
ih.
condition.

hyjr"yllgf,qr_
o

Frorn eqn. (3.13) we get,


$ = T s r b . Z- ' l n - i " . 2

orr

ic

Orr

ic

Ysub
Y *

G - r

(G - l)

--7--:---'
r + e

v c c i

olt

v - ki

Gravcl

to

l}z

Coarseand medium sald

10-3 to

1,

Fine sand,loose silt

10-s to

1o-3

Densesilt, clayey silt

1o-6 to

1o-s

Silty clay, clay

1o-e to

10-6

Eqn. (3.15) may alsobe written as

q=kiA

...(3.16)

where,4 = unit discharge,i.e., the quantityof waler florving througha crosssectidnalareaA in unit time.
3.8. Allen Hazen's Formula : Allen Hazenfounclexperimentallythat tbr
loose filter sands,

<- k = C.4a

-. ,..

lwt rw

where,
...(3.14)

l + e

This law states that, the velocity of flow of water


3.?. Dar,cv's l,aw:
is proportional to the hydraulic gradient'
throug-[-t;ii;G

i.e.,

k (cmlsec)

Typeof Soil

...(3.13)

o'" =ysub,z-rln iz

or,

57

Capillar ity and Permeabil itY

...(3.1s)

...(3.17)

ls= co-efficientof penneabilityin cm/sec


C = a constant,being apploximatelyequalto 100 crn-l sec-l
Dro = Particlesize correspondingto l07o finer, in ctn'

3.9. Iaboratory Determination of k : The co-efficient of permeability


wh;ch are
of a soil can be delennint:d in ibi: laboratoryusing penneameters,
of the followittg two t-vPes:
tttcici
(a) Constaniheadpt'rttica
(b) Falling headPenncarneter

58

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

59

CapittariryandPermeabilitY
flere

l!
L

--=-:
...(3.18)

_lI
tl
ll

head perrneameter: In this case' a stand-pipe containing


\yffiiakg
percolatesthrough the
iiate, is auacnla to the top of the soil mass.As water
the standpipe gradually falls
soil frorn top to $e bottom, the water level in
the fall of water level in
quantity'
discharge
the
down. Instead of measuring
the stand^pipeover a certain time interval t is measured'

ilr L

__-f--_:

Lrt,

I = lengthof lhe soil samPle


A = cross-sectionalareaofthe sample
c = cross-sectionalareaofthe stand-pipe
/rr = head of water causing flow at time t1

lrz= head of water causing flow at time 12


head is given by - dlt
Let, in any small intenal of time dr, the changein
(rhe negative sign indicates that the headdecreases)'
= - dlt ' a
Hence, the quantity of water flowing in time dt
dlt
'o
q = And, the dischargeper unit tirne,
A

Me os u r i n g
t y ti n d e r
( b ) F o t t i n gH e o dT e s t

[ o ) [ o n s t o n t H e o dT e s l
Fig.3.8

The restarrangementsfor thesetwo typesof permeametersareshown in


Fig. 3.8 (a) and (b) respectively.
In this type of permeameters,
Constant head permeameter.
t9"{:
at the top and bottom of the
levels
the
water
arrangementsare made to keep
the
soil from top to bottom is
through
Water
flowing
soil spmple constant.
volume
is measured.
its
glass
and
cylinder
graduated
in
a
collected
g = quantity of dischargein timdr
Let,

o . ' t=
- -o# ' "
or,

We have from Darcy's law,

Q=ki A

Ak
;Io'=

- dh
h

...(3.1e)

Intrating between proper limits, we get'

# f " =l, a,
- J h

,r

/t = difference in head of water at top and bottorn.

s=?

"

kiA=-*

I = length of the sample

Now, dischargeper unit time,

Q = k iA

But, we have from Darcy's law'

Ak.
of'

attz

hL

- rl)= -,or"?

'&

60

Problcms in SoiIMeclurnics nnd Foundotion Engmeering

or,

ltt
aL
,
K =
At.toB" 6

where,

t=t2-tl

. q.log.(R/o)
an$f-t?)

...(3.20)
rvhere,

soilswhile
The constantheadlxnneameteris suitabletbr coarse-grained
the falling hcad permeanreteris suitablefor fine-grainedones.
In the t'ield, the co-efficieut of
3.10. Field Determination of ft :
deposit can be determinedlry
permeability of a stratified or heterogeneous
-tests.
The purnping-out tcsls for
either pumping-out tests or purnping-in
below:
aquifers
are
described
uncontlnedas well as confined
(a) {}nconfinedaquiftr : Fig. 3.9 illustratcs.atest well fully penetrating
aquifer.Aswater is pumpedout from thewell, water percolates
an unc-.onfined
from all sidesinto it. When the dischargeq equalsthe rate of percolation,the
waler levcl in the well beconressteady.
Considera point P on the drawdowncxrye at a radial distancer from tbe
ceutreof the well. The hydraulicgradientat this point is given by,

6t

C apitlar itYand PermeobilitY

rr = radiusof testwell
R = radiusof iufluence

ahe value of rRrnay be determined frorn

R = 3000sfr m
where,

s = drawdown in the testwll, m


* = co-efficientof permeability,m/sec'

0bser votion ObeservatonrY


Wett
@
T e s tW e t t

. d v
' d r

P(x,y

-l

e' = k i dA = k .r + . Z n t s '
d.r
;=

2nk
q.tot

Ir

*l
+l
+l

+l
+!

-l

Integralingbctwcenproperl imits,

i t a r - zn k 'J
t

rl

where,
and

rlandr)

+- 11-JfF
12 -----i-

)' tlY

hr

hy and h't reprcsentthe hcighl of water levels ilt thetn.


.

OT,

h,

representthe radialdistancesof lwo observatiouwells

lot{.
""

r.,

rl

o _

6WT

+l
+l
+l

Again, if /r be the headof water at P then the rateof radial flow of water
througlr a cylinder of radiusr and heighti is given by,

or,

...(3.22)

= -2xk
{:-

Q,3- t,il
2-

q togl:(rz/r_)
n (t6 - hi)

...(3.2r)

Fig.3.9
fully penetrating
(b) Confined aquifer : Fig' 3'10 illustates a test well
inlo a confined aguifer ofthic*ness z'
4 = kiA
FronrDarcyklaw,

or,
0r,

wells arenot used,


Alternativclv,whcn observation
Integrating, we get,

. d v

e =k't'zxrxz
dx
7=

Z n k zo' t
,

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

i*
rL

thickness of the layers while k1, k2u.....,/r, be their co-efficients of


permeability.

zntz !'

n 1,"'

=
* h)
tos"(rs/r1'1
ryUA,

or,

Of'

q.lo1" (r2/r)
ls=
2xkz(tA - h)

Alternatively,

lg=

Ohserva
tion
Wetl

...(3.23)

qlq. R/a
2xkz(lrz - ht)

...(3.24)

Zz

u2*

{kz)

0bservolion
V,/ett

@
Fig.3.ll

;l
I
I

+l

*l

h2 *l

*l

*l

=
*l

I
l
I
I
I

The difference inwater levels on theleft andright hand side of the deposit
This
headdifference causesa horizontal flow ofwater. Since at any depth
is lr.
below G.L. the bead difference is constant and equals ft, the hydraulic
gradient i (= hll) is the same for each and evcry layer.
Let Q1,Qz,.....,qrbethe dischargethroughtheindividuallayersand 4be
the tohl dischargethrough the entire deposit.
q=qt+qZ+......,+Qn

or

Q = k r i z l + k 2 i 4 + . . . , . +k o i z o

...(D

Again, if &1betheequivalentco-efficientof permeability of the entire deposit


of thicknessz in the direction of flon, then
Fig.3.t0

3.11 Permeability of Stratified Ileposits : Natural soil depositsgenerally


are not homogeneous,but consist ofa number oflayers. The thickness and
the co-efficient of penneability of the layers may vary to a large extent. In
such cases, it is required to compute the equivalent co-efficient of
permeability of the entire soil deposit
3.11.1, Equivale nt permeability parallel to the bedding planes: Fig. 3. 1I
showsa stratifiedsoil depositconsistingof n layers.Letz1, z2;.......,'znbethe

Q = kniz
From(i) and(ii) we geg
k l i z = k 1 i z 1 + 4 i 4 , * . . . . . . . .+. . k n i z n

or,

k 12 1 + 4 2 2 + . . . . . . . .+. k o z n
=
kh =
zt + ZZ+.......+ Zn

...(ii)

2 k;zi

'':

2ti
i-l

...(3.2s)

64

l-

Problems in Soil Meclmnics and Foundation Engineering

Equivalent permeability perpendicular ts the bedding planes z


1.1f:2.
For flow invertical direcrion(Fig. 3.12),the <tischaqge
velocitiesineach layer
must be the sarne.

UsingDarcy'slaw

= k z i 2= " " " ' = k n i , r = v = k u i

...(iii)

Now, total headloss = head loss in layer L + headfossin layer 2 + ....+


headloss in layer a
...(iv)
But, we have,
t=:

or,

h e a d t o sh s- i z

EXAMPT,ES

il

II
It
I

V l = V 2 = . . . . . . . = y n = V

h\

C apill arity and Permeubil ity

it

PnoblenqJ,l-- The natural ground water table at a site is located at a


depth of 2 m below the ground level. Laboratory tests reveal that the void
ratio of the soil is 0.85 while the grain size correspondingto 10% finer is 0.05
Assunre,
mm. Determine the depth of the zone of saturationbelow G.L.
C = 0.3 cm'.
Solution.

The height of capillary rise of water is given by,


It, =

Here,

Q -

iZ = itzl + i2z2+ .......in2n


Subsritutingfor i1,t2, ..... , infrom (iii), we get,

Z z 1
k,
kr

or,

_ = _ + _ 4

or,

ku=

z1

, _"c
v

t - ' o n
Att

zn
' k_ n

4
k2

Z2

zn

=t.a,, ;

6" k+""''"+T;

- ; -

i-t

Ki

--------{
-- -- -- -- ------{ {

...(3.'2s)

Solution : When a capillary tube is perfectly clean and wet tle upper
meniscusof water in the tube is tangential(i.e., cr= d;. me Ueignt of capillary
rise is then given by,

47"

LI

_l{_
,:=::=:

(kr)

ir

fu

zz

i2

fu

{ k2)

7j

i3

{rr

{k3}

zn

in

i \'

( knl

7_

J_

Fi1;.3 12

0.3
= 70.59cm = 0.706m.
(Q.85)
(0.m5)

Hence, the depth of saturationbelow G.L.


= 2.0 - 0.706 = I.294m.
,.-.
Problem*Z.
A capillary glass tube of 0.1 mm internal diameter is
immersed vertically in a beaker full of water. Assuming the tube to be
perfectly clean and wet, determine the height of capillary rise of water in the
tubc when the room temperarureis 2dC. Given, atZOoC, unit weight of
wate.r= 0.9980 gm/cc and surface tension = 72.8 dynes/cm.

- -L"'-.J

II

0.3 cmz

e = 0.85
Dlo = 0.05mm = 0.005cm.

Frorn equ. (iv),

v
4
v
= j:-, Zt t
j-.L
;,zZ
K
"
\
k
2

" 'Dto

Here,

h, = .,r n dI
gtm/cc,
T, = 72.8dynes./cm,Tr, - 0.99{30
d = A.l mm = 0.01cm, I = 981crn/sec2.

\.
\
l'" ' qqen$ffiearl qt - Ze:4cffi'

-,.
Problen $),./Thevoid ratioof a givensoilA is twice that of another
soil B, while thecffectivcsizcof particlesof soilA is onc-thirdthatof soil8.
The heightof capillaryrise of waterin soilA on a certainday is foundto be
40 c.m.Determinethe corrcpondingheightof capillaryrise in soil8.

66

Sofution:

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundotion Engineering

We hav,

tt.^ =

C
Z.-D-tO

, = c
r,,
;hi

Lxt ha andhp be the heightsof capillary rise in soil A and I respectively'


Also, let ea and eg be the respective void ratios and Da and Dg be the
respective effective sizes.
Frorn the question,

hA

6=;r^,

ea.Dn

0=

6*ilfu,

,
(assuming
c = 0.5cm2)

= 42.Ocm = 0.42m.
Hencethesandwill be saturated
upto0.42m abovethewatertable.The
remainingportionof thesandabovethislevelwill be dry.
For thesandlayer,

e 3 1 . D B
t'
anq
Do=
"o=,

Now,

67

CapillarityandPermeability

G + e

t", = ffi'v,
es Dt

=d

= l'89t/n3

t:/nf
,o=, *fu"={?u*P = L43

D^-0/2)(3)=1'5

' l= ' e = 1 0 = 26.67 cmlrn


''1
/#
P;roblem{.4. At a sitethc subsoilconsistsof a 8 m thick layerof dry
sand(G = 2.65,e= 0.85,Dto = 0.14mm)whichis underlainby a 6 rn thick
clay layer (G = 2.75, w = 72/o) below which thereexistsa thick layer of
hardpan.Thewatertableis locatedat a depthof 6 m belowthegroundlevel.
Plot the dishibutionoftotal, neutralandeffectivestresses.
in Fig. 3.13(a).
Solution : The soil profile is presented

= 2.65+ 0.85,.
ffi(l'o)

As the clay layer is submergedbelow water, it is saturated.


W e h a v e ,u t G = s t

_ *G -= (0.22)(2.75)
-T
= 0.605
"- =
"

2.75 + 0.605,. Y.",= lliff


$) l-aevnr3'
At A Q = 0), thetotal,neutal andeffectivestresss
areall equalto z9ro.
AtB(z=5.58m), totalstess,o = (1.43)(5.58)- 7.gg t/n?
neutralstress,u=-h",\n

-@'42)(1) - -o'42Vn?
effectivestress,o' = a - ll
= 7.98 - (-0.42)

= 8.40Vrt.
AtC (z-6.0m),

o = (1.43)(5.58)+ (1.89)(0.42)= 8.77 t/m2


z = 0 '

{ ev'zp hlosvrH pt'ot


' o) Soil Prsfile

b) Pore
c) Totot
Pressure Siress
Fig.3.13

Height of capillary rise in the sand layer,

d) Effeclive
Shess

o'= o - y - o= $.TTt/mZ
AtD qz=8.0m), o * (1.43)(5.58)+ (1.59)Q.42)= L2.55Vmz
u = (2]O)(1.0)= 2.0 Vr#
o' * 12.55- 2.0 = 10.55Vmz
AtE (z= 14.0m),
s' - (1.43){5.58)+ (1.89)(2.42)+ (z0e)(6.0)
- E.@ VmZ

Capilla rity andPermeabil ity


Problemsin SoilMechanicsandFotttdationEngineering

68

u = (2.0 + 6.0)(1.0) - 8.0 t/m2


o' = ?5.09 - 8.0 = 17.09t/m2
areshownin Fig.
The distributionof total,neutralandcffec:tivestresses
3.13(b), (c) and(9respectively.
Problem Qd. For the soil profile shownin Fig. 3.14,determinethe
pressure
at a depthof 15rn
andintergranular
total stress,porewaterpressure
ground
lhe
level.
below
2 m S i t t yS a n d( 6 = 2 ' 6 8e, = 0 . 5 ,s = 3 5 7 o )
I

At a depthof 15m belowG.L.:


totalstresso = (1.81)(2) + (1.87)(1.5) + (2.03)(5.5)
+ (1.33)(a) + (1.90)(2') = 26.7t ttmz
porewaterpressure= (15 - 2 - L.5)(1.0) = fi..S t/m?
effectivesty:sg = (26.71 - 11.5) = t5.2t t/m2
Problem r51 The void ratio of a sandsampleat the loosestand densesr
possible statesare found to be 0.55 and 0.98 respectively.If the specific
gravity of soil solids be 2.67, determinethe correspondingvalues of the
critical hydraulicgradient.
Solution:

The critical hydraulicgradientis given by,

{ s1 6 0 7 " )- -----tys

5 -n r-- -_-- - -_Tl - h- F


7m

=0'65) I
C t o y{ 6 = 2 ' 7 0 , e

lrm

P e o t( 6 = 2 . 2 5, e = 2 ' 8)

,
G - I
I. =
1-l7'Y,o
At the denseststate,

i,=?fl_!(l)=1.0s

At the loosest state,

.
2 . 6 -7r . . =
'" =
0.84
1;0.98(1)

Problem
lt is requiredto excavatea long trench in a sanddeposit
Y:t
upto a depth of3.5 m below G.L. The sides of the trench should bevertical
andaretobe supportedby steelsheetpilesdrivenupto 1.5rn belowthebottom
of the trench. The ground water table is at 1 m below G.L. In order to have a
dry working area, water accumulated in the trench will be continuously
pumped out. If the sand has a void ratio of 0.72 and the specific gravity of
solids bc 2.66, check whether a quick sandcondition is likely to occur. If so,
what remedialmeasureswould you suggest?

Rock
Fig.3.14

Solution:
Bulk densityof silty sand (s = 35Vo)

= Aqq#g4)

(1.0)= 1.8rt,2.3

Bulkdcnsityof clayaboveG.W.T. (s = 6OVo)


- z.zo t (0.00)(0.05)
(1.0)'- t.87 t/m3

solution.
Fig. 3.15 illustrates the given site conditions. It is evident
that there will be an upward flow of water through the soil massMNDB. The
differentialheadwhich rzusesthis flow is,
h=2.5m
Again, thicknessof the sciil massthrough which this flow occurs is,
L = MB =.|y'D= 1.5 ln.

Satuntcddensityof claybclowG.W.T.

, +#

(rl - La3vmg

''f-***r
peat Satureteddensityof

69

(1) - 1.33l,t^3

Hydraulic gradient,

. 5
t. =h t 2= T
3=

Critical hydraulic gradient, i, =


iri,

$tuntcd &nsity of sand -

\-

*lus-

(1) - 1.gotzm3

Henc.e,quick sand condition will occur.

G - 1
I + e

1.67

= -2 .=6 5 - l
| + 0.72

0.965

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

70

The following remedial measurescan be recommended :


(i)The depth of embedmentof sheetpilesbelow the bottom of the trench
should be increased.This will increase the thickness of soil layer through
which water percolates,and hence will reduce the hydraulic gradient.
Let I be the required depth of sheetpiles below the bottom of the trench,
which gives a factor of safety of 1.5 against quick sand condition.

. h 2 . 5
t =
L = ;

,=

or

1.5

/r = differential head of water causing flow

Here,

=1.6-1.0=0.6m
I = length of soil massthrough which flow takes place
= 2.0 m.

t. = T0.6
tr=u.s
Q = 0.03 cc,/sec
cm2
A = 0.28 m2 = 0.28 x 104 cm2 =
?300
0.03
,
e =
cmlsec
tO:

Again, we have,

ic

i = hydraulicgraoient= I
L

wherc,

...(i)

iF.,S.=*=1.5,

Now,

7l

Capillarity and Permeobility

0.!)65 =

t.5

...(ii)

o.643

and,

From (i) and(ii) we have,

=ffiffiffim/daY

E - 0,643, or, -r = 3.89m


x
(ii) Alternatively, water table at the site may be lowered by any suitable
dewatering method. This will reduce the differential head and bence the
hydraulic gradient will be reduced.

= 0.0308m/day.
,l
Suppt

+0 . 6

SheetPites

f
-L

3.5m

II

2.6n

1.5m

l-z*-J
Fr..3.l6

.
Fig' 3'15
'/

set'upthown in Fig. 3.i6, if thearea


Pnoblen p./ In theexperimental
of the soil samplebc 0.28 m', and the guantity of water
of cross-sectioY
flowing throughitbe 0.03cclsec,determinethe co-efficient of permeability
in m/day.
Solution:

From Darcy'slaw, q = k i4

or

ft o

3_
iA

Pmblem p{
e sample of coarse sand is tested in a constant head
permeameter.The sample is Z) cm high and has a diameter of 8 cm. Water
flows through the soil under a constantheadof 1 m for 15 minutes. The mass
of discharged water was found to be 1.2 kg. Determine fhe coefficient of
permeability of the soil.
Solution:

We have, for a constanthead permeability test,


'k' = .9-L
hAt

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineerrng

7?

rnassof dischargedwater
Volume of dischargedwater,

Now,

Timc of flow ,
Head Of water,

= l'Zkg

Q = 1200 cc'
t = 15 min' = (15) (60) = 9O0sec'
h' = 1 m = 100 cm'
A - L4 * *

I-errgth of flow Path,

L = 2O qn'

^, -_

A = (n/4\(9.8)2 cmz
L - 1 5 cnm,/ = 12 min = (12') x (60) = 720 sec.

- 1200 gm'

Area of cross-sectionof sample,

h t = 6 0 cm, h2 = 45 cm

(rs).to96
tu/4\(o.7sf

l s = --_--"-----;-.

fu/a)0.8)"QZA)

= 5O'26 crt

m/day = 0.03 n/daY.

(1200)(20) . =
0.0053cm./sec.

(eoo)
{too;(s0.26)

(ii) Irt ft be the head at the end of another20 minutes'


4

3.51 x 10-5 =

Area of soss-section of tbe sample'

- 29/3o cn/sec
4 = 58 cc/mtn
We have, from DarcY's law

unit discharge,

3_

ft-

of,

q=kiA,

prublen 3.ll:/ A falling headpermeabilitytestwas carriedout on a


silty claylThediameterof thesampleandthestand-pipe
15*ri;;;r,if;of
Thewaterlevel in the stand-pipewas
wereg.g i. "rri 0.75cm respectively.
:
to fall from 6Ocm io 45 cm in 12 minutes'Determine
oUseroeO
pcrmeabilityof the soil in m/day
6i n" co-efficientof
the stand'pipeafteranother20 minutes'
64 n"ignt of waterlevcl in
level to drop to 10 cm'
water
the
tim-erequiredfor
' fiiil
we have'
S/lorioo, (i) For a fallingheadpermeabilitytest'
ht

*, = T i . roe"i
a

Here,

a - (n/4) (0.75)" crn-

. 4 5
.tog.
T

@/$(s.8f (20)(60)

oIr

0r'

=##

=2'l.f!6. rn

10 cm'
(iii) L,eu be the time required for the head to d-ropfrom 45 cm to

hr

Now,

aL
'=71 'ta&'6

iA

crn,/sec.
o = po)(r#@,ru) = 0.0145

gL

(n/0 (0.75)'(r5)

. 4 5 - 0.479
tw.
h
45 =
"o'479- 1.615

of the soil.

e = (n/4)(7'5f = #''rg ct#


t?'t =
t'St
Hydraulicgradient,i = | =

0
E

= 3.51 x 10-5 cm,/sec

a 15
ncylindrical rnould of diameter 7'5 cm contains
Problem ln/
under
soil
tbe
through
flows
fine sand. when water
"* il;;;in6t
between two points 8
constant head at a rate of 58 cclmin', the loss of head
of permeability
co-efficient
tbe
cm apart is found tobe l2.1cm. Determine
Solution:

73

Cap illarity andPermeabilitY

@/a)Q.7s\2(1!)@//|t0.8)2(3.51x 1o-s)

. lor"fr

= 3764.65 sec.
= t hr. 2 min.. 45 sec.
problem S,kd'
Awell is fully penetratedinto a 16 m thick layer of
the well at a
sand which isfnderlain by a rock layer. Waler is pumped out of
wells
observation
two
in
constant rate of 450000 litresitour. The water level
2.6
m
and
at
3.7
to
be
tbund
situated at 15 m and 30 m from the test well are
mrespectivelybelowtheground|evel.Determinetheco-efficientof
pcrmcabilitYof the soil'
Solution:Forarrunconfittedaquifer,theco-efficientofpermeability
is given by:

74

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

e.log" (r2/r)

(18s7.6)
.
[ log, (20/8)] = 3^^
8 .-,7 0m / d a y
k=#
(t4.04)'
r [ (14.53)'
I

"Qg_ h?)
Here,

Q = 45NOO lire/hour
(450000)(1000)
= cc'lsec = 125000cc'lsec'
(60Xe0)r1 = 1 5 m = 1 5 0 0 c m

(ii) The radiusof influenceis givenby,


R = 3000sf
k = 38.70 m/day
Here,
=

r2 = 3 0 m = 3 0 0 0 c m
lrt = (16 - 3.7) m = 12.3m = 1230 crn

(125000) log" (3000/rs00)I


= @ = o ' o 9[8 c m ' / s e c

.log.(r2/r)
Sofution: (i) We trave, ls = Q

"@3- h?)

Q = 2L.5 lit,/sec
(21'5)(100q)(86400)
=
,n3/d^y = 1857.6^3/dry
106
'rl=8m,

tZ=20m.

Height of the water table abovetbe baseof the well,


f/ = (18 _ Z.Z) m = 15.8 m
Drawdown in the observationwells, sl = 1.76m, s2 = 1.27 m
Height of water in the observationwells,
lt1 = 11 - sl = (15.8 - 1.76) m = 14.04 m

hz = n - s2 = (15.8- I.27) m = 14.53m

m/sec = 4.48 x Lo-4 tn/sec

(iii) The effective size can be determinedfrom Allen Hazett's forrnula :

k = c .4o

^ ^^^

Pmblem 3.13y' A pumping-out test was carried out in the fierd in order
to determine thgr{rerage co-efficient of permeability of a lg rn thick sand
layer. The groundwater table was locatedat a dep& ofi.2 rnbelow theground
level. A steady statewas reachedwhen the dischargefrorn the well wis 21.5
litlsec' At this stage, the drawdown in the test well was 2.54 m,while the
drawdowrs in two observation wells situated at g m and 20 m from the test
well were found to be 1.76 m and 1.27 m respectively. Determine:
(i) co-efficient of permeability of the sand layer in m/day.
(ii) radius of influence of the test wcll
(iii) effective size ofthe sand.

R = (3000)(2.5a\! q.qe x 10-4 m = 161.29rn

b, = (16 - 2.6) m = 13.4m = l34O cln

Here,

75

C ap ill a r ity and P ermeabil ity

Drc=

ort

Assuming

,m

Q -

Drc=

1(X) cm-1 sec-l

4.48 x 10-a =
2.12 x 10-3 cm
100

= 0.021'2mm
ne subsoil at a site consislsof a fine sand layer lying
Problem SlK
in between a clf,y layer at top and a silt layer at bottom. The co-efficient of
permeability of the sand is l(n times that of clay and 20 times that of silt,
while the thickness of the sand layer is orie-tenththat of clay and one third
that of silt. Find out the equivalentco-efficient of permeability of the deposit
in directions parallel and perpendicularto the bedding planes,i1 tenns of the
co-efficient of permeability of the clay layer.
lrt & be the co-efficientof permeabilityof the clay layer'
co-efficient of permeability of sand = 100 t

Solution:

and,

co'efficientofpermeabilityofsilt

Again,

let z be the thicknessof the sandlayer.


ThicknessofclaYlaYer = 102

t0.f;-O=
tO

thicknessofsilt laYer = 3 z.
Equivalent co-efficient of permeability parallel to the bedding planes,
and,

k r z t + k z z z + k 3 z t _ ( & ) ( 1 0 2 )+ ( 1 0 0 / r ) ( z )+ ( 5 k ) ( 3 2 )
*, .h -_ - - - ; 7
toz + z + 3z
4,
4

(u

I
Engineering
Problems in Soil Meclwnics an'd Foundation

76

t<
10 + 100 +

77

CapillaritY and PermeabilitY

lt<

.o=.ftv=E.e3k
4

E k;z;

Equivalentco-etlicientofpermeabilityperpendiculartothebeddingplarres,

*"=

z t t z t * 2 7

t'l
,
Kh = -T-

1 0 2 + z + 3 2

4-

i.t.t

3z
,
*
r
o
o
k
*sk
k

l}z.

2z i
i-1

l4k
- 1 4 0 0k = t . 3 l 9 k
10+l+3
ft, -=
= -=1061
+
I + 60
looo
1
3
----------:::--:
-:
1O +

loo

Loi*T

'

Fig. 3.17 showsa soil profile ar a given site. Determine:


(i) Average co-ettcient of penneability of the deposit'
in the horizontal
(ii) Equivalent co-efficientoipermeability of the deposit
and vertital directions.
problem 3#{

,/

-:--

--

^i+^

h^ra*

+ (6) (qx 10-3)+ (10)(7'2 x 10-2)


+ (1) (2.sx -1-0-8)
- (8) (3 x 10-4)
(8+1+6+10)
= 0.0308cm,/sec
Equivalentco-efticientof penneabilityin theverticaldirection'
4
-l

z -.t

i=l

k"=71
z't
;ltk;
8 + 1 + 6 + 1 0
1
* t * ,6= + u1 ' 7 20

nov(k=28x10-8cm/s)
F i n eS a n d
( k = 8x 1 0 - 3 c m / s

iltt
a

= 6.Vl x l0-' cm,/sec

EXERCISE3

Iosrse Sand
/s
tk =7.2x 10-2cm
Fig.3.l7
Solution :

(i) Average co-efficient of permeability of the deposit'

h + k + k 3 + k a
it^u = --:T-3 x 1 0 4 + 2 . 5 x 1 0 - 8 + 8 x 1 0 - 3+ 7 - 2 x t O ' 2
= 2 x l0-2 crn,/sec = O.OZcm/sec'
horizontal direction'
(ii) Equivalent co-efficient of penneability in the

the ground
3.1, Determine the height of capillary rise of water above
of 0'12
water table in a homogeneo,it U.O of sand having an effective-size
was
found
table
water
mm. The moisture contentof the soil below th.eground
cni]
62'5
:
=0.5
cnf '
[Ans
tobe?57o.Take, G =2-67 and C
radius is
A pcrfectly clean and wct capillary tube of 0'1 mm
t.2
and the
3d_c
is
temperature
room
immersed in a container full of water. The
waterlevelinthetubcisfoundtorisetoaheightoft4.54crn.Iftheunit
detcrmine the surface tension at
*"igh, of water at 3dC be 0.996 gm/cc,

tAns : 71.03dYncs/cml
30oe.
immersedin distilled
3.3 Adry capillarytxbeof 0.3mm diameterwas
was found
wa*; I dC. d. upperrneniscusof thewatercolumnin thetubc
colurnn.
water
the
of
io Uei"cf incOat 3dC to thc vertical.Find out theheight
waler=
of
tension
=
surface
Ciu"o, d f C,unit weighrof watr 1 gmlccand
:
[turs 8'9 un]
?5.6dynesicrn
is
3.4 Thc subsoil at a site consistsof a 2 m thick layer of clay which
bclol
m
at
3
is
tablc
water
ground
nttural
Thc
underlainby r dcepsandlaycr.

78

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatton Engineering

C ap i ll ar ity and P ermeabiliry

GI. The unit weight of clay is 1.8 t/m3,while that of sandabove and below
water table are 1.75 Vm'and l.92tJm' respectively.Find out tbe total and
effective stressesat a depth of5 m below the ground l":"1.^
a
2 _ -^
[Ans ::9.19 t/m" ,7 .19 tlnf I

3.10 In a constant head permeability test, water is allowed to pass


through.a cylindrical soil sample, 15 cm high and 10 cm in diameter, under
a coustanthead of 1 m. The water fiowing out of the sample is collected in a
glass cylinder of 1200 cc capacity. It is observedthat the cylinder just starts
to overflow after t hr. 13 min. and 51 sec. Find out the co-efficient of

3.5 Plotthe distribution oftotal, neutral and effective stressfor thesoil


profile shown in Fig. 3.18.

I
") m
'
I
L
r;
l'

3m
3m
|

penneability.

- - - - w c i t Copit[ary
er

o.w.r

)Irotum ll

3.12 How many litres of water will flow through a cylindrical soil
sample of 8 crn diameter and l2 crn heigbt in a day under a constanthead of
65 cm, if the co-efficient of penneability of the soil be 0.01 mm/sec ?
[Ans : 23.5litres]

( r = 1 . g fs/ m 3)
StrqtumIII

( t r = 1 ' 8ft r0
/uml v3, )
,s_r'sv

3.13 In a falling headpenneability test,thewater level in the stand-pipe


dropped from 40 cm to 20 crn in t hour. The diameter of the sample and the
stand-pipewere 8 cm and 0.5 crn respectively,while &e height of the sarnple
was 9.5 cm. Find out the co-efficient of permeability of the soil.

Rock
Fig.3.18
3.6 A sandsampleis 507osaturated
andhasa bulk densityof 1.75t/m3.
The specific gravity of solids is 2.65. Determine the critlcal hydraulic
gradient.
[Ans:0.96]
3.7 How will the critical hydraulic gradienr of thc soil in Prob. 3.6
change, if the soil is crrmpactedto increaseits bulk density by LoVo,without

anychangein its watercontent?

[Ans : Increasasby73.8Vol

3.8 At a site the subsoil consistsof a deep layer of medium sand. It is


required to excavate a trench upto 3 m below the ground level. The water
tablelies atdepth of l.5belowG.L..In orderto havea dryworking area,sheet
piles are driven along the sides of the hench upto a depth of 5 m below G.L.
and water accumulated in thc trench is pumped out as the excavation
progrcsses.Deteirnine the fector of safety against the occurrence of quick
sandcondition. Given,e = 0.8, G =2,7.
[Ans: 1.24]
3.9

Tbe void ratio of a soil is 0.76, while its co-efficient ofpermeability

is 1.2 x 10{ cm/sec. If, keeping all olher factors constant, the soil is
compacted so as to reduce the void ratio to 0.60, what will be the co.efficient
of permeability of the soil? [ Hints : * n ?tt

[Ars :5.17 x 104 cm/sec]

3.11 A specimenof a coarse-grainedsoil was subjectedto a constant


head permeability test. The sample was compacted in a cylindrical mould
having a height of 9.5 cm and an internal volume of 987 cc. Under a constant
head of 50 cm, 756.6 cc of water passedthrough the soil in 10 minutes .
Determine the co-efficient of permeability and the effective size of the soil.
[Ans : 0.012crn/sec, 0.11 rnm]

6.1

ShatumI
{ r = 1 . 7t / m 3 )

79

+ el
[Ans :6.5 x lO-)cm/sec]

-C

I
t

I
I
f

[Ans : ?.15 x 10-6 cmlsecl


3.14 A falling head test was perfonned on a soil specimen having a
diameter of 10 cm and a height of 12 cm. The stand-pipehad a diameter of
1.2 qn and the wpter level in it dropped from 55 crn to 41 crn in 2 hours.
Detennine the time required for the water level in the stand-pipe to come
down to 2O cm. Also determine the height of water level in the stand-pipe
after a period of24 hours from the beginning ofthe test
[Ans : 6 hours and 48.5 rninutes; 3.53 cm]
3.f5
A pumping-out test was carried out in an 18 m thick layer of
pervious soil which is underlain by an impermeableshale. The water table
was located at 1 m below the ground level. A steadystatewas reachedwhen
tle dischargefrom the well was 9 cu.m/min. The conespondingwater levels
in two observatiqn wells situated at 4 m and 8 m from the purnping well were
found to bc 2 m and 0.5 m respectivelybelow the initial ground water table.
Compute the co-efficient of permeability of the deposil [Ars : 0.07 cnr/sec]
3.L6 In order to compute the co-efficient of permeability of a
non-homogeneous deposit a pumping out test was conducted by fully
penetrating a well of 20 cm diameter into a 50 m thick unconfined aquifer.
When the drawdown in the pumping well reached4.2 m a steady discharge
of 3@ *3/h, *", obtained from it The drawdown in an observation well at

80

Problems in Soil Meclwnics andFoundation Engineering

a distance of 30 m from the pumping well was found to be 1.1 m. If the initial
ground water table was at 1.5 m below G.I .., compute :
(i) the field co'efficient of penneability of the soil
(ii)

tre radius of influence.

[Ans : (i) 5.3 x 10-2 cmrtec (ii) 290 rn]


3.17 A pumping well of 20 cm diameterpenetratesfrrlly into a confined
aquifer of 25 m thickness.A steadydischargeof 26.5litlsec is obtainedfrom
the well under a drawdown of 3.2 m. Assuming a radius of influence of 300
m, find out the co-efficientof permeabilityof the soil in m/day.
[Ans : 33.31 m/dayl
3.18 A pumping well of 25 cm diameterwas fully penehated into a 20
m thick bed of sand which lies between two clay layers of negligible
permcability. Laboratory tests revealed that the sand had a co-efficient of
permeability of 0.03 cm/sec.A steadystatewas reachedwhen the drawdown
in the test well was 4.3 m and the correspondingdischargewas 12litres/sec.
Estimate the drawdown in an observation well sunk at a distance of 20
m from the pumpingwell.
[Ans:1.51m]
3.19 A stratified soil deposit consistsoffour layers. The thickness of
the second,third and fourth layers are equal to half, one-third and one-fourth,
respectively, the thickness of tie top layer, while their co-efficients of
permeability are respectively twice, thrice and four times that of the top layer.
Find out:
(i) averageco-efficient of permeability of the deposiL
(it equivalent co-efficient ofpermeability of the deposit
(a) parallel to (b) perpendicularto, the bedding planes.
[Ans (i) 2.5 k (ii) (a) 1.92,t (b) 1.46 lq ftbeing the co-efficient of
permeability of the first layerl

4
SEEPAGEAND FLOWNETS
4.1 Introduction : When a water-retainingstructqre(e.g., an earth or
rockfill danr, a concrete dam or weir, sheet-pili cut-off wall etc.) is
constructedto maintain a differential head of water, seepagethrough the
structure itself and/or the foundation soil takes plaee. The quantity of water
which flows from the upstreamto the downstreamside,tenned as the $eepage
loss,is of paramountimportancein designingsucha structure.Moreovei, the
percolating water exerts a pressureon the soil, whid'is calted the seepage
pressure. In impermeable structures (vrz., a corcrete dam) the seepageof
water results in a vertical uplift pressureon the base of the dam. When the
seepagewater reachestbe downstream side, soil particles may be lifted up
resulting in a 'piping' failure. The stability of the side slopesof an earth dam
may be substantially reduceddue to seepageof water.
All of these problems can be analysed graphically by constructing
flow-nets.
4.2. F,quaticn of Continuity:
Laplace's equation of continuity, as
applicable to two-dimensional flow problems, is given below:

k'#**,fr=o

-..(4.1)

Where, k, and k, are the co.efficients of permeability in the x and y


directions respectively.
an isokopic soil, &, =
$.
_For

Therefore,

a2h
---'+
af
ay"

4=o

l
..(4.2\

Eqn. (4.2) is satisfiedby the potentialftrnction0 (.r,y) and the sheam


functionrP(r, y). Thepropertres
of thesefrrnctionsareas follows:

82

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

v'=
and,

ao
dx'

vY=

ao
aY

v * = a!, ' y = - Eav


6,

..-(4.3)

The potential function $ can be represetrtedby a family of curves, each


having a particular constant value of $. These curves are called the
equipotential lines. Sirnilarly, the streamftlnction rp may be representedby a
number of curves, known as the streamlines or the flow lines. A stream lilte
representsthe path along which a waler p3ttilig flows. An equiporeffiTTine
pfiiorneriia;'hddA is eonstant. It can be
TsTffi;y"Fffi6-f"whicb'the
proved that the product of the gradientsof,the $ firnction and the rp function
equils -1. Thus, an equipotentialline should always intersecta streamline
orthogonally
The combination ofstream lines and flow lines in the proper flow domain
is called a flownet.
A flownet has the following properties:
konerties of a Flownet:
;lra
r{ All flow lines and equipotential lines are smooth curves.
{
Ano* fine and an equipotential line should intersect each other
orthogonally.
,Z No two flow lines can intersecteach otber.
Notwo equipotential lines can inlersect each other.
{

Seepagl ond Flownets

83

1. AB is the equipotentiarline having the maximum piezometrichead


( lt = l4).
2' EF is the equipotentialline havi'g tlre mi.i*rum piezometrichead
(h = lq).
3. BCDE ( i,e., the surfaceof the sheelpite is the shortestflow rinc.
)
4. GH (i.e., the imperiousboundary)is the longestflow line.
once the boundary conditions are ide'tilied, the llow'et can be drawn
by trial anderror.The processis tectiousand eachline hasto be drawn, erased
and redrawn a nurnberof times.
4.5. usesofaFlownet: Aflownetenablesone todererminethefoilowing:
(i) Quantity of seepage: Fig. 4.2 shows a porrion of a flowner. Let
L,qy and Lqzbe the quantity of seepagein unit time through two consecutive
flow channels.Irt b1 and { be the widrh and rengthrespecriveryof the
flow
elernent ABCD, and Lh be the head drop between two tonsecutive
equipotentialIines.
From Darcy's law we have,
Q = k iA

Constntction of a flownet : [n order to construct a flownct, the


l./
Kunaary conditions,i.e., the tocationof the two extremeflow lines and tbe
two extreme equipotenlial lines, have to be identified frst. For example, Fig,
4.1 shows a flownet for a sheet-pilewall. Here the boundary conditions are :

FLr

aqr

EL;
Fig.4.Z

Consideringunit thickness bfthe soil rnass,cross-sectionalarea o[


the
elementABCD + b1 x l = b l .
I mp e r v i o u s
Fig.4.1

Seepogeand Flownets

Problems in Soil Meclmnics and Fottndation Engineertng

Hydraulic gradient,

It*=1"ry#

t. = A/t
T

...(4.s)

For example,in Fig. 4.1,the piezometricheadatP is,


. L h
L a r=k.? 'h =kxL 'l rx

(lt' -

Sirnilarly,

b.t
Lqt=kxA/rx;:
.2

Pr=hnln

p, = La.lw

wht:rt:,

quantityof seePageis given bY,

4 = k x N1x Lh
of
Again , if I/ be the initial differenceof headandN,gbe the'number

)(

a is the averagedimensionof the.last elementof a flow channel.


greaterthan the critical
Piping may occur if the exit gradientbec-omes
piping
is given by,
against
of
safety
hydraulicgradient.The tactor
i"
F- . = :

...(4.8)

lc

.,(4-4)

Astheflowelementsareboundbycuwedlirres,itisnotpossibletodraw
particular
them as true squares.However, the averagelength and breadth ofa
touching
circle
inner
an
that
such
flow element s-houldbe equal to each other
drawn.
all four;ides of the element can be
,"1d1n ya*natic Pressure : The hydrostatic pressureat any point within
the soil massis given bY'
il=hn\n

lt- = piezometric head et the point under consideration'


where,
line
In order to fin<l out the piezometric head at a point, tocate the flow
in the
drops
head
of
number
total
the
count
and
lies
point
given
thc
on which
given point.
flownet a. wJlt as the number of head drops ocorrred upto the
Thc piezometric head at the given point is then obtained from'
- nNt

i, is theexitgradient=

...(4.7)

ancl

*=#r
4-kxH-#

...(4.6)

when the percolating water comes out of the soil


(ijj;rfE.rit grodient:
pressureon the soil wlrich is given
at thedownstreamend,it appliesa seepage
by

=T

= / )'
l{owever, if the elements are made orthogonally squared (i'e'' b
=
x
k'
Aft
=
Aqn
Lqz
then,
Mt
the total
If t{1 be the nurnberof flow channelspresentin the flswnet then

\-

o'61(\ - h2)

The uplift pressureat any poilt below thebaseofa concretedam is given

t r =h

hn'hl

- l'r

by,

if'
The dischargequantity throughall flow channelswill be equal
b',
b2
bL

equal head droPs,then,.

lt,)

4
h-= 1t,- -:tj

l1

In order to cleterrninethe maxirnurn exit gradient for a given tlow


problem, the last flow element of the flow channel adjacent to the structure
'a' is the minimurn for that particular
is to be considered,as the value of
clernent.In Fig. 4.1, this flow elementis markedby hatchlines.
lg/flo*n

t in Anisotropic Soils :

.fn
K, --7

, a z h= u.
+ Kv --,

0xor,
Let,

From eqn.(4.1),

af

t f n a* z h= "'

k/{. ut

ur?

=x '
@.x
r a z h f n

...(4.e)

Vr- a7=#
oI'

-f- -n- ;a* -z- - h


;=u
alf
0x''

...(4.10)

Problems in Soillvlechanicsand Fottndation Engineering

86

In order to draw the tlownet tbr anisotropic soils, a traustbnned section


,
has to be drawn first by multiplying all horizoutal dirneusiorr"fry $tt1,
squared
ortbogonally
An
unaltered.
but keeping the vertic..al dimensions
flownet is then drawl as usual tbr the trausfonned section. The structure,
along*,ith the flownet, is then retransformed by multiplying all horizontal
The final flownet will consist of rectangular

dinrensions Vy',/t<rttq.
elernepts.

87

Seepageand Flownets

b k r
l k 2
if k1 < k2' they
> t2, the tlow channelswill get broadened'while
If &&1
channel canying a certain
will get shortened.In other words, *f,"n u flow
a greaterarea to carry the
discharge enters a less permeablesoil, it requires
more permcable soil' a smaller
same discharge.However, when it entersa
areais sulficieut.
(a) and (b) respectively'
These c.ondirionsare illustrate.din Fig. 4.4

perureability Conditions : When the llow lines pass frorn


4.1/vluttiple
txe soil to another having a different permeability, they deviate from the
interfac:eof the two soils and this deviation is similar to the refraction of light
rays.This is illustratedin Fig. 4.3'

,EL2

I EL1
I
I

'l

I
I

P ?- - '

I
I

Ft

oclI
.i

b ) W h e nk t < k 2

a) When kt > k2
Fig.4.4

I
I
I
I

'ELt

rrfu
Phreatic Line: When an impermeable structure
glSr"filgqAr{-t
.*/
water' all the boundary conditions
(".g., u sheetpile or a coi-creteweir) retains
flow or pressure flow'
are kttowtt. Such a flow is known as the contlned
earth dam) the upper
an
(e'g"
However, when the structureitself is pervious
a flow is termed as
Such
boundary or the uppermost flow line is unknown'
is called the
boundary
upper
this
and
an unconfined flow or-. gouity florv,
phreatic line.
parabolahas to.be drawn
In order to obtain the phreatic line, the basic
at the entry and exit points have to be
first and then the n""or"ryt*ections
,'t

,ELz

'
/ EL3

@
Lt

Fig.4.3

The portion of the flow-ilet lying in layer 1 is first drawn in the usual
manner *ith rqu"r. flow elements. When the flow lines as well as
equipotential lines enter layer 2, they undergo deviations according to the
following equation:

h = tan0r
kz

tan P2

...(4.11)

consequently, the flow elementsin iayer 2 are not squaresany more, but
become rectangles,and their width-to-height ratios are given by,

T.TI. ,"ro*ction

of the BqsicParabolaz In Fig' 4'5'ABCDis the

the basic parabola,proceedas


cross_sectionof an earti dam. In order to draw
follows:
the wetted portion' ED' of
(i) Measurethe horizontal projectionI of
the uPstreamface.

'

88

Problems in SoitMechrnics QndFoundation Engineering

(ii) Locate the point P such rhatEP = O.3L. The point P is the first
point of the basic parabola.
(iii) with P as centre and PC radius draw an arc to intersect the
extendedrvatersurfaceat F.
(iv)FromFdrawFGIDC.The|ineFGisthedirectrixofthebasic
parabola,wlrile C is the focus.
(u) l-ocatethe rnid-point Q of CG.
(ui) Let G be the origin, GF the Y-axis anclGD theX-axis'
(vii) Cltooseany poittt H on CD, such that GH = xl' With C as-centre
and x1 radius, draw an arc to intersectthe vertical line through I/ at R. The
point R(x1,y1) is anotherpoint on the basic parabola'
(viii) In a sirnilar lnanner, locate several other points viz', (xz' v) '
(xs, ys), ........,etc. Join these points witlr a smooth curve to get thebasic
parabola.

89

Seepageand Flownets

t
lo

:lf
' 6

o.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
o

30

6oo

9oo

l2oo

l5o"

lSoo

A u
Fig.4.6

correctionshouldbe made by hand'


After loczting N, the necressary
angle p rangesfrom 30' to 180"' It
the
slope
value
of
the
In Fig. 4.6,
dams,
earth
for
ordinary
that
should be noted
I . 90" However, if the darn
to arrestthe seepagewater,
filter
or
a
horizontal
toe
drain
with
a
provided
is
the value of p may be as high as 180'. This i5 illustratedinFig. 4'7 below:

&:'o"
p< 900

9 o o <P < 1 8 0 o
Toe Drsin

Fig'4.5
ED is an equipotential line
4.E.2 Conections at Entry and Exit Poinls:
and the phreatic line is a flow line. These t'wo should meet each other at right
angles. This necessitatesthe correclion at the entry point, which should be
drawn by hand.
The phreaticline should meet the down streamfaceBCtangentially. This
necessitatesthe correction at the exit point. The basic parabola intersectsBC
= La,
at M. But the phreatic liire should meetBC at N' I-et CN = a and NM
the
of
angle,
slope
p
the
on
depends
+
Aa)
of
Ml(a
ie
The magnitu
downstream face. Its value may be obtained from Fig' 4'6'

I = 11 8E00oD r o i n o g eB t a n k e t

Fig.4.7

It shouldalsobe notectthat for an earthdamhaving a loe drain, chimney


drain or horizontaldrainageblanket,thebeginningpoint ofthatdrain on filter,
and not the bottornconter of dowustreamface,shouldbe takel into account
while plotting lhe basic parabola.

EXAMPLES
earthdam,30 rn higlr, hasa free board
Problem$r1- A hornogeneous
and
of 1.5 rn. A flownet was constructed the following resultswere noted:
No. of PotentialdroPs = 12
No. of tlow channels = J

Problems in Soil Mechanics ond Fottndation Engineering

90

Seepage and Flownets

9l

The darn has a 18 rn long horizotttal t'ilter at its dowrutream ettd.


Calculatethe seepageloss acrossthe dam per day if the width of th,edarnbe
200 m and the co-efficientof permeabilityof the soil be 3.55 x 10-' cmlsec.
Solution: Using eqn. (4.4), the quantity of seepageloss acrossuuit
width of the dam is.
N"

(I -- k.H.#

I\ aI

k = 3.55 x 1.0-actnlsec

Here,

_ (3.ssx 10-4)(s64oo)n/cJay = O.3067n/day


100

Nf=3'

Na=12

As tbe downstrearn end is provided with a long horizontal tllter, the


downstreamside shouldbe drv.

q =

H = 3 0 - 1 . 5 =28.5 m
(0.3067)(28.s)(3)

t2

= 2.185
^t

14

Total quantityof seeqagelossper day acrossthe ertire width of the darn


= (2.185)(200) =' 437 n'.
Problerryf.2 : A single row of sbeetpiles is driven upto a depth of 4
rn in a bed of cleadsandhavinga co-efficientof penneabilityof 0.002cin/sec.
An impermeableleyer of very stiff clay exists at a depth of 10 m below the
G.L. The sheetpile wall has to retainwater upto 4 rn above G.L. The heigltt
of water level on the dowrutream side is 0.5 rn. Construct lhe flownet and
determinequantity of seepageloss consideringunit width of the sheetpiles.
Solution : The flownet is given in Fig. 4.8.
Using eqn. (4.4),

N= K H , H
Herc,

_ (0.002)(86400) m/day = 1.728 n/daY


k=4.002 crn./sec
100
H = 4 - 0 . 5 = 3 . 5m
Nf=7,

Na=lZ

(3.s)(7) =
_ (1.728)
3.53,n3/d^y
t2

I m p e r v i o uLsa v e r
Fig.4.8
Problern 43-I-With referenceto Fig. 4.8, determine the following:
(i) The piezometric headsat the points A, B, C, D andE.
(ii) The exit gradient
(iii) Factorof saftty againstpiping. Given, G =2.67, e = 0.95.
Solution:
(i) Initial piezornetricheadat the groundlevel on upstreamside = 4 m.
Headdifference
4 - O.5
= 0.2977m
Head drop AH =
ofhead
No.
drops
12
Now, numberof headdropsupto the pointA = 3
.'. Head loss at A = (3)(0.2914 = 0.875m.
Residualheadat A = Initial head-head loss
= 4 - 0 . 8 7 5 = 3 . 1 2 5n .
Similarly, the piezometricheadat B,C and D are computed.
Piezorrretriclreadat B = 4 - (5) (0.2917\ = 2.542 n.

ar C = 4 - (10)(0.2917)= 1.083rn

Problems in SoiIMechanics and Foundation Engineering

92

93

Seepage and Flownets


a t D = 4 - ( 1 0 ) ( 0 . 2 9 1 7 )= 1 . 0 8 3 m
The point -E lies in between the 5th and 6th flow lines. Hence, the
piezometrir:head at E shouldbe obtainedby linear interpolation.
Averageno. of headdrop at

n =

7 !.,8

_ (6.5 x 10-5)(86400)m/day = 0.05616m/day


100

= l.S

- ( 7 . 5 ) ( 4 . 2 9 1 7 )= 1 . 8 1 2 m .

P i e z o m e t r i c h e a d a tE = 4

k = 6.5 x l0-5 cm./sec

I/=18m
Usingeqn(4.4),

(ii) In order to find out the exit grad,ient,the smallestflow eletneutuear


the downstreamend (i.e.,the one adjacentto the sheetpile well, markedwith
hatc:hlines) is to be considered.Averagelength of this element= 1.1 m.

= 0.265

i" = + = ry
Exitgraclie*t,

gradient
is givenby,
(iii) Thc criticalhydraulic
.
G-t
t'=Ti

= 2 . 6 7 - t = u^ ' ^6 -) -t r
1.0.95

... Facrorof saferyagaircrpiping=

=
;

*#

= 3.23

Probfern 4.4r2/'Constructthe flownet and detennilrethe quantity of


weir shownin Fig. 4.9. Given,k =
seepage
lgssirFr6'/dayfor thecollcrete
6.5 x 10-)cm/sec.

_ (o.os61gx18)(4)
= 0.311*3/duy
13
Problerrylr*'
A concreteweir of 15 m length has to retain water upto
5 rn above G.L. The cross-sectionof the weir is shown in Fig. 4.10. The
foundation soil consistsof a 12.5 thick stratumof sand having & = 0.015
cm/sec.In orderto reducethe seepageloss,a 5 m deepverticalsheetpile cul
off wall is placed at the bottom of the upstream face of tbe weir. Draw a
flownet and determinethe quantity of seepageloss that will occur in one day,
if tbe widtlt of the weir be 55 rn. Also determinelhe factor of safety against
piping if the soil has G = 2.65and e = 1.08.
Solution : The flownet is given in Fig. 4.10. the number of flow
channelsis found to be 5, while the number of head drops = 16.
,=
k = 0.015 cm./se<

(0'015) (86400)
m/day = 12.96 m/day
ff

Iy'=5rn

Fig.4.9
Solution

Fig. 4.9 shows the flownet. From the figure we get,

No. of flow channels,

Nf = a'

No. of head drops,

Na = ll.

Fig.4.10

94

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

95

Seepageand Flownets

This is the quantity of seepage loss across unit widtlt of the weir.
Considering the entire width of 55 m (on a plane perpendicular to that of the
paper), total quantity of seepageloss per diy = (n.?5)(55) = 1113.75 rn3.

35m

Again, the averagelength of flre smallest flow elernent adjacent to the


weir = 1.2 m.

Exit gradien
t

i. --

H
N s x l

c6t,

= o'?-6

Critical hydraulic gradient,

- t
^_^
= u't9
i , = 7 #= 2.65
1 - 1^08

=f f i = 3 . 0 4

Factor of safety agahut piping


,/
Prcblem.4y'.
A concrete weir of 52.5 m length is founded ar a depth
of 2m in a defosit of fine sand for which the co-efficient of perrneabilityi!
the horizontal and ver{icul directions are 1.5 x 10-' cm/sec and 6.7 x 104
crnlsec respectively. The sand is underlain by a rock layer at a depth of37 rn
below G.L. The high flood level on the upstream side is 18 m and the
downstream side has a frbe standingwater table upto 1.5 m above G.L. Draw
the flowret and determine the quantity of seepageloss across unit width of
tbe weir.

T r a n s f o r m eS
d ection
Fig.4.11(a)

Solution:
As the co-efficieuts of permeability of the soil in the
horizontal and vertical directions are different. the <ross-sectionof the weir
should be transformed before conslructing the flownet. All vertical
dimensions of the transformed section will rernain unchanged. But all
horizontal dimercions should be multiplied by a constant factor C, where,

c -frkh =

- 0.668

Length of the weir in the transformed section


= (0.658) (52.5) = 35.07 rn o 35 m.

Fig. 4.11 (a) shows the toansformedsection.The flownet is drawn in the


usual manner.
In order to obtain thc true flownet, the transformed sectioh, along with
the flownet already drawn, will have to be retransformed in such a way tlat
all ve*ical dimensions will remain unchangcdbut all horizontal dimensions
will be divided by a constant factor of 0.668.
In order to retransforiu the flownet, the location of all grid points (i.e.,
the intersection betu.een flow lines and equipotential lines) should be

Section
Origionol
Fig.a.l1 (b)
nninlc should
shnlld then be
he-located
lc
on the retransfom ned
determined. These grid pohrts
section. Joining thesc points in the appropriate order will give the true fl ownet
in which all flow elernents will be rectangular.

phreatic iine. The rem:r:fling portion of the basic parabcla is shown wit& a
llrokcnlinc.

Fig. 4.11 (b) showsthe retransformedsectionand the true flownel. The


dischargequantity is given by,
Nt

Nr

e = k H ' f r =1 ' l k 6 x k " x H ' 7 U

-+

22n

kn = l.s " 10-3cm//sec= 1.296m/day

Now,

97

Seepageand Flo*'neti

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

96

k, = 6.7 x 10-a curlsec= 0.579m/day

30

Il=18-1.5=16.5m
Nt = q.a, ff; = 10

*-{"-

I
)

(4.6)/(10)
q = ,/(Lzs6)(usze)(16.s)
= 6.57 ^3/duy
It maybr notedherethat,if we areto find out only the dischargequatltity,
the true flownet for the retransformedsection is not required to be drawn, as
the flownet for the transformed section ciln selve the purpose' However, for
the determinationofexitgradient, hydrostaticpressureheads,uplift pressures
etc.. the actual flownet has to be drawn.

Fig.4.t2
'i;r

ii+m has a top widfh of 28 nt and a


:,lrien'-#.9".t A +,-;.ruhigh e.arttrr
f-aeeshave.equal slope
of frn. i'hr illlstream arlcirfu.n;rilstrearn
l'rt:cir<,ar<i
nrrglesof 30", The dam is placed otr an impen'ious foundal"ion'The coDrarv the
, il':rit:r.i;ii;r:i:*rerl:ilii3'r,i:'-*+mftieri;ri*f :1:'r"jB:iii;,,0'3r*rr':iirrrin.
width
uait
of the
loss
across
rc.c.p,agc
quantitl'
of
ihc
ll,)..\,iir..talld detr:rnrlne
daut.
.r'ii!'*litrf 1l;..',l ,:,' is gir , ' r.;',
Solutfu,ri: T}c 1i,..:ir1;:1

Problern 4.,7: The cross-sectionof an earthdarn is shown illFig.4.I2.


3
Draw the phrci'tic line.
Solution: Horizontal projection.Lof the wetted portion of the upstream
face = 27 m. Hence the first point P of the basic parabola is given by, EP =
0.3I = (0.3X27) = 8.1 m. With P as centreand PC radius,draw an arc CM
to intersectthe extensionof tle water surfaceline atM. DrawMlV I DC. MN
is the directrix of the basic parabola.The mid point Q of CN is another point
in thc basic parabola.l,ocate the points YyY2, Y3, ...... , such that they are

E = 2L , :(.:4, ;rr 3U"; = liiC in.


-l'he

equidistantfrom the directrix and the focus.Join P, YyY2,Y3, ...... , aru)Q


to obtain the basic parabola.
In order to make lhe correction at the entry point, draw a smooth curye
from E to meet the basic parabola tangentially. For the correction at exit, the
location of the outcrop point is required. Refening to Fig. 4.6, for slope angle
An

8 = 45'. ----

a+La

By measurement,

= 0.34.

crcrss-sectionirf lhe dant is shown in Fig, 4.tr3"

f_28mJ
tl

T
I

a + A,a = 19m.
62 = (0.34) (19) = 6.46 m.

The distanceCC' is laid off suchthat, C C'= 6.46 m. C' is the true qutcrop
point. Draw another smooth curve to mcet tangentially the basicparabola at
one end and the downstrearn face at C'. The cuwe EC' is then:the required

L.

Fig..i.t3

Problems in SoiIMechanics and Fottndotion Engineering

98

Sccpagc and Flownets


The basic parabolaand the phreaticlitre are drawn in the usual Inanller
and the flownet is sketched.Frorn Fig. 4.13 we obtaitt,
Nf = 3.2

H = 44 - 4 = 40m.

(0'3)-69)(24)
= o.432 n,/day.
k = 0.3 rmn./min-

and,

Sccpageloss ac:ross
the entiredam
= (39.168)(175)= 6854.4,n3/d^y.

Na=17
Again,

99

Using eqn. (4.4), the quantity of seepageloss acrossunit rvidth,

Problern;pltr
Fig. 4.15 shows the cross-seclionof au earth dam
-toe
cousistirtg of
filter at the clownstrearnend. Draw the flow-net auil
dtrlerminethe quantityof seepageloss per day acrossunit width of the darrr.
The darnis foundedon an impewiousbaseand the rnaterialof the dam has a
co-efticie{t of permeabilityof 3.28 x 10-r crn/sec.Explain the procedureof
obtainingthe flownet.

@.42)@-G-A- == r 3.zs
' L r r ^3/d^y.
l

Solution : Fig. 4.15 slrows the given cross-section,atongwith the


l'ltlwnet.Ttrc procedureis briefly cxplainedbelow:

A 20 rn high dam has a top width of 8 rn, a botlorn width


Prohlem {rX
of 90 nr and a free board of 3 m. The dam is made of coarsesand having a
co-efficient of permeability of 0.01 cm/sec.A 22.5 m long horizontal drainage
blanket is placednearthe dowrutreamend of the dam. Draw tlre flownet and
dcterminethe quantity of seepageloss if the widtb of the danl be 175 m

(a) Locoting thephreatic line :


(i) LocatethepointDin theusualmarurer(ED=0.31= 0.3 x 37= 11.1
m).
(ii) The bcttom letl hand comer of the toe is taken as ilre focus of the
basic parabola.
(iii) Draw the directrix and lotute the point p of the basic parabola.
(iv) Locate a numbcr of points whic.h are cquidistant from the direc:trix
and the focus.
(v) Join thesepointswith a smoothcurve to obtain the basic parabola.
(vi) Make the necessarycorrectionsat the entry and the e.xitpoints.

0 =

Solution :

The flownet is shown in Fig. 4.14.

9 0 m- Fig.4.14

Lsl
loss for unil widt[
Using eqn. (4.4), the quantity of seepn.3qe

\
Q = k H ' Ntr
Here,

k = 0.01 cm./sec = 8.64 m . / d a y .


H - 2 0 - 3 = 1 7 m .
Nf-4,

Na=15

,_r _(8.64)
_ T _(r7)
_ (4)

39.168^3/d^y.

s'
f=_

L Toe
28m_

Fig.4.l5

(b) Construction of the flownet :


(i) Draw a vertical line on tlre rigbt hand side of the downstream face.
Divide the vertical diStancebetweentbe water level and the outcrop
point into any number of equal parts of the length A f/.
(ii) Draw horizontal lines from each of these points and locate their
points of intersec.tionwith the phreatic line.

solution : The co-efticielt of per-rn:ability of the rnatciial of the dam


is
is 10 times thet of the foundationsoil; Hencethc flowilet ill the earthdarn
be
It
c-'an
as if it were placedon an inpervious foundation'
first cronstfuc:ted
seeniiorn Fig. 4.16 tSatthe secoudtIOw line hits the intertacebetWeenthe
darnaud the tbuldation soil.
Now corne.downto the foundationsoil attd cornpletethe tlownet. Thc
sccoM flow liue aswell asalllhe equipotentialliileswill enterthe tbundation
,oil ,nO ,ritt undergoa deviationat ihe interface.In thc soil stralum,the flownet is drawn as orthogonallysquared,asusual.However,a.sthe /c-valueof the
soil is only 1/l0th oflhat of the rnaterialof the darn,eachtlow channelin the
soil stratumcrnie-sa dischargeequalto 1/10thof the dischargec:arriedby a
tlow channel in the darn. consequcntly,the tlow chartttelsin the soil are

(iii) Draw ;l nrtrnberolequipotentiailiucs.frorneachof ttrlsc inlcrseciion


points.This "rrlll erisurethat the headdrops aie equal'
rhe flow lines and equipotenriallines
(iu)
t ' braw rh. flow lines. Adjust
becomesorthogonally squarcd'
flowtret
thg
until
agairi and again
Using eqn. (4.4),

Here,

101

Seepageail Flownets

Problents in SoilMeclran;icstnd Fouitdtition Ettgiti':xring

100

t' = 3 28 * l0-3 ctn/scc = 2'834 111/day'


+ 1L = ll 1r.i.
A'/ - :'i

nrarkedas2.l ,2.2elc.

Nt -7

From the figure wc gct,

2
(2.834) (23\ (2'3) -= 11 A
z1'a2 n'/day'
q = -v?'-:i-:-

lotal nulnberof tlow clrannels, Nr = 2.25

Na = lo'

numberof headdroPs,

it:, lt
Frc[,!,';.:4.11. i ?C In big,lie'anl]dal:ihavitiga toBwidrlr o| 2i}
t , . . , . , ' i . 1 : t t i . f f i 4 q : 1 1e l l d ? f r * c b r r a E i ! + f , ! i ; i r f l r : : : . r ' : ! t d s * . o 6 0 n ' . t b i c k

= 0.003 cm,/sec = ?.592 m/daY.

k for clam-material
g = 3 O- 3 = 2 7 m .

'ilj! rrr[jr'!r ]., :rnii'lrrai:l bJ'iti-,.i,'r',1er*teableSll:ill Alre


i.rj.,1;r;,'-.-!.14;,
ii.i,.;.11;,1
tirc Ca|l and{re lou:l'J:'itiali
,:f
co-eilii:ii,Bls
;r;:lil*:iilriiify o1 l::, :iiier:ial of
Diaw lhe flowner and
relptr:t'ive.ly,
rrrd
crn,,!cs:.
0.f}fxl3
citijsec
soi! are 0.{}ti3
m-iriaY'
in
ioss
oi
scepage
quantity
the
rietermine

(27\(2.?5J ,. -5
= rr'i
m3/day.

(2.592\
q = ----l0

problem yY'
Fig. 4.17 shows the cross-sectiottof an eartlr daln
of
tbunded on a fervious stratum of 60 n thickness. The c--o-effic:icrtt
of
the
while
that
x
cm/sec
104
1.6
qf
is
dam
the
material
tbe
o[
pcnneability
itrundation soil is 1.6 x l0-1 crn/sec.Draw the flownet and detennine the
quantity of seepageloss in m'lday.
solution : Here the tbundation soil is 10 times more Pe.nneablethan
thc lnaterial of the darn. Heuce Inore emphasiswill be given ort seepage
throughthis soil.
Draw a kial flownet in thc. foundatiou soil neglecting the earth dam'
Extend all equipotential lines frorn tlie foundation soil into the dam. These
lines shouldo.ui.t" from the inlerface,but tlris shouldbe doneonly by hand
nnd eqn.(4.11) neednotbe considered.Now draw the flow lines in the dam
scction aud try to rnake the flow ilet orthogonally squared. This rnay
especiallytbr the last flow line in tbe dam,
necessitate"".tuiu readjustments,
which should enter intrr the foundation soil. AII previously drawn flow lines
in tbe foundation soil may have to be lowered. The final flownet is shown in

-tii;

Fig.4.17.

4 16

li

il

t02

Problems in Soil Mechttnics ttnd Foundation Engineering

Seepageand Flownets

103

120m

-+ 4.sf
7-sr-

2 0 m| _
''r

)b:t
,/ 0.2- 7

7:;?
k2=10k1

rs, --J

55m
Fig.4.18

Fig.4.l7
As tlre co-efficient of permeabilityof the darn rnaterialis 1/10tb of that
of foundationsoil, a flow channelin the dam is equivalentto 1/10thof a flow
c'.hannelin the foundation soil. Consequently,the flow channels in the daru
are rnarkedas 0.1,0.2,and 0.3. No. of full tlow channelsin the soil skaturn
= 2.5. Hence,
Nf = 0.3 + 2.5 = 2.8.

rvhich the averagelength in the direction of flow is 3 times (sinc.ek2/\ = 3)


lhc avsssgswidth. In orderto copewith this condition,the trial phreaticline
drawn in zone II may have to be either raisedor lowered and the flownet
shouldbc completedby trial and error.
Usingcqn.(4.4),
N,
q = l c H .# .

da=9 . ,1 1 =3 6 m
&&for foundationsoil

lrd

= 1.6 x 10-3cm/sec= 1.382m/day.

(1.382)(36) (2.8)
= ra4
r ' t4 1 * 3 / d u Y '
n=-,
,/
Problem 4.lQr/ Fig. 4.18 shows the cross-sectionof a zoned earth dam
consisting of two zones. Zone I adjacent to the upstrearnface has t = 0.001
cm/sec while zone II adjacent to the downstream face has /c = 0.fi)3 cm/sec.
Draw the flownet and determine the quantity of seepageloss in.37d"y.
.

Solution : The material of zone II is 3 times more permeable than that


of zone I. Draw the phreatic line in zone I arbitrarily. From the interface
between the two zones,the phreatic line should deviate downwards, as water
can flow more easily in zone II. Draw this deviated phreatic line arbitrarily.
Now draw a vertical line and divide it into any number of equal parts of
length AIf. From each ofthese points draw horizontal lines to intersect the
phreatic linc. All these intersection points are springing points of the
equipotential lines. In zone I, draw the flownet as orthogonally squared.Each
t'low line enterszone II after undergoing a deviation at the interface. However,
lhc flow elements in zone II will not be squaresbut rectangles, for each of

Now,NJ = 2.J, Nt = 6, H = 37n.


k ftrr zone I = 0.001 cm/sec. = 0.864 m/day.

, = @P@

= 832 ^3/d^y.

It nraybe notedthatthemethodsemployedinProblem4.11through4.13,
ht)wcvcr crude they may seem to be, will yield results which are within
r.l0%, of the results otrtainedby a rnore accurateand vigorous solution.

EXERCISE4
4.1 On a waterlrout,a sheetpile wall of 8 m height is embeddedinto
tht: soil upto 6 m bclow G.L. The free board is 1 m while water on the
dowrrstreamside standsupto 2 m aboveG.L. The foundation soil consistsof
a 15 m thick sand slratum (t = 0.009 crn/sec)which is underlain by an
inrpcrviouslayer. Draw the fiownet and determinethe quantity of seepage
Iossncrossa I m wide sectionof the sheetpile.

lO4

Probtems k Soil Meclmnics and Fottndation Engineering

Fig. 4. 19 shows tbe cross-section of a concrpte weir. The


4.2
3
foundation soil has a co-efficientof peimeability of 1.25 x 1.0 cm/sec,avoid
ratio of 0.88 and a specific gravity of solids 2.65.
(i) Sketch the flownel
liij O.termine the quantity of seepageloss in *3/dry
(iiD Find out the factor of safetyagainstpiping.

105

Seepageand Flowmets

4.5 Draw the phreatic lines for the ctamsectionsshown in Fig. 421(a)
through(d):

Drainoge
Btqnket

(b)

(o)

C hi mn e y
Oroin

t ,2m

"Tffi
'f-6

30m

-|

o.st

a3 (a) If a sheet pile cut-off wall of 3 tn depth is introduced in the


upstream end of the weir shown in Fig. 4.19, determine the percent reduction
in the quantity of seepageloss.
(b) If in addition to tlis, another sheet pile of 2 m depth is placed at
the downstream end, how will the seepagequantity change?

i00m -------{
(d)

(c)

Fig.4.19

_6fuN
-r
N__aom
J

Fig.4'21
4.6 Sketch the flownets and detennine tbe quantity of seepageloss
the
aqrossunir width of the earthdarnsslrowu in Fig. a.22(a) through (c)' All
=
dams are foundedon impervioussoils.Take & 0.002 cmlsec'
^

rJ1^n L-

L .3m

lzom

4.4 Fig. 4.2Oshows the cross section of a concreteweir founded in an


anisotropic soil mass.The co-efficient of permeability in the horizontal and
verticat directions are respectively 5 x 10* mm/sec and 1.25 x lO--rnm/sec.
Sketch the flownetand ditermini the quantity of seepageloss in m3/hr'

J--'!

II

2m

f_ro.sm__]

16m___l

Fig.4.20

i-- 60m-{
1s0m---------J
(c)
Fig.4.22

II
II

II

"rd

106

Problems in Soil Meclwnics ond Foundation Engineering

4.7 construct the flow'et for the zone earth darn shown ,tFig.4.23.
Hence cornputethe total quantityof seepageloss if the width of the re-servoir
bc 125 m.

5
=0 ' 0 0 2
cm/ s e c

k =0 , 0 1
rm/seE

asm---J--ism

---J

Fig.4.23
4.8 A'earth darnhaving an overall height of Lg rn, a top width of 10
m and a free board of 1.5 m is founded on layer of clean sand having a
co-efficient of permeabilityof 0.01 cm/sec.A rock layer existsat a depth of
45 rn below the ground level. The earth-fill in the dam has a co-efficient of
penneabilityof 0.00.2crn/sec.Draw the {low net and detenninethe quantity
of secpageloss in m'/day.
'

4.9 Solve Probrem4.8 assumingthat the co-efficient of permeabiliry


of the materialof the dam and the founctationsoil are l5 m/daylnd 5 m/dav
respectively.

STRESSDISTRIBUTION
S.l. Introduction:
The applicationof an exte'ral load on a soil mass
r(:sults in an additional vertic:al stress (i.e., iu addition to the existing
ovcrburdenpressure)at any point in the soil. The rnagnitudeof this stress
dccrt:ades
with increasingdepth anclincreasingradial distancefrom the line
o l ' a c t i o uo f t h el o a d .
The stressconditionsin a soil massdueto externalloadsc-anbe analysed
by thc theory of elasticity,assurningthe soil to be a perfectlyelasticmaterial
which obeysHooke's law of proportionalitybetweenstressand strain.
5.2 c)verburden Pressure: The overburdenpressureat any point in a soil
nrassis defined as the initial vertical stressdue.to the self weight of the soil
nrass,and can be obtainedfrom

o-' = Y'

...(s.1)

wltcre, Y= uuitweightof theSoil


z = depthbelowgroundlevel.
5.3 Stress Increment: Thc stressincrenrent,Ao-, at any point nray be
defilcd aslhe increasein verticalstressdueto the applicationofexternal loacl
on thc soil ntcss.
Thc total stress,o- , at ally point 4 at'terthe applicationof au extenral
krad,is given by,

...(5.2)
s.4. Boussinesq'sEquation: Boussinesq'smethoclof determinationof
slrcssincrementdue to an extemalload is basedon the assumptionsthat the
soil mass is elastic, hornogeiret'rus,
isotropic and serni-infinite while the
cxlcrnal load is c-oncentratcd
at a point and is appliedon the ground surface.
With referenceto Fig. 5.1, at a depth z below the ground level and at a
radial distancer from the line of actionof the load p, the verticul stressatr.
is given by

108

ProLrlemsin Soil Mechanics and Fourdation Engineering

109

StressDistrihution
C}
A o , = K"o .z' +i

and

...{s8)

5.5. lYestergaard's f,'4uation: Westergaardassurne<lihc soil not to be


Itotnogeneousbutcoitsistirgofa trurnberofcloselyspacedhorizontal.sheets
o[ infinite rigidity but rregligiblethicknesswhich resrain thc soii ftom
undergoingany lalgralslrain.According to Weslelgaard,
Ao- =

...(s.e)

p = Poisuon'sratio of tfte soil.


It lbr a given soil, p = 0 , 9qn.(5.9) reducesto
Ac-.=

7
Fig.5.1

...(s.3)

A oU
A
. =:9 =
l # 1, 1st2
lt ; T\ )' /' lJ

13i2

,..(-{.x0)

ij!{ il;*;i !:: ::'j,i:.i;


5 ti. 3 : I *isp';rrie:: ,1!*ti:r:ri :
il' +n api.,;:r,.;i!11,;,ir':
it iusrssuni':ii iiiri iir.,',:ii+{:t -*ian exlernal l*acl is ilisi',,,'r,:ri ;'ii;1'-t*iraigirt iiri*r.;
irrclirredat 2l' : 1Il.

e+
Ao
- Z- =
f il q
R '

tt; '
i*---J--:---l
. xEt
. r(;)"j
l, '?'!;js

= 17;77

or'

ftt - zfi/(Z zv)+l/izfzn

i7

whc.rc,

r = {/7Q
R = {7;7

or'

{6/e-rtl)

...(5.4)

trtiith re'l!:isllr.' 9irFig. 5.3, i.,::i.lil1r5i!3;1.r;l;'.1rif : ,1:i)grpliii: r::tf r,rt, S i

(i BL.
Ar a depthe, thisloadis distributedo?cran area(I + z) (B + z). Hence,
s.he.ss
intensit-vat tbis level.
.
=
Au'

oBL

&6tE;4

...(5.11)

..(s.s)

A o -= K r ' q
z-

whcre, KB

is called Boussinesq'sinfluencefactor and is given by,

3 f
1 1
xa = 2n'l;/rf"l

l'

'lzl

s n

'(s'6)

The tangentialstressA r.. and,0" ,loru,trlr.r', o o, at rhesamepointare


givenby
NEr, =

KBT

,..(s.7)

r -..{*r3
{l rrJ-

1
Ij

Fis.5.2

110

Stess Distibution

Problems in Soil Meclunics and Foundction Engineering

(3) Determine the radii of the circles frorn

5.7. kobar:
If the vertical stressintensitiesat various points in a soil mass
due to an external load are computed, and the points having equal stress
intensities are joined by a smooth curye, a number of stresscontours, each
having the shapeofa bulb, are obtained.Theseare called isobars.The zone
in the soil rnassboundedby an isobaris called a pressurebulb. An infinite
number of isobars can bc drawn. The zone contained by the isobar
corresponding to a stressintensity v.,hichis equal to lOVoof the applied stress
is taken to be the zone within which appreciableeffecls of the applied stress
may oqcur. This zone is termed as the zone of influence.

. t 1
l - t
)
where,

'

whcre,

...(s.16)

m = total numberof radial linesto be drawn.

(6) Draw the radial lines with tbe deflection anglesthus calculated,
With the help of the Newmark's chart (Fig. 5.15) the stressintensity at
nrrypoint dueto a uniforrnlyloadedareaofanygiven shapecanbedetermined
ns follows:
(i) Adopt a drawing scalesuchthat the depthat which the stressintersity
is required is representedby the numerical value of z on the basis of which
Ntrwmark'schart is drawn.
'(ii) Draw lle plan of the toadedareaon a tracing paperwith this drawing
rcxlc. l.ocate the point P below which the stressis required.
(iii) Place the tracing paper on the chart in such a way lhat the point P
on thc tracing paper coincideswith the centreof the circles.
(iv) Count the number of elementscovered,fully or partly, by the plan
of the area.
(v) Calculate A o" as:

Ao, = 4l(pirr + e/z).N2+ e/3]gf

...(5.13)

whcrc,

ill

...(s.17)

= number of elementsfrrlly covered.

N2 = number of elernentshalf covered.

II

1y'3= number of elementsof which one-third is covered.

...(s.14)

t/ = influence factor

c = radiusof the outermmtcircle

= l/no,of

L a, = stressat a depth z due to the entire loaded area.


(2) Selectan arbitraryvalue of z (say,z = 5 cm).

r; = radiusofthat circle.

ln order to preparethe chart, proceedas follows:


(1) Select the number of elementsinwhich the chart should be divided, and
determine the influence value for each element.
For example, if 10 concentric circles and 20 radial lines are drawn, tht:
number of elements = (20) (10) = 200. When any one of these 200 elernents
is loaded,the shessintensityat a depthz is given by,

where,

...(s.1s)

n = total nurnberof circles to be drawn


ni = number of tbe circle whose radius is required

0 = $q-

...(s.r2)

or, = 0'005 Ao"

2 =n - ;
n

(.5) Deterrninethe deflectionangleof the radial lines from:

5.9. Newrnark's Chart:


The stress intensity at any point due to a
uniformly loaded area of any shape can be determinedwith the help.of
Newmark's influence chart. It consists of a series of concentric circles of
various radii and a seriesofradial lines drawn at regular angular intcrvals.
The total area of the chart is thus divided into a number of elernents.The
elementsmay havedifferentsize.s,buteach
ofthem, whenloadedwith a given
stressintensity, will give rise to the samevertical stressat a given point.

ort

3 /
* l
Ir:\tl

(4) Draw all the conceutriccircles.

,ffi'"1

o,"=o#=#['

l1+ l-l I
\'/ )
[

Str"rs due to a Uniformly Lcaded Circular Area: Frorn


{,8/
Boussincsq's equation it can be proved that the stressintensity at a depth z
below the centre of a circular area of radius 4 which carries a uniformly
distributedload q, is given by,
Lor=q

1i1

elementsof the chart.

t. 10. StressDue to Vertical Linear I-oad: The load resulting from a long
bul nanow wall, or a railway track, is an example of a vcrtical linear load

Ll?

Probiems in Sai!Mechanics trnd Foundation Engineering


StressDistributian

tL3

(Fig. 5.3 a). The vrriical strcssat a depth z andat a.radial dirtaicr of ,- &+m
the line of action of such a load of intensily f tlm, is given by,

_T

rc==;ffry=#l,tb=]'

...(s.18)
q

-oc

\
\

/unit qreq

- --

l
l

\.nzl

d,1 {1
--.q

. i
\

\i

7
N
I

\ B.
\-1
-..o(-r.
i
-y_
l!

Yt'{

'.. -.:
{

P ( y , z)

z
Fig.5.4

5.13. Embankment Loading:


Stressesin subsoils due to embankment
loadings can be computed using eqn. (5.20).
Lt it be required to comput the maximum vertical stressintensity at a
depth z below an embankmenthaving a top width 2b, abasewidth 2(a+ b)
and a maximum intensity q t/m. The solution can be obtained in the following
steps;
1. The embankmentis divided into two equal parts as shown in Fig. 5.5.
Two symmebical Eapezoidalloadings are obtained.

A a, =

i{n

...(s.1e)

+ s i nc r c o s( c r * . 2 p l)

ITITil]
,
I'"
L-"-l oJ i-"J-o-J
F,i

5.1?" r'i*stirtr!StFeii:i li , 1.,'fr!,iiio::li+ z'Y.-+*{a,:Ii,,::u.rr:r:li:i:'.r,:i r , t l ; g i : 1 . ' r .


1 , i.C i i 6 i 1 ; , ' . , : i : e d t i ' ' " . . ,r ' , i a t * r l l r ; r - ' ; i a l i i , i r r $t ! ' . . . : r ' l ' c 1 .+qi . . . r : rl--r',.
loadings.
: . 1 ; . . ;: r . ' ! ' : .

l
I

$r

q -,

t ,it..

i l 1

-ra_r.r
.' fq
i-'"'i

I
I

"./2!l

ql-t

Fig.5.5

t b\

-{

\
\

'{l

\--

c f eI r
n1
ill
t-.L-J

t
I

ss
tr't

1iP

i
j

1i4

Problerns in Soil Mcclmnics and Founcletion Engineering

StressDistribution
2. Thc trapt:zoidABCDE is cxtcnded to fonn L AFD by adding an
imaginarylriangular load BFC.
3. Stress intensity at the point P (lying below the ceutre of the
enrbankmcni\due tr the triangular loadsAFD andBFC are obtained.The
differencebehveenthesetwo givesthestressintensitydue to half theembankment. Hence for the entire ernbankrnentthis intensity has to be doubled.
5.14. Influence Line for Vertical StressIntensity: The combinedstress
interuity at any poitt due to a systernof extemal loads can be detennined
usrng the concept of influence line diagrams.The melhod of drawing an
influencelinc is explaincdbclou,:
1. Considr:ra unit load aptriliedon the grouud surfaceat O.
2. Considera horizottal plaueMrV at a depth zbelow G.L.
.3. Using Boussinesq'sequationdeterminethe vertical stressintensities
at various points on Mif due lo the unit load.
4. Choosea vector scaleand lay off the correslxrndingordinatesat the
rrspeclivt: points to represenlthr computedslresses.
5. Join theseordinateswith a smoothcurve. This is the influenceline.

115

EX.A,MPLES
,/
Problem6/J.
A concentratedload of 40 kN is applied vertically on a
horizontal ground surface. Detennine the vertical stress intensities at the
followingpoins:
(i) At a depth of 2 m below rbe poinr of applicarion of the load.
(ii) At a depth of L rn and at a radial distanceof 3 m from the line of
action of the load.
(iii) At a depth of 3 m and at a radial distanceof 1 m from the line of
action of the load.
Solution:

We have from eqn.(5.4),

3Q
ao, =
?n?
(i) Here,

qt'l

Q = 4OkN, z = 2 n
r/z=A

1s"

and r=O

Henceeqn(5.4)gives
(3)(40]
tQ"
=
Lo, =
= 4.'17kN./rn2
(2n) (2')
2nt
(ii) Inthiscase, O=40kN, z=lm, r=3m

Ao,=
ffi
(iii)Here,

O=40kN,

t-tt]'n

z=3.m,

,,=t*

(3)(4ol
-Lo"
l-l--ft"
'/ = (?-n)Q)z
lr * lrttl2l

Applying Maxwell's reciprocal theorem,the stressat any pointdue to an


externalload can now be obtainedas follows:
(i) For any given load P acting at O the sfressintensity ar any pointx is
obtained by multiplying the ordinate of the influence line at X by the load P.
(ii) For any given load y' acting at X, the stress intensity below O is
obtained by multiptying the ordinate of the influence line atX by the load
P'.

=o.o6kl.r,/m2
= r.63kN,zm2

Problem 5.d e,reaengularfooting,Z m x 3 m in size,hasto carry a


uniformly distributedload of 100 kN/mz.plot rhe distributionof vertical
stess intensityon a horizontalplaneat a depthof 2 m below the baseof
footingby:
(i) Boussinesq's
method.
(ii) 2 : 1 dispersionmerhod.
.s9!ution: (i) Boussinesq'smethd. Thc uniformry distriburedroad
carriedby thefootingis to beconsidered
asaconcentratea
toaaactingthrough
the centreof gravity of the footing.
I = q BL = (100)(2) (3) = 6m kN.

r1,7

Stess Distibutian

tt6

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Using eqn. (5.4), the stress intensity at a depth of 2 m and at a radial


distancer from the line of action of Q is given by:

La,=#l;4'"
= 1rr.ut)
[--+-l''

l1 + (r/zYl

A nurnber of points are chosenon the given plane and the sfress intensity at
eachpoint is calculated.Thesearetabulatedbelow:

r/z

t 1.0

t 0.5

t 2.0
-r 3.0
* 4.0

t 1.0

*. Z0

= 5.0

x.2.5

< /',
1
|l--------------;l
1 - ' ' StessAintensiry
s,

lr + (r/z)'I

t 1.5

1.0
0.572
a.n7
4.052
0.018
0.007

E O U S S IENS O , S
METHOD

DISPERSION
METHOD
_\_
I

f t z . o ei

ll12.66

&Nlm2 )
71.62
4.97

Fig.5.7

12.68
3.72
t.28
0.50

(ii) 2:1 dispersion methodt Using eqn. (5.11),

(100)(2)/?\

sB
=-----*=30kr\,,m',
(2+21(3+2)
Q + z)(B + z)
The distribution of stressintensitieson the given plane, as obtained from
Boussinesq's equation and 2 : 1 metlod, are shown in Fig.5.7.
-A o- z, =

f-l-fT-[fTT-l
=
I I I i r i I t i 11 100kN / m2
^r*_

,o.r*

= (3)(600)-t-l-=lt"
(2)(3.14)(2')
11* {rl-l
[ \'/l

Radialdistance
r
(n)

i Q= 600kN

The following differences betweenlhe two stressdistibution diatryams


arc to be noted :
ii) The maximum stressintensity obtained from Eloussinesq'sequation
is 71.62 kN/m', which is nearly 2.4 times the maximurir sEessintensity given
by2:1method.
(ii) In Boussinesq's method, the maximum stress intensily occurs
ditectly below the point of application of the load. The stress inrcnsity
decreasesrapidly with increasing radial distance, but except at an inf,mite
distance, it never becomeszero. Whereas,the stressiniensiry given by 2 : 1
method remains constant over a radial disganceof 2.5 m on either side of the
cente line of &e loaded area. and suddenlv becomesnon-existent bevond
rhat lirnit.

method
(iii) Evidentty,thepressure
distributiongivenby Boussinesq's
is morelogicalandshguldbe usedin ordinaryfield problems.
,a

Problem 88t' A concentratedvertical load of 200 t is applied on the


surface of a semi-infinite soil mass. PIot the disnibution of vertical stress
intensity on a vertical plane situatedat a distanceof (i) 3 m (ii)5 m, from the
line of action of the load,
Solution: In Fig. 5.8, let P be the point of applicationof the load. kt
Y1Y1 and Y2Y2 be the given planes,locatedat radial distancesof 3 rn and 5
m respectively from P.
Using eqn. (5.4), the stressintensity at a depth z and radial distance r
from the line of actionof a?N t load is,

(i)
Lo,=ffi[;io1'"=
r lr;*1"'
95.49
)

The stressintensitiesat various points or the planesY_1Y1and Y2Y2may


now be computed ftom eqn. (i). The resultsare shown in the following table.

1
l

,i

II
j

'l

l--*.

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

118

No.of
point

Deptlt
(m)

Plane Y2 Y2

PlaneYlYl

r/z

L, o, (t/m2)

r/t

A,o, (t/m21
0.004

r.254

r0.00
5.00
3.33
2.50

t.2

r.643

2.{JO

a.273

3.0

1.0

1.875

1.67

0.380

4.0

0.75

1.955

r.25

0.568

5.0

0.60

t.770

1.00

0.685

6.0

0.50

1.518

1.20

0.28-s

10

8.0

0.375

t.473

1.60

0.062

0.5

6.0

0.06

1.0

3.0

0.302

1.5

2.0

0.159

2.4

1.5

2.5

6
x

0.028
0.083

StressDistribution

consistsof a 6 rn thick clay laycrwhiclris uudcrlairr


lrv a l;rvtxof denscsand.
Plot lhe dislributionsof:
(i) Overburdcnpressur('
(ii) stressincrementdue lo footingloads
(iii) grossstressintensity
on a horizontalplanethroughtlre middle of the clay layu.'Ihe propr:rtiesof
the clay are as follows:
G =2.70. e =0.55. w=0,)'t
Assunrethe footingslo be frrundedal lhc grtlutxl lcvt ;.

0.r68

The pressuredistribution diagramsare shown in Fig. 5.8.

Solutiern: (i) Overburdenpressure:Using cqn. (.i i , :i ,' .irr.rrburdt'u


prr:ssurcal llrc nriddlc of the c{ay layer (i.tr.,I = 6,') =
t ,', givct by,
o.^ = YZ

t'r',,
_ ( 2 . 7 0 ) {ot r
.,, =
|+t,
I**l'=l.74tzrn'
. L , = ( 1 . 7 4 ) ( 3 . 0=) 5 . 2 2t , n l ,

Now,

The intensityof this;rrcssun:ovcr lht'lrr ri.'orrlalplanc.YYtirroughthe


nriddleof clay is conslant.
(ii) In order lo dctt:nttitttr
fhc strcssillr'ir't'rr'tlldur: l<i lirtr tltg loads at
varirluspointsofXX, cqn.(5.4)caubc usctl.Tlrt:t,xupulctl slress.-'s
art:shown
belorv:
No.
oJ
point

Verlical stressintensity due to :


Pt (1004
r/z
(n)
a

2
J

yr
FE.s.8

y2

"
.
/
The footingsof threeadjacentcolumrsof a building lie
Problem 5/
on the sames{raightline and cary grosstoadsof 100 t, 150 t and 120 t
distancebetweenthe t'irst and second
respectively.The centre-to-centre
footingis 4 m while thatbetweenthesecondandthethird is 3.5rn.Tbesubsoil

119

6
7
8
I
l0
1l
t2
l3

-l

Pz (Iso t)
r/z

aozl
(t/n2)

(n)

-o.6?
4
-o.33 4.08 -5

0 531
I
0.33 4.08
2
0.67 2 . r 2
3
1.00 0.94
4
1.33 0.4r
5
1.67 0.19
6
z.M 0.09
7
2.33 0.05
t-)
2.50 0.04
8.5 2.83 0.02
9.5 3 . 1 1 0.01
0

-3
-l
0

Pt (l)) t)
Ao:2

(tln")

(n)

Att

l+ A,,

'u' ao,,
I
l*A'r',
2)l{r',r:I
!ttt^21lttt^21

+--

-2.00 0.14 -95 -3,1; I g.g2 ) ' ) A


3lsrl
'r I s ','
-1.67 o.29 -a.5 -2.8-1| 0.03 4.4(l
-r33 0.62 1 < -2.5( I 0.04 5.97
-1.00 t . 4 l -4.5 - 2 . r i | 0 . 0 8 5.57
/
|)-'
il<)' :'
4.67 3 . 1 7 -5.5 - l 8 r | 0 . 1 6 5.4-s
t-*-o.33 6 . l l -45 -i.5(l | (,.33 7.38
r | 5.2.:
0
7.96 -3.5 -1.fi | 034 9 . 1r 1I < : '

1il:
;i ; : :
,l;;;
,l ; ; ,

3.5

0.33 6 . 1 1 J < -o.rJ-r


| 1,72 8.02
o.67 3 . t 7 -1.5 -{..5(}3.64 7.76
I
1.00 t . 4 l -o.5 -o.r7 I 5.e3 7.:t() ''-|
't
t . t 7 0.93 0
0 i 6.37
.3.1
' 5.22

4.5

r.50 0.42

).)

1.83 0.20

t s.22
5.36
I
0.r'. i 1.5-l 2:7lI I 5 ) ?
0 . - 1 3i 4 . 9 2
i

Problems in Soil Meclrcnics and Foundation Engineering

t20

t21

StressDistributian

0.0764
(3)(1)_
A ov-:=A
l _ _ J . 1 t " = ,-______3n
e r , ) ( zl.rr_z4 1
(1 + 0.16f)
1
L tz'sY
\

Lro=,*ffih?l =
and,

0.0306r

5.22ttn?
X

0 v e r b u r d e nS t r e s s

The computed values of A o, and A t* at various points on the given


horizontal plane are shown below:

No.

r (m)

a6t

(tlm21

1.
2.

S t r e s sI n c r e m e n t

5.

(\l

rP
o\

o
GI

o\

r\,

l--

\l)

.9

(\

fn
''1
-t

*t
q{
tn

cO
Q
GI

\D

({

rJ1

ct
ql
o

r.rl

(2.srJ

ct52

(t + 0.t6r)

4.
5.
6.
7.

G r o s sS t r e s sI n t e n s i t Y
V
{ e c t o rs c q t e '1: c m= 1 0t / m 2}

0
r0.25
r 0.50
r 1.0
r 1.5
r2.O
* 3.0

No.

Lro

r (n)

ho,

@n?1

0
0.0764
0.0745 r 0.0075
0.0693 t 0.0139
0.05n t 0.0211
0.0354 rO.0213
4.0222 * 0.0178
0.0G2 * 0.0099

L
9.
10.
11.
12.
t3.

t 4.0
t 5.0
t 6.0
x.7.0
t 8.0

* 9.0

0.0032 t 0.0051
0.0014 x.0.0027
0.0006 tO.0015
0.0003 * 0.0009
0.0002 * 0.0006
0.m01 * 0.0004

The distribution of A o" and Lr.-arc shown in Fig' 5.10'

Fig.5.9

(iii'STotalstess.Tbetotalstressatanypointis tlie sumofthe over-burdert


pr"r*r" andthestressincrementdueto footingloads.Tbesearetabulatedin
the lastcolumnof the abovetable.
The distributionofoverburdenplessurc,stess incrementandglossstress
intensityareshorvnin Fig' 5.9.
prcblem {
Draw thc influencelines for thevertical andshearstress
of 2.5 m below the groundlevel dueto a unit vertical
a
depth
at
interuities
on the glound surface.
applied
loads
concentrated
Solutlon: We havefrom eqns.(5.6) and (5.7),

-4

0 0 . 5 t | . 5 2

c\l

I n f l u e n c tei n e fa verticolstress

La,-#l-+if"'
Lao'#lTi7l'"

and
Here,

-5

Q=Lt"

z=25m

Lto

ftln?1 ftn?)

l n f l u e n c el i n e f o r s h e o r s t r e s s
( s c o l e: 1 c m= O ' O 3 i / m)2
Fig.5.10

122

Psoblems.in SoilMechtnics and Foundation Engineering

/
P.oblem f.6.
usi'g the i'fluence ri*e plotted in Fig. 5.r0 plot the
distribution of vertical stress intensity on a horizontal plane through the
rniddle of a 5 rn thick clay layer dueto theloadingschemeshown in Fig. 5.t t.
Solution:
At any point on the given plane, the combined stress
rntensity can be obtained by summing up the stress intensities due to the
iudividual loads,whiclr, in tum, rnaybe deterrninedby the processexplained
in Art. 5.14.

StressDistibution

Prnblem Vrt
ft is proposedto constructa sftip footing of 1.5 m width
to carry a load <if 12 t per metre run. The footing is to be placed at the ground
level over a hornogeneousdepositofsand having the following properties:
G=2.65,e=0.65,s=lOVo
Determine the vertical stressinlensity at a depth of 3 m below the centre lintr
of the footing, before and after its construction.
Solution:

Vertical stress itiletu;ty ilue to .

Dist.

Dist.

fro
the
origin
(m)

(m)

-2

-l

0
t

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ll

3
5
6
7
8
I

Pz (80 0

Ordinate of
ILD

A Ozr

(t/^:)

(t/m2)

0.0222 1 . 1l 0
0.0527 2.635
0.0764-3.,-20
0.0527 2.635
0.Q222 l l 1 0
0.tK)82 0 . 4 1 0
0.0032 0.160
0.00!4 0.070
o.(xn6 0.030
0.m03 0.015
0.0002 0.010
0.0001 0.005

Dist.

L azz

(tl^21

(t/m-)

(m)

-5
4
-3
-2
-l
0
I
2
3
f,

Refore the construction ofthe footing, stressintensity at a depth of3 m


below the centre line of the footing is given by,

Pt (65

Ordinateof
II.D

0.0014 0 . 1 1 2
0.0032 0.256
0.0082 0.656
o.0222 t.776
0.0527 4.216
o.07u 6.112
0.0527 4:216
0.0222 t.776
0.00a2 0.656
0.0032 o.256
0.0014 0 . 1 r 2
0.0006 0.048

Dist.

(n)

-9
-8
-6
-5
4
-3
-2
-l

0
t

The butk densityof the sand,

G + se
2.68 t (0.10X0.6s)(1.0)
= r.66t/m3
t = 1 - ; Z ' Y . - ., _
1+0165

The following table shows the computed values.

Pt (s0 t)

Ordinate of
il,D
(t/m2)

a oz3

Qzo=lz

! Au,

= ( 1 . 6 6 ) ( 3 . 0 )= 4 . 9 8 t / m ? .
(t/^2)

0.0001 0.006
0.0002 0.013
0.00c1 0.019
0.0006 0.039
0.0014 0.091
0.0032 0.208
0.0082 0.533
0.0222 r.433
o.0527 3.426
0.o7u 4.996
o.0527 3.426
0.0222 1.443

(tln2)

r.23
2.91
4.40
4.45
5.42
6.73
4.91
3.29
4.tl
5.24
355
1.50

Skess increment at the sarnelevel due to the construction of the footine


may be determinedusing eqn.(5.19).

A o , = 1 , r o * s i n c c o s ( c r+ 2 p ) l
1l'
The maximum stressintensitywill occur directly below the centreline
of the strip load. With referenceto Fig.5.3 (b).

u=ran-rf+) = o'245tad'
I

p =0

and

1Z
1l

A, = Oro+ AO,

laor

10.245+ sin (0.245)cos(0.245)l

Hence, lotal stre.ssintensity after the constructionof the footing,

Isot
-

\ J, ' /

= 1.83t/rYr2

The distributirxrof vertical stressintensityis slrown in Fig. 5.11.

1"23

X{m)

//

-4.98+1.83 =6.81t/m2

Prcblemf$
Two long boundary walls of small width run parallel ro
each other at aYistanceof 3 m apart.The self-weights of the walls are 25 and
15 kN/m. Plot thc distribution of vcrtical stess intensity due to the walls on
a horizontal plane 3 m below the ground level.

L
S c o l e : 1 c=mJ t / m 2
F i g .5 . 1 1

Solution: The point of applicationof the 25 kN/m linear load is chosen


as the origin. The ground surfaceservsas tlre l/-axis while tie verticalaxis
through the origin is the Z-axis. Mif is the plane under consideration.

124

Probiems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineu ing

t25

StressDistrii;tttion
Usirrgeqn.(5.18),the verticalstressintensitydue to a line toad q is givc.n
by:

A-

Llu-

2q I
I
f
xtz
it + \rtzl.l

.+.l------;l

The stressintensitiesat variouspointson the plane arecoinputedand are


presentedbelow in a tabular form:
No. Dist.

from
origin

Stressdue to 25 kNlm
lood

r (m)

r/z

Ao:r

'Stress
due to 1,5N/M
Ioad

r (m)

r/z

(kNlm2)

.)

-1

-1

J.

4.

0.67

6.

1.00

1.33

r.67

0.37

1.
2.

8.

Loz2
(kNlm2)

Totai
,9tress
Lor, +
Loz2

2.53

-)

-1.67

4.3r
5.31

*1.33 0.42
-"1,00 4.79

4.73

4
-3

4.31

-z

4.67

1.52

5.83

2.53

-1

4.33

2.56

5.09

1.33

3.18

4.51

0.69

0.33

2.56

3.7

0.67

1.52

1.89

0.33

t-'ythe ;;r;itrtsr{, 6 tiid C respective.ly'

(wlm2)

4.67
-o.33

a.z2

t
Prcbiem 5.9. A long flexible strip footing of 2'5 m yiqt!-h-1uiog
run.
kN/m
80
of
load
smooth i;.irir, is subjr+-:irriio a uniformly distributed
Detenuiuc the vertical stressitttettsitiesat a depthof 2 rn below:
{i) ce.ntreline of the footing
(ii) side fac:eof the footing
line of the tboti.g at a dista'ce of 3 m
liiii a li'e paraliel to the ce'tre
liorn it.
in Fig'
Solutlon: The r:ross-sectionof the given tboting is presented
..*hich
repre$ented
the siressesareto be determinedare
:i.12.1"Lciocations;il

2.75
6.10

The distributionof vertical srressis shown in Fis. 5.12.

2 5k N/ m

I 5 k N/ n r
5ggls:1:50
Fig.5.13
By measurtmertt
o. * 64' = l.1L? radian
*0'558 radian
l} * *J2' =

{i'; Foittt A:

usi-cgeipt. i5.19),
ai!

A 6 , r ; r = : ' ' - i 1 . 1 1 7+ s i n{ 1 . i 1 ? }c o s{ 1 . 1 1 7+
:i.

Fig.5.12

= 51.3:1kN/n::.
(ii):1'n;r*t8; Here, u = 51.5" = 0.899radian'

F=0"

2 (- o.sssill

Problems in Soil Meclmnics and Foundation Engbreering


RN

A o, 16)=

StressDistribution

I 0.899 + sin (0.899)cos(0.899 + 0) l

Now,

= 23.96 kN,/m'.
s, = 26" - 0.454 radian.

Of,

F = 36.5" = 0.637 radian.

Lo,(r)=

if

Usingeqn.(5.20),stressintensitydueto triangularloadingis givenby,

A . 4 5 4 +s i n ( 0 . 4 5 4 ) c o s ( 0 +
. 4Z5.4. x 0 . 6 3 7 ) l

q { y
A o-, = - l i ' a
/J.r\D

= 9.81 kN,/m2.

For

Problem 5.10. An embankment of trapezoidal cross-sectionis to be


constructed by compacting a soil at its oMC (l6vo) and the corresponding
12-"* (1.55 Vm'). The top and bottom widths of the embankment should be
10 m and 22 m respcctively while its height should be 3 m. The foundation
soil consis6 of a24m thick layer of soft clay. Detennine the maximum stress
intensity at the middle of the clay layer due to embankment loading.
Solution:
Bulk density of the compactedsoil,

oo", =
For

LBFC,
.

oo,, =

Hence, the rnaximum surchrge intensity of the trapezoidal loading =


(1.80X3.0)=5.4t/m'.

e = 4.5Vm, a. = 2l.5' = 0.497rad., B = g


y/b=2
AS

fitz

* 0.497- o) = o.ltt/m2

c.T

c
\

If 10concenbiccirclesof aipropriateradii aredrawrqtre areaunderthe


chartwill be dividedinto 10parts.It will thenbe frrrtherdividedinto smaller
segments
by drawinga numberof radiallines.Evidently,thenumberof radial
. z f f i =
ttnesto be drawn=
20.
lb-

--_ 611

---t.
-\ I

-<l

lp

2E.s'}'l
oP
I

L i n e q rs c q l e: 1 : 7 5 ,V e c t o rs c o l e : 1 c m= 0 . 2 t l n ?
Fig.5.14

N-i-o'*5'2ou

r--

5 ' 4 ^ --

L--

" 1.065- 0) = 3.36t/^2.

Aoz = L,or, - O arz- 3.36 - 0,71- 2.65t/m2.


-/
Problen lJf/
Draw a Newmark's influence chart on the basis of
Boussinesq's
equition,fdr an influencefactorof 0.005.
Solution: Dercrminethe total numbcr of divisions in the proposed
charton thebasisofthe giveninflucncefactor.

fitz

Fig. 5. 14 shows the embankment cross -sectionABC DE The imaginary


triangle BFC is added to complete the triangle /-ED.

oo

.'. Netverticalstess intensityat themiddleof clay layer,

- 1.55(1 + 0.16) = l.80/m3-

- s i n- 2' \) p l .

e = 9.9t,/m, a = 61o = 1.065rad.,0 = 0


y = ?-b, i.e., y/b = 2.

LA.FD,

y = yd(I + w)

llmt
I

FC = BC
BE
AE,
. BC (5.4)r' s)
BE
nA =
= =-J= 4.5t/m.
nC
ln
FD = FC + BE = 4.5 + 5.4 = 9.9t/m.

I
I
i

3!0' =
The anglcbctweentwo consecutive
radiatlines=
tg.
20
- Now, usingeqn.(5.72),theverticalstressat a depthz belowthe cente
of a circularareaof radiusr, carryinga uniformlydistributealoadg is given
bv:

Frr.iblcmsin Soil lr{edtttnics and Foundatian Engineering

128

_ Ji-__L_
--

Ao-= all

" I

L29

3'2
I

I r * 1 ' z ' t 3 iJ

t
Ao.
_ = = 1 _
q

0f'

StressDistibution

[
J---

7/)

l"'"
" I

lr + (r/z)"I
", /?

ao. )
a f

{l

= l r'

0fr

l + (r/z)2

"'-

-) /7

! + (riz)z

of'

=i 1
I

a o, \,
-

, l i

/*-Ao.\-'r,.'r
n"!(
-'.
- = Vll*-,
' . 4 I1
,

or,

..'(s'21)

A o" /q (tangng lr*m ti,00 tc i't]* at lhe rate


of 0.L0)the correspi'l:t1ii,g.,ri":,;s of riz can lrc dcterruined froin eqn' (5.21).
Consequently,lhe r:illu* of I csu be obtained!f :: ie knor*'n.Wklle drawing
tle chart, we u,ill arbitrariiy lake z = 2.5 cm. The cc,:aput*ti:ns arc given
below in a tabvlar f'orm:
Fer Ciifsrent values of

fr ^A "2-|-;T;F"',"1-^".T;;i ;-l '

Circ
,t{o

i,

!1cn1lpmtlN
; i o_r_*
. _J__*_l__"*_
l{c@l(cm)

i^_f__1 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 0 0?1. . 5l O . l , t ' i { ; j ' L } . 5j 0 9 i 8 : 2 . 5 l ; . 1 { Ji

I
i * . r i o r t or .i i , , u s l? jl oa. .s7i r i r o.i r s ! : . ; *
' r . " * s:x. :j i r o :
l t . s o la
i*.t lc.CIri:5
I
I

E i o.+ii .r.l*i z.s i, 't.lt


| :.' i r.--0
i 0., l+.srs
|
: : i i ; . - 5 e i i1r 0. r l i *
l o':'t_i_?"?6ili_i
.olo.0rtl
i 2 . tl *

_i

l_ll--_

i_

I
i

i._ | _- J
I

{ine ccncentrlc circles are drawn wrt} the r:cii sirowri-is rhe table. ,t!,
rer of r*dinl lincs ar+ lheir drawn frtw lhe centre al ';;:ual deflectial:r"rf l8o.
Ibe resulting Nernna;k'ri chart is sbr:wn in Fig. 5.15

-ls*-

Influencevalue= 0.005
Fig.5.15

PrcblemSs//
Using the Newmark's chart preparedin problem 5.11,
determine the vertical stressintensity at a depth of 2 m below the pointA of
tbe raft fo"otingshown in Fig. 5.16. The uniformly distributed load on he raft
is 8.5 Vrn'.
Solution: In Problem 5.11 the Newmark's chart was prepared for z =
2.5 crn. In order to usethis chart for the rnmputation of vertical stressintensity
at a depth of 2 m below any loaded arca, the plan of the area is to be drawn
in sucha scalethata distanceof 2.5 crn in the drawing may representan actual
distanceof 2 m.

130

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fottndation Engineering

+-

--T

4m.

II

14m

II

15m

-f

II

J-

6m

_L

l--,0'-f r'--'l'
Fig.5.l6

Hence, the requirid linear scalett,

3#

= 1 : 80.

The plan of the given raft footing is drawn on a tracing paper to a scale
of I : 80. The pointA, which is the point of intersection of the two diagonals,
is located. The tracing paper is then held on the Newmark's chart in such a
way that the point A coincides with the centl"of the chart. During such

th"_gl,g$l, glj!.gggcsilLp9!-er tqiEqte!er!4l=_


superpositioniog,
In Fig.5.15,thep1-Iiofr-tegivenhreais drawnwith brokenlines.The
nurnber of elements of Newmark's chart covered by the plan area is now
counted.
nt - no. of elements fully covered by the area = 39
n2 = no. of elernents1/2 of which is covered by the area = 15
43 = no. of elements 1/3 of which is covered by the area = 4
Tbe stressintensity at a depth of 2 m belowA is then given by,
' L a " = l x n x q

= (0.005)
(39 + 15/2 + aft)$.s)
o

= 2.A3Un?

EXERCISE 5
load of 50 t is applied on the ground
concentrated
5.1 A vertical
at a point 3 m belowtheground
intensity
stress
vertical
the
surface.Compute
of
theloadby:
of
action
line
the
from
away
m
and
2
level

!*

StressDbtributi tt,

131

(i) Boussinesq'smethod
(ii) Westergaard'smethod, assumingF = 0

[Ans.(i) 1.058t/n?1i;10.681Vrn2]
5.2 A 2 rn x 2 rn squarefooting carriesa grossload of 550 kN. The
tboting is foundedat a depthof lT5 m below G.L. The subsoilconsistsof a 2
m thick layer of sand having a unit weight of 1g kN/m3. The sand layer is
underlainby a 4 m thicklayerof softclayhavinga unitweightof lj.2kN/m3.
compute the maximurnvertical stressat the rniddle of the clay layer betbre
and after the constructionof the footing.Use Boussinesq'seguation
.
tAns. 70.4 kN/m' ; 80.9 kN/m,l
5.3 A vertical concentratedloadof 100 t is appliedat the groundlevel
over a 6 m thick clay stratumwhich is underlainby a deepsandstraturn.plot
the distributionof verticatstressintensityon a horizontalplaneat thc middlc
of the clay layer by :
(i) Boussinesq'smelhod.
(ii) Westergaard'smetbod.
(iii) 2; I disJrersion
merhod.
Given, Poisson's ratio, p - 0.
5.4 Plot tlre distribution of vertical stressintensity on a vertical plane
due to a vertical concentratedload of750 kN appliedon the ground surface
at a lateraldistanceof3 m from the given plane.
5.5 Draw the isobarsfor?Svo and10%stressintensitiesdue to a footins
of 2.5 m x 2.5 m, carrying a uniformly clistributed load of l0 Vm2. UsI
Boussinesq'smethod.
5.s A building is supportedby a raft t'ooti'g of 15 m x 1g rn pra* area.
The gross load of the building, including tbe self weight of the ratt, is 405ffi
kN. Plot the variation of vertic:alstressintensities with depth (z) below the
ground level, taking 0.5 m < z s 5.0 m, at equal intervalsof 0.5 rn. Use
2:ldispersionmethod.
s.7 Two adjacent footings of building, placed at a centre-to-ccntre
distance of 4.5 m, have to carry gross loads of 750 kN each. using
Boussinesq'stheory,plot the distribution ofvertical stress intensity at a deprh
of 3 m below the baseof the footings.
5.E Three consecutivefootings of a building are carrying gross loads
of80 t, 120 t and 110 t respectively.The centre-to-centredistance between
the first and secondfooting is 3.0 m, while that between thc secondand third
footing is 4.0 m. All tbe footings are foundedat 1.5 m below G.L. Determine
tbe maximum vertical stressintensity due to the focting loads at a depth
^of
3.5 rn below G.L.
t A,ns. 15.06 r/m2 ]

1i2

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

5.9 (a) Draw the influence line for the vertical stressintensity at a depth
of 2.0 m bclow the point of applicationof a unit load.
(b) Solve Problem 8 using the influence line thus drawn.
5.10 A strip footi4gof 2 m width carries a uniform load of 8 V*2. Tn.
tboting is placed on the ground level over a homogeneous deposit of clay
having the following p;operties :
G = 2 . 7 2 , e = 0 . 7 8 , w = l Z % o,
Determine the initial and final overburden pressure at a depth of 3 m
below the centreof the footing.
I i\ns.5.a9 Urt ;7lVr#'l
5.11 Two long boundary walls run parallel to each other at a
centre-to-centredistanc-eof 1.5 m apart.The width and height of the firstwall
are ?50 rnrn and 20fi) nrn respectively, while those of the second are
respectively 125 mm and 3000 mm. Plot the distribution of vertical stress
intensity due to the walls on a horizontal plane,2 m below G.L. The walls
have negligible depth of foundation and are made of brick masonry having a
unit wegnt of 1920 kdto3.
5.12
Fig. 5.16. shows the
cross-section of an earth dam. The
unit weisht of the carth-fill is 1.85
t/*3. Dlt.rmine lhe maximum
stress intensity at a depth of 5 m
below the baseof the dam.
t

5.13 Draw a Newmark's +-influence chad, on the basis of


Boussinesq's equation,for a n
influencefactorof 0.00556.

J z o mI

6.1 Introduction, (Wn"n an extemalstaticload is applied on a saturated


soil mass, an excess pore watr pressure is developed. As water is
incornpressible for the low stress ranges commonly encountered in
foundation problems,this porewater now tries to escapefrom the void spaces.
Such expulsion of water results in a decreasein the void ratio and, consequently, a reduction in the volume of tlre soil mass.This processis known as
consolidation.I

6.2 Definitions:
The following terms are frequently used to express,the
compressibilitycharacteristics
of soils:

Fig.5.l7

-T

3m
I

I
12n

_T
3m

-'f

-lr,]r-- - tzn-43n:r-

CONSOLIDATION

Consolidltion is essentiallya time-dependentprocess.In coarse-grained


soils having high co-efficient of permeability the pore water escapesvery
rapidly. The time-dependent volume change of the soil mass, therefore,
occnrs only in less permeabletine-grained soils like clay and silt.

95m----J

5.14 The plan of a raft


footing
supporting a
multistoriedbuilding is shown
in Fig. 5.18.The,raftcarriesa
u.d.l. of 15 Vm'. Using the
Newmark'schartgivenin Flg.
5.14, determinethe vertical
stressintensityat a depthof 3
m below pointA.

(i) Co-efftcient of compressibility (a):


void ratio per unit changeirr pressure.
t . e. ,

:ae

a"=

Lp

It is defined as the changein

eo-e
6-

oo

where,
e6 and e are the void ratios of a soil under the initial and final
vertical stressestr6 and o respectively.
(ii) Co-efficient of volutr,e change or volume compressibility (mu): It
is definedasthechangeinvolume ofa soil massperunitof itsoriginal volume
due to unit change in pressure.
l'e't

L V l
*, " -V.G

...(6.2)

Fig. 6.1 shows a soil masshaving an initial void ratio eg . If the volume
of solids be unity, then volume of voids is given by,

V u = e O . V "* 0 .1 = f o
.'. Total volume.
Fig.5.18

...(6.1)

vn=vr+v,

Consolidation

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundotion Engineering

134

But,

AC
BC
A C = % - e = L , e

and

BC =logrcp - logropo

= 1 + e o
to e due to increasein pressure,then
Ifthe void ratio uow decreases
V t = l + e '
LV

or, changeinvolume

= Vo - Vt

eo-e

=
...fu.ol
logropfogropo =:+
togroq/p' \
I
-eoffiffi[i iidilma} alsobe
determined
fromrhe

= | + eo - (1 + e)
= e 0 - e

The value
following ernpirical formulae:

= Ae.

For normally consolidatedclays (sensitivitys 4 ),


For rernouldedclays,

,
Ae

T1.

l+

wherc,

ui9h%
C, = 0.007 (w1 -

...(6.sa)
...(6.sb)

10)

wt = liquid li;,&(n--

--woref----

( r nedl

Fig.6.1

;
o

^,=#;0.*

G,
!

'o

L e 1
m'=Td
r-"0
av
ffl- - =

...(6.3)

a-

L + e g

Thc unit of both a, and m,rs atlt<g.


It is defined as the gradient of the virgin
(iii) Compression index (C ).'
ccmpression curve drawn from the results of a consolidation test performed
on a soil.
Fig. 6.2 illustratesan evs. logp curve.
Bydefinition,

V i r g i nC o m p r e s s i o n

From eqn. (6.2) we get,

of'

R e co m p r e s s

C" - gradientofA.B
- tanO

0.5
0'3 0.40.5 0.7 |

4 5 6789tO

t ogt' p ----{Fig.6.2

6.3 Terzaghi's Theory of One-dimensional Consolidation: The process


of consolidation is closely related to the expulsion of pore water and
dissipation of pore pressure. Terzhghi, in his theory of one-dimensional
consolidation, investigated the relationship between the rate of change of.
excess pore pressure and tle degree of consolidation, and dcduced the
following d ifferential equation:

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fotrndation Engineering

136

6tt

6l=u,
where,

a2u
---;
al

...(6.6)

u stand for the excesspore pressureat a depth z


t stands for the time elapsedafter the application of the load'
C, = Co-efficient of consolidation,whici is defined as:

F:----T-l
!L.. = -

where,

...(6.7)

Hu\n I
|i " Y
f-E--co-etficient ofpermeability, cm,/sec

(i) Estimating the probable consolidation settlement of a proposed


struclure to be constructedon this soil.
(ii) To determinethe time-rate of setflement. The sample is placed in an oedometerbetween two porous stones and
arrangementsare made to keep the samplesaturatedthroughout the test. The
loading intensities are generally applied in the following order:
0.25,0.5,1 A,2.0,4.0,8,0and 16.0kg&rn'.
The vertical deformationsof the sampleunder each loading intensity are
measuredwith the help of a dial gauge. The readings are taken at elapsed
times of :
,.
0.25, 0.5, L,2,4,8, 15, 30, ffi, 120,240 arnd1440minutes.

Tw = unit weight of water, gn/cE


zy = coefficient ofvolume change, t^2 /g^

From the results of the test, the following three curves are drawn:
(i) e vs. logrOP curve, to determinethe value af. C.

The unit of C, is "*2/r.".


Equation (6.6) is a second order differential equation, the solution of
which rrravbe obtained in the form,

u=f(T")
where,

where,

Cu't
_F

(ii) Dial reading vs. logls t curve


]
(iii) Dial reading vs. Vt curve
j

In order to plot the e vs. log16p curve, the void ratio of the sample at
the end of each load increment has to be detennined from the corresponding
dial reading. This can be done by either of the following methods.

...(6.e)

(a) Height of solids method.' After the corrpletion of the test, the
sample is taken out from the oedometer,dried in oven and its dry weight
177 is detennined.

I = time required fotU%o consolidation, sec

wd

ft = maximumlengthof drainagepath, un.


In caseof double drainagecondition (i.e., when a clay layer of thickness
^EIlies befween two penneablc layen at top and bottom) the maximum length
of drainage patb ft = Hlz,whercas in caseof single-drainagecondition (i.e.,
when the clay lies between a permeableand an impermeable layer), h = H'
The time factor ?i, is a dimensionless quantity, the value of which
depends on the degree of consolidation taken place at a given time, and not
orrthe propertie.sof the soil. Terzaghi suggestedthe following equations for

for

ocu<S3vo,

and, height of solids in the sample,

h,=Yi=h
where,

< U < t0070, T, = 1.781 - 0'933log (100 - U)'


53%o

Let e be the void ralio correspondingto a height h of the sarnple.

"'(6.10)

6.4 Laboratory Consolidation Test: f h order to determine the cornpressibility characteristicsofa clay deposit,'laboratoryconsolidationtests are to
be performed on representativesamplesof the clay collected from the site. A
knowledge of such characteristicsis required for:

vu v-v"
A.h-A.hs
=
=
A.lrrv"
%
h-h,

ofr

'(6'llrlr/

...(6.12)

A = cross-sectionalareaof the sample.

"=

t , = 4n\l fuo\ 'o ) /


V

W7

""=T=Gy*

Now, volume of solids,

the determination of Iu :

For

,o 0",".*ine,the value of c,

...(6.8)

U = degreeofconsolidation.

I" = Time factor =

t37

Consolidution

e =

...(6.13)

hs

Thus if the value of ft is known at any tirne during the test, the
correspondingvoid ratio can be determincd.The value of ft may be obtained
from:

h =H - R.C

r
138

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering


Consolidotion

where,

fI = initial height of sarnple.


R = dial reading.

a, =

or,

C = dial gauge constant


(b) cfurnge in void ratio method: With referenceto Fig. 6.3, let,
Vt = initial volurne of &e sample.
V2 = volume of the sample at the end of compression
under a loadirg internity p
AV = changein volurne = Vt - V2

139

g-t

=1]34

...(6.r4)

Thus, knowing the values of e1 and ft, ihe change in void ratio at any
given instant can be determinedif t[e.conesponding value of A ft is known.
6.5 Determination of C, : For a given soil, the value of C, is not constant
but depends on the magnitude of the applied skess. In order io determine the
degree of consolidation of clay layer under an external load, it is required to
determinethe initial and final pressures( o , and o. + Ao, respectively ) on the
soil. If, for example,the initial and final pressurebeforeand after the application
of external load be 1 kg/cm' andZ xglr:;rf , thenthe value of Cumust be obtained
{rom this particular range of loading il the consolidation test.
The value of Cumay be determinedfrom either of the following metlods :
(a) Squareroot of time fitting method: Cu =

--:--Wof -:::
er

(T,)ssx rt
tq

...(6.ls)

(b) Logarithm of fime fitting method:


6.6 Computation of Settlement:
given by,

So l i d

,,

= 9)#!

The total setflement,S, of a footing is

S=S;+S.+S"
where,

Fig.6.3
Now

V1 = h1.A and VZ = luZ.A

hA
h.A
=
W
-=v

LV

lq - loz

Lh
h, =E

then,

Similarly,

V2=Vr(l+e2)

{ . ' . '" t =

L V = %(1 + er) - V"(l + e) = V"(et Therefore,

olr

h
-M=
h

v"/v"l

6.6.1 Immediate Sctlement: The immediate settlementdue to a vertical


concentratedload Q at a depth z and radial distancer is given by,

...(6.18)

ez)

The immediate settlementdue to a uniformly loaded area is givel by,

s ; = q B . $ - v h. r ,

V"(e1 e2)
LV
=T
=Z
E+er)
where,
Le
1 +e 1

...(6.r7)

Si = immediate settlement
.Sc = primary consolidation settlement
Ss = socondaryconsolidation settlement.

The secondaryconsolidation setflementis of irnportanceonly in caseof


highly organic soils and peats.

I f e l a n d e 2 b ethe void ratio conesponding


to volurneV1 and V2,

Vt = V, + % = e1V" t V"
= V"(1 + e1)

...(6.16)

q
I
F
E

=
=
=

intensity of contact pressure


leastlateraldimensionofloadcd area
Poisson'sratio of soil
modulus of elasticity of soil

....(6.1e)

140

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

1/ = Influence factor, the value of which depends


on:
Type of rhe footing (i.e., wherher ir is rigid or flexible)
Q
(ii) Shapeof rhe footing
(iii) The location of the pointberow which settrement
is required (i.e.,
the centre, comer or any other point of the footing)
(iv) Length ro breadrh ratio of the footing.
be obtained from Tabte 6.1, wtrile Table 6.2 gives
.r^
^IO^:,1,1t-".
?t^!tt"u!
rtreetasttc
properties
ofvarious soils.

Table 6,1 : Influencefactorsof various footings

Consolidation

L4l

6'6'2' corcoridation settreme_nt: Fig. 6.1


representsa soir sampre
subjectedto an initial stresspg.I*r eg u.in" uoro
ratioof thesoir.Due to a
stressincrementa,p,'hevoid ratioreducesto
e . Thechargein void ratio,
Ae =.c0 -
Again, let /16 andi{ be theinitiarancrfinarthicknesses
of lhe soirmass.
MI=Ho_Ht
Now, by dcfinition,

,,=+'+

Inf'luencefacnr

v a p
For a laterally confined soll, area ofcross-sectio'.4

Square
Circular
Rectangular:
L/B = 1.5
L/B= 2.0
UB = 2.5
L/B = 5.0
L/B = 10.0

LV
t.t2
1.00

0.56
o.64

0.95
0.85

0.82
o.79

1.36

0.68
0.76
1.05
r.27
r.69

r.20

1.06

1.30
1.83
2.20
2.96

LzA

r.52
2.10
2.54
3.38

1.70

2.ro

v =WT

1 " = A$ H

cr=
Table 6.2 : Elastic properties of various soils
or,

1..Coarsesand
(p = 0.15)

$[i.^r
(tr= 0.2) $[i"^r
$[/"^r
$[i"^r
0.3s)

Medium

Fine sand
(tt = 0.25)
Sandysilt
= 0.30 to

0.61to 0.70

43
45200

38
32qO

is constant.

= LEHI
L,p

...(6.20\
The
change
in
thictness-of
rhe
soir
rnass,
andhencr the consolidation
settlement,canbedeterminedfrom eqn.
6.mi,
Again, by definition.

3.4

0.41to 0.50

LH.A

Le

l%rcPr/po

Le = c..logrcp;

Assumingunit vorumeof sorids,the initiarand


finarvorurneof thesoir
are,

v o =l + e 0 ,

N
45200

38
39300

35
3240/0

or,

38
366A0

36
27600

32
23500

But

36
13800

34
1t700

30
10000

Hence,

a n d V 1= l + e ,

AV= 1 + e g - ( 1 + e o ) = e o - e = L , e
AV
Le

vo

i.A

AH

LV

...{6.2r)

142

Problcms in Soil Meclmnics and Foundation Engineering

or,

L,H= Ht,fu.torro P o + L P
Po

s.,

...(6.22)

i-1

EXAMPLES
Prcblem e/
enonnally consolidatedclay stratumof 3 m thickness
has two permeablelayersat its top andbottom.The liquid limit and the initial
void ratio of the clay are 36Vo and 0.82 respectively,wlrile the initial
overburden presdureat the rniddle of clay layer is Zkg/an'. Due to the
construction of a new building this pressure increasesby 1.5 kg/cmz.
Compute the probableconsolidationsettlemett of the building.
Solution:

Using eqn. (6.21),consolidationsettlernentof the building,


S. = H

C.
i-

'logrn
",

Po+&
p0

Again, using eqn. (6.5a)

Cc = o.oo9(w7- 1o)
= 0.009(-36- 10) = A.234
H=3m=300cm
ea = o'82

Po = Zkg/crt

...(6.2r)

In eqn. (6.21)pg andp1 representthe averageinitial and final pressure


acting over the thickness flg of the soil. Wrile cornputing the probable
consolidationsettlementof a clay stratun, generally it is assumedthat, the
average stresses are those acting at the mid-height of the clay stratum.
However, this assumption is not correcl because,as we have seenin chapter
5, the stressintensitydue to an externalloaddoesnot vary linearly with depth.
If thethicknessof the clay stratumis substantiallyhigh, this leadsto erroneous
results.
In order to determine accurately the probable consolidation settlement
of a clay layer of finite thickness, the following steps should be followed,
(i) Divide the given clay layer into a number of sub-layersof small
thickness.
(ii) Determine the effective overburdenpresssureand stressincrement
at the mid-height of eachsub-layer.
(iii) Compute the consolidation settlement of each subJayer using
either eqn. (6.20) or eqn.(6.21).
(iv) Ihe probable sefflement of the clay stratum is then obtained by
summing up the settlementsof all subJayers,i.e.,

S.=

143

(tutsolidotion

Ap = t.s kg/ctt

' rosro
[ti"]"-

s. = (3oo)

= 9'37 cm

A 3 m thick saturatedclay layer is overlain by a 4 m


l'r..tblem 6;.{
tlrick sandlayer and is unde-rlainbyrock.The unitweight of the sandandclay
tut 1.72t/rn3and 1.85 V# respectively'The clay has a liquid lirnritof 53Eo
load of200 t is appliedon the ground
nrrda voiclratio of0.65. A concentrated
settlementof the clay,
consolidation
probable
the
surlhct:.compute
(i) consideringthe entireclay layer
of equal thickness.
liij oivloing the clay layer into three sub-layers
Solution: CompJessionindex of clay,

(wl - 1o)
c" = o.ooq
= 0.009(53 - 10) = 0.387.
H,=3rn=3(X)crn
eo = 0'65
of claylayer'
at rnid-depth
pressure
(i) Initialoverburden
.
(1.85)= 9.65tln'= 0.965kg/cttf
po = (4.0)(1.72) + (3.012)
eqn.,themaximumstressintensityat themiddleof
FrornBoussinesq's
claylayer,

A' e _

(3)(2m) - =3.r6t/n?=asrckp/q}
(4+ 1.5)'
(2)(3.14)

^ = (300)(0.387)
r.
T_fTIil.

togto

0.965+ 0.316 =
8.66cm
tg6--

(ii) In this casethe clay layer is divided into threesub-layersofthickness


I m each,as shown in Fig. (6.4).
Thc consolidation settlementgf each sub-layer is estimatedbelow:
Sub-hyer I: Depth of the niddle of layer 1 below G.L = +'O+ f

= 4'5 m

p61 = (a) G.72) + (0.5)(1.85) = 7.805t/mz = O'7l7kg/cnf

6,,, =

(3)(200) - =
4.7tr/m2= a.4lrkg/rmz
(2)(3.r4')(4.s)'

Problems in SoilMechanics and Foundation Engineering

144

('tmsolidotion

145

I'robleu-5r3:- A 3 rn thick layer of silty clay is sandwitchedbetween


lwo Iayersof densesand.The^effectiveoverburdenpressureat the ceutreof
thc silty clay layer is 2 kg/cm" . Howver,due to the constructionof a raft
to 4 kg/on' .
lirurrdation,this pressureirtcreases
Laboratorycousolidationtestwas performedon a 2.5 cm thick sarnple
ol' thc silty c:lay.Under applied stressesof 2 kglcnrz and 4 kg/c,m2 the
conrpressionsof the sample were found to be 0.26 cm and 0.38 cm
rcspcctively.Cornputethe probableconsolidationsettlernentof the raft.
Solution :

Using eqn.{6.20),
=
S,
frr'Ho'LP

wltt'rc,

--iltA-p-l--

Su b- toyer
I

= 2.5 cm for the soil sampleand 300 cm for the soil in-siru.
4p = changein effective pressure

3m 1 m - - - LlJ e.z-- -{ ILA!3.- S u b - t o y e r

=4-2=Zk,/cnz.

II

1m

*--illo:--JrL^-P;-

mu = co-etficieut of volume changefor the pressurerangeof


2kglcm'to 4 kg/cm'

Sub-toyer
III

l'or lht:laboratorytest:

Rock

= 2.5cm
Tlricknessundera pressureof 2kglctnz =2.5 -0.26 = 2.24sn.
Thicknessuudera pressureof 4 kg/on2 = 2.5- 0.38= 2.12crn.
lrritialthicknessof the sarnple

Fig.6.4

(100)(0.387)'to8to 0.781+ 0.471 =


- -l-]
,s =
4.81cm.
r",
gq66
-tt
Sub-layerII: Depthof middle = 5.5m'
.

pm = (4) (1.72) + (1.5)(1.85) = 9.655t/t#


Mc =

(3) (200) = 3.157t/ri

(2)(3.14)
(s.sr

IlO = ittitial thickness

= O.965kg/artz

.'. Changein thicknesswh"enthe pressu.re


=2.24-2J2= 0.l2c.lrn.
irrt'reasesfrorn 2 kg/cm" to 4 kg/on"
Frorn cqn. (6.20)

0.t2 = (m")(2.s)(2.0)
= o.3l6kg/cnl

0.965+ 0.316 " =


- (100)(0.387).loglo -2.89cm
J",
0.965
1 + 05,5
Depthof rniddle = 6.5 m
Sub-layerIII:
pw = (41(1.72)+ (2.5)(1.35)= 11'5t/m2 = r-lllq/cmz
ar._i@\=2.26cm

(6.sr
(2)(3.14)

setllement = 4'81 + 2,89 + 2.26


.'. Totalcstimated
= 9.96cm.

or,

m, = 0.024. z/kg.

Again, using eqn. (6.2q, ilre consolidationsetflernentof the silty clay


Inyt'r,
sc = @.024)(300) (2)
= 14.4cm
l'nrble4a$,4,.-' Due to the constructionof a new strucfure the average
vcrfit'a"lpressureat.the centreof a2.5 m thick clay layer increasesfrom 1
kg/r'rn" to 2 kg/cm". A laboratory consolidation test was performed on a 2
crrrthit:k undisturbedsampleof the clay. Under appliedstressesof 1 kglon'
l rrd 2 kg/cm" the equil ibrium thicknessesof the samplewere found to be 1.76
r'ru lrrd 1.63crn respectively.On reinovingthe stresscompletely,the thick-

Problems in SoilMeclmnics snd Fottndation Engineertng

t46

to 1.88c:m.Tht: final moisturecontentand the spec-ificgravity


nessinc--reased
samplewere found lo be297o and2.7l respectively.Conlpute
of
the
of solids
settlementof the structure'
consolidatiott
probable
the
Irt e; and Il;be the tinal void ratio and thicknessof the
solution:
sarnple.

Le
LH
l
+
e r
H l =

Again,

where,
and,
ol,
Here,

.'.

Rcquired cousolidatiou settlemeutof the clay layer in the field

,5. = rn,,llg Ao
= (0.08)(2s0) (2 - 1) = 20 cm.
llcnct:, lhc rt:quiredsettlementof tlie structure = 20 cm

Solution :

AH = changein thicluressdue a giveu stress


Ae = correspondingchangein void ratio'

when

AH
A e = ( t + e 7 ) . u .

I lcrr',

"I

o = Z.}kg/cm"

Agrin, usingequ.(6.7),

c '. , = k

frr\n

NI = 1'88- 136=

lf trc,

m , - 0 . 0 6 5" n 2 / k g
- 0.065 t 10-3 "rn2/grn

0'12trm

= 6.5 x l}-s anz/gn

Le = (0.95)(0.12) = 9'114

Hence,void ratio at

k - 3.3 x 10-4 cmlsec.

o = 1.0kg/cm2 = 0'786 - 0'114


= 0.672.

y- - 1 gm/cc.

Letm,,betheaveragevalueoftheco-efficientofvolunrechangeinthe
pressurerange of 1'0 to 2.0 kg/on-.
We have frorn eqn. (6'2),
mv

Le

l+eg

.1=0.065"*z/kg

= ef - Le
= 0.786 - 0'238 = 0'548'

l'0kg/cn?'

- 0.73= 0.r2

mv

"'(i)

o = 2.okg/cn? , NI = 1.88 - 1.63 = 0'25crn


6s = (0.95)(0.25) = 9.239

o=

1.
L,p

N t = z - | = Ilf./cmz

Ae = 0.95AH

Again,when
'

L,e
l+es

eo = 0.85,
Ae = 0.85

ef = O.lgO, and H1 = 1.88cm.

Hence,void ratio at

Usingeqn.(6.2),
frv=

Ae= (1 + 0.786)
#t
of,

t47

l)rrrblenr *Y
In a laboratoryconsolidationtest,the void ratio of the
silnrlllc rcducedtiorn 0.85 to 0.73 as the pressurewas increasedfrom 1 to 2
kg/t'rnr. If the co-efficientof penneabilityof tbe soil be 3.3 x 10{ crn/sec,
r l cl cr r ni n c :
(i) co-efficicntof volume change
(ii) co-elficicnt of coruolidation.

wG -= -(0.29)(2.71)
= o.786
"- t _
=
(1)
,

Then,

('on.rolido lion

1
Ao

(0.672- 0.548) .
_
=
= J- ^1.0)= o . o 8 r 2 / k g '
(2.0
(1 + 0.548)

cr=

3.3 x 10-a

(6.sx to-5)(t)

= 5.07" 2/""".

g6 rn thick clay layeris drainedat botq lop and bottom.


f'nrblcnr d'
rrr clli<'icnt of consolidationof the soil is 5 x 1oe cn(/sec. Determine
llrr tirrrr rcquircd for 507oconsolidationof the layer due to an externalload.

'f'lrc

Solullon :

Usingequ.(6.9),

148

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Consolidation

,,=sffq=
375crn

cr't

149

If

Tr.t?

ot,

I =

Tr, =

For 50% consolidation,

'=

C,

n(u\2

Al-trrl

H
For double drainagecondition, h =
2

600
2

r u / 5 0 \ 2=

a[.'*/

= ffi0^' "

300 cm .

(0.197)(300)2
, s e c =3.546 x 107sec
5 x l0-'
3.546x 107 .
oays = 410 days.
s6400
Problem fy
Araft footing is to be constructedon a 7.5 qrn thick clay
layer which lie3 betweentwo sandlayers.In order to predict the time rate of
settlernentof the building , a 2.5 crn thick undisturbed sarnpleof the soil was
tested in the laboratory under double drainagecondition. The sample was
found to have undergone5O%corsolidation in 12.5 minutes.Determinethe
time required for 5O%settlernentof the building.
Solution :

= 782 days = 2 years 1 month and 22 days.


Problem QV't"a
laboratory consolidationtest, a 2.5 crn thick sample
of'<'lay reached60% cnnsolidatiron
in 17 minutes under double drainage
corrdition. Determine the time required for 6OVoconsolidation of a layer of
lhis soil in the field under the following conditions:
(i) when a 3 m thick layer of the given soil is sandwitched between
lwo sandlayers.
(ii) when a 5 m thick layer of the soil is overlainby a sandlayer and
rundt:rlainby a deeplayer of intact shale.
Solution :

Using eqn. (6.11), the time factor for 60% consolidation


T, = 1.781 - 0.933 logls (100 - 60)

= 0.?a6
Again, using eqn. (6.9)

,'r' -- c ' ' t

We hdve from eqn. (6.9),

T,,

C r x t
=

of,

C, =

Tr-t?

In thelaboratorytest,
7, = time factor for 50% consolidation = 0.197

h =

12.5min.
H
2

2.5 =
l.?5 cm
2

In case of the actual building,


T' = 0'197

' or, C, =

Tr,' h2

It2

h'

t =

c,

(0.197)(375)'
- mtn
= ---0.0246

0.197.

5 x 10-a"nl2,/r.".

and,

T,' h2

In thr: laboratory test,

t = 17min.
h = 2.5/2 = 1.25cm

(0.2s6)
(r.?52=
vv = ---di-

0.A263cm'/min

( i ) Here the soil layer is drained at both top and bottom

H _ ( 3 )(2)
(1oo)=15ocm
(0'285X150f
= z44nxamin= r70 days
,' 0.0263
( i i ) In this casethe soil layer is drained at top only
H=5m=500cm

Problems in Soil Meclmnics and Foundotion Engineering

150

(0'4q)-L5-00)z
= 2 1 l 8 6 3 n n i r t = 1 t t 8 8 r l a y s= 5 . 1 7 y e a r s .
', 0.0263
,/
The consolidatiottsettletnentof a new structuretbunded
Problem Q/
on a 5 m thick layer is estimatedas 6.5 cm. The structurewas found to have
settledby 1.6 cm in 6 monthsafter the completionof couslruction.If the c{ay
layer is underlainby rock and overlainby a layer ofcoarse sattd,detennine:
(D tle timc required for 50% consolidationto occut
(ii) the amount of settlementwhich will take place in the next six
montls.
Degreeof consolidationoc:curredin the first six months
1..6
=
x Lo07o = 24.627a
;;

151

Consolidation
*rfl
-L

= 0'0974'

,,
= 35.22o/o
u == v&q*e-e.ozo
t
3.14

()f,

ll x be the amouutof settlernent.then

U=4;xr00
o.)

or,

'=T#

=z.z()cn

Solution :

Time factor for

U = 24.62Vo
T, = (x/4) (24.62/10q2 = 0.048.

As single drainagecondition is prevailing, lt = 5 tn.

Solution :
h=H=2.5crn

Using eqn. (6.9),

(o#8,)(t2)
tu = -1o;1ru,1 =

Problem &J${ndisturbed
sampleswere collec-.tedfrom a 3 m thick
t'lay stratumwhich lies betweentwo sandstrata.A laboratoryconsolidation
It:sl was performed on a 2.5 crn thick sarnpleof the clay. During the test,water
was allowedto drain out only throughthe top of the sample.The time required
t<tr 50Voconsolidationwas found Io be 35 minutes. Determine the time
rtquirt:d for 60% and907oconsolidationin the field.

6.67x 1o-3^z/d^y.

(i)For50%consolidation, time factor,

7,,= O.197.

Again, for U = SUVo,wehave Tr= 0.t97.


Usingeqn.(6.9),

'' = gfft

Using eqn. (6.9),


T,x h2

(0.1e7)(s2)

C,

6.67 x lO-'

= 738.4days

As the samplewas testedunder single drainagecondition,

= o'o3s
"'n2'l*i"'
= 1.781- 0.933 logls (100- 60)
= 0.286

Now, tbr 607oconsolidation,

= 2yearsand8.4days.
(ii) L,et U be the degree of consolidation that will take place in the next
six rnonths, i.e. at the end of 1 year since the completion of construction. We
have already found that the time required for 5O% consolidation is 2 years
and 8.4 days. Thus, degreeofconsolidation occurredin 1 year must be less
than 50Vo.
The corresponding time factor may be determined using eqn. (6.10),
T" = (n/4)(U/LOC)' =

"r.P
40000

Again, using eqn. (6.9),

(6.67x 1g-3)(36s)=
o.oe74.
Tr=
(5")

For a double drainagecondition,

t,t = H = ; 3n
i

= l50cm.

Tu*'h'

t6o =

-7:

(0.286)
(1so)2
(0.03s)
= 183857
min
= 127.7days o 128days
For 90% consolidation,

T,x = l'781- 0.933 logls (100- 90)


= 0.848.

r52

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fottndation Engineering

153

at 2 rn below the ground lev-el.The unit weight of sandabove and below water
iable are 1.90 and 2.10 t/m'. Tbe propertiesof tbe clay are as follows;

,u*.*

tco =

Consolidotion

C,

Initial void r'atio= 0.72

= 545143
min

*"*tP

= 379 days.
Pnoblem 6.1I. A flexible footing of 2 m x 2msize carries a total load
490
kN, inclusive of its self-weighlThe footing restson a sandlayer having
of
a modulus of elasticity of 400fi) kN/m' and a Poisson'sratio of 0.38. Estimate
the probable settlement below the cenlre and below any orie corner of the

footing.

Here,

f iquid limit = 427o


co-efficient of consolidat ion = 2.2 x I 0-3 cm2/sec.
Dclennine:
(i) Probablesettlemenrof the raft.
(ii) The time required to undergo a settlementof 5 cm.
Solution : (i) The soil profile is shown in Fig. 6.5. The clay layer is
divided into three sub-layersof thickness 2 m each. The settlement of each
rub-layer rnay now be computed using eqn. (6.21),

Solution: We have, from eqn. (6.19),

s ; =- R 0

specificgravity of solids = 2.71

- t') r'I'

.,*, Pt
L , H = H- n ' r Q
-'opo'
l+e6

intensity of loading

The computation of settlementfor the first sub-layer is shown below :

= g99]- = 02.5kN./m2
(2) (2)

= (0.00e)(42 - 10) = 0.288

eo = A'72

B = 2 m

Ho = 2m = 2l)0cm.

p = 0.38, E = 40000kN./m2
The influencefactor//may be obtainedfrom table6.1.,
/y(corner) = 0.56

Dcpthofmiddleofthe sub.layerbelowG.L. = 8 + 2D =9 m

11.6m_J

/1(centre)= L.12.

Roft

Immediatesettlementbelowthecentre,

- @#
si(centre)

(I=1'90
t/ m3)

'0.r2)

t Y =2 . ' t 0 t / m 3 )

* 0.59 crn

Sond

Immediate settlement below the corner

S;1--e4-

ff

= o.295crn.

Problen 6.12. A 6 m thick clay stratumis overlainby a 8 m thick


sua$m of coarsesandand is underlainby an impermeableshale.A raft
footing, supportingthe columnsof a building, is to be foundedat a depthof
1.2 rn below groundlevel. The sizeof the raft f 8.5 m x 13.6m, and it is
loadcduniformlywith a stressintensityof 9.ztlm' . Thewatertableis located

6m
>

zlzz>

Ctoy
( e e =g , 7,26 = 2 . 7 1 ,
r o L = L 2 a /Cov = 2 . 2 x t 0 - 3 c r l l s e c l
>7 t>>7>rr>zt>

r2l=t>z>7ztz

I m p er v i o u s S h o l e
Fig.6.5

,>z

,2

154

Problems in Soil Meclunics and Foundqtian Engineering

Initial effective overburden stressat a depth of 9 rn below G.L.


= stressdue to sand above water table + stressdue
to sand below water table + stressdue to clav
/b = y ft1 + yru6h2 + y.1^,h3.

= 0.317
As single drainagecondition prevailsat site,
h = H = 6m = 600crn.
tlsing eqn.(6.9),

Here, ulit weights of sand are :


y = I'g t/m3
and,

7,,-fi

t=

c,

'kat = 2.1t/m3

- (0.317)(6od-) = 51872327
sec
(2.2 x l0-'\
= 60,0days

Ysub= Ysar- Y. = 2.1 - | = l'lt/m3


Again,

155

Consolitlalion

Iclay

G + e
l + e

t w

(2.7r + 0.72)

l'

(l) = 2.0 t/m3


- 2) + (2.o - 1.0) (1)

= !L.4t/rn2 = l.l4kg/cmz
Again, depth of middle of this sub-layer below the base of footing
=9-1.5=7.5m.
Using the 2 : 1 dispersion method,

Problem 613. The constructionof a rnultistoreyedbuildittg startedin


January 1989t'andwas cornpletedin June 1990. The total consolidation
scttlcmentof the building was estimatedto be 8 cn. The averagesettlement
of tlrebuilding was lneasuredin Decernber1991andwas found to be 2.2 cm.
Cornputethe probablesettletnentof the building in January2001.
Solution : Lrt C, be the cs'efficient of consolidationof the soil in the
appropriate pressurerange, and Il be the effective length ofdrainage path.
Time elapsedfrom June 1990 to December l99I = 1.5 years
Degreeofconsolidationoccurredin 1.5 years.

u
- - Q'2)iroo)vo= z7.5vo
(8)

(e'2) (8's) (13.6)


!!6o
' = ----9
(B + z)(L + z)
(8.5 + 7.5)(13.6+ 7.5)

T, = (x/4) (27.5/rm)2 = 0.059

= 3.15t/m2 = A31^5kg/cnl2
pr = po + Lp = 1.14 + 0.315 = 1.455kg/ctn2

^-,
^ _) ( r . 4 s s \= r'55cm'
A r / _ ( 2 q g ) . ( 0 . 2'rogro
8, 8
(r + oJD
r-14
I
,J

Similarly, settlementsof the secondand third sub-layers are found to be


2.54 cm and 1.86 cm respectively.Hence,the total settlementof the raft
= (3.55 + 2.54 + 1.86)cm
= 7.95 cm.
(ii) The degree of consolidation correspondingto a settlementof 5 cm,
(5)(lm)
f f ='6
.^
= 62'8970
u
Using eqn. (6.11), the correspondingtime factor is,
T, = 1.78t - 0.933 togls (100 - 62.89)

But,

T, =
C,

O l t

T,

0.059

H'

7=

C,,
.=
H'

0.039

. =

ort

Cu't
_F

ls

...(D

Again, time elapsedfrom June1990to January2O0l = 10.5 years.


Let U be the correspondingdegreeofconsolidation.
Assuming U > 53Vo,
But,

T, = 1.78I- 0.933logls (f 00 - Lr)

r, =

?;=

c..
I
(o.o3e)
(10.s) '..; = o.o3el

= 0.4095.

'

t55

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

t57

Consolidation

1.781- 0.933 lo916(100 - U) = 0.40995


fog16(100 - u) =

of'

(1'781-: -q'-4095)
= 1.47
(0.e33)

NI=H #a

or,

- (2)(1oo)(q.g9s)
= 8.44crn
(1 + 1.25)

Taking antilog of both sides we get,

100-U=29.51
U= 100-29.51=70.497o

or,

(iii) In the pressurerangeof 2to 4kg/crr2.

^"=#^.b

Amoult of consolidation settJementin January 2001


(8) (70.49) _ < ai
_ -(1oo)
=
= )'o4 cm'
Probtem {a! e/ e,2 m thick layer of saturatedclay lies in between two
penneable lEdrt'The clay has the following properties :
liquid lifrit = 45Vo
co-efficient of permeability = 2.8x 10-7 crn/scc
initial void latio = 1.25
The iqitial effective overburden pressureat the middle of the clay layer
is 2kg/at ,and is likety to increasei axg',t.2 due ro rhe "o*t,u"iilo
or,
new building. Determine :
(i) the final void ratio of the clay.
(ii) settlementof the proposedbuilding.
(iii) time required for SOVoconsolidation.
Solution :

(i) Compressionindex, C, = (0.009) (45 -10) = 0.315.


But, by definition,

cr=

0ft

Po+Lp
,
loglo po-

A e = L" fo$19

ps + L,P
p,

L e = (0.31s)rogls{(2 + 2)/(2)}
= 0.095
.'. Final void ratio = e6 - L,e
= l.?5 - 0.095 = 1.155
(ii) Let A/1be theconsolidationsettlementof the clay layer.
LH- _
Le
_
H
1+tu

= o.o2tcm2lkg.
(2)
(1 + 1.25) +
C,' = Jfrr\n

Usingcqn.(6.7),

k = 2.8 x 10-7cm,/sec.

Hcrc,

m v = 0 . 0 2" 1z / u ' g
ln = lgm/cc = I x 1o-3t'g/cc.
(2'8 x 1o-')- =
0.0133orr2/r""
(0.021x 10-')
.
w have, Tu= O.197
consolidation,
For 5OVo
Usingeqn.(6.9),
a..
"

T,,.h2 (0.197)QN/z)z
sec'
' = -T = -afi133;
= 1.71days.
testwas performedon a 2
Problem 6.L5. A laboratoryconsolidation
cm thicksampleof a siltyclay,andthefollowingresultswcreobtained;
Pressure
(kglcm2)

Final dial gauge


reading (mm)

Pressure
(kslcnl)

Final dial gauge


reading (mm)

o
0.25

5.590
5.234

2.00

3.9U

4.00

3.515

0.50

4.gffi

8.00

2.785

1.00

4.6M

5;224

The final moisture content of the sample after swelling was fouttd to be
32.57o.The specificgravity of solids = 2!lO.

159

Problems in SoilMechanics and Fottndation Engineering

158

Consolidation

table',"t Ot:t
Note that, in column5 of the above.
::t1"1tt:^?:::rT":

(i) Plotthee vs. logP curue'


(ii) Detennile the cornpressiolindex and the co-eft'icientof volutuc
changeof the soil.
solution: Inordertoplotthe e vs. logp curve,thefinalvoidratios
at the end of eachpressureincrementare to be deterrnine.d'

: 9,tl2 I:bvsubtracting
* noiff"T:;ilJl""ail t""i-'*"a*':ri''tiEdetermined
:ll. l:1"::
:il":ffiffi ffi;;;;;"*'1ry:
ofAeo:*':l1 Tri

;;i;il.6roPriaie values ratiocorrespondi'g


to8kg/crn
;"id
;:ffi i'ipd;il;;il
= ef - Ae = 0'878 - 0'233 = 0'645'
)
to 4 kg/onandthatcorresponding

The final void ratio of the sampleat the end of swelling


.

e=*G

_ ( 0 . 3 2 5 ) ( 2 . 7 0=
, )0 . 8 7 t .
(1)

= 0'645 - (-0'070) =0'715


c' and the co-effic:ient of volume
The co-efficient of compressibility' '
in col'
eachpressurerauge' and are slrowr
change,tz, are then comput;d for
8'
c'ol'
in
are
siven
Ct
values of
6 and 7 rcspectively' fn"'"o'nput"d
scale).hav:

The thicknessof the sarnpleat this stage,


H = H o - M l

."0 lp (in log


Ttn
Thevaluesor rc 1lo"i'ritirr.tvt".r"j
on a semi-loggraphpaper'to
i-axis respectively
ana
Y
tne
dr;;;";
Tnf ls sbown in Fig' 6'6

= 2.A - (0.5590 - O'5224)cm


= 1..9634cm.

obtain the e vs. loglg P curve'

Now, we have,

N]
H

Le
l + e

MI ,.
.
+ e)
O" =
T(1

or,

0.90
0.Es

Substitutingthe final valuesof e andH, we gel,

Ar/
Le = tH tt iO:#t' = 0.e565

...(i)

lo.
I

The c.hangein void ratio, and hencethe final void ratio after each load
incrernent,arellow detenninedby puttingthe correspondingvaluesof AH itt
eqn. (i). The cornputedvalues are showttbelow in a tabular form :
Pressure
ranSe

Pressure
itrcre-

I ncrease

in

ment

(kg/cn2)

&

NT

(kglcm2)

(cm)

Change
in void
ratto
Le

Equilibrium
void
ratio

4.00 to 8.00

(5)
(4)
(3)
-o.034
-o.0356
0.879
+0 .25
+0.25 4.O274 -o.026 0.863
+0.50 -o.0356 4.034 0.829
+1.00 4.0640 -o.061 0.768
+2.00 -{.0549 -o.0s3 0.715
+4.00 -{.0730 -o.070 0.645

8.0Oto 0

-8.00

(1)
0 to 0.25
0.25to 0.50
0.50to 1.0O
1.0Olo 2.00
2.00 to 4.fi)

/t\

mv
'f/ Ae\
a u \
4oJ
= 1 . -

C,
L

;0.
o
L

E'

6 0
e

'"g. k/

l
|
7 8910

1c^2/k91 (cn2/kg)
(6)
0.136
0.104
0.068
0.061
0.027
0.015

(1)
o.072
0.055
0.036
0.019
0.014
0.008

toglgp*

(8)

Fig' 6'6

0.086
0.113
0.203
0.t76
0.199

befoundedin a 3 m thick layerof


Problem 6.16. A raft footingis to
sandlayel' The initial over
underlainiV t nign-vpermeable
"lry;;;;l;
is likely
orilt "fty layeris 2'0 kg/cmrandthis
at thece-nire
burdenpressure
thick
cm
2'5
A
of the raft'
to increaseto 4.0 kg/cm?'l;t to 'ht construction underdoubledrainage
sarnpleof this soit is iesteain a consolidometet

+0.2439 +O.233 0.878

i
l

160

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

conditio.. The followi'g data.wereobtainedwhe'the pressure


on the sampre
was increasedfrom 2to 4kglan" :

161

Consolidation

2000
1900
1800

I972

16.00

t727

0.25

L92L

36.00

1642

1.00

1870

64.00

1555

2.25

1848

100.00

I49r

4.00

1813

144.N

L449

9.00

1769

The dial gaugeconstantis, L division = 0.002 rnin.


(a) Determine the co-efficient of consoridationof the soir by
the square
root of time fitting method.
(b) Estirnate the time required for 50vo and g}Toconsolidatironto
occur
in the field.

1700
1600
1500
1400
13C0

tr

2' A number of points, each represe'ting a certain dial reading a'd the
corresponding value of vl are obtained. A smooth curve is drawrithrough
them.

12

1L

16

18

Fig' 6'7

y'tco= 1l'o
/so = 134'56min

From Fig.6.7,

Solution: (a) The procedurefor obtaining the value of C,,by the


square
root of time fitting method is explained below I
1. The valucs of the squareroots of various time intervarsat which
the
dial readingswere taken are plotted along thex-axis while the corresponding
dial readings are plotted along the y-axis ofan ordinary g.aph paper.

10

T,(n).hz

.-u= _6_

Now,
Here,

Ir (m) = 0.84[t,

h = 2.5/2 = l.?-Scrrr

(- - (0.848)(1.25)2-

" = llffiI&r

= L64 x

10-a.,.,2./r..

3._ The straight portion of the curve is projected to intersect the y-axis
_
at R". This is taken as the initial reading.

(b) The time required for 507oand90Voconsolidationto occur in the field


may be obtained using eqn. (6.9).

4. A point P is arbitrarily chosenon the curve.


5. Frorn P, a horizontal rine pe is drawn to intersect the y-axis ar
e.
Lx.l, PQ = 4.

(3oo)2
= 1.081x tossec
, r o = W =(0.1971
1.64x 10-

6. The point R is chosenon projecredpe, such thal, pR = 0.15a.


7, R6 and R are joined. The line R6 is then projected to intenect the
curve al S.
The dial reading corresponding to s representsx)vo consoridation. Let
t96be the corresponding time required.

= L?Sldays = 3 years 5 months and 6 days.

t* =

T,(gq-xh2
C,
5386days

= 4.654x r'ssec
= (p.q{8)(iqql2
1.64 x l}-a
14years9 monthsand6 days.

162

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering


EXERCISE6

6.1. Estirnate the consolidation settlement of a 2 rn thick clay layer


which is overlain by a layer of sandand underlainby a deep layer of intact
shale, ifthe construction ofa new footing itrcreasesthe averageover-burden
pressure by 50o/o.Tlre initial overburden pressure was 2 kg,/on'. Giveu,
co-efficient of volume c-hange= 0.023 cm'/kg.
[4.6 cml

Consolidation

163

6J. Estimate the immediate settlement below the centre of a


15 m x 25 m flexible raft footing carrying a gross pressureof t}t/r*.The
raft rests on a sand stratum having a modulus of elasticity of 4080 t/m' ard a
Poisson's ratio of 0.25. The influence factors are as follows :

when LlB = 15, If = 1.36


when LlB = 2.A, If = 1.52

[5.8acm]

6.2. An 8 rn thick clay stralurn lies between a 10 m thick sand stJatum


at top and a reck layer at bottom. The unit weight of sand is 1.75 t/m3. The
clay stratum has the following properties:
L.L. = 42c/o, w = 28.5o/o, G = 2.72

6.8. A footing is to be constructedin 3 homogeneousbed of clay having


an overall thickness of 3 m. Thc clay layer is underlain by rock and overlain
by a sand layer. If the co-efficient of consolidation of clay be 9.5 x 10-a
cm-/sec, find out the time required for 907oconsolidation.
[930 days]

A raft footing of 15 rn x L5 rn area and carrying a unifonnly distributed


load of 20 Vm" is proposed to be constructedat the site. Determine the probable consolidation settlementof the footing. The clay layer should be divided
into four sub.layers of cqual tlickness and the stress increments may be
computedby 2: I dispersionmethod.

6.9. The total consolidation settlernentof a building founded on a 5 rn


thick silty clay layer, drained at both ends, is estimated to be 6.8 cm. The
building is tbund to have undergonea sefilementof 2.5 cm in 3 months. The
initial void ratio and the co-efficicnt of permeability of tlie soil are 0.88 and
L2x lAa crn/secrespectively.Determinethe co-efiicient of compressibility
of the soil.
[0.265 cm"/kgl

6 . 3 . A 3 m x 3 m s q u a r cf o o t i n g , c a r r y i n g a g r o s s l o a d o 1f 2 5 t , h a s
been constructed over a 5 rn thick sand layer whicb is underlain tirst by a 6
m thick layer of soft clay and then a layer of irnpermeableshale. Compute the
consolidation settlement of the footing by considering the clay layer (i) as a
whole (ii) divided into three layers of equal thickness. Given,
unit weight of sand = 1.8 gm/cc
compression index of clay = O.42
water content of clay =32Vo
specificgravity of clay particles=2.7
KD 3.6 an (ii) a.29 cml
6.4. During a laboratory consolidation test, the void ratio of a soil
sample decreasedfrom 1,2 to 1.05 when the pressureon it increasedfrom 2
to 4kglcn' . Determine the co-efficient of compressibility and tbe co-efficient
of volurne change of the soil. Will thesevalues remain the sarne if pressure
cm2ltg]
increasesfrom ito 8 kg/crn2.
[0.075 .t?/rg;o.o:+
6.5. A consolidation test was performed on a samplc of saturatcd clay
in the laboratory. Thc liquid limit and the initial void ratio of thc soil were
487o ard 0.96 respectively. What will be the final vo^idratio of the soil if the
pressur is increased from 0.25 kg/*rz to 1.0 kg/cnr2 ?
[0.721
6.6. Sample of a silty clay wassubjected to a laboratory oedometertest.
Under a veitical pressureof Zkglun'the equilibrium void ratio was found to
be 1.05. On increasing the pressureto 3 kg/crn2, the final cquilibrium void
ratiq reduced to 0.93. If the co-efficient of permeability of the soil be 1.2 x
104 cm/sec, detennine the co-efficient of consolidation in t# rc^y.

[r.Ttx toa rt/aay1

6.10. A building is to be supportedby a raft footing laid in a 3 m thick


bed of clay, which lies betueen two penneablelayers.A 2.5 cm thick sarnple
of the soil is found to have undergone50% c<lnsolidationin 3 minutes under
double drainage condition. Determine the time required for 907o consolidation of the building.
[129.1days]
6.11. In a laboratory consolidation test, a 2 cm thick clay specimen
reached 507a consolidation in 12 minutes. The sample was drained at both
top and bottom. A 2 m thick layer of this soil lies below a sandlayer and above
an impermeable layer of very stiff clay. Find out the degreeof consolidation

of theclay layerswhichwill takeplacein 1 year.


[2?.SVol
6.12. An isolatedfootingof 2 rn x 2 m plan areais constructed
overa
saturatedsandyclay sfiatumof 5 m thicftness.The soil has the following
properties.
.
p=0.36, Cc=0.3, w=35Vo, G=2.69.
E=3WkN/m',
Estimatcthc probablesettlcmentof the footingif it carriesa grossload
of 225kN.
112.57clnl
6.13. A 5 m thick layer of normally consolidatedclay supportsa newly
@nstru,ctedbuilding. The weight of sand overlying the clay layer is 660
grn/cm' while the new construction increasesthe stressat the middle of the
ilay layer by 450 grn/r:n2. Compute rheprobableconsotidafionsettlementof
rhe building. Given,

LL =397a, G =2,7, w=457o.

[439 cm]

t64

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatian Engineering

6.14. The total consolidation seftlement of a.clay layer due to an


imposed load is estimated to be 8.5 cm. A setflement'of 2 crtr tooL place in
15 days. Determine the time required tor 5O7oandgUVoconsolidation.
[68 days; 292 daysl
6.15. The results of a consolidation test are shown below :

(kglcm2)
Pressure

7
COMPACTION

The sample had an initial height of 2 cm and an initial mass of ll2,.O4


gm. After the completion of the test the oven-driedsample was found io weigh
81.39 grn. The specific gravity of solids was 2.71 and the dial gauge consrant
was: 1 divn. = 0.02 mm.
(a) Determine the equilibrium void ratio of the sample after each toad
incremeut.
(b) Determine the values of co-efficient of compressibility and
co-efficient ofvolume change for various pressureranges.
6.16, An undisturbed sample of saturatedclay, collected from a depth
of 5 m below G,L., was subjectedto a laboratory consolidation test. The initial
diarneter and thickness of the sample were 7.5 crn and 2 cm respectively. The
mass of the sarnple in the wet and dry s[ateswcre L75.2 gm and 138.8 gm
respectively. The final cornpressions under various pressures are shown
below:

Plot the e vs logl6 p curve and check whether the soil is overconsolidated.
If so,determinethepreconsolidation
pressure.
Given,G = 2.67.
?

7.1 Introduction:
Constuction of structureson weak soils (e.g., soft clay,
loose sand, etc) sometimesrequires "stabilisation" of the soil mass, i.e., an
artificial improvement of ib engineer.ingproperties,
There are various methods of soil stabilisation, the most common one
being the mechanical stabilisation,and the simplest technique of mechanical
stabilisation is compaction
A soil mass can be compacted by cither a dynamic process or a static
one. In the dynamic metlod the soil is compactedby repeatedapplications of
a dead load, while in tbe static method compaction is done by a steadily
increasing static load. Generally, the dynamic merlod gives better results in
coarse-grainedsoils and tle static compaction is suitable for less permeable
fine-graincd soils.
72 Moisture-densityRelationships:
Whilecompactinga soil inthe field,
it is always desirableto compact the soil in such a way tlat its dly density is
maximum. If a given soil is compactedunder a specified compactive effort,
its dry dcnsity will be the maximum at a certain moisture content, known as
the optimum moisture contenL Hence, before compacting a soil in the field,
its optimum moisture content and the corresponding dry density must be
determined in the laboratory. The test employed for this purpose is called
StandardProctor Test.
73 Standard koctor Test In this test, samples of the given soil are
prepared at various moisture contents and are compacted in t cylindrical
mould, 127.3 mm high and having an internal diameter of 100 mm. The
eample is compacted in tfuee layers of equal height, each layer being
oubjectedto 25 blows of a compaction rammer having a self-weight of.2600
gm and a heigbt of free fall of 310 mm.
Samples are cornpacted in the mould at increasing moisture contents.
After each test, weight of the sample compacted is detcrmined and ie bulk
and dry densitiesare cornputed.
A curve is then plotted to show the variation ofdry density with moisture
content (Fig. 7.1). The curve is usually parabolic in shape.Initially thc dry

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foutdation Engineering

166
2.O

ry

t'8

> l 7

S t o n tl ord Pr octer
I Test

-)

'ld -

We have,

At any given moisture content, the dry density of a soil in the fully
saturatedcondition can be derived as follows:

I
A A S H 0T e t

t.9

rd= ##c
\

15

"'(7'1)

From eqn (7.1) it is evident that, for a given soil, an increasein moisture
content will always result in a decreasein y4. Hence the zero air voids line is
always a steadily descendfurgline.

r.5

t0

wG = e

F o r a f u l l y s a t u r a t e d s o i ls, = 1 ,

G,{n

l + e

wG=se

and

IA

3 rs

167

Compaction

20

25
2'0

W o t e rt o n t e n t( 7 " )
Fig.7.1

density increaseswith increasingmoisture content, until a certain peak value


is reached. Further increase in moisture content results in a decreasein the
dry dersity. The moisture content representedby the peak of the cune is the
optimum moisture content (OMC) and the corresponding dry density is the
maximum dry density of the soil under that particular compactive efforl
For heavier field compaction, the moisture-density relationship can be
investigated by the modified AASHO test. The test procedure is similar to
that of Proctor test except tbat a heavier rammer (weight = 4900 gm, free fall
= 450 mm)ris used and the soil is compactedin 5 layers.
Under heaviercompaction,the moisture-densitycurve (FigJ.l.) is shifted
upwards and simultaneously moves to the left, resulting in a lower OMC but
a greater y;.o. .
7.4 Zero Air Voids Line: Compaction is achievedby the expulsionbf air
from the voids. However, as the external load acts for a very short time, it is
nearly impossible to drive out all the air from the voids. Thus, during
compaction, a soil is not fully saturated.If the remaining air could be driven
out, its void ratio would have been reducedand consequently,its dry density
would have increased.The zero air voids line (FigJ.2) is a theoretical curve
which representsthe relationship between water content and dry density of
the soil when it is l00To saturated.

1.9

,\

U
U

I.E

I
=
c

1,7

^
807' Soturation
|t
,l [i n e

- Z er r i o i r v ' o i d sl i n e I
(
SoturotionlineI
\ 10.0cl'

q,

?'..
L

\
t.5
1.4

l0

l2

l4

l5

l8

20

22

WuterContent
{7")
Fig.1.2
75

Califomia

Bearing Ratio (CBR):

The California bearing ratio test is

of immense importance in the field of highway engineering.The CBR value_

n8{fg3i!s1-prob&le
The California bearing ratio is defined as the ratio of the force per unit
area required to drive a cylindrical plunger of 50 mm diameter at.the rate of

168

Probiemsin SoilMeclnnics and FoundationEngineering

169

Compaction

1.25 mm/min into a soil massto that required to drive the same plunger at the
same rate into a standardsarnpleof crushedstone.

Thus,

cBR=###"

xroovo

...(7.2)

or
Y
L

The test is performed by first compacting the given soil in tle AASHO
mould at the specified compactive effort as stated in Art. 7.3. The sample is
compacted upto a height of. 127 rnm at the particular moisture content and
density at which the CBR value is required. The plunger is then driven into
the soil under a steadily increasingstatic load. The settlement of the plunger
is measured wifl the help of a dial gauge while the corresponding load is
obtained fron the proving ring, From the results a load-settlement curve is
plotted and the test loads for 25 mm and 5.0 mm penetrationare determined.
The values of unit standardloads coresponding to thesetwo penetrationsare
70 kgcr# and 105 kg*? respectively. Therefore, the CBR-values at 2.5
mm and 5.0 mm penetrationscan be determined.

C u r v eB

o
gr
c

600

CL

400

=
c
o

orrected5mm
Penefrotion

ct
o
J

200

Corre
cfed2.5mm
(mm)
Penetrqtion
\F\
Shift of origin
Fig.7.3

Generally, the CBR valu e at 2.5 mrn penetation should be greater than
that at 5.0 mm penetration. In that case,the former value is acceptedas the
CBR value for design purposcs.
If the CBR value correspondingto 5 rnm penetrationexceedsthat for 2.5
mm penetation, tle test should be repeated,However, if identical results are
obtained once again, the CBR value for 5 mm penebation should be used.

EXAMPL'ES
Proctortestareshownbelow-:
Problem7.1.Theresultsof a laboratorv

7.5,1 Correction to the cume : The load-penetrationcurve should always


be convex upwards (curve A in Fig.7.3). However, tiue to surface
irregularities, tlre initial portion of the curve is sometimes concave upwards
(curve B in Fig.7.3). The cuwe lhen. must be corrected in the following
manner:

No. ofTesl

(i) The straigbt portion of curve I is projected backwarclsto meet the


X-axis at O'.
(ii) The origin O is shifted to O'.
(iii) Subsequently,all penetrationsare measuredfrom the new origin O'.
Thus, the points corresponding to 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm penelration
should be shifted towards the right by an amount equal to the shift of
origin.
In order to simulate the worst possible field conditions, the CBR test is
sometimes performed on seakedsamples.After compacting the sample in the
mould" the sample is kept submergedin water for a period of 4 days, after
which the sample becomesalmost saturated.The CBR test is then performed
on this soakedsample.

.'

Wt. of mouldandsoil (kg.)

3.526 3.711 3.797

Water content (%)

8.33 10.40 12.23

3.906 3.924 3.882


L6.20

\7.92

20.39

The mould is 12.7cm high andhasan internaldiameterof 10 cm. The


weightof the emptymouldis 1.89kg.
(i) Plot the moisturecontentvs. dry densitycurve and determinethe
optimummoisturecontentandthemaximumdry density.
(ii) Plot tbezeroair void curveandtheL0Voair void curve.
Given,G =2.68.
Solution:

Volumeof themould= (x/4) (12.7)(L02)cc


= 997 cr
= 3.526 - 1.89

In the first test, weight of soil

= L.636k.g = 16369m
w
Bulk density,y =

1636 =

v= 9n

l.64gm/cc,

l7O

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

and,drydensity,
\d - *-

f#*S::

2-2

= 1.515
gm/cc.

The dry density y2"of the soil correspondingto the zero a ir void condition
may be obtained from eqn. (7.1).

-o

,/

*F-

);---

h.

1.1

1.2

louc='ts.z.

1s

15

ro

zo

22

Wotertontent {7.)

Table 7.1
a
a

Wt. of mould and soil (kg.)

3.526

Water content (7o)

8.33 10.40

Wt. of soil (gm)

1636

t82t

t907

Bulk density (gm/c-c)

1.641

1.826

1 . 9 1 3 2.V22

2.UO 1.998

Dry density,ya(gm/cc)

1 . 5 1 5 t.654

r.705 t.740

1.730 1.660

Dry density for zero air


void, p, (gmlcc)

2.I90

2.018

1.810

Dry density for lOVo air


void, y9o (gm/cc)

2.I47

3.7t1 3.797 3.906

12.23 16.20 L7.92 20.39


2016

1.869

Frg.7.4
Problem T.|/.-=T,\eoptimum moisture content of a soil is 16.5% and its
maximum dry density is 157 gnlec. The specific gravity of solids is 2.65.
Determine:
(i) the degreeof saturation and percentageof air voids of the soil at OMC.
(ii) the theoretical dry density at OMC correspondingto zero air voids.

3.v24 3.882
?n34

Solution: (i) When the sorl is at OMC, it hasa moisturc content of 16.57o
and a dry densityof 1.57Bm/cc.

1992
Now,we have,

0r'
1.964

1.808

L.747

t.67

optimum rnoisture content = l5.2Vo


and rnaximum dry density = 1.76 gm/c.c
The zero air void line and the lovo air void line also are shown in Fig.

fd = *
!'5't =

t.733

The compaction curve is shown in Fig. 7.4. From the curve we find,

7.4.

ta
c
o,

similarly, the dry densitiescorresponding


to theactualproctortest,the
zero air void condition,andthe lovo afuvoidconditionarecomputedfor the
remainingfive tests.Table7.1 showstheresultsin a tabularform.

2.M6

d6or= 1.752
qm/cc

>\

(2.69)(t nt
v,
, 4 e o= t + 0 . 2 f r = z l 4 7 g m / c n

2.86

I
z Z e r oa i r v o i d s

.--q-:<

1 0/o
: oir voids z

U
U

=t

"_g_-(%|fa@ _0.248

9)--

2.O

(2.68)
I * (0.0833)

Again, when the soil has IO% ait void, its degree of saturation isgOVo.

No. of test

{--

>E 1 . 8

G ' b -, , , ! ? 1 % l : 9 1
= .= Z . r e g m / c c

Y* " GG

17l

Compaction

oft

(2'65)(1'0)
l + e

r + e= f f i = t . e a
e = 0.688

Again, se = w G, or, ,f = n G
e

(0.16s)
(2.6s)=
0.635 = 63.5Vo
(0.68s)
Hence,therequireddegreeof saturationis 63.5%o
of
andthepercentage
air void is (100-63.5)Vo= 36.5Vo
(ii) At zeroair void thesoil is fully saturated,
i.e.,s = 1.

I7Z

Problems k Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

" = 8-

(2.6s)=
- (0.165)
0.437

existing soil is less than its OMC. Hence,a certainamountof water is to be


added to the soil prior to compaction'
Now, 14*= 1.66 gnlec = l -66t/n3

(2.6s:" ^'
=1.844gm/cc
ta=ffi,
Therefore, the theoretical dry density at OMC for zero air void = 1.844
gmlcc.
During tie construction of an embankment, the density
Probten.@.
attained by field compaction was investigatedby the sandjar method. A test
pit was excavatedin the newly compactedsoil and was filled up by pouring
sand. The following were the observations:

Thus,for every1fi) rn3of finishedembankmen!the weightof dry soil


requiredis,
W7 = "tit*, 'V = (1.66)(100)t = 1661.

'w*\
W n = w . W|| d * = ' f r' J; t

Bulk density of sand = t.52gm/cc

l-

Moisture content of embankmentsoil = 167o


Detennine tle dry density of the compactedsoil.

thepit,

sorurion:
to"'";'="i:
L)z
\
Volume of the pit = 1550 cc.

Wt

B u t , 1 =7 i , o r , W 4 = \ d . V

And theweightof wateris,

Weight of soil excavatedfrom pit = 2883 gm


Weight of sand required to fill the pit = 2356 gm

ffr

173

Compaction

= 37.35t
= (0.22s)(166)
content
soilis 1'78t/# anditsmoisture
of theexisting
Thebulkdensity
is9%6.
Dry densityoftheexistingsoil, y4 = #;

J::
or'

But, weight of the soil excavatedfrom the pit = 2883 gm

thesoil, t =
.'. In-situbulkdensityof
#i

= 1.86gm/cc

And, in-situ dry densitv of the soil,

'P=tfl=I-#G=r'66gm/*'
,a

It is required to construct an embankmentby compacting a soil


Prcblerudl
excavatedfroln nearby borrow arcas.The optimum moisfure content and the
corresponding dry density of this soil were determined in the laboratory and
vrere found ta be 22.57oand 1.66 gm/cc respectively. However, the natural
moisture content and bulk density of the soil were 9Vo and 1.78 gm/cr
respectively.
Find out the quantity of soil to be excavatedand the quantity of water to
be added to it, for every !.00 m'of finished embankment.
Solution: The embankrnentshouid be constructedby compacting the soil
cbtained from borrow area at the optimum moisfure content and the
corresponding rnaximum dry density. But the natural moisture content of the

Yr=1|fu

-r'633t/nf

The volume of soil, V6 to be obtainedfrom borrow areain order to obtain


166 t ofdry soil is,

, r = Y - #l.oJJ = 1 0 1 . 6 5 m 3
ld
Weight of water availablefrom tbis soit,
Wnr= Wd. w5 = (166)(0.0) = 14.94t
.'. Quantity of water to be added=(37.35 -t4.94>t

tobeadded=
ofwater
Volume
##Hi#
But,densitYofwater,Y,o = 1 gm/cc
= 10-6 t/cc

= (1000)
1ro-6;tzfit
= l0-3 tlir

174

Problemsin SoitMechanicsandFoundationEngineering

.'. Volumeofwarertobeadded= {22.4}) - 2L4l|litre.


(10-')
Thus,101.65m3of soil is to beexcavated
from theborrowpi ta,.dz24ra
litre ofwater is to be addedto it.
Pnoblem?F. ett embankmentwas constructedby compacting
a soir at a
moisturecontentof ISSVo^and
a dry densityof t.ilTgmTcc.ti"tn. ,p."ln"
gravityofsoil solidsbe2.d8,derenninethevoid ratioan-cl
degreeof saturation
of the embankment
soilSolution:

Here,

In the loosest state,


bulk densitY =
dry density, yd_, =

( 3 3 6 3 . 6 - 2 1 -i
00)_12
l'J39 gm/cc
(r43^3r)
= =(t''?n)r. = 1.2o6gm/cc.
------Y( 1+ 0 . 1 1 )
l+w

8857.4-2100I
b u l k d esni.t V - f t * f f = l . f i 6 2 g m / c c

la=l.72gm/cc,G=2.68

y,r* =
drydensity,

- 1.505gm/cc
Y/*
ld - ld^o
Relativedeusiw. R^ =
x l00vo
.
-

se = wG, or " = Ag
e
(9.155)-g{s}
" =
- 0.744 = 74.4vo
(0.55u1

Again,

Yd

Weightof mould+ soil in thelooseststate= 3363.6grn


Weigbtof mould+ soil in rhedensest
state= 3g57.4gm

$"n

Y/r""

Ydro

={i#i{i#+#i 0oo)'/.

Problem7.6.rnorderto determine
thererativedensityof a sandsampre,
its
naturalmoistureconte.ntandburk densityweredetermined
in the fiero and
were found tobe 770and1.61grn/ccrespectivery.
Sampresof this soirwere
thencornpactedin a procror'smourdof i/30 cft capaciiy,
at the toosestand
thedensest
states.
The followingdatawereobtained:
Weightofemprymould= 2100gm

Solution: Volunreof thc mould =

= r.677gm/cc

ln-sirudrydensity,
Va= ffi

e = 0.558.

Moisturecontentof thesarnpleusedin lests= llo/a


Determinetherelativedensityof thesandandcommenton

#Tfrb

In-situ bulk densityof the soil = 181 gm/ccand its naturalmoisture


cortent = 7%b

t+"-ffi

ot,

=udffiul cc=e43.8ecc

ln the denseststate,

We have,p =

_ (a*ga
1.72
ort

t75

Compaction

its type.

= 70.74 7o
/
Problernl]l
It is required to construct an embankment having a total
volume of 64000 cu.m. The required soil is to be collected from borrow pits.
It was found that tbe cxisting soil has a moisture content of l4Vo, void ratio
of 0.63 and specific gravity of solids of 268. I-aboratory tests indicate that
the OMC and maximum dry density of the soil arc l9.5Vo and 1.72 gm/cc
respectively. The soil is to be carried from the borrow pit to the construction
site by trucks having averagenet canying capacity of 5.5 t. Determine the
total number of trips the trucks havc to rnake for constructing the entire
embankment.Also find out the quantity of water to be addedto the borrowed
soil before compaction.
Solution:

In-sirudrydensity
of thesoil, ,u = fP
l +

176

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

= g'6CIi1'P= L64sm/cr
(1 + 0.63)

Compaction

177

Solutiron: When the rock presentin the fill is compactedto the densest
state, its dry unit weight is given by,

= 1.64t/m3
.'. In-situbulk density,\ = \a(1 + w) = (1.64,(1 + 0.1a) = L87 t/m3
Now, in 1 n3 of borrowedsoil, quantityof dry soil presentis 1.64t, and
quantityof waterpresent= (0.14)(1.64) Wn = w . W6l
t...
= O.23t
while constructingrheembankment,
this soil hasto be comDacted
at a
moisturecontentof l9,5Voandat a dry densityof 172 t/m3.
For I m3of finishedembankrnent,
dry soil required= 1.72t,

G'{n -i-;
(2.s6)
(t.o) _
=
= 1.48gm/cc.
Y/.- = | . " _
o;i

Let us now consider 1 gm of the given fill. According to the question,


the weight of rock and soil present in the fill are 0.8 gm and 0.2 gm
respectively.
\_
Now.volumeof0.8gmofrock

andwaterrequired = (0.195)(1.72\t
= 0.335t.
quantityof dry soil required= (1.72)(6.t000)= 1,10,0g0t

.'. Total volurneof excavationrequiredto be made=

*P

.'. No. of trip to be made- l'2!'!L8 = 22.812.5- 22,g22


5.5
Weight of waterobtainedfran 67,122m3of borrowedsoil
= (67,122)(0.23)r = 15,438r
'Weight of water

finatly required= 2!,4N L

""Quantitv'
*".:il;,#'_',o,:HrTlffiX'l
Problem 7.8. The rock content in a filr is 8TToby dry weight. The rock can
be compactedto a rninimumvoid ratio of 0.73.The maximum dry unit weight
to whic.h the soil fraction can be compacted is 1.63 gm/cc. wbat is the
maximurn dry density to which the fill can be compactid ? Given, specific
gravity of the rock = 2.56.

= 0.54cc.

#cc
#

= 0.123 cc:.

Total volurne of 1 gm of fill

= 0.54 + 0.123 = 0.663 cc.

Dry unitweight of rhe filt

=
=

W
L
- 1.508gm/cc.
0J63

Problem 7.9. The results of a laboratorv CBR test are shown below :

= 6-7,122
n3

Grossweightof thissoil = (1.84 (67,lZZ\t = 1,25*51g


r

and, volume of 0.2 gm of dry soil =

.'. For the entireembankmentof 64000m3


and, quantityof waterreguired= (0.335)(64000)= ll,llg 1
- As the in-situdry densityof existingsoil is 1.64t/m3,everycubicmetre
of excavation
will produce1.64t of dry soil.

1d^, = l-63 gm/cc.

For the soil.

No. of tesl
Penetratron

0.5

Lmd (kg)

19.8 < t <

(-.)

1.0

1.5

)n

?.5

3.0

4.0

5.0

93.7 t3zl 171"9 20"t.o288.8

a)7 )

t0
't.5

II

L:

10.0 L?.5

401.7431.8458.3

Determine the CBR value of the soil. Given, unit standardloads for 2.5
mm and 5.0 mm penefafions are 70 and 105 kg/cm" respectively.
Solution: Fig.7.5 shows the load vs. penetraiioncurve. As the curve is
initially concaveupwards, an initial zero correction is required.
The shaight portion of the curve is projectedbackwardsto intersect the
X-axis at O , which then becomesthe new origin. Consequently,all points on
the penetration axis are shifted to the nght by an equal amounl
From Fig. 7.5 we obtain,
test load for corrected2.5 mm penetration= 200 kg.
and,

test load for corrected5.0 mm penetration= 332k9.

Area of CBR plunger

= * fS.Ol'"*2 - 19.635cmz
4 '

178

Problems k Soil Mechanics andFoundation Engineering

.'.Unittestload
forL|mmpeneftarion
=
ffi.
and,unittestloadfor 5.0mmpenetrat
ion- I
lv.oJJ

-t6.- *

CBR value for 2.5 mm penetration = 10.19


CBRvalue for5.0mm penetration=
'
I

= 10.19
kg/cn|
= 16.91ks7cm|

(i) Plot the water content vs. dry density relationshipand determine the
optimum moisture content and the correspondingmaximum dry density of
the soii.
(ii) If the specific gravity of soil solids be 2.70, pl<rtthe zero afuvoid line.
= 1,74 gmlccl
[Ans. OMC = 17.6%,Y,rmax

1.007o= 14.6%

x l(fi%o = 16.lLo

105

Thus, CBR value for 5.0 mm penetrationis greaterthan that for 2.5 mm
penetration"Therefore, the cBR test has to be repeatedand if similar
results
are obtained once again, then the cBR value of ie.tvo should be accepted.
500
400
ET

)<

7.2.The resultsof a standardProctortest are shownbelow.


Water C-ontent(%)

11.6

14.9

t7.7

20.r

22.s

Wt. of soil and mould (gm) 3263.4 3523.28 3734.8 3852.9 3832.7 3765.1

The height and intemal diameterof the mould are 12.6cm and 10.1 cm
respectively. The ernpty mould weighs 1950 grn. Plot the compaction curve
and determine ttre optimum moisture contentand the correspondingdry and
bulk densitiesof the soil.
AIso plot the zcro air void line and tbe SOqosaturationline.
Given, specific gravity of solids = 2.69. [Ans: OMC = l7Vo,y7 ='1.6gm/cc,
7.3. Tlre in-situ dBnsity of a soil mass is being determined by the'''ifure
cutter method. The height and internal diameterof the core are 12.7 cm and
L0 cm respectively and is weight, wheu empty, is 1847 gm. When the core
is filled with soil, it weighs 3674 gm.If the specificgravity of solids be 2.67
and the degree of saturation of the soil be 63%, determine the in-situ dry
densityof the soil. The in-situvoid ratio of the soil is found to be 0.85.[Atts.
1.526gm/ccl
7.4. An embankmentof hapezoidalcross-scctionis to bc constructed for
a 2 knr long highway. The embankmentshould have a height af 2.2 m and a
top width of 10 rn. The sides of the embankmerttare to be sloped at 2H : 1'
V. The soil obtained from the borrow area is tested in the laboratory and is
found to have the following properties:
Natural moisture content = l2Vo

c,

EN

=
crc
o
EI
E
CI

-,

P e n e t r o t i o(nm m l
Fig.7.5

= 1.8{./m3
In-situbulk density
Optirnummoisturecontent= 19%

E)GRCISET
7.1. The following are the results of a proctor compaction test performed
on a soil sample"

Bulk Density (gm/cc)

7.8

y = 1.87gm/ccl

WaterContent(%)

179

Compaction

9.2
I.524

L2.7
1.749

15:5
1.949

18.3

2.U9

2A.2
2.4t9

Drv derrsitvat OMC

= t.65thf

Determine the quantity of soil to be excavatedand the quantity of water


the embankment.[Ans:65055 m'; 7318
to-beaddedto it beforec<mstructing

.31
7.5, Determine the magnitudesof compactive effort imparted to a soil
during:
(i) StandardProctor Test

!
i

i
I

I
l1
i1

,l
jt

';

Il
)

Problems in Soil Meclunics ond Fottndatian Eng,ineering

180

Modified AASHO Test'


x no' of
[Hina: Compactive effort = Wt. of rammer x height of fall
x
no. oflayersl
blowslayer
7.6.The speciticgravity of solidsof a soil is 2'65. Detenninetbe quantity
of dry soil audwater requiredto c0lnpactthe soil iu a Proctor rnould having
D = 10 cm and H = 12j cm, at a void ratit'rof 0.6 and at a moisture content
of 207o.[Ans: 1652 gm; 330 crc]
7.7.T\ree identical triaxial test samplesof 7.5 cm height and 3.75 cm
cliameterare to be preparedat a moisture content of 15Voand a dry density of
1.48 gm/cc. Determine the total quantity of oven-dried soil and volume of
water requiredfor the purpose. [Ans: 367.8grn, 55.2 cc]
7.t. Determine the CBR value of a given soil from the following data
obtained from a laboratory CBR test :
(ii)

Load (kg)

19.8

50.1

81.8

Penetration
(mm)

0.5

1,0

r.5

120.0 170.1 421.7 605.9 699.3 662.8


'7.5 lo.0
r2.5
5.0
2.5
2.O

Plot the load-penetration curve and determine the CBR value of the soil'
Conrment on the test results. fAns.23.7%l

8
SHEAR STRENGTH
When an external load is applied on a soil mass,
8.1 Introduction:
sbearing stressesafe induced in it. Ii the shearstressdeveloped on any plane
in the soil exceedsa certain limiting value, failure of the soil occurs. The
maxirnurn shear stresswhich a given soil can withstand is called its shear
strength.
The factors goveming the shearstrengthof a soil are :
(i) internal frit:tion, i.e., the resistancedue to particle interlocking
(ii) cohesion, i.e., the resistancedue to the internal structural bond
which tends to hold the particles together.
According to Coulomb's law, the shearstrength,r, of a soil is given by:
'E = c + otan
...(8.1)
0
where,

o = normal stressacting on the soil


c = cohesion

0 = angle ofinternal friction


The factors c and S are called the shearparametersof a soil.
When expressedgraphically, eqn. (8'1) can be representedby a straight
line called the failure envelope;The general form of failure envelope for a
cohesionless,a cohesiveand a c - 0 soil are shown in Fig. 8.1 (o.),(b) and (c)
respectively.

T
{

J(bt
Fig.8.1.

L82

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundation Engineering

The shearpararnetersofany soil dependuot only on the nature ofthe soil


but also on such factors like rnoisturecontent and loading conditions. At very
low moi_sfurecontent a cohesivesoil may developa certain amount of internal
friction. Likewise at high rnoisture conlentsa cohesionlesssoil may show the
signs ofhaving an apparentcohesion.
8.2 Mohr's circle of stress: This is a graphical representationof tle stress
conditions in a soil masswhich enablesone to find out the stressesdeveloped
on any plane within the soil due to an external loading system.
In a stressedmaterial, a plane which is subjectedto only a normal stress,
but no shear stress, is called a principal plane. Through any point in the
material, two such planes exist. These planes are called the major and the
miror principal planes, and are ortlogonal to each other. If lhe principal
stresses,01 and g,3,?te known, the normal.stess o and shear stressr on a
plane inclined at an angle 0 to the major principal plane is given by,

and,

"=Y.rycos2o

...(8.2)

" = 9l-:-or
z

...(8.3)

,in 29

183

Shear Stength

8.3 Pole: The conceptof the pole, or the origin of the planes,is very usefrtl
in such problems where the locations of the principal planes are not known.
Consider the soil element subjectedto a system ofexternal stressesas
shown in Fig. 8.3. It is required to determine the normal and shear stresses
acting on the planeAA, inclined at an angle 0 to the horizontal.
Considering the free body diagram of the element it can be proved that
the element can be in equilibrium only if, T, = ayx.
The procedure for drawing the Mohr Circle and locating the pole are as
follows:
(i) Choose tle co-ordinate axesand selecta vector scale.
(ii) Locate the points A and B such that they representthe stresseson
tbe horizontal and vertical boundariesrspectively,of the element.
(iii) JoinAB. It intersectsthe o-axis at C.
(iv) With C as centre and CA = CB as radius, draw the Mohr circle.
(") The point A representsthe stress conditions on the horizontal
plane. From A, draw a straight line parallel to this plane. It intersects the
circumference at P. Again, if from .B a line is drawn parallel to the vertical
plane (since the point B representsthe stressesacting on this plane), it will
intersect the circle at tle samepoint P" This is the pole of Mohr's circle.

Equations (8.2) and (8.3) can be represented by a Mohr Circle, as


illustrated in Fig. 8.2. The co'ordinates of any point on the circumference of
the circle give the stressconditions on a particular plane representedby that
point
^
+?

T
(-r rTtyl
^ -

!y, .'A

xv'

Try

(0,0)L/

QlqT)
A
Txy

cr

-t- llqjor hincipol


Shess

"i+"3

Io

vlrv

"i-"3

,-

T
Fig.8.3

-t- FliRorhincipol

Strrss

a,

(-,Tl \

c\

-T
Fi8.8.2

(uD From the pole P draw a line parallelto the planeon which the
shessesarerequired.This line intersectsthecircleatQ.T\e co-ordinates
of
give
the
nonnal
and
shear
stresses
on
given
planeAA.
the
Q
Thus,thepolemay be definedasa particularpoint on thc Mohr's circte
suchthat, if a line is drawnfrom this point makingit parallelto any given

184

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

plane within the soil mass,lhen, the co-ordinatesof the point of intersection
of this line with the circle will representthe stressesacting on that plane.
8.3.1 Sign convention'
The following sign conventions are rormallv
followed for plotting the stressco-ordinates:
Normal stress: Compressive stressesar taken as positive and tensile
stressesas negative.
However, soils can with stand only compression and
not tension. Hence the normal stresson any plane of a
soil element which is in static equilibriurn is always
positive.
Shcirrstrcss: The sign of a shearstressis determinedon the basis of
the direction of its moment about any arbitrary point
inside the soil mass. If tbe moment acts in the anticlockrvisedirection, the shearstressis positive, whereas
if it acts in the clockwise direction. the shear stress is
negative.
8.3.2 Ltrcation oJ the failure plane : Fig. 8.4 representsa soil sample
subjected toa rnajor principal stresso1 and a minor principal stress03. As
the sample is on the verge of failure, the Mohr circle has touched the failure
envelope at P. Evidently, the pole of the Mohr circle is at A.
The highest point on the circumference of the Mohr circle is the crown
R. The lineAR is inclined to the o-axis at 45'. The corresponding plane in
the soil is MN, which is the plane subjected to the maximum shear stress,
r,no. Howev er, theIntential failure plane in the soil is not MN, but theplane
represented by the poiru P, becausethe stressco-ordinates given by P are

,B
/ , N

ShearStength

185

such that coulomb's equation is satisfied as the point P lies on the failure
envelope. In order to determine the location of this plane,join PA and PC.
Now,

LPCB=LPAC+/-APC
AC = PC,

As

LAPC = LPAC = a

LrcB=ct+
Again,since
InAPDG.

q = 2 a ,

DF llOB , LPGF = LPCB = 2c.


LPGF = LPDG + LDPG
2 a = Q + 9 0 " [ ,. . P G L DE, .'. LDPG = 90" I

or,

a = 45' + g/2

or,

...(8.4)

In Fig. 8.4, the planeBB, drawn at (45' + Q/2) to the majorprincipal


plane,representsthe failure plane.
It r:anbe proved that, at failure the relationshipbetweenthe two principal
stressesis given by,
or = 03 :filoz 145" + Q /2) +'zr'tan@s" + g /2)
...(8.5)
o1 = o3.f{6 + \ctlfia

or,
where,

"
ffO = flo'w value = tan (45" + 0 /2)

...(8.6)

...(8.7)

8.4 Determination of Shear Strength: The following testsare employed


tbr the evaluationofthe shearstrengthofa soil :
A.

l:boratory tests :
1. Direcl ShearTest
2. Triaxial CompressionTest
3. UnconfinedCompressionTest.

Field Test :
1. Vane ShearTest
For a detaileddescriptionof the testprocedures,the readeris refened to
any standardtextbook of Soil Mer:hanics.Only the essentialpoinf,sregarding
the computationof shearstrengthwill be highlightedhere.
B.

-3

H, ,r8/

A
e

Fig.B.;

8.4.1 Direct Shcar Test: In this test,soil samplcscornpactedat known


densitiesand rnoisturecoutentsin a shearbox of 6 crn x 6 cm size,which can
be split inlo two halvcs,is shcareCby applyinga graduallyincreasing!ateral
load. Three identical sarnplesof a soil are testedunder ditferent vertical
compressive stressesand the corresponding shear stressesat failure are
determined.A graph is then plotted betweennormal stressand shear qtess.
Resultsof eachtest are represented
by a singlepoint. Three points obtained
from the lhree testsarejoined by a straightline which is thc failure envelope
for the given soil. The siope of this line gives the angle of internal friction,
while the interceptfrom the r-axis gives the vaiue of cohesionof the soil.

186

Problemsk SoilMechanicsand FoundationEngineering

8,4.2 Triaxial Cunpressian Test: In lhis test, cylindrical soil specimens


of 3.8 cm diameterand 7.6 cm height,enclosedin an impermeablerubber
rnembrane,areplacedinsidetheniaxial cell.An all-roundcell pressure,o3,
is appliedon the sample.Simultaneously,
a gradually increasingvertical
stressis applieduntil eithertle samplefails, or its axial stain exceeds2A%.
Stressvs. straincurvesareplottedto determinethe normalstressat failure.
This stressis calledthedeviatorstress,od. The majorprincipalstress,o1, is
obtainedfrom the following relation(referFig. 8.5) :
O1=O3*O4
...(8.8)
oi= "3*-d

V r t L V

A'= - nt
i
where,

[o)

(b)

(c]

Fig.8.5
Three samplesofa soil are testedunder different cell pressures.From the
results, three Mohr circles are construcied, and a common tangent is drawn
to them. This is the failure envelope.
The normal stressat any point during the test is determined by dividing
the normal load obtained from the reading of the proving ring by the
cross-sectionalarea of the sample. Due to the bulging of the sample during
shear, the cross-sectional area should be modified using the following
equation :
Ac = As/(t - e)
...(8.e)
where,
Ac = coffected area
A0 = initial area
where,

e = axial sf]ain = M/L


A L = axial compression
L = initial length

In the drained tiaxial tests,the volume of the sample may changeduring


the test due to expulsion or absorption of water. In that case, fhe corrected
area should be detennined from :

...(8.10)

Vt = initial volume of the specimen


A 7 = changein volume due to drainage.
Ir = initial length of the sPecimen
AI = changein length of the specimen

8.4.3 I) nconJircedCompression Test : This is a special caseof triaxial test in


which o3 = 0. We have, from eqn. (8.5)
As

q3ta6
r1 =

187

Shear Strength

+ Q/Z)
ar = o3vn4 (45' + 6/21 + ktang,"
03 = 0, for an unconfined cotnpressiontest,
or = 2c tan(45' + Q/2)

...(8.11)

A number of tests on identical specimenswill give the same value of


o1. Thus, only one equation is availablewhile two unknowns, viz., c and f ,
are involved. Hence, eqn. (8.11) cannot be solved without having a prior
knowledge ofany one ofthe unknowns.
P
Due to this reason,the unconfined compression test is employed to determine
the shearparametersof purely cohesive
soils only. For such soils, S = 0", and
hence,
ol=2clan45" =2c
TorqueRod
The vertical stress o1 at failure,
known as the unconfined compressivestrength and denoted by q* is obtained
by dividing the normal load at failure by
the correctedarea,asgiven by eqn. (8.9)
Tlus,

or,

Vones

qu = 2c

eu
c=T

...(8.12)

8.4.4 Vane Sheqr Test.' This is a field


test used for the direct deterrninationof
the shear strength of a soil. Generally
this test is conductedin soft clav situated
at a lreat deoth- samolFdrEf,ich are

airfi.ffil
The apparatusconsistsof fourmetal
blades, called vanes,mounted on a steel
rod, as shown in Fig. 8.6. The device is
pushed slowly upto the desired depth

I.

r/

l- o-l
Fig.8.6

Vanes

188

Problems k Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

189

Shear Stength
and is rotated at a uniform speedby applying a torque through the torque rod.
The amount of torque applied is recorded on a dial fitted to the rod. Failure
occurswhen the vane can be rotatedwithout any further increasein the torque.
For a cohesive soil, Q = 0. Hence coulomb's equation reducesto :
S = C

Thus, for a cohesive soil, the shearsrrengthis equal to its cohesion.In a vane

shear
test,
thecohesion,
r"I:y

*.ryry*n

bederermined
from:

:,"=.d4{A \
I
t2 6l I

_ i . - -

'

"(sr3)

+ - l

I : torqueapplied (= p.a)
i/ = heightofthevane

where,

D = diameterof tlle vane.


t.5 sensitivity: when the shear stressesdeveloped in a soil exceeds its
.shearstrength, the soil fails by shear and loses its strength. However, if rhe
soil is left in that state for some time, it regains some of its original strength.
The sensitivity of a soil is a measureof its capabilify of regaining strength
after a disturbance has been causedin the soil. It is expressedas,
shear stength in the undisturbed sute
o
...(8.14)
'
shear strength in the remoulded state

a =

and,

Nature of clay

I
t-2

Insensitive
f,owsensitive
Medium sensitive
Sensitive

2-4
4-8
8-L6
>16

Extra sensitive
Quick clay

The givenplaneis inclinedat 30' to the majorprincipalstress.But the


to the major principal
directiouof major principalstressis perpendicular
given
planeandfte major
between
the
plane.Hencetheangleof inclination
principalplaneis,
0=90'-30"=60P
(2 - l.l)
(2 + t.l')
* --T-.cos(2 , /^ .x 60")
ar T
= 1.55 + (0.45)(cos120')
= 1.55 + (0.45)(-l/2)

- r.r\

Q
r = #sin

and

sclution: (a) Analytical method: The normal stress,o and the shear
stress,r on any plane inclined at 0 to the major principal plane is given by :
o ==0--?
1 * o 3 '* 0 -T
1 - o 3

L_--

.^ x 60')
(2

- (0.45)(sin120') = 0.39kg/arr2
TlKglcnz]r
0.75

0 t1.33,0.39)

0.50

I
0.25

0'39K9

0
t-75

EXA.MPLES

Pnoblern
V. A soil sample is subjectedto a major principal stressof 2
kglon- and a rninor principal stressof 1.1 kg/r-' . Determinethe uonnal and
shear stressesacting on a plane inclined at 30o to the nrajor principal stress.

cos2o

= l.32skg/cmz

f.5 c
.

sin 20

ot = 2?,g/crf and o3 - t,lkq./cri

Here,

on the basisof the sensitivity,clayey soils are divided in the followine


categories:
Sensitivity

ol-('3

2.5 {
( K g/ c m 2 l

Fig.8:7

(b) Grophicalmethad:Thegraphicalsolutionis shownin Fig 8.7'The


procedure
is statedbelow:
(i) TheMohr circleis drawnwith at = 2'0kg/cmz andcr3= 1.1kg,/cm2

190

Problems in Soil Meclwnics and Fottndation Engineering

Shear Strengtlt

l m2 y

(ii) From the centre C of tlris circle, CD is drawn at atr augle of 120o
( = 2 0) to the o-axis. This line intersectsthe circle at D.
Altenratively, frorn the pointA correspondingto s3, a straight lineAD is
drawn at an angle of 600 1= 0) to the o-axis.AD also intenects tbe circle at
the samepohrt D.

N(40,'t0)

:16'5kN/m?--+1

(iii) The co-ordinatesof D give the normal and shearstressesacting on


the given plane.From Fig. 8.7 we obtain,

t
T = 3 ' 6k N /

o = 1.33kg/cmz

30

r = 0.39kg/crnz
Problem

Y.

19.

LS S

m. stressesactingon a soil elementdre shown in Fig. 8.8 (a).

10kN/m2

(20,-10)

2 0 k Nm
/

iot<Nl#
tDr

_T(kN/m2)

to)

Fig.8.8(b)

6. From P, FQ ll ,ttr is drawn to intersectthe circle at p.


The solutions to tle three giveu questionsare now obtained as follows :

D
Fig.8-8(a)

(i) The points of intersection,R and $ between the circle and the o-axis
give the principal stresses.Here,

(i) Detennine the magnitudeand direction of the principal stresses.


(ii) Find out the stressesacting on the plaue XX.

ol = 48 kN,/rn2

(iii) If the soil hasa colresionof 5 kN/m2 and an angleof intemal friction
of 25o,find out whelher a shearfailure is likely to occur along the planeXX.

ot = l6.2kN/m2

and

Solution:The graphicalsolutionof the problem is presentedin Fig. 8.8


(b). The procedureis as follows:

In order to locate the directions of the principal planes,the points R and


S arejoined to the pole P. Through any pontZ in the soil elelnent, Z -lllPS
and Z - 3 ll PR are drawn.
The planes Z - t andZ - 3 give the directions of the major and minor
principal planes respecrivcly.
(ii) The strcsseson,lXare given by the co-ordinatesof Q. From the figure
we obtain.

1. Two orthogonal c'o-ordinateaxes and an appropriatevector scale


(1 cm = S *NZm2) are chosen.
2" Tbe points M (20, -10) and l{ (40, 10) are chosen to represent the
slresseson the planesAB and8C respectively.
3. M andif arejoined and the mid-point O of MN islocated.

on

4. Witlr O as cenlre and M]{as diameter, the Mohr circle is drawn.

= 16.5kN/m2 andrps=3.6kN/rn2

(iii) The normal stresson.lXis 16.6kN/#. Frsm coulomb's equation,


the shear strength of a soil is given by,
s - c + otano

5. The pointilf representsthe stresseson the planeA.B.FromM, a straight


line ifP is drawn parallel to AB, to intersectthe circle at P. P is the pole.

t92

Problems in Soil Mechanics qnd Foundation Engineering


Here, c =5 kN/rn2,o = 16.6 kN/m2, 6 = ?5"
.';
s = 5 + (16.6)(ran25')
= 12.74kN,/m2 > 3.6 kN,zmz
Asr

< s, ^failure along)Q( isnotpossible.


Problern si.]r4he stressesactingon an elementof erasticsoil mass'areshown
in Fig. 8.9 (a). Determinethe nonnal and shearstresseson the planeXX.

193

Slrcor Strengtlt

(ii) FromA (representingthe stressconditionson the plane bc) d:,awAP


bc,
to intersect the circle at P. This is the pole of the Mohr circle.
ll
Alternatively, if frorn B, BP ll bc is drawn, it alsowill intersectthe circle at
P.
(iii) FrornP, drawPQll ,XX.It intenectsthe circle at Q. The co-ordinates
of Q give the stresseson the planeXX. From the figure w'eob'.ain,

oxx = 2'35t/mz

5Kg/cm2

rnr = 0'95t/n2

artd

ZKglcnz

Problem S;&;The stressconditionson a soil elementare shown in Fig. 8.i0

(a).
5Kglc nz

(i) Find out graphicallythe stresseson the plane,4,4.


(ii) Draw a freeboclydiagramof thesoil elementandshow thesestresses.
(iii) Prove ihat the free body is in equilibriurn.

50kN/m2
(o)

5 5k N / m 2

(a)
Fig.8.e

40kN/m2

solution.'Fig. 8'9 (b) slrows the graphical solution. The solution is


obtainedin thc lbllowiug stcps:
(i) Locate the pointsA (2, 0) a^d ^B(5, 0) which represe^trhe pri^cipal
stressesacting on the soil element.with AB as diameter.draw the Mohr's
circle.

8.61
kN/m2

T ( k N/ m 2 )
A

a?

50k N/m2
60kN/m2

a 7 ( K g/ c m 2 )

55kN/m2

q__-L
8.57k N/m2

30

40

cr
( k N/ m 2 )

+ 2
0.95
Fig.3'it-'-

P.

-T(Kglcnzl

tb)
Fig.8.e(b)

solution: (i) The graphicalsolutiouof the problernis shown in Fig. 8.10


(b), from which we get,
,\
o = 55 kli/m-

Problems k Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

t94

r = 8.67 kN/m2
(ii) The free body diagram of the soil element pqr, bounded by the
vertical plaile, the horizontal plane and tbe given plane AA, is shown in
Fig. 8.10 (c).
(iii) The free body will be in equilibrium if the sum of the components
ofall forces acting on it along any two orthogonal axcs separatelybe zero.
Let,

P4 = 1unit,
p
o

pr=ffi=6;=2units

g
r'e'
and-

|
ar
' 7 'o -PQ
tanh=m-{3n

1'732unia

Consideringunit thicknessof theelement,


2 Fx = (- 40) (1) - (8.67)(cos30) (2) + (s5) (cos60")(2)
=-40-15+55-0.
x Y (- 60)(r.732, + (&67)(sin30")(2) + (5s) (sin60")(2)
- -103.92 + 8.67 + 95.25 - 0.
Hencethe freebody is in equilibriurn.
subsoitata siteconsistsof a 10m thick homogeneous
layer
Probbm ffie
ofdense sandhaving the follouring properties:
la - l.62gm/cc' G - 2.68,0 - 35'
The nahrralgroundwatertablelies at 2 m belowthegroundsurface.
(i) Determinethe shearstrenglhof tbe soil along a horizontalptane
througbthe middleof sandlayer.
(ii) If duringmonsoon,thewalertablerisestothegroundlevef,how will
the shearstrengthalongthesameplanechange?
Assumethatthe soil is dry abovewatertable.
Solution: Tbe horizontalplaneunderconsiderationis at a depthof 5 m
below the G.L.
We have,

or,
OI,

n{d-

GTn

Shear Stength

195
G + e
Ysar= ll;.Yw

Now,

2.68+ 0.654,. ^,
= -l-a
g654 tr'ut

Z.OTgm/cc= 2.02Vm3
(i) The normalstresson thegivenplane.,
a = ld, 21 + l*6. 22
= (r.62,(2) + (r.02)(3\ = 6.3t/m2
..'. Sbearstrengthof tbesoil at thisplane,
., = c + otano
- 0 + (6.3)(tan35') - 4,41t/n?
(ii) In this casetheentiresoil massis submerged.
o - ysub.z= (1.02\(5,- 5.tt/m2
= (5.1)(ran35) - 3.57t/mZ
-/,, s
Problen-td Specimens
of a silty sandweresubjectedto the directshear
testin thelaboratory,in a shearboxof 6 cm x 6 cm size.Thc normalloadand
theconesponding
shearforcesat failureareshownbelow :
and,

Draw thc failureenvelopeanddeterminetheapparentangleof shearing


resistance
anfcohesionof thesoil.
Solution:Thecross-sectional
areaof theshearbox = 6 x 6 = 36 cm2.
Therionnalandshearstresses
arefirst obtainedusingtherelation,
load
= SlreSS

area .
.
These are shown in a tabular form below :

lll'

E?P ' r.62


e = 0.654

IU

?o

30

Shearforce (kg)

9.90

t5.4t

20.88

Normal stress(kg/cm2)

o.28

0.56

0.83

0.275

0,428

0.580

Normal load (kg)

Shearstress(kglcm")

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fonndation Engineering

L96

In Fig. 8.11 the nonnal and shearstressesareplotted along the horizontal


and vertical axes respectively. Three points thus obtained are thenjoined by
a straightline. This is the failure envelopefor the given soil.
The intercept ofthe failure envelopeon^ther-axis representsthe apparent
cohesion,which is found to be AJZkg/an'. The apparentangle of shearing
resistance is given by the angle of obliquity of the failure envelope to the
horizontal, and is found to be 28.5'.

Shear Strength

tgl

be tlre radius whicb must be perpendicularto OQ, since Oe is a tangen/to


the circle.
Tlrus, in order to locatelhe centreofMohrcircle, draw eC L Oe. eC
meets thc o-axis at C, which then, is the ccntre of Mohr circle.
(v) With C ascentreand Cp as radius,draw the Mohr circle. It intersects
the o-axis atA andB, which, then, representthe minor principal stresso3 and
the major principal stresso1 respectively.
From Fig. 8.12, we obtain,oe = 1.08kg/5y1rrz,ot = 2.47 kg/cm?.

e\I

(vi) Dnw a horizontal lne PQ through Q. It intersectsthe circle at p.


This is the pole of the Mohr circle.

8.5

g0'5

(vii) Join PA andPB. Thesetwo lines are parallel to the directions of the
planes on which 03 and 01, respectively,act. From the figure we obtain,

3 a.t

o,
L
+

AAB

v)
u 0.2

c =0 . l 2 k g l c n z

a./l

0|

- 32.5' and LPBA = 57.5'

Hence the minor and the rnajor principal planes are inclined to the
horizontal at 32.5" and 57.5" respectively. The orientation of the planes are
shown in Fig. 8.12 (b).

ct
OJ

lo.2 0.4 06
O.g lo
N o r m oS
l t l e s s , r ( K g l c m 2)
Fi8.8.11

Problenr 8/ A direct shearte.stwas performedon a sample of dry sand.


of 1.5 kg/on", failure occurred when the shear stress
Under a nbnnal stre-ss
a
reached 0.65 kg/cm'. Draw the Mohr circle and the failure envelope. Hence
determine the orientation of the principal planes and the magnitude of the
principal slresses.
Solution: The construction is shown in Fig 8.12. The procedure is as
follows:
(i) Choosetwo orthogonal co-ordinateaxesand a_suitablevectorscale.
The scale chosen in this problem is : I cm = 0.4 kg/cnr2.
(ii) Locate the point Q corresponding to o = 1.5 kg/*rz
0.65 kgr'crn?.

and r =

(iii) Since the soil is a dry sand, it should not have any apparentcohesion
and tle failure envelope should passthrough the origin, Join the origin O and
the point 8.O8 is the failure envelope.
(iv) The point Q representsthe stresseson tle failure plane. But in a
direct sheartest, the failure plane is aly3lrs horizontal-.Now, the point p must
must touci the iailure
envelope. If Q can be joined to the centre of the circle the resulting line will

GI
F

; t.2

gr
.Y

7oJ o't

Principot
Ptane

+
t/l
L 0 {
o

(b)

CJ
E
t/l

2,4q 2.8

NormolS tress(lQ/cm2l
(a)
Fig.8.12

Prrblem $r(flrree identicalspecimens


of a partiallysaturatedclay were
subjectedto an unconsolidated
undrainedtriaxial test and the following
resultswereobtained:

198

,SampleNo.

Crll?ressure(W*\

< l 1= o 3 l V 1+ 2 c ' l N 6

D.eviarorstress
(tg/cmJ

1.

0.5

0.80

In caseof tlre first sample,o3 = o.Sl<g/crt itrd o1 = L.30kg/c.It

2.

1.O

o.97

Substitutingin eqn.(8.6) we get,

1.5

1..t3

0.5JV{+Tcfi=t.3

Determinetheshearparameters
of tle soil(i) graphically(ii) analytically.
solution: In a triaxial testthe cell pressureactsas the minor principal
stess,while themajorprincipalstressis thesumof thecell pressureandthe
deviatorstressal failure.Tbe valuesof o3 ando1 areshownbelow:
SampleNo.

os (kg/cm2)

oa(kglw2)

or (kgcqr2)

0.5

0.80

1.30

2.

1.0

o.97

I.97

3.

1..5

L.t7

2.67

1.

199

ShearStength

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fowtdation Engineering

where

ilO = t o? (45" + Q/21

Similarly, for the second and third samples, the following equations are
obtained:

and,

Nq+2c4$=1.97
1.5/V6+ k,/q = L63

....(ii)
...(iii)

(i) from(ii) weobtain,


subtracting
0.5f0 - 0,67, of, ilO = 1.34
ort

{i) Graphical solution : Three Mohr circtes are constructed and a


common tangent is drawn tlrough them (Fig. s.13). The shearparametersare
found to be :

0rt
olt
oft

c = 0.27W*r2
0 = 8.5"

....(i)

f'

ot,

haf (45' + Q/2) = 1.34


tan(45' + i/2) = 1.157
45'+$/2=49.7
{/2 = 4.2"
0 = 8'4'

Substitutingfor f in eqn.(i),
(0.s)(1.34)+ (2c) (1.157)= 1.3
ort

c = 0.27W*?

Check: Substitutingtle valuesof c and0 in eqn.(iii), we get,


L.H.s. = (1.s)(134) + (2)(0.27)(1.1s7)
=2.63=RH.S.

0.75 1-0 12.5 1.5 1.75 2-00 2.25 ?.50


N o r m o lS t r e s s( K g / c m 2 |

Fig.8.l3

(ii)Arulytical solution: Fromcqn (8.6)wc havc,

Problengp<A sampleof &y coarsesandis testedin thelaboratorytiaxial


appamtusin the undrainedcondition.Under a cell pressureof 2 kg/cm', the
samplefailedwhenthe deviatorstressreached4.38kg/cm'.
of thesoil.
(i) Determinethe shcarparameters
(it At what deviator stresswill the soil fail if the cell pressurebe 3
kg/crn'?
Solution: Here,o3 =2kglgri,aa= 4.38kgor?.
01 - <r3+ o/ = 2 + 4.38 = 6.38kg/cr*.

2OO

?ol

Problemsin SoitMechanics and Fonndation Engineering

Shear Strength

and o1 = 6'38 kg/cm2,a Mohr circle is drawn (Fig'

SampleNo.

Ccll pressu;e
(kgicml

Deviator stress^at
failure (kgicrn')

Pore pressureat
failure (klcm')

1.

1.0

2.U2

0.41

2.

1.5

z.t8

o.62

J.

2.0

2.37

0.70

With o3 =Zk{an?

8.14).
'sincetlesampleismadeofcoarsesandandsinceitisinthedrystate'
passesthrough
no apparent cohesion will develop and the failure envelope
the origin.
to the Mohr.circle
Iriorder to locate the failure envelope,draw a tangent
fromtheorigin.Byrneasurement,theangleofobliquityofthislineis3l''
Hence, the shearParametersare:
'
c = O , O= 3 1 '
(ii) We have, from eqn; (8.6)'
o1 =o3Nq+2c4$
Asc = 0, ".

solution: The values ofcell pressuresand deviator stressesgiven in the


problern aia the total stressvalues.The conespondingeffective stressesmay
be obtained from the relation :

o1 = 03 lV6

01 = 03 tan21+5' + Q/2')

or,

Detennine the shearparametersof the soil considering


(i) total stresses(ii) effective stressess.

o ' = 6 - l l

"'(i)

(\a

The major and minor principal stresses,consideringthe total stress


analysisaswell aseffectivestressanalysis,aretabulatedbelow :

E
c'l

Sample
No.

=
v,
v,
o,

o3

gg"r"1

ad
(kg/cm2)

o1
(- ol + oa)

g'l
o'3
(
a
s
*
)
ot
1- -;r)
Gc/"-1
(kg/cm") (kg/cm:)

(kg,/cm2)

+
tt
L
E

o,
E
3/'l

NormolStress (Kg/cm2)
Fig.8'14

Here,o3 =3k{u?,0

= 31'

g'37kg/ctt
o1 = (3)[tan(45"+ 3r"/2)f =
Deviatorstress'o7 = 01 - 03
- g.37-3=6.37 kg.tt
^
problen g.l {Tl" tollo*ing resultswereobtainedfrorn a laboratorytriaxial
test with aX6ngementsfor porepressuremeasuremenls:

1.

1.0

2.U2

3.U2

0.41

0.59

2.59

2.

1.5

2.t8

3.68

0.62

0.88'

3.06

t,

2.0

2.37

4.37

0.70

1.30

3.67

Total stressanolysis:Three Mohr circles are drawn using the three sets
of values of o1 and o3. In Fig. 8.15, thesecircles are shown by firm lines. A
common tangent is drawn through them, which is the failure envelope for
toal stressanalysis.From the figure we obtain.
'
c =o.75 Wt"f and O = ?.5
Effective stess analysis:In this casethe Mohr circles are drawn with the
three sets of values of o1' and o3'. In Fig. 8-15 the effectivc stresscircles are
representedby broken lines. Thc values ofthe correspondingshearstrength
paramete$ are,
c' = 0.65 kg/un2 arld O' = 13'
t

Problems k Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

202

Now,

-o--+

O -13o

e
q

.Y

203

SIrcar Stengtlt
a7 = a1 - 63

: 6.05- 2.5= 3.55us/""?


Herrce the required deviator stressat failure is 3.55 kg/cm2.
(iD Let the required cell pressurebe xWMr?.
6l=6d,

c -

I.

...(ii)

01 =l;68+r

olt

_G

lo!'

Substituting for o1 and 03 in eqn. (i), we get

' 0 5

c =0 ' 7 5

l--.

ntitni''

t.5
nn

2-0
-33

a.o oil

0ft

'
N o r m oS
l tressllQ/cm2)
Fig.8.15

,.'
-Problgm S.|{'fle shearstrengthparametersof a given soil are, c 0.26'
kglcm" an{ 6 = 21'. Undrainedtriaxial lests are to be carried out on
specinensof this soil. Determine:
, (f deviator stressat which failure will occur if the cell pressurebe 2.5
kglont.
(ii) the cell pressure d-uring the test, if the sample fails when the deviator
stressreaches1.68 kg/crn'.

Solution:
(D We havefrom eqn.(8.6).
01 -o3'lVq+zc'l$

x = 0.83

ot,

.'. The requiredcell pressureis 0.83 kglonz.


Problem $A*Tlie following aretheresultsof a setof drainedtriaxial tests
mmdiameterand76mmheight:
performedffiree identicalspecimensof3S
Sample No.

i
i'
$ll preslure
, (kN/n')

1.

:50

2.
3.

Deviatorload
at failure
(kN)

Change in
Volume
(cc)

Axial
Deformation
(mm)

0.f/11

- 0.9

51,

i00

0.659

- 1.3

7.O

150

0.0956

- 1.6

91

Determine ttre shearparametersof the soil.


Solution: The deviator loaJs at failure corresponding to each cell
pressurearegiven. In order to determinethe correspondingdeviator stresses,
these loads are to be divided by the correctedarea of the sample,which can

For thegivensoil,g = O.26kgc#and Q - /1'

ffo * t"n2(as"+ Q/2) = ut(45" + 21"/2) = 2.1!7.

and 1fr; - AtrI

1.68+x=2.Il7x+O.757
l.Ll7x = 0.923

- 1.455

be obtained from

Hence,eqn (8.6)reducesto :
or - 2.117os + (21(0.26)(1.455)

"^c

=vrtLv
Lr-LL

ot;

at - 2.1!7 a3 + o.757

When

a3 - 25Woo2

- (n/4)(3.82) (7.6) cc

o1 -(Lll7)(LS)+0.757

= 86.19cc

- 6.05kg/ct&

....(i)

Here,

Vr - Initial volume of the specimen

Lt - 7'6crrr

Problems in SoitMechanics ttnd Fottndation Engineering

zo1

For the first sarnPle,A V = - 0.9 cc and AI = 5.L crn


86.19- 0.9 =
12.03 c-mz = I2.A3 * 10-4 m2
n" =

/r'

problenr SWAv
unconfined compression test was performed on an
of
norrnallyconsolidatedclay, having a diameterof 3.75
sample
undisturbed
occuned under a vertical compressive load of
Failure
crn
high.
cm and 7.5
recordedat failurewas 0.9 cm. A remoulded
de
formation
axial
t 16.3kg. The
sAnrpleof the same soil failed under a compressiveload of 68.2k9, alrd the
correspondingaxial cornpressionwas 1'15 crn-

7f,:ilf

:.

0.0711 =
59.L0kN/rn'
12.03x 10-a

ad=

and,o1 = 03 + oa = 50 + 59'10 = 109'10kN/rn2


for two othersarnplesarecomputedin a similar
The majorprincipalstresses
below:
tabulated
are
results
Thc
manner.
Sample
No.
I

o3

1rxlm2)

Fa
(kN)

LV
(*)

AL
("m)

Ac
(".2)

od

o1

GN/#)

ltcN/m2)

50

0.0711

- 0.9

5,1

12.O3 5 9 . 1 0

109.10

100

0.085e

- t.3

7.0

t7^36

69.50

169.50

o.tB56

- 1.6

9.1

12.65

75.61

225.61,

15(l

205

Shear Stengtlt

Threc Mohr circles are constxuctedand their common tangent is drawn.


Ttris is the failure envelope of the soil (Fig. 8' 16)'
By neasurementwe obtain,
"
c = 25 kN/rn', O = 3.8

Determine tle unconfined compressivestrengthand cohesionof the soil


in the undisturbed as well as remoulded state.
Also determine the sensitivity of the scil and hence classify it
accordingly.
Sofution:

(a) Undisturbed state :

Initial areaofcross-sectionofthe sample,


As = (ni4) (3,7il2 = 11'04crn2

t = + = ffi = o.r,
Axialstrainarfailure,
Corrected atea,Ar=

*
11'04 - 1"55cm2
= L.'

-=

T=-d.tz

Normalstressat failure=

= 9.27kg/anz

stength,4u = 9'27kg/cri
Unconfinedcompressive
J

and,cohesion,= + =

; t00
o
Y

t4
L

= 4.64kg/cn?

stote:
(b) RemouMed
15 1.153
= 1T. 3
-=L

o
h s n
ct
0
c

:y!_L__
50
-3t

a. = , 1l#sl = 13'o3cm2
r00

n32nn

150

It Az
N o r m oS
l t r e s s( K g / c m 2 l
Fig.8.16

n'= #.L* = 5'?3ks/cm2


4u 5'23
or' c=;=;=2'62kglcIn'

sttengthin theundisturk
Scnstttvlty=@t"

246

Prablems in Soil Mechanies and Foundation Engineering


9'n
- L1"' 7
' '7
5.23

As the value of sensitivity lies between I and2,the soil is classified as


a low sensitivesoil.
Probfem S.+4.;lftf ,9U triaxial test, a soil sample wa^sconsolidated at a cell
pressure ot}Yg/cffiz and a back pressureof I ig/cm2A for 24 hours. On the
next day, the cell pressurewas increasedto 3 \E/cm'. This resulted in the
development of a pore pressure,of 0.08 kgfcrn'. The axial stresswas then
gradually increasedto 4.5 kg/crn', which resulted in a failure of the soil. Tlie
pore irressurerecordedat failure was 0.5 kg/crn'. Determine Skempton's pore

pressureparameters
A andB.

torque head at failure was 417.5 kg-cm. The vane was then rotated very
rapidly in order to comptetely remould the soil. It was found that the
remoulded soil can be sheared by applying a torque of ?-83.2kg-cm.
Determine the shearstrcngthof the soil in the undisturbcd and remoulded."statesand its sensitivity.
Solution: Weknow tha!
S -

S -

L , u = B [ A o 3 + A ( A o 1- Aor)1, whereAandBare
Skernpton'sporepressure
parrmctcls.
hrthefirstcase,Ao3 = 3 - 2 -

A cr1- 4'5 - t - lsVcrf,


Ao3 - 0
0.50- 0 . 0 8 - 8 l O + A ( 3 . s - 0 ) l
O.42- 35A8

-- s -

S -

...(D

In the second case,

or,

Orr

T
(xl (7.52)(rr.25/2 + 7.5t6)
T
ttr3.67

state,f = Ctl.Skg-cm,
In the undisturbed
4175 -

lkg/em2' Ao1 - I

o . 0 8 + B [ 1+ A ( O - 1 ) l
B(l - A) - 0.8

"nfr
'?)

Here,If=llJS cmandD= 7.5cm,

Solution:We have

or,

2W

ShearStrength

...(iD

rtt}.67

o37Wr;rr2

In the remouldedstate,T = 733,2kg-cmr

Sensitivit, -W-

1.48

Dividing (i) by (ii), weget,

l-A
- 0.08
15 A
0.42
1 - A
oft

T-o'6'l

'or,

l - A - 0.67A, or, A - 0.6


SubstitutingthisvalueforA in (i), wc obuin
I

oI,

B(l-0.6)=0.08
0.08

^ = a 7 = u n^
E
.z

I .

Problem ttfl6. A vane sheartest was carried but in the field to determine the
sbearing strength of a deep-seatcdlayer of soft clay. The varte was 11.5 crn
high and 7.5 cm across the blades. The equivalent torguc recorded at the

EXERCISES
8.1. The normal stresssacti4gon two orthogonalplanesof a soil
sampleare250kNlm2and110kN/m{ Findoutthenormalandsbearstresses
"
ofl a planeinclinedat 60 to thedirectionof themajorprirtcipalsress.
[Ans. o = 215 k]-.[/m2,r = 60.6 trtl/m2]
t.2. The stressconditionson a soil elementare shownin Fig. 8.17.
Dctermine:
(D The orientationandmagnitudeof thc principalstesses.
(ii) The stresses
actingon thehorizontalandthc verticafplanes.
[Ans. (i) ot = 2,76kg.t]

at 98.5'witb horizontal; 03 = 0.83 Ug*rz at 8.5'

withhorizontal(ii)o11 - 0J7kg/artz, aH ov = 2.72kg/c.rr?,av= 0.3 Ugl*r2l

-0.3k4/cm2;

248

Problems in Soil Mechanics ond Foundotion Engineering


Slrcar Strength

lKglcrs?

209

8.5. In problem 8.4, if the water table rises from a great depth to the
ground surfaceso that the soil becomesfully saturatedand its natural moisture
content increasesto l9%o, how will the shear strength on the given plane
change?
[Ans. Reducedby 0.85 t/m']

lKglcn?

2Kglcn2

8.6. The stressconditions on an infinitely small soil elementare shown


in Fig. 8.19.Find out the magnitudeand directionof the principal stresses.
[Ans: o1 = 1'68 kg/cm2 at 12' to the horizontal
03 = 0.47 kg/cn? atl02' to the horizontal]

0'5Kglcr]
015Kg1c62

Fig.8.17
8.3. Fig. 8.18 illustratesthe stressconditionson a soil elemenl
(i) Determine the normal and shear stresseson the planeX-X.
(ii) Draw a free body diagram of the element bounded by plane X-X
and show thesestresses.

1l tn2
X
Fig.8.l9

2.5iln2
2 . 5 tt n ?

8.7. The results of a direct sheartest perfonned on a soil sample in a


shearbox of 6 c-rnx 6 crn size are given below:

Shearforce at failure (kg.)


Fig.8.18

(iii) Prove
trrat
theu* o'iii',

Plot the failure envelopefor the soil atrd detennine its shear parameters.

i,TJi::?ftg*,r, r =0.65rg.'/,l

8.4. Thesubsoilat a siteconsists


of a5 m thickstratumof a cohesionless
soil which is underlainby a rock layer.A surcharge
of 5 t/m2is placedon the
groundlevel.Thepropertiesof thesoil areasfollows:
G = 2.68,e = A,7,w --6Vo,S= 30'
Determinethe shearstrengthof the soil on a horizontalplane at a depth
of 2 m below the G.L.
[Ans : 4.8? t4n']

[Ans.c=0,0=33']
8.8. A given soil has a unit cohesion of 2 vumzand an angleof internal
friclion of 28'. Samplesof the soil were testedin the laboratoryi4 a triaxial
apparafusunder the undrained c-nndition.Determine :
(i)

Deviator stressat failurc when the cell pressureis 1.5 kglcm2.

(ii) The applied cell pressure,if the sample fails under a total vertical
pressureof 5.09kg/on2.
tAns. (it332 k4.lcmz, (ii) z.s kg/cmzl
8.9. A set of triaxial testswere performed on three samples of a isoil.
The cell pressuresand the deviatorstressesat failure are given below:

Problems in Soil Mechsnics and Fottndation Engineering

210

CellPr. (kN/m2)

Deviator stress(kN/m-)

2M

690

300

855

400

1030

Sample.No.

8.f3. A set of triaxial tests were perfonned on three samples of a


line-grainedsoil. The height and diameterof eachsamplewere 75 mm and
37.5 mm respectively.The following are the results:

SampleNo.

Cell Pr.

Deviator load

Axial Deformation

(tg)

(".)

$il"fi

Plot Mohr's circles of slressand determinethe apparentcohesionand


"1
angle of internal friction.
[Ans. c = 112 kN/m' , 0 = 27
8.10. A direct sheartestwas performedin a 6 cm x 6 cm shearbox on
a sample of dry, colresiortlesssoil. Under a nonnal load of 40 kg, failure
occurred when the sheariug force reached 26.65 kg. Plot the Mohr strengtlr
envelopeand detenninetbeangleof slrearingresistanceof the soil. Detennine
graphic:allythe rnagnitudeand direction of the principal stressesat failure.
=
[Ans. $ = 36"i o3 = 0.64 kg/crnz at 27" to Il, o1 2.47 kglcn? al ll7" ro Hl
8.11. Two triaxial tests were perforued on sanples of a moist soil in
an unelrainedcondition. The all-round cell pressuresduring thesetwo tests
were 2.5 kg/crn' and 4.0 kg/on' afid the sarnplesthiled under deviator stresses
of 4.85 kg/crn' and 6.70 kg/crn' respectively. Detennine the apparent
cohesiou and the apparent angle of shearing resislanc:eof the soil (i)
analytically (ii) grapbicallY.
Do you expect to obtain the sarnevalues of the sbear pararnetersif the
samples were tested in a drained condition ? Explain your answer with
reasons.
[Ans; c = 0'59 kg/crn', Q= 22.q'l
8.12. Irboratory triaxial testswere perfornred on three soil sarnplesof
3.8 cm diameter and7.6 on height.The following resultsrvereobtaitted:
Cell Pr,
(kdcm')

Deviator load
at failure
(ke)

Changein
volume (cc)

Atial
Deformation
(cm)

0.5

45

1.1

0.92

1.0

52

L.5

1.15

'/ z.o

79.5

L.7

L.22

SampleNo.

ztL

Shear Stengtlt

Plot Mohr's circles and determine the apparent val'ues ot\hear paramelers of the soil.
[Ans. c = 1 kg/crn', e = 18.7"]

1.45

29.5

0.98

2.70

37.9

L.t3

42.8

1.16

Determinethemissiugvalueof cell pressure


in testno. 3.
8.14. The following resullswereobtainedfrorn a set of consolidated
uudrainedtestswith arrangernents
for porepirssuremeasurernents:
TlestNo.

1.0

2.0

3.0

Deviator Stress(kgicm')

L.31.

I.62

1.89

(kg/cmJ
Porepressure

0.18

0.42

0.86

Cell Pr.(kg/cmJ

Detennine the shearparametersof the soil, considering (i) total stress


(ii) Effective stress.
[Ans. (i) c =A.46kglclr2,0 = 6.5'
(ii)c' = 0.42kg/crt,

0' = 9.8'l

8.15/ Aa unconfined compressiontest was perfonned on a silty clay


samplq/of 4 cm diameter and 8 cm height. The sarnple failed under a
compressiveload of 23 kg and the deformation recordedat failure was 1.42
cm. A triaxial test was performedon an identical sampleof the samesoil. The
all rouncl cell pressurewas 1 kglon2 and the sample failed under a deviator
load of a 39.5kg, The axial deformationrecordedat failurewas 1.L8cm. Find
out the apparentvaluesof shearparameters(i) graphicallyand (ii) analyti"J
cally.
tAns c = O.70kg/cm',$ = 4.5
8.16. 421.5 cn long c:ylindricalsoil sanrplehaving a diameterof 10
crn was subject to an increasingvertical compressiveload. Failure occurred

2t2

Problemsin SoilMeclnnics qnd Foundation Engineering

whentheloadreachedl5lkg,andlhecorrespondingaxialdeformationwas
:
2 cm. The sarnplewas made of clay and had the following properties

G=2.67,s=O.69,w=26Vo
Determine the sndarparametersof the soil

o, =
[Ans' 0 = 0 c A'77 kglc11n'i
cylindrical
8.L7. An unconfiinedcompressiontest was performed on a
sample
The
75
mm'
of
a
height
soil sample having a dihmeter of 3?.5 mm and
at
recorded
strain
axial
The
kg.
23.5
failed afa vertical cornpressiveload of
53'
at
inclined
to
be
observed
was
plane
failure was L.16 "* .od the failure
the soil'
to the horizoiltal Determine the apparentshearparametersof
= 16"]
[Ans. c = 0.68kg/on2, 0
an
8.L8. A triaxial test was performed on a sample of dry sand having
applied
5
"ppui.",6urlue of 36'.Initialiy, a chamberpressureof TglT.ytt
Keeping this
and the deviator stress was gridually increasedto 3 kg/on''
reduced. Al
gradually
the.
was
deviator stressunchanged,the cell pressure
will
fail?
what value of cell pressurethe sample

[Ans. 1.05tg/"*2]
to prevent
8.19. Determine the minimum lateral pressure required"
The shear
kg/on'.
10
of
stress
vertical
a
total
to
failure of a soil subjected
"'
=
17'5
=
kglcm',
0'3
:
c
given
as
I
parametersof the soil are
[Ans.4.94 xgcrtl
an undisturbed
8.20. A laboratory vane shear test was performed in
6'3 mm and
were
vane
sample of soft clay. The diameter and height of the
of 110 gm
torque
applied
an
if .: *- respectively' The sample failed under
rapidly'
vane
the
by
rotating
cm. The ,.*pl" was ttren "ott pi.t"ly disturbed
the
Determine
gm-cm'
of'45
torque
"
The rernouldid soil failed ,tna"t
states
remoulded
an{
undisturbed
the
in
undrained shear strength of the soil
respectively; 2'5]
and compute its sensltivity.[Aor.0. 55 and}.22kglurr2
in
8.21. If a field vane shear test is performed on the soil mentioned
determine
above problem,witha vane of 11.3 cmheightand 7.5 crn diameter,
states'
remoulded
and
undisturbed
the
in
soil
the
to
fail
required
the torques

BARTH PRESSURE
9.1. Inhoduction: It is often required to maintain a difference in the
elevation level of the ground on the left and right hand sides of a vertical
section. Such sihtations call for the construction of an earth-retaining
structure,e.g., a retaining wall or a sheet-pilewall. The earthretainedby such
a structure exerts a lateral thrust which is of paramount importance in the
design of the retaining structure.
Depending on the conditions prevailing at the site, tle lateral earth
pressuremay be divided into the following three categories:
(i) Earth pressuteat rest.
(ii) Active earth pressure.
(iii) Passiveearth pressure.
9.2. Earth kessurc at Rest: Fig. 9.1 (a) shows a retaining wall, embedded
below the ground level upto a depth D, and rctaining earth upto a height l/.
If the wall is perfecfly rigid, no lateral movement of the wall can occur. And
hence,no deformation ofthe soil can take place.The lateral pressureexerted
by the soil is then called the earth pressureat rest.
S o i tW e d gA
eBt

Ur',
Pa

[Ans. 670.6 kg-cm; 268'2kg-cm]

Fig.9.l

Problems in SoitMechanics and Fonndation Engineering

214

Theconjugaterelationshipbetweenthelateralearthpressureandthe
vertical overburden pressureis given by:
"'(9'1)
ol = Ko'ov, or oh = Ko'\z
where

K0 = co-efficient of earth pressureat rest'

Y = unitweightof soil
z = depth at which lateral pressureis measured'
The value of K6 dependson the properties of the soil and its stresshistory,
and is given by:

& =t h
where,

.,(e.2)

p = Poisson'sratio of the soil.

9.3. Active and Passive Earth Pressupes: In reality, a retaining wall is not
rigid, but flexible, i.e', it is free to roiate about its base' In Fig' 9'1(a)' let
pl and pg,be the at-restlateral thrusts acting on the back and front faces of
the wall respectively. Due to the difference in elevation levels, Po , Po''
Hence, a flexible wall will yield away from the bac$fill. The soil wedgeABC
will then tend to slide down along the potential slidilg surface BC. This
condition is illustrated inFig.9.1(b). The frictional resistanceFR againstsuch
movement will act upward alongBC. Its horizontal componentFs will act in
will
the opposite direction to that of Pg. Thus the net pressureon the wall
decreaie. Such a stateis called the active stateof plastic equilibrium, and the
lateral pressureis called fte active earth pressure'
simultaneously,thesoil w edgeDEF inftontof the wall getscompressed.
The frictional resistanceFn' io this case acts along ED and its horizontal
componentFg' actsin the samedirection asthat of P6', Hence the net pressure
on the wall increases. Such a state is called the passive state of plastic
equilibrium and the lateral pressureis called the passiveearth pressule..
The active and passiveiarth pressuresare usually computed by either of
the two classical ""tth pr"tt.tte theories, viz., Rankine's and Coulomb's
theory.
g.4. Rankine's Earth Pressure Theory: This theory is based on the
following assumPtions:
l.Thesoilishomogeneous'semi.infinite'dryandcohesionless.
2. Theback of the wall is perfectly smooth and vertical'
3. Deformation of the wall is sufficient to create a state of plastic
equilibrium'

2t5

Earth Pressure

4. On any vertical plane in the soil adjacent to the wall a coiljugate


relationship existsbetweenthe lateral earlh pressureand the vertical
overburden pressure.
This theory was later extendedby other investigatorsto take into account
cohesivebackfills and walls with batteredbackface.
The equation governing the relationship between the major and minor
principal stresses,acting on a soil element, is given by,

o 1= o 3 N 4 . k - q

...(e.3)

where,Nq= (45" +"Q/2)


0 = angle ofinternal friction
c = cohesion.
Let us consider an intinitesimally srnall soil element at a depth Z below
the ground level, adjacentto a retaining wall, as shown in Fig. 9.2'

3m

J-

1'5m/

J-l

t.toyeySond
I = 1 ' 8 5t / m 3
Q=2t"
c=1tlm2
0enseSantl
Y = 1'95t/m3
@=36o
Fig.9.2

o,, = vertical overburdenpressureon lhe elemenL


orr = lateral earth pressureon the elemenl
According to the fourth assumption stated above, a conjugate relationship exists between,ou and otr . The relationship is similar to the one
expressedby eqn. (9.3). However, the exact form ofthe equation dependson
thi prevailing conditions, i.e., whether the backfill is in an active state or in
a passive state.
(i)Active state :
In this cas, <r1 = oy, and 03 = ott

But, o, = 1z

EarthPressure

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

2t6
and,

or, = active pressureintensity = pr'

.'. Eqn. (9.3) gives,

\z = pa'ilq + 2cVF
2c
\z
n = L - :
ro
'l{o vflo

of,

(ii) Passive state :


Here, o1 = oy, and ot = 6u

...(9.4)

/. .t
t{d

;,ta^

toT

-r.tlt

But, ot, = yz

and,o7, = passivepressureintensity = po

Ht3

_L

-J *otH+(b)

(ol

.'. Eqn. (9.3)gives,


PP=YzNq+?*fi

...(e.s)

Fig.9.3
Fig. 9.3 (b) shows the disnibution of active Pressure intensity. The
magnitude cf resultant thrust per unit length of wall may be obtained by
multiplying the averagepressureintensity by the height of the wall.

9.4.1. Computation af Eorth PressureUsingRsnkine's Theory z


(A) Act ive Earth Pressure:
soils:
(a) Cohesionless
soil, c = 0.
For a cohesionless
.'. Eqn (9.4)reducesto

0+K-yH
Average pressureintensity,pou

_ t L = _ n . : = ^ = y r\F. i1; *+ lsinf


Q
tan" 145" + g/2)

=
=
.'. Resultantthrust,P4
l,*'rrr'
IX,IH'H

Pa = N+
or,

II

where, Ko = co-efficient of active earth pressur" = i;*l*

"'(g'7)

Po = Ko'{ z
Ar the top of the wall

(z = A), Po = O

At the base of the wall (z= 14, Po = Ko:v'H

i.*or,

...(e.8)

(ii) F ully Submerged B aclfill:

Eqn. (9.6) and (9.7) can be usedto compute the active earth pressurefor
various backfill conditions, as discussedbelow:
(i) Dry or Moist Baclfill with Horizotxal Ground Surface:
Fig. 9.3 (a) shows a retaining wall supporting a homogeneous'backfill of
dry or moist soil, uPto a height.FL
At any depth z below the top of the wall.

It is evihent from eqn. (9.8) that the resultant thrust is given by the area
of the pressuredistribution diagram. This thrust acts through the centroid of
the hiangleA.BC, i.e.,is applied at a heigbt of Hl3 abovethe baseof the wall.

"'(9'6)

Po = Kalz

This condition is shown in Fig. 9.a (a). As the soil is frrlly submerged,its
effectiveunitweightis'
T, = ysar_ yw
t
I
I

At any depth z below the top of the wall, the total active pressureis the
sum of pressuresexertedby the soil and water. According to Pascal's law, a
fluid exerts equal pressurein all directions at any given depth.
Hence, at a depth z,
Pa=KaY'z+Ynz

...(e.e)

pressure
distributiondiagramis shownin Fig. 9.4 (b)
The corresponding
(iii) Part ially Submerped Bqcffit t:
(a) Backfill havingsimilarpropertiesaboveandbelowwatertable:

Problems in SoilMechanics and Fottndation Engineertng

218

219

Earth Pressure

Eqns. (9.10) and (9.11) may be usedto determiile the resultant thrust aild
its poirit of application correspondilrgto any pressuredistribution diagram'

KqYhr
D

T
lB
Y1 Pz
P r l

Yz

(b)

(o)

iPs
F_
I

Fig'9.4
Ilr Fig. 9.5 (a), the retainiug wall has to retain earth upto a heightfl. The
ground water table is located at a depth ft1 below ground level. The active
pressureintensities are given bY:
Above ground water table: Po = Koyz (O s z s h)
Below ground water table: Po = Koyhl + Koy'z + ynz (A < z s h2,
zbeing measuredtfromG.W'T.)
Fig. 9.5 (b) shows the correspondingpressuredistribution diagrarn.The
resultant active thrust pbr unit run of the wall is given by the entire area of
this diagfam. It is easierto detennine the areaby dividing it into a nurnber of
triangle and rectangles' In Fig. 9.5 O).
Pt = LABP,

P2 = areaof BCED

Ps = LDEF,

P4 = LDFG.

(b)

(o)
Fig.9.5

(b) Backfill having ditterent propertiesabove aild below water table:


Fig. 9.6 (a) and (b) illustrate this backfill condition and the corresponding
pressuredistributiott diagratn.

11-

Kqrlrhr

I I'

ttst

H I

Resultantactive thrust,

q=11h1

I ,

Pn=Pt+P2+P3+Pa=)4

...(e.10)

j-1

The point of application ofP4 canbe determinedby taking moments of


individual pressureareasabout the baseof the wall' Thus,
Pa'l = Pfr + PzJz + P1Y + PaYa

2 't''t

i-l

0f'

v=-;lp,

t- 1

f
(q)

y'ro
**r,n,i*"rtin4
l
(b)

Fig.9.6

(iv) Baclcfill with UniformSurch'arge:


Fig.9.7 (a) illustratesa retainingwall supportinga backfill loadedwith
a uniforrn surchargeq. The correspondingpressuredistnbution diagram is
shownin Fig. 9.7 (b). Frdm the figure it is evidentthat the effect of the

Problems in Soil Mechanics qnd Foundation Engineering

220

surchargeis identical to that of an imaginary backfill having a heightzo placed


above G.L., where,

'- " _- q
Y-

221

EarthPressure

.,(e.r2)

zs=gttl-t,,
9/unitareq

* -)r
H

Fig.9.8

JJ*ou

(o)

tQlH'-J

...(9.14)
BC = H (1 + anetan p)
onthisimaginaryplaneBC,usingeqn.
(iv) Determinetheactivepressure
(e.13).
(v) For designingtheyall, computethe self-weightof the soil wedge
ABC andconsideris effecton thestabilityof thewall separately'

(b)

Fig.9'7

(v'SBaclfill with a SlopingSurface,


The conditionis shownin Fig. 9.8 (a). The activeearthpressureat any
depthz belowthe top of thewall actsin a directionparallelto thesurfaceof
the backfill andis givenby:
Po = KolH

where, &=cosp #

...(e.13)

(vi)Wall Having an Inclkd Bac$ace:


In order to determine the active earth pressure in this case using
Rankine's theory, the following stepsshould be followed (Ref. Fig. 9.9)
(i) Draw the wall section and the ground line.
(ii) Draw a vertical line through the base of the wall to intersect the
ground line at c.
(iii) Compute the length8C from:

Fig.9.9
(b) Cohesive-ftictional Soils:
From eqn. (9.4), the active earth pressureat a depth z is given by,
.rz
2c
n = L - :
re
Vffo
/{6

'JrrQ
r +L{w4
Ipv'
Problems in Soit Mechanics {tnd Fottndotion Engineering

222

Atz = 0, pa =

or,

v1%

where,

A t z =eH^ ,= f rf t

1
1 + sin$
l-tittq=4

=&

=U,Or,
",

H, _

or,

Pp = Ko\z
Kp = co-efficientof passiveearJhpressure
No=oo'(a5"+$/z)

Let H"bethe depth at which pressureintensity is zero.


'{H"
^{H"
2c
2c
^

rt-q

223

Earth.Pressure

Fig. 9.11(a) arld(b) showsa retainingwall subjectedto a passivestate'


distributiondiagram'
passivepressure
andthe corresponding

ZE\q

...(e.1s)

, 2 c
--{G

]'1b

-46.j
r

2clNo

L
,

{o}
d
l

(b) Cohesive-fr i ct iono I Soi Is:

(b)
Fig.9.10

Fig. 9.10 (b) sbows the distribution of active pressure.The negative side
of this diagram (i.e., A abc) indicatesthe developrnentof tensiottupto a depth
flr. Since soils cannot take tension, rracks will be formedin this zone. Tbe
depth .I{, is, therefore, called the zone of tension crack. The resultant lateral
thrust is obtained by computing the area of the positive side of the diagram
(i.e. L, cde).
(B) Pcssive Errrtl, Pressurei
(a) Cobeslonlesssoils:
soil, eqn.(9.5) reducesto:
For a cohesiortless
PP = ^lzNf

C- * Soil
(c)

Fig.9.11

-r,
J.-tH
' N @ / F _l o
{o}

I o h e s i o n l e sSso i l
(b)

From eqn. (9.5), we havc'


P p = Y z N q+ 2 c ' [ $
For the retainingwall sltowu in Fig' 9.1i (a)'

Atz=0,po=Zcfi
alz=H, Pe=tHNr+Ufi
ThecorresponctingpressuredistributiondiagramisshowninFig.9.ll
(c)'

EartftPressure.

224

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fottndation Engineering

andthc failurc
In the activc statc,thewall rnovcsawayfrom thc backfill
frictional
down'
slides
it
As
wedge C.BCtends to move downwards'
(soil-wall
wall
the
of
r"sisln"es actupwardalongthebackfacc
lifion),anO
of rhefrictionalforceFar,
the failureplane(soil+o-sol rruion;. In absence
backface'Butnow
theactivethrustPwouldhavebecnactingnormallyonthe
to
the normalon the
6
an
angle
at
inclincd
is
Fx,
the resultantP4 of P and

6i+Qtz

backface.Duetosimilarreasons,thcsoilreactionR4willalsobeinclinedat
an angle{ to thc normalon thc failurclurfacc'
Thesamcargqmcntsleadustothcconclusionthatinapassivestatealso
to the normalson
nr
-{n rii arwill b! inclinedat angles0 andf respectively
of Pa andR4 lie
action
of
the
lines
state,
^nafC.However, in thc actlve
linesof action
the
state'
passive
inthe
whcreas
belowthc respectivcnormals,
them.
of P- andR- lie above
""'A
of
il"b.t oigt.pniol andanalyticalmethodstqr tllaejgrn]i'ation
theory'
Coulomb's
trt"rui ""rtl prorit"iave beenproposedor thebasisof
The mostirnPortantmethodsarc:
(i) Culmenl.'smethod
Graphicalrnethod:
(ii) Rebhann'sconstruction

B
a ) A c t i v eS t o t e

b ) P o s s i v eS t o t e
o
Fig.9.t2

(i) Trial wedgemethod'


Analyticalmethod:
may refer to any
For detaileddcscriptions
'Soil of thesemethods,the reader
of these
application
the
However
Mecbanics.
standardtext-bookof
workcd-out
of
number
a
by
chapter
this
in
illustated
,n"*noO,havebeen
problems.
to solve more
Some of the special techniquesrequiredto enableus
the shapeof
in
irregularities
complexproblemsinvolving externailo;ds, or
with'
dealt
bcen
the watt or the groundssrfac-havedso

9.5. coulomb's Earth Pressure Theory: Instead of analysing the stresses


on a soil element, coulomb considered the equilibrium of the failure soil
wedge as a whole. The rnajor assumptionsin Coulomb's theory are:
(i) The soil is dry, homogeneousand isotropic.
(ii) The failure surfaceformed due ro the yielding of the wail is a plane
surface.
(iii) The failure wedge is a rigid body.
(iv) The backface of the wall is rough.
(v) The resultant thrust acts on the backface of the wall at one-rhird
heigbt and is inclined to the normal on the wall at this poinr at an
angle 6 , where,

EXAMPLES
./
prcblem g.{ nS m brghrigid retainingwall hasto rctaina backfill of dry,
cohesionlesssoil havingthe following properties:

6 = angleof wall friction.


Basedon this theory,the lateralearthpressurecan be determinedby the
trial and error method. As the location of the actual failure surface is nor
known, a numberof potentialfailure surfac'.es
are chosenand the lateralearth
pressureis determinedfor eachof tbem.The one for which the lateralthrust
reachesa certainextremevalue (rninirnumfor active stateand rnaxirnumfor
passivestate) is accepredas the true failure surfar:e,and the corresponding
lateral thrust is acceptedas {he active or passivetirrust.as the casemay be.
9.S.l Wallfriction: The conceprof wall fricrion is illustratedin Fig. 9.12 (a)
anri (b).

22s \

(i)Plotthedistributionofhteralcarthpressureontbewall.
andpoint of appticationof rheresultant
tiii ij"t"rrr"e rhc magnftude
thrust
in thelateral'thrustif the waler table
(iii)
' ' Computetbe pcrcente"ng-"
risesfrom agpeatdepthto the top of the backfill'
I

Solution:(i) Bulk densityof thc dry backfill,

226

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fotrndetion Engineering

=t,54t/nf.

rd=*=?T#?

As the wall is rigid, the lateral pressureexerted by the backfill is earth


pressureat rest.
Co-efficient ofearfh pressureat rest,

= 'o'tf='=A56?5
Ko==L
1-p
1-0.36
At the top of the wall (z = 0), po = 0

227'

EarthPressilre

to retaiu
Problem 9.2. A retaining wall with a smooth,vertical backfacehaos
placed
is
t/rn"
of
5
surcharge
unifonn
rn.
A
of
+.5
a
leignt
upto
a sandbacktill
over the backfill. The witer table is at 2 m below G.L. The specific gravity
of solidsand the void ratio of thebacktill are2.68and 0.82 respectively.The
soil above the water table has a degree of saturation of lo7o. The angle of
internal friction of the soil, both aboveand below water table, is 30'.
Detenninethe magnitudeand point of applicationof the resultantactive
thruston the wall.
Solution: Bulk densityof the soil abovewater table,

At the baseof the wall (z = 5 m), p0 = Ko\z

G + s e
y=
| +7'l*

(0.s62s)
(1.s4)
(s.0)
= 4.j3/mz
The distribution of lateral earthpressureis shown in Fig. 9.13.
(ii) Resultantlateral thrust on the wall (consideringunit width),
1

Ps = lKgyH'

= (r/2!(0562s)(1.s4)(s.o)z

(0.10)(0.82)
-2.68 +
(1) = 1'517t/rn3
1+0.82
densityof thesoil belowwatertable,
Submerged
2 . 6 8- 1 r , , = 0 . g 2 3 t / m 3
G-1.
Ysub=lllY,=11-537(r/
Co-efficientof activeearthpressure,
1-sin30'

K"=fi61F=5'

= 10.83 t per m run


The resultant thrust is applied at a height of 5f3 = t.67 m above the base
of the wall.
(iii) If the water table rises to the top of the backfill, the soil wilt get.fully
submcrged.

= +;+' t,"= (##)


Ysub

t/nz
ttr = o'e65

|*oy,ubH2

|t.tf

= 19.?8t per m run


Percentincreasein lateralthrust
= f19.28
f i x I 0 A10.83
Vo
= 787o,

Ir l
at B dueto moistsoil abovewatertable
Active pressure

= Kr,tz=

[})

tt.ttt)(2) = r.or ttmz-

= 0.77t/mz .
= KaTsubr= fl Q.gz3)(2.5)
\'/

= (r/2) (s.0f [(0.e6s)


(o.s62s)
+U

/l)<t.ol = t.67t/mz

Active pressureat C due to slbmerged soil

Resultantthrust
=

= Ko =
dueto surchatge
Activepressure
I

Lateral PressureexertedbY water


= \wz = (1) (2.5) = 2.5 t/trf .
The pressuredistribution diagram is shown in Fig' 9'14'
The resultant active thrust is equal to the areaabcde. For convenie
this areais divided into a numberof trianglesand rectangles.Considering

5m

I
J-

width of thewall,

Fig.9.13

228

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatbn Engineering

229

EarthPressure
Solution: Coefficient of active earth pressure,

- ff-o'^ s"or
Kd=co
e0m

5t ln2

*70-

. coslo"-G-'1{-re

=(coslu=l:

t-

cos10" + Vcos' tO" - cos'32"

= 0.296

thrust,P4 = I *" ,rf


Resultant
/1\

= []l1o.zro)
(s)2
(r.82)
Yl
= 6.734t/m

(bl
Fig.9.14

P1 - ( 1 . 6 7 ) ( 4 . 5- ) 7 . 5 1t
P2

= fif 1t.ot1(2)
- 1.0tt

\")
Ps - (1.01)(2.5) - 2.52 |

!r=4.52=2.?5m

h= 2.5+ 2t3=3.r7m
h=

2.512= 1.25m

/r \

Pa

- l|l1o.tt + 25)(2.5)- 4.691 ta= Z.SR


= 0.83m
\"1
Rcsultantthrust P6 - Pt + P2 + Pg + Pa
- 15,13t pcrmrun.

The point of applicationof this thnrstabovethebaseof the wall may be


obtaincdfrom eqn.(9.11).
.Y -_ -(7.s1)(2.2s)+ (1.01)(3.17)+ (2.s2)(1.2s)t(4.0e) (0.83)
15.13
?5.64
-

Gfr
/

l'76m'

Prublem ?3/ A 5 rn high masonryrctainingwall hasto rctain a backfill of


sandysoil fi6vinga unitweightof 1.82gm/ cc andan angleof internalfriction
of 32'. The surfaceof the backfill is inclined at an angle of 10' to ihe
horizontal.Determinethe rraFitude andpoint of applicationof the active
thruston thc wall.
,1"".--

This thrust is inclined at 10" to the horizontal (i.e., acts parallel to the
ground surface) and is applied at a heigbt of 5/3 = 1.67 m above the base of
the wall.
Problen 9.4. A retaining wall with a smooth vertical back has to retain a
backfill of cohesionlesssoil upto a height of 5 m above G.L. The soil has a
void ratio of 0.83 and the specific gravity of soil solids is 2.68. The water
table is located at a depth of 2 m below the top of the backfill. The soil above
the watertabl eis2}Vosatutated.The angleof internal frietionof the soil above
and below water table are found to be 32' and 28' respectively. Plot the
distribution of active earth pressureon the wall and detennine the magnitude
and point ofapplication ofthe resultantthrust.
Solution: Bulk density of the soil abovewater table,
G+se
t

t w

l + e

2.8 + (0.2)(0.83)

ffi-(1)

= 1.55 t/m3

densityof thesoil belowwatertable,


Submerged

Ysub
?#

t" = ?u-!;sl0) - o'etttnf

Active earth pressureabove water table:


Co-efficient of active earth pressura,Ko, -

i#fffffff

-0.307

AtA(z - 0), pa = 0
AJB(z-zm|pB-Kor\zl

- (0.307)
(1.55)
(2) - o.sSvrt

234

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Active pressure below water table: In this casethe upper layer (i.e., the
moist soil above water table) should be treated as a uniform surcharge, for
which the interuity 4 is equal to the self-weight of the layer.

"

231

Earth Pressure

./
For the retaining wall shown in Fig. 9.16 (a), plot the
Problem 95
distribution of active earth pressureand determine the magnitude and point
of application of the resultant active thrust.

q = yzr = (1.55)(2) = 3.I\t/mz


I - sin 28"
K,r=i;;;F=o-361

Now,

AtB(/ = 0), pa = Ko.e = (0.361)(3.10)


= t.tTt/n?
AIC(z'=

3 m ) , p c = K o " e t K o " , y " o 6 z+' y n z '

= r.1,2+ (0.361)e.92)(3) + (1X3)


=1.12+0.99+3

-1o7st_
-1vd41-1m

f-

1.2m

= 5.llVmz
The pressuredistributiondiagramis shownin Fig. 9.15(b)
/1 \

Now , P=1 l : l @( O.e s)= 0 .e 5 t/n


Yl

A L ooseSond
(y=1.54tlm3,+=
2f )
L,ooseSond
{lro1=1'8t/m39=22o;1
C
DenseSsnd
(Yo1=2.05t/m31
+ = 32o)

yrJz+2/3=3.67n

f zooJ"l--2.30-+

lz = 3/2 = 1'5rn

P2=0.12)(3)=3..36ttm

L
(q)

"r = fll(0.ee+ 3)(3)= 5.e8t/m!3


= 3/3 = rn

(b)

\.J

= Pt + P2 + P3
ResultantthrustP4
= 10.29t perm run.

(t)
t_-p!6)(1.5)+ (s.e8)

Fig.9.16
Solution: Active pressuresexertedby various strata are as follows:
StratumI:
<
" iin ' 7? { -o = 0 . 2 1 0 6
1 + sin25"
pe=o

10.29

K- ='
"at

= 1..41.
m
.', The resultantthrustof n.29 t per m run is appliedat 1.41,m above
thebaseof thewall.

t/m2'
0.95

pB = Kor,trHr = (0.406)(1.64)(1.0) = 0.67t/m2


While computilg theactive
Statum II: This stratumis frrlly submerged.
eadhpressurein this region,shatumI is to be treatedasa unifonn surcharge
of intersity q1,where,

3'67mI
Now,

= I.64t/nf .
Qr = Trq = G.64)(1.0)
| - sin22' = 0 . 4 5 5
K""=
t*G6
pB = Koz ql = (0.455)(1.64)= O35t/^2.
Pc = KozQt + Kory'2H2 + ynH2

(sl

- 0 . 7 s + ( 0 . 4 s 5 ) ( 1 . 8 0- 1 . 0 ) ( 1 . 2 ) + ( 1 . 0 ) ( 1 . 2 )
Fig.9.r5

Probkms in SoilMechanicsandFoutdation Engineering

232

233

Earth Pressure

Hence the resultantactive tlrust of 10.315t per m run is applied at 1.409


m abovethebaseof thewall.
I
Prcblen-{.5. A retaining wall with a smoothvertical backface has to retain
a backfill of c - $ soil upto 5 m above G.L. The surface of the backfill is
horizontal and it has the following properties:

= 0.75 + O.M + L.2 = 2.3gt/n?


StratumIII: Equivalentsurcharge
eZ=ltH1 +y'2H2
- (1.64)(1.0) + (1.80 - 1.0)(1.2)

c = l.5t/m2,0

y = 1 . 8t / r f ,

-.Z.ffiVtt.

= 12'.

pressureon the wall.


$)?tot the dishibution of active earth
point
of application of active thrusl
and
magnitude
the
.(iipetermine
(flglDeterminc'the depth of the zone of tension cracks.
(iv) Detennine the intensity of a fictitious uniform surcharge,which, if
placed over the backfill, can preventthe formation oftension cracks.
(v) Compute the resultant active thrust after placing the surcharge.

sin 32', t
|'
K",-i;jffi-0.307

Pc=K".82+lnHZ
- (0.307)(2.60) + (1.0)(1.2)
- 0.80 + !.2 - 2.0OVn?.

Solution: Thewall section is shotrn in Fig. 9.17 (a)

PD-Pc+Ror{gHg+l*Hg

- ZtX) + (0.307)(2.85 ' 1.0)(2.3) + (1.0) (2.3)


* ZW + OJ4 +,L3 = 5.04tht.
The distibution of activeearthpressureis shown-ihFig.9.16p)

1?fht-

Computationof forcesandleverarms:
P1 = (0.5)(1.0)(0.67) = 0.335t/m /r = 3'5 + l0/3 = 3.83m
Pz = Q.2) (0.?5) = 0.90t/m
h = 2.3 + t.2/2 = 2.90m

2'06n

P3 = (0.5)(r.2)(0.44)=0.2641/m
h - 2 . 3 + L - 2 / 3= 2 . 7 o m
Pa = (0.5)(1.2\(1.2\- 0.72t/m
lq = 2.3 + 1.2/3 - 2.70m
Ps = (2.3)-(2.0)= 4.6t/m
fs = 2-3/2 = 1.15m
P6 - (0.5)(n)Q.74) - 0.851t/m % = 2.3/3 - 0.77m
P7 = (0.5)(2.3, (2.3) = 2.&5 t/m
h = 2.3/3 = 0.77m
'

s-I

f-I
'94m
I

J-!

'17r/#l(b)

(o)

Fig.9.17

Pa,= D Pi = Lo.3tSt/m
i-L

For a c - $ soil, the intersity of activeearthpressureat any depthz is


givenby:

2c
o , -vzf r -@

IAaa

i-l

Y='--=ffi=1'409m
\Z. P ,
;- l

Here,

= 1.525
ff' = oo'(45' + t2'/21 - 1g11251'

= 1.235
4
At the top of thewall (z = 0),
and,

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Fonndation Engineering

234

The pressuredistribution diagram after placing the surchargeis shown


in Fig. 9.17 (c). The resultantactive thrust in this caseis given by,

At the base of the wall (z = 5 m),

PA = (0.5)(5.9X5)= 14.75t/m, appliedara heighrof 5/3 = 1.67m above


the base.

W=3.47t/mz.

The pressuredistribution diagram is shown in Fig' 9.17 (b).


The depth of the zone of tension ffack is given by,

Problem LZA'ietaining wall of 5 m height has to retain a stratified backfill


as shown in Fig. 9.18 (a). Find out the magnitudeof total active thrust on the
wall and locate its point of application.

H"=?:ifi,

Solution: (i) Sandy silt layer:

(2)(t'tlt'zrst 2.06m.
r. -

olt

iv{ - tan2(45" + 2o'/z) = z.o4

The resultant active thr,ust is given by the part abc of the pressure
distribution diagram.

= 5.!ot/n2 -/
.^ = fl Q.s4)(3.47)
\" J

The point of application of P4 is located at L946 = 0.98 m, above the


v
baseof the wall.
at
The maximum negative pressure intensity developed the top of the
wall = -2.43 t/mz. Evidently, the formation of tension cracks canbe prevented
by placing a surcharge q on the backfill which can neutralise this negative
pressure,
Now, after placing the surcharge4 the vertical shess oy at any depth Z
is given by,

ov=q+\z
/ ) ^=
rA

o+vz
No

+ - :

2c
Vtro

# .- 2 c
A t z = 0 , p e =,,0
VFo'
But the magnitude of q is such that, at z = 0, pA = O,

ft-#,r=o
or,

(r.23s)= 3lt/m2.
Q = ?rvN; = (2)(1.s)

atz= H, O^=
Again,

235

- :'z t !t='--e)(s)
- (2]=(1'l= 5.et/n2
1.525
1.235

= -2.43
= - (?{1'i)
t/m2.
+
r.235
Vilo
pr=(#

Earth Pressure

...(i)

166 -

1.438

- _-( -2r) z
( 13. 0E) -_a - rr 't o
r ,l / y 1 2 .
Pn =
PB

= (1.8ilg'e)_ (2](1.i0)
= 0.33t/m2.
2.04

7.438

(2)(l'-o-)lt'a3e)
= 1.55m
H" =
(ii) Loose sandlayer:

a,=f-ffi=033
Equivalentsurcharge
interuity,41= (1.85)(1.9)= 3.5LVri
= t.t7th#.
pB = Kozql = (0.33)(3.51)
Pc = KozQr+ Koz\2H2= 1.L7+ (0.33)(1'72)(1.0)
'
= l.I7 + 0.57 = t.74t/^2.
(iii) Densesandlayer:

a,=l-ffi=o'26
Equivalent
surcharge
intensity,qz=(f .S5)(1.9)
= 5.?3r/mz
+ (1.72X1.0)
Pc = Kot,qz= Q.26)(5.23)= 1.36t/mz
PD=Kotch+KorlsHl

ft

= 1.36 + (0.26)(1.88)(1.6)

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundqtion Engineering

236

= 1.36+ 0.78= 2.14th?


of forcesandleverarms:
Computation

at 10' to the horizontal. The angle of wall friction is 20'. Determine the total
lateral pressureexertedby the backfill, using:

T
1.55m

+-

0'33t/m2

to;il,
P1

Dense
Sond
Y= 1 ' 8 8 t / m 3
0= 36o

I
1.6m

Yt
)-

D
(o)

Solution: (e) Culmann's method: Fig. 9.19 illustrates the solution of the
problem by Culmann's method. The procedurpis explained below:

LooseSond
't=1'72tlm3,@=30o

1.0m

(a) Culmann's method


(b) Rebhann's method.

a139/,htr

SondySitt
Y= 1'85t/m3
c = 1.0t/mz
Q= 20"

1.9m

I
I r.:slo.zs

(i) The backfacc' -B is drawn to a scaleof I : 100.


(ii) The ground line AC, S line BC and rp line 8X are drawn. Here,

{ - 9d' - (o + 0) - 90" - (n" + 8') = 62'.


(iii) The pointsD1, D2, .'., Dg arc chosenon AC at equal intervalsof 1
m. BDyBD2, ...,BDgarejoined.
(iv) From B, BN L AC is drawn. Its length is measuredand is found to
be 4.06 m.
F)
Alternatively,BN = BA'cns(cr - F) = rr'cosG: (l
cos
-=

{bt
Fig.9.18

P1 = (0.5)(0.35)(0.33) = 0.06r/m, y1 - 2 . 6 + 0 . 3 5 / 3 = 2 . 7 2 m
P2 = (1.17)(1.0) - L.t1 t/m,
Y 2 - L.6 + 1.0/2 = 2.10m
P3 - (0.5)(1.0)(0.57)- 0.29t/m,
P4 = (1.36)(1.6) - 2.l8/m,

h = 1.6 + l.O/3 = 1.93m


Y 4 = L.6/2 = 0.80m

P5 = (0.5)(1.6)(0.78)= A.62t/m, ys = 1.6/3 = 0.53m

237

Earth Pressure

* - 4'32t/m

(v) Considering unit width of the wall, the self-weights of various


wedges are computed.For examPle,
Weigbt of the wedgeABD1 = W, = *'AD1'

BN '7

= (0.5) (1.0) (4.06) (1.78) = 3.61 t per m'


Weight of the wedgc

ABDr = Wz = TWr = (2) (3.61)- 7.22t/m.


= 18.05Vm
Similarty,Wr = 10.83t/m,W+=14.44tlm,Ws
Wo=2l.66tlm,W =?5.27Vm,W3= 28.88t/m.
(vi) Using a vectorscaleof 1 crn = 3,61 t/rn, the weightsof various
wedgesare plotted alongBC, and the points C1, C2, ..., Cg are

i - 1
n
<t<

i-l

(a.0) cos (10'- - 8')


= 4.06 m
cos 10'

!---;--*ffi,=1.216m
S P- t .

Z.
i - l

Problem 9.8. A 4 m high retaining wall has a backface inclined at a positive


batter angle of 8'. Thebackfill (1 - 1.78 t/nf , 0 - 30") is inclined upwards

Oii) iHffi',Cr/,rll

atr1.
tointenectBDl
8x isdrawn

(viii) Similarly,a numberof lincsaredrawnparallclto thery-lineBXfrom


intersectionpoints
thc pointsC2,C3,...,Cg,alld thecorrespgnding
arelocated'
E2, Eg,".,, EgwithBDz,&fu,, ..., BDgrespectively
cuweis obtainedby jotnngEy E2,...,Egby a smooth
(ix) The pressure
curve'

238

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundarion Engineering

0\
O.
oo

N
(o
ll
l-

Earth Pressure

c-!
6
oo
lJ.

24O

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatian Engineering

2.41

EarthPressure
CE denotes the
(ix) A tangent to this curve ls drawn at E, such that
joined
and extended
is
maximum ordinate of the pressurecurve' BE
plane'
the
failure
is
to intersect the ground line at D' 8D
the distance C4
The magnitude of t6 resultant active thrust is given by
cm'
the length of which is found to be 1'58
P,1 - (1'58) (3'61) - 5'70 t/m'
(b)Rebhann'smethod:Fig.g.20illustratesthesolutionbyRebhann's
method. The procedure is as follows:
(i) The backface is drawn to a scale of 1 : 100'
8C and rp-line BX ate draq'n'
lilj fn" ground lineAC, $-line
BC as diameter'
with
<irawn
is
fiiii e semfcircle
intersectBC at E'
to
drawn
is
BX
A,AE
ll
iiui fto*
the semi-circle at F'
to
intersect
irawn
is
BC
I
ff
f"l
BF as radius, an arc FG is drawn' It intersects
liij Wm a as centre and
BC atG.
(vii) From G, GH ll 8X is drawn to intersectAC at 'FL
and GIr as radius, an arc I{r is drawn to intersect
li.iiii witn G as centre
BC atI.
(ix) IIIis joined.
(x) HJ LBC is drawn'
The total lateral thrust is now given by,
P,q - weight of the soil wetlgef/IG
1

= +'GI'HJ'y
- 5'77t/m'
= ,-0.r,(2.76,(L35t(1.78)

rough backface-taving a
Problern g"9. A gravity retaining wall with a
backfill upto 4.5
positive batter angle of 1b", has to ietain a dry, cohesionless
:
m above G.L. Tbe properties of the backfill are
\*llkN/m3,Q-?5
Theropoftbebackfillisslopedupwardsat20.tothehorizontal.Theangle
the total active thrust on the
of wall friction *"y u* taken as 1i" Determine
wall bY Rebhann's construction'
by the conventional
Solution: This protrlem cannot bc solved
at a great distance
meet
will
and
f-line
Rebhann's rnethod, as te groundJine
over Rebhann's
modifications
certain
However,
l'.' B is nearly equa! to 4 i'
in Fig.
presented
is
solution
The
problem.
the
*
u,olu*
method will enable *
9.21, while the procedure is explained below :
of 1 : 80'
(i) The backface of the wall, A8, is drawn to e scale

Fig.9.2l
(ii) The ground-lineAC Q-line BD and rf-line BX are drawn'
Here,Q = ff) - (10' + 15') = 65'
(iiD An arbitrarypoint E is taken onBD'
(iv) A setni-circle is drawn with BE as diameter'
(v) EF lleC is drawn.lt interscctsA-Bat F.
(vi) r.G ll BX is drawn. It intersectsBD at G.
(vii) GIl L BD is drawn. It intersectsthe circle at-Fl
arc II1 is drawn to intersectBD
1"iiij witn B as centre and 8Il radius, an
at I.
(ix) F/is joined.
( x) N ll F/ is drawn. A"I intersectsAD atJ.
(xi) From .[ JK ll BX is drawn to intersectA C at K'
an arc KL is drawn to intersect
lxiii Witn J as cente and JrK as radius,
BD AtL.

242

Problems in Soil Meclmnics and Fotrndation Engineering

(xiii) KL is joined.
(xiv) FromK, KM I BD is d,rawn.
Now, P4 = weightof thesoil wedgeJKl = l.XU
a

.LI -y

= (0.s) (3.0)(3.3) (17) = 84.2 kN/m'


Problem 9.10. Determinethe magnitudeof the resultantac:tivethrustexerted
by a cohesionlessbackfill on a 4.0 m high retainingwall having a backtace
inclined at 10" to tbe vertical. The top surface of the backtjll is inclined to
the horizontal at 25", The unit we ight and angle of internal friction of the
backfill are 1.8 Vrn2and 25" respect-ively.
The angle of wall friction may be
taken as 15".
Solution: In this case,the Q-line and tbe groundline are parallel to eaclr
other (since F = 0 = 25") and will never rneet each other. The linal soil
wedge may be construcled anywhere on ilre $-line.
With refere.nceto Fig. g.Zz,the procedureis explainedbelow :

Earth Pressure

243

(i) The backtaceAB, ground litte AC, S-lirc BD and E-line BX are
drawn as usual.Here,q, = 90' - l0' - 15' = 65".
(ii) An arbitrary point E is rakenon the O-line.
(iiD EF' ll BX is drawn to inrersect.ACat F.
(iv) Witb E as ceutre,an arc FG is drawn to interseclBD at G.
(v) FG is joined. L EFG is rhepressurelriangle.
(vi) FH LBD is drawn.
Now, P1 = w-eightof the wedgeEFG
=

1
.y
;.GE.FH

= (0.s)(4.28)
(3.e0)
(1.8)
= 15.02r,/m run.
Prob[ern 9.11. It is required to constructa gravity retaining wall to retain a
sandbackfill upto a heiglrtof 3.5 m. The wall is requiredto have a backface
which is batteredat 10'. The surfaceof the packfill has an upward slope of
8' and carriesa uniform surchargeof I tlm?.The unit wciglt and ary;ie of
intenralfriction of the backfillare 1.80t/rn'and 33'respectively.Delennine
the total active thrust on the wall.
solution: As the value of angleof wall friction has not been supplied,
)
= (z/3) (33") = 22.
we wiil assume,0 =
;0
The unifonn surchargeplaced over the backfill may be repracedby an
equivalent soil layer which will exert the samevertical stresson the backfill.
The beightof this equivalentsoil layer is,
, =
q 1= . 0 =
tt"
U.56m.
m
i
The problem can tlow be solved by Rebhann's rnethod, with a few
modificatiorn as explained below :
(i) The backfaceAfl ground line AC, g-line BC and rp-line BX are
drawn as usual(ii) FrornA, a vertical line AA' is drawn and the diskncer4.41is laid off
from it such that,r4A| = he = 0.56 m.
(iii) Through Av A1c2 is drawn parallel to the ground line to intersect
the g Jine at C2.AB andA1C2 are projectedbackwards to meet at
Az. A2B andA2Ct will now be treatedas the modified backfaceand
the ground line respectively.
The problem is then solved by Rebhann's construction in the usual
maruler.With referenceto Fig, 9.23, the resultantactive thrust,

Fig.9.22

Earth Pressure
244

245

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

s
cl
!b
r

E
I
Fte.9.23
.
Pa = weight of the wedge
- FGH = z\ ,,

. GI . y

= (I/2)(273)(2.32)(1.80)= 5.70 tpermrun.


backfill upto
Prublem 9.12. A retainingwall hasto supporta homogeneous
3.6 m aboveG.L. A long brick wall, 375 mm thick and 3.5 m high, runs
parallelto the retainingwall at a horizontaldistanceof 2.8 m from the top
cornerof theback of the wall. Determinethe total lateralthruston thewall,
given,
y = 1 . 8t / m } , 0 = 3 0 ' , c = 0 , c r = 7 8 ' , F = 6 ' , 6 = 1 5 " .
Solution: Unit weight of brick masonry= t92Okgl.3.
.'. Self-weigbtof thebrick wall permetrerun
= (0.375)(3.s)(1920)=2.52t.
linear load on the backfill. The
The brick wall actsas a concentrated
problem can be solved by Culmann'sgraphicalmethod.The solutiott is
procedureis statedbelow :
presentedin Fig. 9.24 andthe step-by-step

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

246

247

Earth Pressure

(i) The backthce A.B, ground lhte AC, Q-line BC and rp-line BX are
d r a w n a s u s u a l ' H e r e , r p= c r - 6 = 7 8 ' - 1 5 " = 6 3 " .
(ii) A numberof points,Cr C2,...,C5 arechosenon the ground lineand
8C1 through.BC5arejoined. Thesepoints are chosenin sucha way
that the line of aclion of the linear load passesthrough one of them.
In the presentproblem, thesepoittts are chosenat equal intervals of
1.41m.
(iii) Sell'-weightof the trial failure wedgesare now cornputed.

- 6") =
It = AB'cos(12'
eachwedge,
Altirudeof
+;ffig'
= (3.6) (cos 6')./cos 12" = 3.66 m
.'. Self-weight of eachwedge = (ll2\ (1.41) (3.66) (1.8) = 4.64t|m.
Vector scalechosen: 1 cm = 4.64t1m.
(iv) Lay- otTthe distancesBD pnd BD2 from BC, using the chosenvector
scale, to representthe self-weight of ABCI andABC2 respectively.
Just after crossingC2,the linear load c.omesinto action, and has to
be addedto the self-weightof ABC2and all subsequentsoil wedges'
From D2 lay off the distanceD2D2' to representthe linear load.

i.e.,

D2D2'='#

= 0.54m.

(v) The distancesD2'D3,DPa and DaD5are laidoff torepresentthe


weightof thewedges C2BC3, C3BC4 allrd CaBC5respectively.
(vi) From DyD2,D2',...,D5 a numberof lines are drawn parallel to
rp-line to intersectBCy BC2, ..., BCs at EyE2,E2',...,E5
respectively.
(vii) The pressure cune is drawn. A tangent to this curve is drawn at
E2', which is the farthest point from the $-line.
BC2 representsthe potential failure plane.
By measuremenl,E2'D2' = 1.37 cto.
.'. Total lateral thnrst -- (1.37) (4.64) = 6.36 t/m.

?F5

,7

noA \

**_{ l-r l"\ |

?0.\

,'r< |
)4-l

Rr\'\^4
bl

o a - \ 1 " '\l
\i\l

\-,,\-,,\i
\*.

Prr=63'5kN/m

\_,
Par=110.1
A?=94'9kN/m
kN/mtt=rnU*r.torriaU*r,

Problem 9.13. A 5 m high gravity retaining wall hasto retain a cohesionless


backfill (y = tg kN,/m3, 0 - 33') upto a heightofs m.Thebackfaceofthe
wall has a positive batter angle of 12', and the ground surfacehas an upward
inclination of 15". The angle of wall friction is Z)". Determine the total active
thrustby the hial wedge method.
Solution: Fig.9.?5 (a) shows the section of the wall, drawn to scale.
The ground lineAC and tle S -line BD are drawn.

)Yt1

Fig.9.25

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatian Engineering

248

Equal distancesAC1 = CtC2 = ... 3 C4C5 = 1.5 m are laid off from
AC. The lines 8C1, BC2, ..., BC5 arejoined. Theseare tle trial failure lines.
Let W1,W2, ..., W5 be the self-weigbtsof the wedgesABC1,C1BC2,...,
C&CS:Accordingtotheconstruction,l[ = Wz =...= W5 = lf(say).

249

EarthPressure

Altitude of each wedge = BN = 5.15 m.

(v) At E, a tangent XEY is drawn to the curve, making it parallel to


AC. The distance of this tangent from DE gives the maximum
value ofP4.
(vi) From E, draw EC' LAC'. Join BC', which now represents the
potential rupture plane.

(1e)= 73.4kN/m.
:.Wr= (rl2)(r.s>(s.1s)

From Fig. 925weget,Pn

For each wedge, the resultant aclive lhrust acts at an angle 6 = 20", to
the normal to the backface of the wall.
Again, for the failure planesBCyBC2, ...,8C5, the resultantsoil reactions.R1, R2, .. .,R5 areinclined to the normalson the respectiveplanesat,

o .=33'.

Constructionof Force Triangles :


Let us consider the first ftial wedgeA8Cl. The forces acting on it are :
(i) Self-weight W1 @oth magnitude and direction are known).
(ii) Soil reaction R1 (only the direction is known).
(iii) Wall reaction P,4, (this is equal to tle resultant active thrust on the
wall and only its direction is known).
Let us choose a suitable vector scale. A vertical line a1b1is drawn to
represent I4r1in magnitude and direction. From c1, a1c1is drawn parallel to
the direction of Pa, while frombl, b1c1isdrawn parallel tofi1. They intersect
at c1, and tle force triangle a1b1c1is closed. d1c1now representsthe lateral
thrust for the trial failure plane BC1, in magnitude and direction
Force triangles for all other kial wedges are constructed in a similar
manner. Note that for eachwedge,
(i) The magnitude of lTandPn change,but their directions do not.
(ii) Both magnitude and direction of,R change.
In order to compute the actual value of the resultant thrust and to locate
the corresponding potential failure plane, a pressure curve is drawn as
follows:
(i) At any height aboveAC, DlD5llAC is drawn.
( i i ) A t C y C 2 , . . . , C 5 t h e l i n e s E 1 C 1 , E 2 C 2 , . . . , E 5 Ca5r c d r a w n
perpendiculattoAC.
(iii) The dist ancesE 1Dy E 2D2, . . ., E 5D5 arelaid off from thosenormals,
to representP4 PAr, .. ., Pn, to the chosenvector scale.
,,
(iv) The points E1, E2, ...,E5are joined by a smooth curve. This is the
pressure cufle.

= 113.5kN,/m.

wall"r. Jf*l:lt"tlun,
e.1.Aretaining

vertical
backhas
, smooth

to retain a sandbackfill having the following properties:


y=1.85t/m3,q=3g".
(i) Detennine the total active thrust exertedby the backfill on the wall.
(ii) Determine the percentchangein active thrust, if the water table rises
from a great depth to a height of 2 m above the baseof the wall.
I Ans. (i) 4.93 tlm (ii) Increasesby 27.2%b]
9.2. A6 m high earth fill is suppodedby a retainjng wall with a smooth
vertical backface and canies a surchargeof 30 kN/m'. The angle of internal
friction of the fill soil is 30", while its bulk density is 17.5 kN/m'. Plot the
distribution of activeearthpressureon thewall. Also determinethe magnitude
and point of application of the resuitantthrust.
I Ans. 165 kN/m, appliedat236 m abovebase]
9.3. A vertical retaining wall has to retain a horizontal backfill upto a
height of 4 m above G.L. The propertiesof the backfill are :
c = 0, 0 = 28', G = 2.68, w = ll7o, s = 55Vo, F = 0.5
If the wall is rigidly held in position, what is the magnitude of active
thrust acting on it?
I Ans. 15.5t/m ]
9.4. With referenceto Problem 3, determinethe percentagechangesin
active thrust if the wall moves :
(i) towards the backfill
(ii) away from the backfill
Assume that, the lateral rnovementof the wall is sufficient to bring about
a stateof plastic equilibrium.
t Ans. (i) Reducesby 63.97o (ii) Increasesby 17697o I
9.5. A masonryretaining wall, 5.5 m high, retainsa backfill of cohesionless soil, having a horizontal top surface.The soil has an angle of internal
friction of 27.5", a void ratio of 0.83, and the specificgravity of solids is 2.65.
The water table is located at 2.2 m below the top of tle wall. Above the water
table, the averagedegreeof saturationof the soil is loVo,Plotthedistribution

250

Probkms in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

of active earth pressureand compute the magnitude and point of application


of the resultant rhrusr. I Ans 12.56 t/m applied at 1.5g m above the base
]
9.6. A cohesionlessbackfill, retained by a 5 m high retaining wall with
a srnooth vertical back, is bounded by a horizontal surface. Tbe water table
is at 2 rn below the top of the wall. Above the wa-tertable, the angle of internal
friction andbulk densityof the soil are 18 kN/m3 and 30; respeJtively.Below
the water table, the bulk density increasesby Lovo while the frictiln angle
decreasesby 2ovo. Detennine the resultant active pressureon the wail.

e,7.Aretai'ing
wauhaving
a smooth
vertical
rjffjfiTfi:

cohesionless backfill. State, giving reasons, how the active earth pressure
exerted by the backfill will change in each of tlre following cases:
(a) the backfill becomes saturated due to capillary-water, while the
ground water table rernains belgw the baseof the wall.
(b) the ground water table rises above the base,but there is no capillary
water.
(c) the given backfill is replacedby a cohesionlesssoil having :
(i) sarneunit weight but greater angle of internal friction.
(ii) same angle of internal friction but greater unit weighl
(iii) same unit weight and angle of internal friction, but having a small
apparent cohesion.
9.8. cornpute the total active thrust and its point of application for the
retaining wall shown i'Fig. 9.26. The wall has a smooth backface.
I Ans. 3.6 r/m, 0.90 m above the base]

3m

I
-r1'5m

CtoyeySond
f = 1 . 8 5t / m 3
* =2lro
c= ll/ p2
D e n s eS a n d
I = 1 . 9 5/fm 3
g=36o
Fig.9.26

9.9. A smooth vertical retaining wall has to retain a backfill of


cohesionlesssoil uptoa heightof4 m aboveG.L. The properriesofthe backfill
are :

y = 19 li.{,/m3, 0 = 36'

251

EarthPressure

(a) Determine the active thrust on the wall if the backfill has a horizontal
top surface.
(b) Determine the percentchangein the active thrust if, insteadof being
horizontal, the backfill is now sloped upwards at an angle of 15" to the
by 8.85%l
horizontal.
I Ans.(a)39.52kN/m.(b) Increases
9.10. A masonry wall has to retain a cohesive backfill having an
unconfined compressivestrengthof 4 t/m' and a bulk density of 1,72 gmlcc.
The overall height of the wall is 6 m. Determine :
(i) the depth upto which tensioncrackswill be extended.
(ii) the magnitude and point of application of the active thrust
IAns. (i) 2.32m (ii) 11.63kN/rn at 1.23m abovebase]
9.11. With referenceto Problem 9.10, detennine the minimum intensity
of a uniform surcharge,which when placedover the backfill, will prevent the
formation of tension cracks.
I Ans.3.08tAn]
9.12. A5 m high masonry retaining wall with a vertical backfaceretains
a horizontal backfill of dry sandhaving T = 20 kN/m3 and 6 = 32'. Compute
the resultant active thrust on the wall by :
(i) Rankine's theory
(ii) Coulomb's theory, using the trial wedge rnethod.
Which one of the results is more realistic and whv?

I Ars. (i) 76.75kN/m (ii) 79.3kN/rn,assuming0 =

!t

9.13. An RC.C. retaining wall, having a backfaceinclined to the vertical


at 10', has to retain a horizontal backfill of dry sand upto a height of 5.2 m.
The soil has a unit weight of 17.5 kN/m' and an angle of internal friction of
28". The angle of friction between soil and concrete may be taken as 18'.
Determine the point of application, direction and magnitude of the active
thrusl Use the trial wedge method.
I Ans. 98 kN/m, at 18" to the normal on the backface]
9.14. Solve Problem9.13 graphically,using :
(i) Culmarur's method.
(ii) Rebhann'sconstruction.
9.15. A gravity retaining wall has to retain a 6 m high backfill of dry,
cohesionlesssoil (1 = 19 kN,/m3, O = 36') having a surchargeangle of 8'.
The back of the wall has a positive batter angle of 10". The backfill carries a
linear load of 5 t/m, running parallel to the wall, at a distanceof 3 m from the
top of the backface, measuredalong the ground. Compute the total active
thrust on the wall by Culmann's method.Locate the point of application and

.,
directionof thisthrust.Assurne,6 = i 0.
J

I Ans. 155kN/m]

252

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

9.15. Qompute the total active thrust exerted by


the backfill on the
retaining wall system shown in Fig. 9.27. Locate the
position of the potential
rupfure surface.

C l e o nS o n d
(Y=19kN/m3,
@ = 3 3 oc, = g 1

Fig.9.27
9'17. T\e backfit praced behi'd a 5 m high masonry
retaining walr
consists of a partiaily sarurated crayeysilt, havin!
rhe follo;ing p-fir,i.r,
unir weighr = 18.5 kN/m3
cobesion= 10 kN/mz
angle ofinternal friction = 21"
angle of wall friction = 12.
adhesion between soil and wall = g kNlm2
surchargeangle ofbackfill = 10.
The back of the wail is inclined to the horizontar g0'.
at
Determine the
magnitude and direction of the aclive thrust by the triar
wedge -"rtoJ. arro
determine the depth to which tension cracks wiil be
extende-d.
27.5
kN/m run; 1.57m]
IAns.
A retaining wall, 4.5 m high and having a positive batter
_ _^ ?.18.
angle of
15" has to retain a cohesionlesstactnfl having a unit *.ight
of 1.g5 t/*?;;
an a.gle of internar friction of 31'. usi'g Reiharur,s
meilod, aetermine rne
magnitude of laterar thrust on the walr, ii the surcharge
angle of the backfilr
is:
(i) 10'(ii) 2s. (iii) 31".
9.19. A4 m high retaining wall with a vertical backface
was eonstructed
to retain a backfifl of loose send with a horizontal top
surface nurt.a to tn.
top of the wall. raboratory investigations revealed
that the sand had the
following properties:

EarthPressure

253

0 = 25', G = 2.65, e = L.05, s = 0


The back of the wall is relatively smooth.Compute the total active earth
pressureexertedby the backfill using any suitable theory.
A few months after construction,the backfill was thoroughly compacted
and consequently,its Q -value increasedto 32'. However, the top surface of
the backfill was depressedby 80 cm. Determine the percent change in the
total active earth pressure.
).20. A 4 m high earth-retaining stucture having a smooth vertical
backfacc retains a backfill having the following properties:
c = 2l/m2, Q - 22', rl = 1.85t/m2
Plot the distribution of passive prssureon the wall and determine the
magnitude and point of application of the total lateral force.
I Ans. 56.3 Vm ; 1.61 m above the base ]

255

Stability of Slopes
and,

a = o" silB = yz cosBsinp

...(10.3)

Failure will occur ifthe shear stressr exceedsthe shear strength rJ of


the soil. The faclor of safety againstsuch failure is given by,

10

STABILITY OF SLOPES
10.1 Introduction: A slope in a soil mass is encountered
when the
elevation of the ground surface gradualy changes from a rower
lever to a
h.igherone. Such a slope may be either naiurar
6i lirty region) or man-made
(in artificially comkucted ernbankrnentor excavations).
The soil mass bounded by a slope has a tendency to slide down.
The
principal factor causirrgsuch a sridi'g fairure is the serf-weight
of the soil.
However, the failure may be aggravateddue to seepageof water
or seismic
forces. Every man-rnadesrope has to be properly desig'ed to ascertai.
the
safety ofthe slope againstsliding failure.
various methods are availabre for anarysing tbe stability
of slopes.
Generally these methods are basedon tbe following assumptions :
1. Any slope stability problern is a two_dirnerrsionalone.
2. The shearparametersof the soil areconstantalong any possible
slip
_
surface.
3. I* problerns invorvi'g seepage of water, the flow'et ca'
be
constructed and thc seepageforces can be determined.
10.2 stability of rnfinite sropes: In Fig. 7o.r,x-x represe'ts a.
infinire
slope which is inclined to the horizontal at an angre p. on any prane yy
(YY ll w
at a depth z below the ground lever thJ roil prop"rti"i and the
overburden pressure are constant. Hence, failure ,my o""ui along
a plane
parallel lo the slope at some depth. The co'ditions for such
a failure may ue
analysedby co.sidering the equiribrium of the soir prismA,BCD of width
b.
Considering unit thickness,volume of the prism V = z b cos
F
and, weight of the prism,
W=yzbcosp
Vertical stess on llPdue to the selt'-weight.

",=l=yzcosp

Fig. 10.1.

r = T!
\t):f

...(10.1)

...(r0.2)

...(10.4)

olrcsionlesssoi/s: We have frorn Coulomb's equation,

rf = c + otano
soil,c = 0,
For a cohesionless
r/ = otan0
in eqn.(10.4)
Substituting
ohno
F =
a

Again, substitutingthe expressionsfor o andr.


c o s ' B . t a n O_ t a n O , /
F _ 11
=
/

''tzcosPsinP= ;;ft

r1t
"'(10's)

When S = p, F. = 1. Thus a slope in a cohesionlcsssoil is stable till


s
F
Q, provided tbat no extemal force is present.
((ii)) c - f sor/s: In this case,the factorofsafety againstslopefailure
is glverf by,
n

This vertical stressrranbe resolvedinto the following two componenfs:

o = o, cosp = yt.or2B

c * otano
T

) ^
,' _ c + yzcos'Ftan0
yzcospsinp
/

...(r0.6)

257

Stability of Slopes
6

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering


Let H" be the critical heigbt of the slope for which F = 1 (i.e, ,f = r)
YfI" *tB

sinp = c * yH, "*28

t nq

4_ffi

or,

Hc-+

Of,

y "or2 p (tanf - tan p)


Eqn.(10.7)mayalsobewrifrenas:
C

q) Foce

- cos"B(tanF
- tano)

...(10.8)

- tano)
Sn= cos2B(tanB

...(10.e)

:?
or'

...(10.7)
c) Base
Foilure

Fig. 10.2

where, s, is a dimensionlessquantity known as the stability number and is


given by :

s'=yt

b) Toe
Foi [ure

Foiture

(a)Purely cohesive soils: I.etAB representthe slope whose stability has


to be investigated.A trial slip circleASlC is drawn with O as centre and OA
= OC = R as radius.

,+'
I

...(10.10)

---

If a factor of srfety F, is applied to the cohesion such that the mobilised


cohesion at a depth H is,
c

cn=q
Then,

...(10.11)

^
c
r- " - c
yE= F;yH

tr

P
\!

\ \
B

---

r-o

...(10.12)

From eqns.(10.10)and (10.12),we ger,


c

y4=+rH
or,

F, = + = Fn.

Hence, the factor of safety againstcohesion,.F., is tle sameas the factor


of safety with respectto height, Fa .
10.3 stability of Finite slopes: In case of slopes of limited extent, three
tlpes of failure may occur.Theseare:facefailure, toe failure and basefailure
(Fig. 10.2 a, b and c respectively).
Variousmethodsofanalysingthefailureoffinite slopesarediscussedbelow.
10.4 Swedish Circle tleUgAL

assuffiill-i6Efifll

oI a circle.

In this merhod, rhe surface of sliding is

Fig.10.3
Let Wbe the weigbt of the soil rnassA.SICBacting vertically downwards
through the centre of gravity and c be the unit c-ohesionof the soil. The
self-weight tends to causethe sliding while the shear resistancealong the
planeASIC counteractslt.
Now, arc le4gth ASIC = R '0
where, Q = IAOC

(expressedin radians)

258

Problems in Soil Meclutnics rrnd Foundotion Engineering

Stobiliry of Slopes

.'. Total shearresistancealong the plane ASIC = R 0 c


Restoringrnornelt = shearresistancex lever arrn
ot

Mn = nOc x R = R20c

il),r-l>l ! o.
d (r.t lL-k

...(10.13)

I
,

Consideringunit thicknessof the soil rnass,

- \
\

u
V

W = A . I . y = A t
where, Y = unit we.ightof the soil
A = cross-seclionalareaof the sectorASr CB.
The areaA can be detenninedeitherby using a plauirneteror by drawing
the figure to a proper sc-aleon a graph paper and counting tht'.number o[
divisions ofthe graph paper coveredby the area.
Now, disturt'ringrnornent,MA = W .a
where,

Nr

d = lever ann of lIlwith respectto O.

The distancedrnay be detenninedby dividitrg tbe areainto an arbitrary


numberof segrnentsof small width, andtakingmLrnlentsof all thesesegrnents
about O.
Thus, the factor of safety against slope failure,

-<

-l

M*
= - = - - a

MD

cRzo {rWd

...(10.14)

A rrurnber of trial slip circles are cboseu and tbe lhctor of sal'ety with
respectto each of them is computed.A curve is then plotted to show the
variation of factor of safety with various slip circles (the curve F1 F2 Fg in
Fig. 10.11).The slip circle correspondingto tbe minimurn factor of sat'etyis
identified from this curve. This is the potential slip surface, and the
corresponding factor ofsafety is the factor ofsafety againstfailure ofthe slope

AB.
(b) Cohesite frirtional soils: With reference to Fig. 1O.4,a trial slip
circf eASlC is taken and the sector 1,SlCB is divided into a nunrber of verticzl
slices,preferablyofequal width. The forcesacting on eachslice are:
(i) Self-weight, 17,of the slice, acting verticalty dounwards through the
centre of gravity. ConsiCeringunit thickness of the slice,
W=\xboxln

...(10.15)

where, boant-lo represent the average height and length of the slice
i
respectively.
(ii) The cohesive force, C, acting along the arc iu a direction opposilg
the probable motion of the sliding soil.

Fig'l0'4
C = c'la
whert:, c = unitt:ohesion,
lo = averagelengthofslice
(iii) I-ateraltlrrusttiorn adjacentslices,El andEp .In simplified analysis
it is assurned that, E1 = ER 'Hence the effects of these two forces are
neglcctcd.
(iv) Soit reactionR ac.rossthe arc:.According to the laws of friction, when
the soil is about tc slicle, R will be inclined to the normal at an angle Q.
(v) The vertical stresses,V1 and7p , which areequal and oppositeto each
other and henceneednot be considered.
The weighl W is resolved into a normal componentN and a tangential
colnponent L For sorneof the slices Twill enhancethe failure, for the others
it will resist the tailure. The algebraicsurn of the normal and tangential
conponentsare obtainedfrom :

and,
Now,

2 T = 2 ( U rs i n c )
t t/ = E (I4zcoso)
Mo=R2T
driving lllomellt,

...(10.17)
...(10.18)
...(10.1e)

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundotion Engineering

260

and,Restoringmoment, Mn = R[clAI + x/V tan$]


= R0
>At = totallengtbofarcASlC
But
Mn = RIcR0 + trYtanOl

...(10.20)

.'. Factorof safety,


M^
- RlcR0 + xNtan0l
'- R'T
MD
F

Slope
(V, H)

Slope angle ($)

...(10.21)

A number of txial slip circles should be consideredand the factor of safety


for each should be determined.The one correspondingto the minimum factor
of safety is the critical slip surface.
1O5 Method of l-ocating the centre of the Trial slip circle: The number
of rrials reguired to find out the critical slip circle can be minitnised by an
empirical method proposedby Fellenius. According to _him,the centre of the
critical slip circle is located on a straight lne PQ, which can be obtained as
follows:
(i) Draw the given slopcAB and determine the slope angle-,[
(ii; Oetermine the values of the anglesa1 and crz (Fig. 10'5) from Table
10.1.
(iii) FromA, drawAP at at *ngle of c1 to A8.

(iv) From 8, drawBP,making it inclined to the horizon lal at a2' BP and


AP intersect atP, which is a point on the desiredline PQ'
(v) The other point Q is located at a deptl ,Frbelow the toe of the slope
join
anOit a horizontal distanceof 4.5 II away frorn it. Locate tlris point and
PQ'
on
located
will
be
slip
circlc
PQ.The centre of the critical

Table 10.1

.y't c{_9__t_X_ffeLQ.
Vr =
zr

or,

261

Stability of Stopes

Valuesof angles
cr1

Q.,t

40'
37"
35'

1:1.5

33"48'

29"
28"
26"

L:2

26"36'

25"

35'

1:3

18"24'

25'

35'

1:5

11'1g'

25"

27"

1 : 0.58

60'

1:1

45"

10.8 Friction Circle Method: This methodis basedon the assumptionthat


the resuttant forceR on the rupture surfaceis tangential to a circle ofradius
y = R sin Q which is concentric with the tial slip circle. Various steps
involved ate givenbelow :
1. Draw the given slope to a chosenscale'
2. Seleeta triatslip circle of radius R, the centre of which is located at

o (Fig. 10.6a)
3. ComPuter (= fi sin Q) and draw anothercircle of radius r, with O as
the centre.
4. Now considerthe equilibrium of the sliding soil mass under the
following forces:
(i) Self-weightWof the sedorABCD.
1il; fne cohesiveforce C along the planeADC, the magnitudeand
directionof which canbe computedasfollows :
Let c be the unit cohesion.\\e arcADC is dividedinto a numberof
be themobilisedcohesiveforcesalong
l*t C1,'C2,.-..,Cn
smallelements.
them.
The resultantC of theseforcescanbc determinedby drawinga force
polygon.
Now, themobilisedunit cohesion,c-', is givenby :
Fig.10.5

262

Problems in Soil Meclmnics and Foundation Engineering

263

Stability of Slopes

(i) Drawa vertic:alline rtb to representW (Fig. 10.6(b))'


(ii) From rr clrawac, making it parallelto the line of action of Fp .
(iii) Frorn b drop a perpendicularbd on ac. The line bd now represents'
in magnitudeand direction,the cohesiveforc.eCR requiredto maintain the
equilibriurn of the soil massABCD along the closen slip circle.
6. Dek:rmine the unit cohesioncrrequired for stability from :

c, =

...( 1{) .26)

7. The thctor of sal'etvw.r.t. cohesionis now obtainedliotn :


-

acfualcohesiorl
requiredcohesion

c
cr

...(10.27)

8. The factor of safely w.r.t. shearstrengthc:anbe obtained as follows:


(i) Assurne a certain factor of sat'etywith respectto the angle of
intemal triction. Let it be,F6.The mobilisedangleof intenni frictiott is then
given by:
(q)

(b)
Fig. 10.6

.,.(r0.22)

' c

The cohesive force is givel by


c'L..
O:

...(10.23)

But, sumrning up the moments of all forces about o and equating to zero,
we get,
C'Lo'R=C.Lr.a

...(1o.24)

where, a = perpendicular distanceof line of action of c frorn the centre of


'the
slip circle.

"= !^

r'= Rsin0n

...(10.2e)

(iii) The lactor of sat'etyw.r.t. cohesionF. is thenobtainedby tbnning


anothFr triangle of forcres.CompareF6' and F6. If they are different, go for

where, F. = factor of safety with respectto cohesion.

Lc

...(10.28)

(ii) Draw a uew tiiction circlewith O ascentreand r' asradius,where,

,
c '
c ^ = n

,
C=C^tr=

tan 0
tanOz=
n

...(10.2s)

(iii) The other force is the soil reaction d which is assumedto be


trngential io the friction circle.
5. Draw the triangle of forces in the following lnanner :

alother trial.
(iv) In this mauner, adjust the radius of the circle until ,FOand F.
becorneequalto eachother.This value is theuacceptedasthe factor ofsafety
for shearstrengthof the soil w.r.t. the given trial slip circle.
10.9 Taylor's Stability Number: Taylor carried out stability analysis of a
heights, slope angles and soil
large @rious
proposed
a simple method by which
basis
of
the
results,
he
properties.On the
given
can
be
easily detennined with
a
finite
slope
safety
of
the factor of
reasonableaccuracy.Taylor introduccda dimensionlessparameter,called
Taylor's Stability Nurnber,which is given by,

,./r,, = F , \

The value of S,, rnay be obtained frorn Fig. 10.7.

...(10.30)

Problems in SoitMechanics and Fottndation Engineering

265

Stabilityof SloPes
0'18

0-20

0.16
o

%
/,

I
I 01s

2
#

L'
L

(U
-o

E
a

z a.n
>
=

-ct

+ 0.14
I

e.
a
!
@

4.12

E
a
z

t
5
o
+

0.10

../l

+
t/l

0.05

,l
10

/,

0.06

20 30 /.0 50 60 70 80
----*
-Angte(Degrees)
Slope

0.05
;

90

D e p t hF c c t o r , n 6 *
Fig.10.8

Fig.10.7

D - Depth of bard stratumbelow toe


f/ = Height of sloPeabovetoe'
slope angles'-Each
Fig. 10.8 consists of a family of curves for various
curveconsistsoftwoparts.Theportionsdrawnwitifirmlinesareapplicable
while the portions drawn with
to field conditions iffustraiea in Fig' 10'9 (a),
in Fig' 10'9 (b)'
shown
broken lines are meant for the conditions
shown with broken lines'
of
cuwes'
set
third
Tbe figure also consiss bf a
x of the rupture circle
distancc
the
n
represents
where
for various values of 4
given by'
from the toe, as illustated in Fig. 10'9 (a), and is

where,
w.r.t cohesion,
The stability numbers are obtained for factor of safety
unity'
as
taken
initially
is
Fq
friction,
w.r.t'
while fte factorof safety
ThevaluesofS'obtainedfromFig'10'Tareapplicableforslip.circles
of limited
passingthrough tne ioe. However for slopesmade in cohesivesoils
the
below
passes
circle
slip
the
critical
ieptn i'na "nierlain bya hard stratum,
toe.Insuchcases,thevalueofs'shouldbeobtainedfromFig'10'8'Intlis
as :
figure, the depth factor plotted along the 'r'axis is defined

nc=

D + H
H

...(10.31)

n =xf r

-l

266

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatian Engineering

261

Stttbility of Slopes

(b)

{o}
Fig. 10.9

EXAMPLES
/
Problern l0y'J A slopeof infinite extentis rnadein a densesandlayer at
an angle of 30'to the horizontal.Detenninelhe factor of safety of the slope
againstshearfailure if the angle of internalfriction of the soil be 36'.
Solution: With referenceto Fig. I0.I, XX representsthe given slope,
while )Yis a plane parallel to it at a depthz.
Vertical stresson XIldue to overburden.
oz=lz
where, Y = unit weight of the soil
Normal stresson YY,

o = oz cos2p

Shear stressorr YI,

a = o" c.osF sin 0

Fig,10.10
at P'
line PQ represents oue sucli equipotential line, which intersects \Y
Hence, the piezonetric head at P is given by PR'

Fromgeotnetryof the tigure, PR = P0 cosF


PQ = zcos9
and,
PR = zcos20

([] = slope angle)

Shearstrengthof the soil on the plane 17,

F t o wL i n e s

Therefore,neutralpressureal

Now. total vertical stressat P due to overburden,


o= = YsatZ

"f = otanQ = o-(:os2ptanQ.


But, tactor of safteyagair:stsheartailure,
a

',r- - - ' f r

o"cos'F tanO

- t a n0
ozcosBsinB lan0

tan 36'
=rr"3tr=I'46'
/
Problem nd
fslope inc:linecl
at 16' to the horizontalis to be made in
a cohesionlessdeposithaving the following properties:
G=2.70,e=0.72,0=35',
Detennine the factor of sat'etyof the slope againstshearfailure if water
percolatesin a direction parallel to tlre surfaceofthe slope.
Solution:

The given conditiousare shown in Fig. 10.10.

YYis a plane locatedat a depthzbelow the slope.As water percolatesin


a directio;rparallel ro the slope,all llow lines rnust be parallel to the slope.
Therefore.,all equipotentiallines should be perpendicularto the slope. The

1 ^
P = 'l', z cos- p

Total nrlrmal slressat P,


Shearstressat P,

o = o; c:os2p = yr",, "or2 p


r = o : c o s p s i n 0= Y s a tczo s P s i n P

Effec-tivenormal stressat P = total normal stress- neutral stress


or,

o' = ysat', .or2 B - Yrz coszP


= Z cos2F (y"ar- y.) = ysuu, "or2 P .

However,tbe shearingstressis entirily intergrannular.


Shearslrength of the soil on Ylz,
"f = o' tan S = ]116z cos2P tan $
.'. Factorofsafety againstshearfailure,
'is
]*5 z cos2p tan Q
-

" = i = l;;"'P't"P

y.ubtan 0
yr", tan p

Problems in Soil Meclunics and Foundatian Engineering

268

Now,

ysar

(2'79-*0J3li1'0)=
r./rn3
Il +*e "' nu...=
1.988
(l+0.72)

Ysub

1.983-X=0.988t,/m3

Fs=

(0.988)(tan35')

6trsffi=r'2r

Stability of SloPes

1.55

Problern 10.3 A slope of 35' inclination and 6 m vertical height is to


be rnade in a pur^elycohesive soil having a unit weight of 1-.85Vmt and a
cohesion of 6 t/m' . Determine the factor of safety of the slope against sliding
failure.
Solution : The problem will be solved by the Swedish circle method.
The solution is presentedin Fig. 10.11 and the procedure is explained below:
(i) The given slopeA3 is drawn to a scale of 1 : 200.
(ii) The values of c1 and cr2for p = 35' are determined from Table
10.1 by making linear interpolation between F = 33"48' and B = 45". The
following values are obtained :
al = 26.2", eZ = 35"
(iii) The point Q lying at a depth of .EI= 6 m belowA and at a linear
distance of.4.5 H = 2'7 m fromA is located.
(iv) FromA and .B, two straigbt linesAPand BP are drawn such that,
LPAB = ?.6.2", and LHBF = 35"
AP and BP intersect at P.
(v) PQ is joined. The centre of the critical slip circle should be located
on this line.
(vi) PB is measuredand found to be 4. 6 m. On projected Q,two more
p o i n t s P ' a n d P " a r e t a k e n s u c h t h a t , P P '= P ' P "

= &

rr 2?'5m

= 2.3m.

(vii) Three trial slip circles are drawn with P, P' and P" as centres and
PA, F A and F' A respectively as radius. The factor of safety with respect to
each circle is determined separately.
Fig. 10.11 shows the determination of Fg with respect to the first trial
slip circlg having its centre atP.
The ptocedure is statedbelow :
(i) The area under tle slope and the slip surface is divided into 7 slices.
The first 6 slices have a width of 2 m each while the width of the 7tb slice is

2.2m.

J-o,
Fig.10.11

distutbittg
(ii) Considering unit thickness; the area, weigbt and the
sliie are d9trmine4'Thes?a4 lablla
o*K f*.".h

r--'=

Width
lstu"
llVo.
(n)
I

2.0

Averagelenglh
(n)

Area

o*t
2.2

Weight Level ' Moment


f t x A x l ) arm aboutP
(t)

4.07

abovl P
(m)

3.7

(t-m)
-15.06

210
Slice Widtlt
No.

Aterage Iengrlt

(m)

2.0

2.0

(m)

2.4+ 4.0
2 *

- - =

Area

Weiglt
(yxAxI)

(^2)

(t)

6.2

1 l

1 . f

Typeof soil

gfl=o'ut

9.3

t7.21

tr.J

11.6

2r.6

z.)

49.36

2.0

6.3+5.6_.o.
-"2

r 1.9

22.01

.1. -t

94.64

2.0

wl2=o'"

9.5

17.58

6.3

r10.75

4.29

7.94

8.4

66.1O

ff=r.ns
MD

Again, restoring lnornenl, MR


Here,

c (kNlm2)

Very sotl claY

r7.5

L2

4-1

Mediurn claY

18.0

35

7 -t4

Stiff clay

19.0

68

14-o

Roclk

probablebase
Cotnpute tlre thctor of safetyof the slopewith respectto a
radius'
m
of
13.5
lailure along a slip circle
prcibletncan
solution: Fig. l}.l2illustrates the given conditions.The
be solved by the Swedish c:irclemethod'
this
1DGE representsthe slip circle of radius 13.5. O is the centre of
circle.Astheslipcirclepassesthroughthreedifferentlayers,thefailure

- l Y l= 1 ? ' 5k N/ m 3
qI
tr = 78 ril/m2

2M = 292.A5t-nt
Disturbing Mornent,

Q ( /

0-4

5.16

5.3+ 6.3= 5 ' E


2

y (Wlmi)

"

2.0

2.2

No. Depth (m)

-19.50

.|

50' to the
Problern 10.4 A 10 rn deep cut, with the sidesinclirted at
follows:
as
are
conditions
horizontal.hasto tretnadeat a sitewlrerethesubsoil

Let,er Moment
Qrm about P
ebout P
(m)
(t-m)

T1.47

27L

Stabilityof SloPes

Problcms in SoilMe:hanics and FoundtrtionEnginecring

292.05 t-st

- r Y 2 =1 8k N / m l
r g2=
35;1r11s2
ln

c R2.o

c = 2.5t/nt?
R = PA = 9.9rn
g = LAPD = 102.5'= 1.789radian

[ = 1 9k N / r n 3
? m C 3 = 1 51 P 7 6 1 2

MR = Q.s) (e.e-)(1.789)= 438.35t-m

=
=
Facforofsal'ery
#; ffi=

1.50
Fig.10.12

In a similar manner,thc factor of safcty of the slopew.r.t. the two other


slip circles (having their ceutresat P' and P"1 aredetenninedand are lbund
to be 1"55 and 1.66 respectively.A curve representingtlrevariation of factor
of safety is then plotted. Tbe minimum factor of safety of the slope, as
obtained from this cuwe, is 1.45.Tlie correspondingcritical slip circle will
bave its centrelocatedat P^.

of
wedgeconsistsof threedifl'erentiones. lrt IV1,W2and W! be the weights
O.
about
th" t[r.. zonesand.r1,.r2and .'3 be the correspondinglever arms
FromB,drawBlLHF.Zorrelmaylrowbedividedirttotlretriangle
BHI and the rectangleB/FE
Weight of
I

L BHI = (0.s)(17.s)(3.3)(4.0)kN = 11s.skN.

Problems in SoiI Meclmnics and Fottndation Engineering

272

Weight of sector BIFE = (17.5)(6.5)(4.0)kN = 455kN.


Wr = 115'5 + 455 = 560'5kN.
(115.s)(7.2 - 33/3) * (65)Q2 + 65/2)
= 9.?4m.
560^5
to be a parallelograrn,
thecentroidof
The secondzoneHFGJ is assurned
which lies at the intersectionof thediagonals.
W2 = (18)(10.6)(3)= 572.4kN
'l

Asthes|ipcirclcpasst:sthrclughtlrrccdift.ererrtsoillayers,tlreresisting
along the three segtneutsof
tbrce cotrsistso[ thc cohesivclbrcesmobilised
in the figure'
the slip circlc. Thc corrt:spcndinganglesare shown
Thcrclbre,lotal rcstoriltglllorllellt
= c t R 2 o 1+ c r R ? 0 , + c 3 R : 0 3
= .41(cr01 + cr $ + ca 03)

+ (36)(r4'2)+ (78)(16'2)]
= (13.s2)
#
[(26)(101'5)

x2 = 7.5m (by measurement)


In orderto find out W3andx3,zoneIII is dividedinto 7 slices.The area,
lever arm and momentof eac.hslice aboutO are determined.Theseare
tabulatedbelow:

= 14039.69kN-rn'
Factor of safetyalonglhe givt:n slip circlt:

=
Slice
No.

l.

Widtlt

tm)

3.5

z.

Area
(^2)

Weight
(kN)

4.55

96.3

7.6

-:731.8

9.45

t79.5

4.6

-825.7

1.4

140.6

z.l

-295.3

15.9

342.1

0.4

120.8

19.5

370.5

3.4

t259.7

Itu.n*6.1)=6.5
=5.3 15.9
*4.5)
lrc.t

3A2.1

6.4

L933.4

r7r.a

9.9

1692.9

Average Imgtlt
(m)

!{o*r.u)=t.t

l{z.u*t.r)=t.rt
2

A
q.

a 1

=
lo., *6.e) 5.3
3

6.

|o.s ro)=zzs

9.0

273

Sttrbilityof StttPt's

Lever Moment
4rm
about O
ubaut O ( w- m )
(m)

14039.69 =

Tzsollg

1.09

made in a-siltyclay having


Problem l0.5 A slopeof l V : 2 H is to be
a t r a t r g l e o f i r r t e n r a l r r i c t i o n o f 5 . a r r d a c o h e s i o r r o f 0 . 2 5 k g l o n " . T hthe
eurrit
of cut is 8 m' Cornpute
*"isf, of the soil is 1-85grn/cc, and the depth
circle method'
faclir o[ saft:tyof the slopeby the Swedish
10'13 (t)' T1" centreof a
Solution: The given slope is showuiu Fig'
sliding wedge is divided
The
trial slip c:irrrleis lo"ut a uy Feilenius,method.
4 rn' while slice no' 6
of
width
equal
into 7 slices.The tirst five sliceshave
slice is tneasured'
each
of
ftngth
average
and ? are 2.8 rn wide each'The

/ii'i\

-----'72sF

/ ri\.\/(

2 M = 3153.9
W3 x x3 = 3153.9kN - m

N1
T1

Now, total disturbingmoment = Wtxt + WZvZ + W3x3

- (s60.5)
(7.5)+ 3rs3.e
(9.7$ + (s72,4)
= 12906.L9

Ws
&=l'ls
Tg=0

f,

1"1

Fig.10.13(a)

274

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engincering

%(1 6 s)/

In lhis nranncr,lhc nomral ancllangentialcomponentsfor eachslice are


detcrmined.Thc rt:sull.s
are labulatedbelow :

Pzn't+9)

Slice No.

P8{1.82)

P1

(t.eq)

Ps(1,65
)
\t1.71

||

4 ' 5H
(b)
Fig.10.13

Average
length (m)

Weight
(t)

t{
(r)

T
(t)

2.4

17.76

t4.7

-10.1

6.2

45.8t1

44.7

-9.9

8.7

64.38

64.4

10.3

76.22

73.8

19.4

9.65

71.4r

62.3

34.6

6
7

2.8

8.4

43.51

30.1

31,.2

2.8

3.6

18.7

10.1

15.9

c R 0 + I y ' y 't a n q
Ir t z r

!7 = width x averagelength x unit weight of soil


The selt'-weightis assumedto act along the centralvertical line througlr
each slice, and not through its geometrical centre. The norn.raland tangential
components/y' and I respec-tively,of the self-weight are deternined by
constructinga triangle of tbrce. An easyrnethod of doing this is explained
here with reference to lhe slice no. 4.
Draw the centralvertical line throughthe rniddleof the slice (shownwith
a broken line). Measureits length.Extend the line and lay-off an equal length
frour it. This new line now representsthe self-weight Wa in magnitude and
direclion. The corresponding vector scale used is
1 cm = width of slice x unitweight of soil
= (4) (1.85)= 7.4ln
In order to construct the force triangle, join tlre cetrtre ofthe slip circle
to the mid-point of the bottom of slice. Extend this radial line and drop a
perpendicular on it from the terminal point of the line representing IVa. The
nonnal component.lf4 and tangential component14 are now detennined frorn
the force triangle.

= 8 1 . 1t

It should be noted tlrat.as the width of slices6,ard 7 are70Voof that of


lhe olhcr slices,lhc length of the vertical lines representingW7 and W6 are
701 of the.avcragelengthof slice no. 6 and 7 respectively.
The tactor of sat'etyof the slopew.r.t. the slip circle underconsideration
may now be determinedusing eqn.(10.24) :

The weight of any slice may now bc determinedas :

Widtlr
(m)

2 W = 3 3 7 . 9 t ,X N = 2 5 5 . 4 t , : r

I
t

275

Stahility olSlqtas

By rneasurernent,
R = 15.8m,
and,

= (lffiLI*o.= z.oo7rad.
o = 115"
(2.s)(15.8)(2.007)+ (2s5.$(tan5')
=l.E
F- s =

In order to Iocate the critical slip circle, i.e., the slip circle with the
rniuirnumthctor of sat'ety,proceedas follows :
(i) Measure.the distancePyB,l-e.tit be I.
(ii) With P0 as centre fonlr a grid consistingof 9 points such that the
length of each side of the grJd= 712.
(iii) Draw trial slip circles taking each of these9 points in turn as the
ccntre.Computethe faclor of safetyof the slopefor eachslip circle.
(iv) Plot the values of F5 thus obtained for each grid point and draw
contour lines for different values of F5. The slip circle having the minimum
value of.F5 can be detenninedfrom this contour.The conespondingvalue of
F5 is the fac-torof safety of the slope.

271

Sttrbility of SloPes
Problems in Soil Mechanics und Foundation Engineering

276

The processis illustratedin Fig. 10.13(b). It is found thal tht: slip circkr
having the rninimum factor of safely is lhc outr drawn with P,7as lhc ct:nlre.
Thus, Fellenius'methodyields an accuratcrcsult in this case.Tlre tactoro[
safety ofthe slope.is found lo be 1.25.
Prolrlern 10.5 A 12 rn high ernbankutcuthas sidc'gtopc.s
oL I V :2 H.
The soil has a unit weight of 1.8 Vmr, cohesionof 1.5 t/m/ and angle of
internalfric{ion of 15".Determint:the factorof saft:tyof tht:skrpr:with r(:sp(:ct
to any chosenslip circle. Use the tiiction circle rncthocl.
Solution: The slopeis drawn in Fig. 10.14.A triat slipcircle AEC is
drawnwith a radiusR= 20.5m. The cbordAC isjoined and ils lcrrgthis lirund
to be 32 m. [,etD be the rnid point ofAC.
The centre of the slip circ{e P rs jointd lo D aud PD is r:xltndcd. It
intersectsthe slope at .F and the slip circlc at E. Thc rnid-point G of EF nray
be taken as the centreof gravity of lhr an:aABCE.
Norv,

areaABCE = MBC

Tlrroughtltcpoirrtofintcrsecticltrof!Vatt<lC,drawastraightlirrernaking
the third force F.
it tangent ti tt " tii.iio,r circle. This line represe'ts
to representW in
Choose a vc(-lor scale and draw :t straight line
of C and F'
of
actiort
,nugil*J. and dircctiorr. Using the kuown lines
it'
C
tiorn
of
.oipt"t. the t'orcetrianglc attd detennine the tnagnitude
The.valut: of Cj oblainedhere'is 41 t'
Mobilised cohesion,

The factor of safety wilh respecrtto cohesion is'


1.5
c
^
t

F,=;=ii=1"34

friction' F0 = r'0'
F, = l.34when the factor of safetywith respectto
that they 4reequal
However,thesetwo factorsof safetyshouldbe so adjusted
to one another'
Fa = l'20
As a tlrst trial, let

tanQ-=s8=q#

+ Ar(:aADCE

= :.BH.AC + 1AC . DE
z
_
t
l

"*=?=*t"=r.rtt/mz

0- = 8'36''

or,

= :(2.2) (32) + ;(31) (7.4-s)


,

= 1 9 4 . 1n r '

R s i n@

Consicleringunit width of tbe slope,weight of thc soil wt:dgt:


A B C E = ( 1 e 4 . 1 )( 1 ) ( 1 . 8 )r

R s i n@ m

= 349.38t.
Now, deflectionangle 6 = 102" = 1.78radian
. ' . A r c l e n g t h o f A E C = L = R 0 = ( 2 0 . 5 ) ( 1 . 7 8 )= 3 6 . 4 9 r n .
The lever arm /o of the cohesiveforce.with respec to P is given by,

t" = ?.R
LC

#(20.s)

= 23.38
m

At a distanceof 23.38m from P, draw a line paralleI to the chord AC.


This gives the direction of the cohesive force C. Again, tfirouglr G, draw a
vertical line to represnt the self-weight of the soil wedge Iv. The lines of
action of W awJC intersect at p.
Now, radius of the friction circlc,

r = R sinO = (20.5)(sin10') = 3.56rn.

Fig.10.14

Problems in Soil Mechtrnics ond Foundttion Engineering

278

The new radius of the friction circle is,


r' = R sin S,, = (20.5) (sin 8.36") = 2.9ttm
Draw anotherfriction circle with this radius.
The direction of F slightly changes.A new tirrce triangle is cottslructed.
'fhe
value of C obtainedfrom it is 46.7 t.
c
46'7
Mobilised cohesiolt , c m = T = 1 6 , = l . 2 l t / : n 2

Hence the l'a<{orot safety of the given slope for the slip circle under
is 1.18.
consideration
I

Problern 1\7 It is requiredto makea 6 m deepexcavationin a stratunr


of soft clay having 'l = 18 kN/m'aud c = 26 kN/rn'. A rock layer exists at a
depth of 9 rn below the ground level. Determine the factor of safety of thc
slope againstsliding ifthe slopeanglebe 40'.
The problem will be solvedby Taylor's method.

Here, lhe depth factor,

,o -

= rc

For n4 = 1.5 and F = 40", the value of Taylor's Stability NurnberS, as


obtainedfrom Fig. 10.8 is, So = 0.172.
But, we have from eqn. (10.30),

sr, =
F"=

F r n (H

Using eqn.(10.30)

s"= F.fu' ot' F' =


or,

F'-F+

Solution:

Assume that friction and cohesion


of safety of the slope againstshearfailure'
their ultimatevalues'
are nobilised to the sameproportionof
of friction (i'e" Fq = 1)' the
solution: In case of full mobilisation
= L5' and p = 30" as obtained
value of Taylor's Stability Nurnber for 6
from Fig. 10.7,is, S,, = 0'046'

= l.l8
F -, = +
r.zl

F a c t o r o f s a f e t yw . r . t c o h e s i o n ,

' or, F.

Sny/{

26
= 1.40
(0.172)(18)(6)

Hence, the required factor of safety of the slope = 1.46.


It may be further observedfrom Fig. 10.8that, for p = 40"and nd= 1.5,
the value of n is approximately 0.7.
x = n H = ( 0 . 7 )( 6 ) = 4 . 2 m
Hence, lhe critical slip circle will cut the ground level in front of the toe
at a distanceof 4.2m4
Problern W.{/ n cutting is to be made in a soil mass having
^ \.{
y - 1.8 t/m3, cA- te tt^2 and Q = 15', with.slide slopes of 30' to tle
horizontal, upto a delth of 12 m below the ground level. Determine the factor

279

Stabitityof SloPes

1.6
'E. - (0.046)(1.8)(12) = 1 . 6 1

However,asfrictionwillnotbefullyrnobilised,tlreactualvalueofF.
by trials'
will be less than this, and is to be found out

'Fo = l'25

LeI

tan 15" =
o'2r43
tanQ= ffi

0 = 12'1"
Referringto Fig. 10'7,for F = 30"
S"=0'075
when 0=10",

or'

when

Q=15",

. ' . w h e nb = 1 2 . 1 ' ,

S'=0'046

s,=0.46.ffi
= u.058.

+=offina=r'277-r:5
of safety of the slope
Hence, as F. and F6 are nearly equal' the factor
may be taken as 1.25'
E)GRCISE I,O
slope of 35' inclination
10.L. Compute the factor of safety of an infinite
madeinasanddeposithavinganang|eofinternalfrictiorrof4o".[Ans.1.2]
l0.2.Arrirrfiniteslopeof6mheightand35.inclirrationismadeina
:
layer of densesand having the following-propcrties
G
=
2
3
0' w=o7o
s = 4 . 5 V r n - ,d = 5 o , e = o ' 8 5 ,
againstsliding'
(a) Determine the factor of safety of the slope

280

Problens in Soil Mecl:onics and Foundation Engineering

(b) How will the fac:tor of safety changc if the slope gets fully
submergcd?
[Ans.(a) 1.2s(b) 1.e81
10.3. Detennine the fac'torof safetyof the slopeAB with respectto tht:
given slip circle shown in Fig. 10.15.The soil hasa unit weigtrt ot ig.5 kNln3
and a cohesionof 42 kN/m'. Use the Swedishcircle rnethocl.
[Ans : 1.42]
10.4. A 12 rn deepcut is rnadei'a silty clay with side slopesof 3()".The
soil has the tbllowing properties:
Y = 1.9gm,/cc:, c=0.25 kg/cm', O = 8".

Stability of Slopes

281

3.tn

l-

y=;f;,',';,t,H'=,:;:
6m
/

15m

\Y-

,/

./

sirt
crou.r

y = 1 . 9 f / m c3 =
, 1.5t/m2
cb=6o
Stiff ttov

6'5m

,/

\=195t/m3,:yr/

12n

Rock
Fig.10.16

Fig.10.15
Locate the ccntre of the critical slip circle by Fellenius' method and
detennine the factor of safety of the slope against sliding tailure by the
Swedislrcircle rnethod.
lArrs. 1.45]
10.5.Deterrninethe factor of sat'etyof theslopeshown in Fig. 10.16with
respectto the given friction circle by the standardrnethodof slices.
10.5. A 10 m deep cut is to be made in a soil with side slopesof 1 v: 1
.F/.The unit weight of the soil is 1,.8gm/cc and the soil has an uncontjned
cornpressive strength of 0.63 kglcm". Deterrnine the factor of sal-etyof the
slope againstsliding,

1 ' 9g m / c c
0 . 4K g1 c m 2
-o
)
9m

(i) neglecting tensiou cracks


(ii) consider:ngtensioncracks

Fig.10.17
Detenniue the thclor of safety of the side slopes of the canal against

10.7. cornpute tbe factor of sat'etyof the slopeshown i' Fig. 10.17 with
respectto the given slip circle by the tiiction circle methocl.

slidirrgby Taylor's nlethod.

10.8. An unlined irrigation ca'al hasa depthof g rn and a side slopesof


I : 1. The propertiesof the soil are as follows:

10.9. An ernbankment
is constructed
with a c-Qsoil havingthe following
properties :

c=2.0Vr12, q = 15", y = l.gt,/nr3

c=2.5Vm2, q = IZ', y = 1.851,/m3

[Ans.1.25]

?82

Problems in SoiIMechanics and Fotrndation Engineering

to both
The ernbar*rnentrnusthave a ihctor of safetyof 1'5 with respect
friction'
cohesionand angle of intemal
of the
(a) What will be the maximum allowable slope if the height
embartkrnentbe 12 rn ?
of the
(b) What will be thc maxitnutn allowable height if the sides
enbankment are sloPed Lt45" ?

11

l0.l0.A6rnlriglretnbaltklnenlistobemadewnitlraclayeysoilhaving
exists
a unit weight of 1.7itlm3 and a cohesionof 3.5 t/mz. A hard stratum
if
a'gle
slope
the
be
wlmt
should
at a depth;f 3 m below the ground level.
33"]
?
2'0
[Ans'
the requiredtactorof safetyJgainstslidingbe
l0.ll.DetennirretlrefactorofsafetyoftheslopeshowttirrFig'10'18
with respect to the given slip circle. use the friction circle method.

Y = 1 8k N/ m 3
c = ' lf / m 2

BEARING CAPACITY
11.1 Introduction: Structuresofall typeshaveto rest on the soil existing
is transmited to the supportingsoil
at the site.The load of the superstructure
throughstructuralmemberscalledfootingswhich ate to be designedproperly
so as to ensure:
(i) The shearstressdcvelopedon any plane in the loaded soil mass
does not exceedthe shearstrengthof the soil. In other words, shearfailure
doesnot occur.
(ii) The settlenent of the footing due to the applied load does not
excred the tolerablclimit.
The bearing capacity of a given footing hasto be detenninedcorsidering
both of these factors. The present chapter deals with the detennination of
bearingcapacityof a footing from the point of view of shearfailure.
ll.2

Fig.10.18

Definition of Terms Related to Bearing Capacity:

l. Grossloading intensity (q): This is the intensity of total pressureat


the baseof footing due to the load from the superstructure,self-weight of the
footing and the weight of earth fill above the baseof footing.
Before the conskuction of a footing, the
2. Net loading intensiry fu):
soil at the foundation level is subject to an overburden pressuredue to the
self-weight of the soil mass. The net loading intensity is the difference
between the gross loading intensify and the overburdenpressure.
If a footing is founded in a soil rnasshaving a unit weight y at a depth D
below the ground level, then,

e, = e - ,(D

...(11.1)

3. Uhimste bearing capacity (q): This is the minimum intensity of


loading at the base of the tbundation which will causea shear failure of the
soil.
This is rhe minimum net
4. Net ultimate bearing capacity (q,):
pressure intensity due to the applied load (i.e., excluding the existing
overburdenpressure)which will causea shearfailure.

284

,routeryyA A:tEjc{ya Sunttit-nn{leet!9t,

5 . Net safebearing capocity (q,u): The rninirnurn net pressureintensity


at the baseof tbotiilg with respectto a specifiedfactor of sal'etyagainstshear
failurc,i.e.,
Qu,t
-f
Q"r =

285

Bcaring Copacity

the following expressionfor the ultimate bearins capacity of a footing of


width B, placedat a depthD below G'L.:

.,(rr.z)

--J
r--B
l
9
u
l

6. Safe beoring capacity (q"): The maximum gross loading intensitY


whicb the tooting will sately carry without the risk of shear tailure,
irrespectiveof the rnagnitudeof settletnettt.
't
...(11.3)
Thus.
Q, = Qr" + D
0l'

e'=!+Yn

-+

.,(1r.4)

7. AIIow,abIe bearing cupaciry @): Tlris is the net intensity of loading


which the foundation will carry without undergoing settlernentin excess of
the permissiblevalue but not t:xceedingthe net safebearing capacity'
11.3 Types of shear Failure: The sheartailure of a soil masssupporting
a structure may take place in either of the following modes:
(i) General shear failure
(ii) Local shearfailure
(iii) Punchingsheartailure
In dense sands and stiff clays, when the loading intensity exceeds a
certain limit, the footing ge.nerallysettlcssuddenly into the soil and well
defined slip surfaces are fonned. The shear strength of the soil is fully
rnobilised along thesesurfaces.This is calleda generalshearfailure.'
In relatively loose sands and in medium clays, the footing settle.s
gradually.The failure planesare not so well definedand the sbearstrengthof
the soil is not tully rnobilised.No heavingof soil takesplaceabovetheground
level. This type offailure is called local shearfailure.
In very loose sandsand soft saturatedclays, a footing is often found to
virrually sink into the soil. No failure planeis formed at all. Sucira failure is
due to the shear thilure along'the vertical face around the perilneterof the
baseof the tbotilg. The soil beyond this zoneremainspracticallyunaft'ected'
Tltis type of failure is called puttchingsheartailure'
The type of shearfailure expectedto occur at a site has a direct bearing
on the theoreticalcompulationof bearingt:apacity.
11.4 Terzaghi's Theory: This theory is an extension of the concept
originally developedby Prandtl. The mode of general shear failure of a
footing is illustratedin Fig. 11.1 (a). Consideringthe critical equilibriurn of
the.soil we dge xyz underthe forcesshown in Fig. 1 1.1 (b), Terzaghi derive.d

F i g .l l . l

4n = cN, + YDNo + o.5YBi/i,

...(11.5)

wherc, N, , NqarrdNo arebeariugcapacitylactorswhich dependon the


atgle of intt:rnalfriction of the soil'
Eqn.(1 1.5) is applicableto geucralshear[ailurc.For local shearfailure,
the followlng equatiollis to be used:

whcrc,

Q n = c ' N r ' + Y D N+. 0' . 5y 8 { '

...(11'6)

c' = 1c
5

...(11.7)

anct, Nr', No' and Nr'are the bearingcapacitylactorsobtainedtioln Q',


rvhcrrr,

Q'= r an-(l3t." )

...(11.8)

Eqn. (1 1.5) is lncattllbr slrip foolings.Horvt:ver,for squareattdcircular


lootings thtr follorvirrg nrodified equalionsshould be uscd,whic* take into
accountthe shapethclors:
For squarcfootings,
Q u = 1 . 3c N . + t D N q + 0 ' 4 Y B N ,

...(11.e)

For circular tbotirtgs,


Q n = 1 . 3c N . + Y D I ' ! n + 0 ' 3 Y B l { t

...(11.10)

where, ^B stattdstbr the widtb of a squaretboting or the diailreterof a


circular footing.
Thrrvaluesof Terzaghi'sbearingcapacityfaclorsaregivcn in Table 11.1.

286

e,, = cNrs,dri,

Table 11.1: Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Factors

N.

Nq

0
5
10
15
20
?5
30
35
40
45
50

5.7
7.3
9.6
12.9
17.7
N.1,
37.2
57.8
95.7
172.3
347.5

1.0
1.6
2.7
4.4
7.4
12.7
22.5
4r.3
81.3
r73.3
4r5.1

0
0.5
1.2
2.5
5.0
9.7
19.7
42.4
100.4
297.4
1153.2

N.'

N;

NY,

5.7
6.7
8.0
9.7
11.8
14.8
19.0
25.2
34.9
5r.2
81.3

1.0

0.o

r.4

0.2
0.5
0.9
1.7
3.2
5.7
10.1
18.8
37.7
87.1

1.9
2.7
3.9
5.6
8.3
12.6
20.5
34.1
65.6

dc , dq , 4 un the depth factors


ic, iq, i, arethe inclinationfactors.
The valuesof all thesefactorsare given i4 Tables 11.2through 11.5:
Table 11.2 Hansen's Bearing Capacity Factors

0'

5'

10" 1 5 '

20"

25'

&

1.0 0.09 0.47 r.42 3.54 8 . 1 118.084n

...(rr.r2)

sy

1.00

1.00

L + 0.2BIL

L + 0.2BlL

L -0.4BtL

Square

1.3

r.2

0.8

Circular

1.3

r.2

0.6

Sa

1.00

dq

dr

| + 435 DlB

Forq = y", dq=r.0

1.0

(for all valuesof g)

ForQ>25', dq=d,

dc

...(11.13)

ultirnatebearingcapacityof a footing 's given by,

(for all valuesof g)

Table ll.5: Inclination Factors for Hansen's Equation

...(11.14)

(iv) For rec:tangular


footings:

11.6Brinch
".","#:rr#;;;ffi'#T

95.41240.85 t81.84

Table 11.4: Depth Factors for Hansen's Equation

N-=*6 2a

+O.28/L)N,6

KC

sq

Rectangular

(ii) whenP.E:?j:-

i/.=(1

50"

1.0 r . 5 72.47 3.94 6.40 10.6618.4033.2964.18134.85]18.96

Skemptonsuggestedthe following valuesofy'{. :


(i) yhef D = 0 (i.e.,when tlre footing is at the ground level)
for slrip footingslM. -!!l*

(iii) when DlB > 2.5:


ji.=1.5.xNc(surface)

45"

N,I

Contiuuous

c = cohesion.
= Bearing capacityfactor which dependson tle shapeof the
t'ooting as well as on the depth of foundation.
The ultimate bearingcapac'ityis given by:

!! *YI+P/B) N' (sur,race)

40'

. I 4 6.48 8.34t0.97 14.8320.72 30.r446.1 75.32133.89266.89

It

{;

35'

N.

Shopeof footing

where,

folguglg,aLd-circurar-fioorings'

30'

Table ll.3: Shape Factors for llensen's Equation

...(11.I 1)

qn = cN, + YD

...(11.16)

s., sg, sy are the shapefactors

11.5 Skempton's Equation: This equation is applicable to tbotings


tbundedon cohesivesoils.The net ultirnatebearingcapacilyof sucha tboting
is given by:
Quu=7N.

+ q N o s u d u i u + 0 . 5y B . l / r t y d , r \

q ='{D

where,

1gY

287

Beoring Copacity

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

l6

...(11.ls)
,' -

J.Brinch
Hansen, the
{
l
I

, t

H
2cBL

tq

| -o.s+

ly

i?

Problems in Soil Mechonics and Foundation Enginecring

288

Validupto: H s V tanb - c5'BL

. . .( 1 1 . 1 7 )

wlrere, H attd V arethe horizontaland vertical courponelrtsof the rcsultant


load acting on thc footing.
I

= lengtlr of tboting parallelto H.

c+ = cohesiottbetweetttboting and sc,il.


6 = angle of tiiction betwcentbotittg and soil.
11.7 Bearing Capacity Equation as per IS Code: Hansen's bcaring
capacrityequationwas lalt:r modified by Vcsic. In IS:6403 - 1981, thc
following equalions were proposed,which incorporated Vesic's modificalions:
F o r g e n e r asl h e a rl a i l u r c :
Q , ,= c N r s r d . i , + q N n s n d n i , + 0 . 5y B N . , s r d r i r W '
for local shearfailure.
,
-) ; .
q,, =
/y'.'t. dri, + qNq' tqdri,

...(11.1ti)

289

Bearing Capacity

of the soil. When the soil is fully submerged,the submerged density 1ru6
shouldbe usedin placeof 1. But if thewatertableis at the.baseof the footing,
only tbe third term is atfected.The generalbearing capacity equatiou is,
theretbre,moditied as:
"'(11'20)
Qu = cNc + 7D1N.W1 + 0'5yBNrW2
where, W1 and W2are the correction factors.
For most soils, 1*6 is nearly equal to half tlre value of y' Hetrce,the
correctionfaclon are given by (Referto Fig. 11.2):

Wr = 0.5(I + 4/D)
Wr = 0.5
Whenthewatertableis at G.L.,
= 1-0
I4l1
of
footing,
base
is
at
the
when
it
and
Wz = 0.s (l + z2/B)

.,(rr.2t)

...(rt.22)

Whenthewatertableis at thebaseof footing, W2= 0.5


+ 0 . 51 B N r s r d r t r ' v y '
...(11.1e)

The shape fac:torssc , .egand s, are thrr same as lhose used in Brinch
Hansen'sequationand canbe obtainedliorn Tablc 11.3.
The dcpth factorsare given by:
d,=l+{t.2(DtB\'$q
dn=dr=1tb rQ<1 0 '

d,r = d, = 1 + o'1(D/B)' fr,

rct o ' 10'

-.t-Fig.112

The inclinationfactorsaregivenby:
i, = iq = (l - s/g}f
.

i I^ . = f r - g l
t\

a /l

rvhere, NO = ton2(45" + q/2)


c( = angle of inclination of the resultatrttbrce oIt the footing.
for water table.
In eqns.(11;18)and (1 1.19),Iy' = correctionfa<rtor
The N. andNn - valuesaresirnilarto thosegiven in Table 11'2,while the
{-values are sligli.tlyditterent.
and

I I.8 Fffect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity: In Terzaghi's bearing


capacityequation,the secondand third termsaredependentorrthe unitweight

When it is at a depthI below the baseof fmting, Wz = L.O.


Here it is assurnedthat, if the water table is at a depth egual to or greater
than B betow the base,tbe bearing capacityremains unaffected.
IS : 6403-1981 recsmmendsthc usc of a singtc correction factor Iy' to
be use.din rhe ftird rerm of equarions(11.18) and (11.19). The value of ly' is
as follows:
(a) If the water table is at or below a depth of D + B beneaththe G.L.,
then ly' = 1' 0.5
O) If it is at a depth D or above, t{
("i rf O. depth of water table is such tiat, D < D n < (D+B), &e value
of ly' sbould be obtainedby linear interpolation.

Problems in SoilMechanics and Fottndstion Engineering

290

291

Bearing CaPacitY

dimensionof the
In caseof single eccentricity (Fig' 11' a) the effective
7 e'
fotrting in the direition of eccentricityis reducedby
,

ll.gEccentricallyLoadedFootings:Afootingissaidtobeeccentrically
thc cre[lreof gravity of
loaded if the resultantload on it is appliedaway from
theload.Suclrfootingsrnaytredesigrredbyeitlrerofthetbllowirrgrnetlrods:
(alMetlwdl:[nthisrnetbodtheloadQofeccetttricityeisreplacedby
of magnitudeM = Q'e'
un .i*t concentricload Q and a balancingrnorneilt
load as well a.sthe
Stress distribution digrams due to the concentric:
stressintensity of
maximum
balanc:ingmoment a." plotied (Fig' 11'3)' The.
bearingcapacity
allowable
the
than
the superlnposeddiagramstroutaU" less

B ' = B - 2 e

i.e.,

A' = L(B - Ze)

Incastlofttoubleeccentricitythe<limensionsinbothdirectionsare
as fol lows:
rcttuct'.<I
L ' = L - Z e t . a n c lB ' = B - Z e B
- 2eBl
A' = L' x B' = (L - 2e7)(B

of the footing.

f--i=

*f

1.p

"'(11'23)

"'$l'24)

r-B

-I

. l

_I
Ptan
n

st'l

F i g1
. l'a

r+-t--_]

-{eFEievot'ion

J_
o/A
0riqinotFooting

Etevotion
FootinqUnden
Loodinq
Eouivo-lent

capacity of a footing
11.10 Bearing Capacity from N'value: The bearing
PenetrationTe st
Standard
frorn
obtained
N-value
ile
irom
may be.de.ternrL"o
carried,out in the field from the following equalions:
For striP footings:

T-

+ tf1ow, + o'47rfi nw,


enu= a.785(100

J - l

For squaretbotings:

J_

Qnu

M.e/l I
Q M e
A . I
-f' P

ressurcDisltt-lgilg!

Fig.I1.3
this method if a footilg is
(b) Methotl II (Meyertwf's method): In
plan area ofthe footing is
ofthe
portion
a
"*polJaio an eccentric ioto, ooty
effective area'
the
as
termed
is
"o*ia*t"e to be useful' This area

where,

* fi)owt + o.3rlt'fBW2 "'(tr'261


= 0.e43(1ry

N = averagecorrectedblow count'
D = depth of footing.
f i = width of footittg.

w'r wz = correction fataors[u;


Qnu

"'(11'25)

r'-:'dr table'

net ultimate bearing capacity in kN/m2'

293

BearingCaPacitY
Problems in Soil Mecltnnics ttnd Fottndution Engineering

2gZ

= 186.5 - (1'85)(1"s) = $t't/n]'


11.11 Bceri4 capacity frnrn P]ate Load Test: The bearing capacity of
a footing to be placld ori a soil rnass may be assessedfrom the results of a
plate load test carried out at the site at the desireddepth. However, the process
has got several limitations.
The method of computing rhe bearing capacity of a prototype footing
from the plate load te$tdata is illustratedin Problem 1l'10'
The iettlement of the prototype footing, when founded on granular soils,
is given by the following relationship suggestedby Terzaghi and Peck'

I Be@ + 0.3)l2

Pp=PtB@.0t.|
where,

...(rr.27)

Pp - seftlernentof the Plate'


p = Settlement of the prototype footing'
Bp = width of Plate'
.B = width of the prototype foottng.
EXAMPLES

problem 1l.l/
A 2 m wide strip footing is founded at a deptb of 1.5 m
the
below the gtouM tevel in a hornogeneousbed of dense sand, having
following properties:
0 - 36', T = 1.85 1,/rn3.
Determine|heultimate,netultimate,nctsafeandsafebearingcapacity
of the footing. Given, for E - 36"
/Vc - 60, Nq = 42' Nt= 47'
Assume a faclor of safetYof 3.0.
Solution: As 0 - 36', a general shearfailure is likely to occur'
(i) Ultimate bearing caPacitY:

Here,

4u n cN" + TDNo + 0'518/Vt


c = 0, y = 1.85Vnt3,o = 1.5m, B =L}m'
Nq= 42 and N, - 47
(1.8s)(2.0)(47)
4u - (l.ss) (1.s)(42) + (0,5)
-

786.5t/n]'
(ii) Net uttimatebearingcapacity:
4*-4n-lD

(iii) Net safebearingeaPacitY:


Q^=\

Q n " -- - 1 8 3 ' 7 = 6 l . Z t / m 2 .
3.0

(iv) Safe bearing caPacitY:


Qs = Qns+ \Df

= 612; (1'85)(1'5)= 64t/m2'


-/
beenfounded
Pr.oblemlil$,Asqnre footingof 2'5 m x 2'5 m sizehas
densityof
bulk
a
having
soil
cohesive
i
in
groond
level
at !.2 mbelow tbe
strengthof 5'5 t/rn'' Detenninethe
uno]nnt .a comprcssive
;:8 rJ;;;r,
of safetyof 2.5,
ultimateandsafebearingcapaciiyof thefootingfor a factor
by
(i) Terzaghi'stheory(ii) Skempton'stheory'
Solution: Cohesionof thesoil,
4u 5.5
c^ = T = _- T - =_L a. a<
t r t/nt?
l
soils($ = 0) we have'
tlrcory:Forcohesive
(i) Terznghi's
N. = 5"7, Nq = 1'0, NY = o'
Usingeqn.(11.9),
qu = (t.3)(2.7s)(s.7)+ (1'8)(1'2)(1'0)
= 22.54t/ri
Qs

= l}.3lt/rri'
(ii) SkemPton's methd:
1 7

Here,

D/B=#=o'4at2'5'

Eqn.(11.13)is aPPlicable.
N" = (1 + 0.2D/8, ff.lsrrrace)
= 6.N'
But for squarefootings, ffc (surtace)

4 = { t . r y a } t u . r o l- 6 ; e

- 186.5 - (1.85)(1.5) = t83.7t/rt

295

Bearing CaPacitY
Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foandatian Eng'ineering

294

I
issubjccttoa Sross
Problem LI{4. Asquare footingof 2m x 2msize

soil
is I m.Thefgynda{on
i. me o.,ptlof ioundation

""r,i;;iffio?Yio

Q^, = cN"

= (2.75)(6'7s)= t8.67t/t#
=
e, = e* + 7D = 18.67+ (1.3)(1.2) 20'83t/n?

of 1.85Vm' attd an
coilsistsof a depositof densesandhavinga bulk densisty
of safety againstshear
,ngte or intcrnal friction of 3d. Determine the factor
failure.
Solution: We havc, for Q = 36"

Qnu

+ \u
Q" = 7, s

1e 6't

+ (1'8)(r'2) = 9.63 t/m2.

Detennine the safe load that can be carried by a square


Problem llJ.
G'L' The
footitts of 2.2V x 2'2 m size, placed at a depth of 1'6 rn below
foundition soil has the following properties:

y = 1.65t/m3, s = l!l)/mz, 0 = 20',


of safetyof 2.5' GiCEn,for Q = /6',
a
factor
Assume
N, = 17.7, Nq = 7'4, ffr = 5'o
lV.' = 11'8, Nq' = 3'8' NY' = 1'3
thatthesoil
Solution: Thelow valueof unitweightof the soil suggests
shearfailure is
is in the loosestate,Moreovet,Q = Zff < 28"' Hencea local
of the
capacity
likely to occur.Using eqn.(11.26),the net ultimatebearing

footing-*Tit:
!.3c'N"'+ vD(N,- 1) + o.4vBN,
Here,

,
2
^--,,-^2
" = j,=(2/3)(1.2)=0.8r/n}
N"' = 11.8, ffq' = 3'8, xy' = 1'3
qn,,= (r.3) (0.8)(11.8)+ (1.65)(1'6)(3'8- 1)
+ (0.a)(1.6s)(2.2)(1,3)
= 12.27+ 7.39 + 1'89

= 2t.55 t/rt
The safebearingcapacityof thefooting:
2l='25 (1.65)(1.6)= lr.?tt/mz
Qnu
+
q " = F ; - + ' ,o =
?.j
Grosssat'eload to be carriedby fte footing'
- es X Areaof footittg
- {ll'76)(2'2f - 5a'51'

N"=60, Nq=42,N\=47
as c = 0'
Using eqn.(11.9) and noting that the first term vanishes
q, = (1'8s) (1'0) (42) + (0'4) (1'8s) (2.0)(47)
= tql3t/n].
= 1455 t/mz'
uuu = 147'3 (1's5)(1'0)
Now, actual bearing pressureat the baseof footing'

But,

o,,

qa =

o _
m 'z .
- t 8 o -= 4-J5 "t /'|'
T
Ae>

qb=

? *,o,

=3'3i.
F,=
#i4=*-ffi#do
carryinga net verticalload of

Problenr tt$/Acoluntn of a building,


at
,ffipor,"o by a squarefooting'The footingis to be^placed
125;;;;;;.
followittg
the
having
soil
bf
bed
a
hornogeneous
1.2 m below G'L. in
properties:
y=1.82grn/cr,O=30"
sizeof the footingrequiredto havea factorof
rninimum
the
Detennine
safetyof 2.5 againstshearfailure'UseTerzaghi'sformula'
=
Solution: Net loadon columnfrom superstructure t25t.
Addt07ofor the selfweightof the footing = t25 t
r37.5t
=137.5t= 138t(saY).
Grossload
soil
bearingcapacityof a squarefootingon a cohesionless
safe
Now, the
is givenby
1 r
a , = i f t . s c l U .+ y D ( N n t) + O.aVafrl+ y D

=
Frorntable11.1,for 0 = 30', N" = 3'7.2,Nq = 22.5,N., 19.7

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

296

----a-1'^-'^

e, = zs t (1.82)(1.2)(22.s- 1) + (0.4)(1.82)(B) (1e.7)l


+ (1.82)(1.2)
= 18.78+ 5.748 + 2.18 = 2O.96+ 5.748
The safeload that canbe carriedby the footing,
Q = Q " x A
= (20.e6+ 5.7a4*

/(
RC.C. column footing of f.8 m x 1.8 m size is
Problem tt/.'en
founded at 1.5 m below G.L. The subsoil consistsof a loose deposit of siity
sandhaving the following properties:
| = 1.75t/n3' q = 20", c = l.lvrt
tbe
ultimate bearing czpacity of the footing when the ground
Determine
water table is located at:
(ii) 0.6 m below ground level.
(i) ground level
(iiD 2.0 m below the base of footing (iv) a.0 m below the base of
footing.

Given,for Q = 20",fr.'= 1L.8,frr'= 3'8, fry'= 1.3'

= 5 .7 4 f + 2 0 96r t

Solution: Assuming a local shearfailure, the ultimate bearing capacity


of a square footing is given by,

5.7483 + 20.96Bz = 138,


or,

f+3.6582=24.04

eu = 1.3c' N.' + I DNq W1 + a.4y BNi w2

Solvingthe aboveegrrationby trial anderror,we obtain,


B=Z.O6m=2.10m(say)

Here,

Hence, the reqyired size of the footing = 2'10 m


If the size of the footing in Problem 11'5 has to be
Problern [rd.
restricted to 1.7Ym x 1.75 m , at what depth the footing should be placed?
Solution: The bearing capacity of a footing placed in a cohesionless
soil increases with depth. In Problem 11.5, the depth of the footing was
specified as 1.2 m. The corresponding size required for supporting a gross
load of 138 t was found to be 2.45 m x 2'45 m' However, if the size of the
footing has to be restricted to 1.75 m x 1.75 m (such restrictions are sometimes necessary for avoiding encroachment on adjacent land) and if the
column still hastowithstand the samegrossload,its depthhastobe increased.
Let d be the required depth.
Now,

q, = I[lo{ivu - rl +
Q"=

0f'

, ' = ? , = Q / 3 ) ( 1 . 1=)0 . 7 3 t / m 2 .
\ = 1 . 7 5 t / m, l D = 1 . 5 m ,B = 1 . 8 m
(1.s)(3.8)wl
(11.8)+ (1.75)
s, = G3) (0.73)
'
+ (0.4)(1.7s)(1.8)(1.3)wz

olt

Qu = ll.2 + 9.97W1 + t.64W2


(i) Whenthewatertableis at thegroundlevel, z1 = g.
Usingeqn.(ll.2l), Wr = 0.5 (1 + 0) = 0.5.

(r.82)d (22.s- 1) + @.4$.82)(r.7s)(re.1)+ (1.82)d


2.5

Qu = ll.2 + (9.97)(0.5)+ 1.64


= L7.82t/mz

ffi
=
17.472d+ 10.039 45.061

(ii) When the water table is at 0.6 m below the ground level,
z1 = 0.6m,

tYr = 0.50 + A.6/7'5) = 0'7

Qs=77.472d+10'039

W2 is againnot applicable

= 45.M1t/rt

d=2.fi)m.
The footing has to be founded at a depth of 2'00 m belorv G'L'

...(i)

(i.e.,W, = 17.
W2is notapplicable

0 . a V B N r ]+ \ D

Again,actualcontactpressure,A" =
or,

297

BearingCapacity

Qu = tl.2 + (9.97)(0.7)+ 1.64


= 19.82t/m2
(iii) Whenthewatertableis at 2.0m belowG.L.,
z2 = 2.0-1.5 = 0.5m
Wz = 0.5(1 + O.5/2.0)= 0.68

Problems in soil Mechanics tnd Foundotion Engineering,

2g8

Here 171is not agplicable


Qu = lL'Z + 9.97 + (1.64)(0'625)
= 22.19 t/mZ
(iv) when the ground water table is at 4 m below tbe baseof footing, no
corr.ectiondue to ground water table is necessary.In other words, the ultimate
bearing capacity is not affected by the ground water table'
= 22'81 t/nz
Qn = 11.2+9'97 +l'64
It is evident from the aboveresults,that, thebearing capacityofa footing
increaseswith increasingdepth of the ground water table'
prublern l\$/Twoadjacentcolurn's
of a building, canyi^g a vertical
oeaclr,
footing of 2 rn x 3.5 m
cornbi'ed
by
a
are
supported
torrne
load of e
lhe maximurn
Determine
ground
level.
the
below
m
at
1.2
foundecl
size.,
allowable value of Q if the foundationsoil consistsof a deep,homogeneous

er,

Q=37.5t
safeload on eachcolumn = 37.5 t'
required
tbe
Hence,
(ii) In this case,Brinch Hansen'sequationis expectedto yield a more
reliable result.We have tiom eqn. (11'16)'
stdttt
4 , , = c N r s r d r i . - + T D N u s n d n i o+ 0 ' 5 v B N r
For Q = 10", referringto table 1L'2,
N. = 8.34, Nq = 2.47, Ny = 0.47
The shapefactors,cepth factors and inclination tactors are obtained trorn
t a b l e sL L . 3 ,1 1 . 4a n d 1 1 . 5 '
For a rectangularfooting of 2.0 m x 3.5 m size,foundedat a depthof 1.2
m below G.L., we gct,
s" = rs = 1 + (0.2)(2.0/3.5\ = l'll4
sY = 1 - (0'4) (2/3'5) = 0'77

d. = | + (0'35)(r'2/2'0) = r'71

strafutn of :
(i) Saturatedsilty clay (f = 1'9 t/tn3 , c = 4'6 t:nh
(ii) Partially saruratedinorganicsilt
(y = 1.e t/n3, $ = 10', c = l'6t/m2)
solution: Total c:olumnload to be carried by the combined footing :
( a ) l o a d f r o r n t h e c o l u t n n s= Q + Q = 2 Q
=O'ZQ
ib) self-weightof footing (say l0% of columnloading)
g r o s sl o a d = 2 . 2 Q
(i; t' tnis case,as the tbundatio^ soil is purely cohesive,Skempto*'s
formula may be applied'
Here.

299

BearingCaprcity

when Q = 0", dq = 1.0and when$ = ?5', dq = dc = I'21

Bylinearinterpolation,for
$ = lO", dq = 1.0 +

= 1'084
Sincetheloadingis vertical, i, = iq = ty = 1
(2.47)(r'rL4)
(1.0)+ (1'84)(1.2)
.'. 17,= (1.6)(8.34)(1'114)(r.2r)
(0.77)(1'0)(1'0)
(2.0)
(0.47)
(1.084)(1.0) + (0.s)(1.84)
= 17.99+ 6.59 + 0.67 = ?5'?5t/m2

DIB = t.22.A =O.6 <2.5

U s i n g e q n s . ( 1 1 . 1 1 ) ,( 1 1 . 1 3 )a n d ( 1 1 . 1 5 ) ,t h e n e t u l t i r n a t eb e a r i n g
capacity of a rectangularlooting is given by,

* =='o'l.,',:
u,
:'-T*]u.,i
i 0,,,,,,n
; :?'1,'

= 29.51.
t/nz
a factorofsafetyof2'5, thesafebearingcapacity,
Considering
,o ql

n,=t#=rr.Bt/mz
Safe gross load on the footing = Q"'A

= (11.8)
(2.0)(3.s)= 82.6t
2.2Q = 82.6

{14;-1!} rtol

Qt

25.25- (l'84)(1'2) + (1.8a)(1.2)= L1.42t/mZ


',
'
2.5

Totalgrossloadon tboting= (11.42)(2.0)(3-5)=79'97t'


2.?Q = 7e.97t
or,
A = 36.35t
Problem N.g/A rectangularfooting of 2.4 m x 3.5 rn size is to be
at t.YrnbelowG.i. in a c-g soilhavingthefollowingproperties:
coustrucrect
Y = 1.75VmT, 6 = ?1", c = l.at/mz'
The footing hasto carry a grossverticalload of 70 t, inclusiveof its
self-weight.In addition,the columnis subjectto a horizontalload of 11 t

Problems in SoiI Mechanics andFottndation Engineering

300

applied at a height of 3.3 m abovethe baseof the footing. Determine the factor
ofsafety ofthe footing againstshearfailure :
(i) using Brinch Hansen's method.
(ii) As per IS : UIJ3 - 1981.
solution: The loading condition of the column and the footing is shown
in Fig.11.5. Due to the presenceof the horizontal force, the rcsultant load on
is inclined, and the footing becor4eseccentrically loaded. Let e
th" ilu-n
be this eccentricitY'

301

BearingCapacity
(i) Brinch.H ansen'seqn:We havefrom eqn.(11.16)'
eurt= cN.s"d.i" + yDNrsndnio + 0'5 yBN,tsy4\'
For 0 = 20", N" = 14.83,Nq = 6.4, Ny - 3.54
s" = sq - 1 + (0.2)(2.4/3.5\* 1.137
s' = 1 - (0.4)(2'4/3'5) = 0'7t4
dc = | + (0'35)(l5/L4)
For

(E%:P
i = zot;'do = t.o *

= L'219

(20)- 1.262

4=l'o'

'1.8
m

i, = | - H/TcBL = 1 - lt/(2 x 1.0 x 2.4 x 3'5)


= 0.345

iq- | - o.t+- t - 0IlJlU= o.elr

e = 0'52m

\-it=$.szrf-0.&48

(1.5)(6'4)(1'137)
(0.34s)
(1.21e)
+ (1.75)
(1.137)
q, = (r.o)(14.83)
(1.0)(0.84t|)
(0.7ro
(3.s4\
(L4\
(r.7s)
(0.s)
(0.e21)
(1.262)
+

Fig.11.5

= 33.79Vmz

Let R be the resultant soil reaction, applied at P, which can be resolved


?
into two components,Ry and Rg.
2H = 0 gives, Rs 31.1t
2V=0gives,

Safe bearirqgcapacity,

o"=ff*to

Rv=74"t

summing up tle moments of all forces about tbe mid-point of the base
G,

Q,weget,

RvxPQ=LLxz.
ort

,pvo -_( 1 1 L ( 3 ' 3 ) = 0 . 5 2 m


70

Of'

Effectivelengthof thefooting, L' = L - 2 e


= 3.5 - (2)(0.52)= 2'46m

3 t ' 1 g l+ L 6 l r - 1 1 . 8 6
-I"

Effectivewidth, B' = B - 2.4m


Qfr

+(r.75)(r.s)

o"=ry+2.68
Actual contact pressuredue to the given loading'
,'
7n
Q'-*g=ll'86t/m'

e = O.52m

.'. Effectivearea A' - L' B' = (2#) (2.41= 5.gn?

n"=E2=#U?

F" - 3'37
(ii) As per15:6403-1981:

Problems in Soit lt[echttnicsttnd Foundation Engineertng


For

= 14.83, Nq = 6'40, ffv = 5'39


S = 20", i/.

Valtresols',snallcls,aretlresarneasilroseobtainedtbrBrirrclr
Hansen'snrethod.
VFo = tan (45' + 20"/2) = r'428
Now

d,=1.@!#Jg=1.18
d q = d y =t . U T f @

= l'oe

Bearing CaPacttY
(i)Plottheloadvssettltnenlcurvearrrldeterrrrine,theultimatebearing
of the Plate.
capat:ity
'
x 1'5 m' placed
(ii) Detenninetheultirnateloadwhich a iboting of 1'5 rn
settlernentis
allowable
the
if
ixrry
will
soil,
same
at 1.2 m below G.L. in the
2 rrnt.

11'6' In ordcr
Solution: (i) The load-settlenentcrulveis shown in Fig'
were
two
tengents
plate'
to <teterminethe'ultimate bearing capacityof the
load
The
figure'
the
in
drawn to the load-settlemeutcurve as showu
be
to
found
is
tangents
t*'o
these
of
.-orr.:sponding1o the intersectioil point
3.75 kg/cnt-.

Anglc of inclinationof tht resultantload,

= 37'5 t/m2
{a (plate)= 3'75kg/cntz
of the prototypelboting is given
(ii) Using eq. (11.27),the settletucltt

cr = tan-lE = tou-tft = s'n:'


by'

i , = if^i = ( t - *9I0
\-

= o'81i

(r-8'93\-=0.:oo
,' r = l . ' n ,|-v.Jw
(1'137)
i. Qu= (1.0)(14.83)
it.rtt't(l.18)(0.811)+ (I.75)(1.s)(6'4)
(0'306)
(1'0e)
(0'714)
(1.0e)(0.811)+ (0.5)(r'7s)(z'4\(s'3e)
= 35,72t/nt2

3 s . 7 2- g . 7 s ) ( 1 5 )+ ( 1 . 7 5 ) ( 1 . s )
Sal'ebearing caPacitY, 4s =
r"

n"=#

or,

I B (8, + 30.5)l2

P=Ppl4iffio'j

= lQ gq1'
2 c n r = 2 0 m m , B = l . 5 m = 1 5 0 c ' m 8o

Here,

t 150(30 + 30.5)12 =
2 A = P"
(iso - 3o.t

|-30

20 =
P p = 2.809 7 . 1 2m m .

or,

+2'6?5
U

33.095

a
t

* 2.6L5= *s
o"_.--

or,

F" = 3.Sg

./
problem ll.116. The following rc.sultswere obtainedfrom a plate load
dcpth of 1'2 m
test perforne<! on a squareptate of :C cm x 30 cm size '1 2
ofsand:
belorv the ground level in a homogeneousbed
Applied Load
(ks/cm')

L
E

A
"

'Efr
GJ

e12
o

L ttc,

u. j6
I

Settlement (mrn)

1?

*' "
18
F i g .I 1 . 6

f,.XO9 pp

Problemsin SoilMechanicsand FoundationEngineering

3O4

curvewe get, for a settlemetttof 7.12mrn of


From the load-settlement
loadon theplate
the plate,the corresponding
= 3.7okg/artz = 37 t/m2.
Ultimateload=J)7\L5) (15) = 83.25t.
Preblern lft,ff. Determinethe allowablebearingcapacityof a 2 m x
2 m squarefooting foundcdat a depthof 1.5 rn below the groundlevel in a
deepstratumof silty clay havingthe following avrageproperties:
y = 1.8t/rf, c = 3t/m2, 0 = 0o, Cc = 0.89, ea = 0'85
The maxirnurnpermissiblesettlementof the footing is 7.5 crn. The
atthesiteis at a depthof 1.0mbelowG'L'
of thewatertable
highestposition

305

Beoring,Copucity

c , " =f +
-++=B.zEt/rn2.
s z . )
(ii) Computation of SettlementzAs the underlying soil is saturatedsilty
clay, only consolidation scttlcmcnt will take place. The zone of influcnce
below the brse of tboting is extendedto a tnaximum depth of twice the width
of the firoting, i.e., 4 m below the base.lnFig' ll.7,X-X is a horizontal plane
throqgh the rniddle of this consolidating laycr.
Norv, initial cffcctive ovcrburdenpressuronX-X
pe - 'l zl + ^{subz2
= ( 1 . 8 )( 1 . 0 ) + ( 1 . 8 - 1 ) ( 0 . 5 + 2 . 0 )
= 3.8t/n2 = 0.38 kg/cmz
Usirrg 2 : 1 dispcrsion method, stressincrement al X'X,
Lp
' =

1m

Po

Ap

tLl __lJ l

(8'28) (2'{J)(2'0)

= 2.07 t/ntl = 0.207kg/m2

(2.0 + 2.0)'

(assumingthc footing to bc loadectwith 8.28 t^n2).


"'. Consolidatiousettlerncnt,
pn + Lp
C..
:po:
p, = H
i__ "..togro
(0.259) '. ,^0.38 + 0.207
_ (400)
logto

oJ8

tr + ossi

Fig.1r.?
Solution:

Fig. 11.7 shows the given footing.

(i) Computation of Bearing Cupacity:


We have, from Skernpton's equation,
Qau = cNc

wtere,
Here,

N" n

As the estimated settlernetttis greater than lhe uraximum permissible


limit of 7.5 cXr,the allowablebearingcapacityof the footing shouldbe less
than 8.28 t/m-.
Let, q be the load intensity on the footing which results in a settlemenl
ol'just 7.5 crn. Let A p be the stressiltensity onX-Xwhen the footing is loaded
witb q t/m-'
pn + L p
c'-7;:

H'

5 ( r + 0,2D/Br(l + 0.28/L)

Q - 1 . 5m ,

B = L - 2.0m.

4nu

l
\
(6.9)
- 6.9c
{31 ZOJt/mz

For a faclor of safety of.2.S,thc nct safe bearing capacity is givenby'

| . "o'

(4o0)
(o.2se)
0ft

= 6.e
* (0.2)(o.r))
sf r . (o.?P)tt
''v

Nc

= lu')d ctn'

(1 + 0.85)

= ,-t

logro

Po + LP =
7.5
logro

Po

P o + L P=

logro

Oft

p0

0.1339

Po+LP=
1.1433.
Po

Problems in Soil Mechanics ond Foundotbn Engineering

306

But the value ofpg atX-Xis constant,and is equal to 0.38 kg/."nz

t+*^1

= L36r2

Solving,we get,

But,

6,p = o.l3T2kg/crt = 1.372t/m2


.
sBL
= qf

uP =

L'372=

@iAT;d

@- zf

q(*)^
(2 + 2)'

or,

Q=5.49t/m2-5.5t/ri
Hence, a loading intensity of 5.5 1,1p2will result in a consolidatiott
setflement of 7.5 cm. Therefore, the required allowable bearing capacity of
the footing = 5.5 Vrn2.
EXERCNSE 11
11.1. Determine the ultimate bearing capacity of the following footings
placedat 1.2 m below lhe ground level in a homogeneousdepositof firm soil
having y'= 1.8 t/nf , O = 20' and c = l.8t/n2.
(i) a strip footing of 2 m width
(ii) a squarefooting of 2m x 2 m size
(iii) a ci'cular footing of2 m diarneter.
given,forE = 2g', N. = 17.'7, Nq ='7.4, ffy = 5.0

tln?l
tAns.(i) 56.rrth# (ii) 6s.12r/mz liii; 62.80
11.2. A2.5 m x2.5 m square tboting is founded at a depth of 1.5 m
below G.L. in a loose soil deposit having the following properties:
,{ = r.65 t/m3, c = o.2kg/cmz, 0 = 15"
Determine:
(i) the ultimate bcaring capacity
(ii) the net ultimate bearing capacity
(iii) the net safe bearing capacity
(iv) the safe bearing caPacity.
The factor of safety should be taken as 3.0. Given, for Q = 15',
N, = 12.9, Nq = 4.4, Nr = L5, N"' = 9.7, Nq' = 2,.7, fly' = 0.9.

[Ans.(i) 24.s8t/n?QDzz.srtl# (lii)7.s0!n? (iv)9.98vrnzl


11.3. A circular footing of 2.5 m diameter rests at 1.3 m below G.L' in
a soil mass having an average cohesion of 10 kN/m', an angle of internal

Beuring Capacity

307

fridion of 28" anrt a bulk densityof 18 kN/mr. The water table is locatedat
a grcat depth. Dt:lerrnine the safebearing capacity of the footing' As-sumea
= 18'8 atd
gJreral shear thilure' Given, tbr Q = 28" N. = 32'5' ff,
Nv = 15.7.Thc faclorof safetyshouldbe takenas3.0. [AIs. 373.7kN/rn']
11.4. In Problern11.3,if thewater.tableriseslo the groundlevel due to
noodiilg, detcrminethe percentchangeill the sal'ebearifig capaeityof the
[Ans: DecreasesbY l8.6Vol
lootirtg.
I 1.5. A squarefooting of 2.2 m x 2.2 msize is foundedat a dpthof 1'2
m bclow G.L. in a honogeneousbed ofdry sandhavinga unit weight of 1.95
the
Vrn3 aild an angle Of intemat tiictiou of 3d. Determinethe safe load
tailure.
shear
footing .un ..rry with respectto a factorof safetyof 3.0 against
Givt:n, forq = 36', N. = 65.4, Nu = 49.4, Ny = 54'
'be
foundedin a bed ol'
t 1.6. A 2.0 nr wide strip tboting is requiredto
an
angle of shearing
and
of
2.0
4ensity
Vm'
a
bulk
havi*g
sa'el
4cnsc
rcsistanceof 35'. Plot thevariationof ultirnatebearingcapacityof the tbotittg
= 35"'
wilh depth of tbunclatiou, Dp tbr 0 s Dy s 3.0m' Given, for q
N. = 58, Ns = 41.5, Ny = 42.q.
the safeloada Circularfootingof5 m diameterfouuded
I1.7. De.rermine
at a depth of 1.0 rn below G.L. can caily. The foundationsoil is a saturated
claV lraving att uucoutineclcolnpressivestrengthof 6 t/rn2 and a ulit weight
.rf i.fS t/nr5.Assumea faUorof iafety of 2.5.Use Skempton'sandTerzaghi's
nrelhods attd cotupare the results. State,givilg reasons'wltich one is more
rcliable.
t, Skempton'smethod]
[Ans: Terzaghi:154-92t,Skenpton: 131.48
I I .8. A strip footing has to carry a grossload of 120 kN per tnetre run.
Tht. footing is plat-edat l.?5 m below G.L. in a homogeneoussandstratun.
The unit *.ignt and algle of internalfriction of the sandare 19 kN/rn' and
32' respectivily. Detennine the rninimum width of the footing required in
= 44,
or<ler to lrave a factor of sat'ety of 3.0. Given, tbr S = 32", N"
[Ars:2;18m]
Nq - 29, Nt = 2a'
I 1.9. The size of squarefootingmustbe restrictedto 1'5 m x 1'5 m' The
footing has to cany a net load of 150 t coming from the superstructure.The
tbundation soil has the following properties:
y = 1.91gm,/cc. c = 0, 0 = 36"
For I = 36', N' = 65, Nq = 49, ffY = 54'
Deterrnine the rninirnurn depth at which the footing has to be placed in
ordertohaveatactorofsafetyof2.5againstshearfailure. [Ans: 1.10m]
11.10. cornplete shear tailure of an RCC footing took place under a
grossload ot6245}kg. The dirnensionsof the footing wetezE mx2.75 n
I

309

Bearing Capacity
308

Problems in Soil Meclwnics and Foundation Engineering

and the depth of foundation was 1.4 m, The rubsoil consistedof r deepstretum
of medium clay (y - 1.8 t/m3). Find out the average
- unit cohesion of the
[Ars: c = 3.5 tlnzl
clay.
11.11. The fmting of a column is 1.5 m x 1.5 m in size, and is founded
at a depth of 1..25m belcnvthe ground level. The properties of the foundation
soil are:
c - 0.1 kg/un2, 0 - 15', \ - 1.75 gm/cc'
Detennine tlc srfc load the footing can carry with a factor of safety of
2.5, when thc water tablc is at:
(t) 0.5 m below the ground level.
[Ans: (i) 24.99 t (it) 28'29 tl
1iq O.Sm below the base of fmting.
11.12. The subsoil at a site consistsof a homogeneousbed of ilormally
consolidated soil having the following properties:
y = 1.85 t/m3, c = 3.5 t/m?, 0 = 10'
AZ m x 3.5 m footing is to be foundedon this soil at a depth of 1'5 m'
Detennine the safc load the fcroting can cary with a factor of sat'ety'of 2.5.
Use Brinch Hansen's method.
Given, for $ = 1g', N. = 8.34, Nq - 2.47, Ny = 0'47'
[Ans:152.44t]
by IS:
recommended
the
method
11.13. Redo Problem 11.12 using
=
l'22'
NT
=
2'47'
Ns
8.35,
N.
10',
6403-1981. Given, for $
[Ans: 152'0$ tl
11.14. Detennine the factor of safcty against shear failure of a 1.5 rn
wide strip footing located at a depth of I m below the ground level in a bed
of dense sand having Y = 1.9 t./m3 and 0 = 40", if it canies a uniformly
distributed load of 22tpet metre run. Use Terzaghi's equatiou. Given, for
- 64.18, and flr - 95'et'
[Ans:2'61]
0 - 40o, N, = 75.32, Nq
11.15. An R.C.C. column is subject to a vertical force of 900 kN actittg
through its centrc line and a horizontal thrust of 120 kN actingat2.T m above
G.L. ihe column is supportedby a squarefooting of 2.5 m x 2.5 m size, placed
at a depth of 1.2 rn below G.L. The foundation soil bas an angle of internal
friction of 35' and a bulk density of 18'5 kl'I76'' Assuming a factor of safety
of 3.0. detennine the safe load. Use:
(i) Brinch Hansen's method
(Nc - 46'12, Nq = 33'3' /VY - 4[.69)
(ii) Recommendation of IS: 64O3- 1981
(N. = 46'12, Nq = 33'3, IVY = 48'03)
[Ans: (i) 3458 kN (ii) 2687 kNl

I1.15. In order to assessthe bearingcapacityof a 2.5 m squarefooting,


a plate load test was conducteclat a site with a squareplate of 60 crmx 60 cm
size.The tbllouritrgresultswere obtained:

180 | 360
Seulement(mm)

0.82

1.78

720

1080 144A 1800


3.62

5.40

9.30

If the allowablesettlerneutofthetbotingbe 1.5crn,find outtheallowable


[Ans:284.4t]
load on the footing.

3tl

Pile Foundotions

L2
PILE FOUNDATIONS
According to Terzaghi, a foundation is called a de.ep12.L Introduction:
Various types of
fcrundationif its width is less thin its depth (i.e., DIB > L)'
are:
deep foundations
1. Pile foundations
2. Well tbundationsor opell caissons'
3. Pier foundations or drilled caissons'
thc load of a
l2.2 Pile Foundations: Piles are generally used to trhnst'er
of piles
applications
other
The
structure to a deep-seated,strong soil stratum'
are as follows:
(i) to compacr a loose soil layer (compaction piles)
subject to uplift or overturning forces
1ii) to nori down structures
(tension Piles)
provide anchorage against borizontal pull applied on earth(iii);
retaining structures(anchor piles)
vessels
(iv) to protect waterfroni structures from the impact of tnarine
(fender Piles)
(v) L resisioblique compressiveloads (batter piles)'
|2.3C|assificationofPilesAccordingtol-oadDispersalCharacterktics:
classified into the
on the basis of the rnode of load dispersion, piles can be
following two categones:
but its tip
(i) Bearing piles. when a pile passesthrough a iveak stratum
the
pile
transfers
the
p"n"ii.Gilrrtoa stratum of substantialbearing capacity,
pile.
bearing
a
called
pile
is
a
ioad imposed on it to the stronger stratum.Such
a pile is extendSdto a considerable depth in a
(ii\-Fri9!ion!!9When
capacity, it derives ia load carrying capacity from
sratumTt poii66riirg -tn.rt
on ihe sides of the pile. Such a pile is called a
the friction-of the soil
friction pile.
of a pile may be
12.4 Bearing Capacity of Piles: The bearing capacity
a pile without
by
defined as the maximum load which can be sustained
producing excessivesettlement'

The bearing capacity of an individual pile may be determinedby the


following methods:
(i)bynamic lbrrnula
(ii) Staticlormula
(iii) Pile load test
12.5 Dynanric Forrnulae: The dynamicformulaearebasedon the conct:pt
rhar a-p=il-e-jerj-\,-i;lG5;fiingcapacity from the energy spent in driving il.
The following dynamic formulaeare most widely used:
According to this fonnula, the safe
,IrEfigineering News Formuls:
given
by:
pile
is
ol'a
capacity
bearYng

Er,u.r
=#r

a=#+4

...(12.1)

where, g = safHoad in kg
W = weight of hammer in kg
H = fallofhamrnerinctn
s = averagepenetrationof the pile in the last n blows in cm
For drop hamrners, n = 5
for steam hamnters,n = 2A
additional penetratiou of the pile which would have taken
placehad therebeenno loss ofenergy in driving the pile.
For drop hatntners, d = 2.5 cm.
for steam hammers,g= 0.25 cm'
c =

Equ. (12.1) gives the general fonn of the Engineering News Fonnula.
The specific fonns of this fonnula for dift'erent types of harnrters are given
below:
h
=
(i) For drop hammerI A = -J
6 (s + 2.5)

...(r2.2)

wh

=
(ii)ForsingleactingsteamhammertQ
OG r
)
(W
p)
h
+
a
(iii) For doubleactingstean hammer:n 6 (s + 0.25)

...(12.3)
n2.4)

where, a = eft'ectiveareaof thepistonin cm2


p = meaneffectivesteampressurein kg/cm2.
the
Hiby Formula: IS : 2911(Part1) - 1964recommends
;filoatfUa
by
Hiley:
derived
expression
originally
following formulabasedon an

t l f t' W ' H ' " t 1 s

9"=

,*u,

...(12.s)

where, O - ultimate load on pile (kg)


W, H, s and c have the samemeaningas in eqn' (12'1)
Il

- et-ficieucYof hamtner'

rla ' efficiencYof hammerblow


-

thc ratio of energy after impact to the striking energy of the


ratlr.

When ff > eP,

when W < eP,

\b =

w +3P
w--;;

-eP12
t t b -w- +we-zl -PF l-wl w
-r
1

313

Pile Foundations

Problems in SoilMeclmnics and Foundotion Engineering

312

The value of F" shouldlie between2and3.


12.5 Static Forrnulac: The strtic formulae are based on the concept that
the ultimate load bearingcapacity(0,) of a pile is equal to the sum of the
total skin friction acting on the surfacearea ofthe ernbeddedportion ofthe
pile (p1) and the end bearingresistanceacting on the pile tip (pb), as illuslrated
in Fig. 12.1.

Q"=Q1+Q6

-1?r

But, Q1 = Qf. Af alndQ6 = qb.Ab


Q1 = q''+S + Qa'At

"'(12'6)

wbere, ql -

.,(r2.7)

P = weight of the pile alongwith anvil, helmet, etc


e = co-efficient or restitution,the value ofwhich may vary between
0 and 0.5, dependingon the driving systemas well as the
material of the Pile'
In eqn. (12.5), C representsthe temporaryelasticcornpressiou,wltich is
given by,

/-l

c,' = t.77Y!
A
p
c, = o.ostQiL
Ap

...(12.10)

.,

q =3.ssfr
where,

.4rLrl)

Ap = cross-sectionalareaof the pile, cm


I = length of pile, m

eu

The methodt of evaluating Qy and q6are


explainedbelow:

l. Colrcsive Soils:

Average unit skin friction, 4y = a c

cr = adhesionfactor, which dependson the consistencyof the soil


and mav be determinedfrom Table 12.1
Average point bearing resistance
According to Skemptou, for deep foundations,lV"= 9
qb = 9c

For a pile of diarneter^Band embeddeddepthD'

...(r2.r2)

,..(r2.ts)

where. c= unitcohesion

Qu=scAl+9cA6

The safe load on a pile may be obtainedfrom:


V s = \

9u

Q b= c N "

/',

Ab = c/s area of the pile at its tiP'

Fig.12.1

...(rz.e)

aver;r+euniiskin frihion

A/ = surfacearea ofthe Pile on


which the skin friction acts.

...(12.8)

where, Cl,CZand c3 representtheelasticcompressionsof the dollyand


picking, the pile and the soil respectively. Their values may be
obtainedfrom:

...(12.14)

qO = poittt bearing resistanceofthe


Pile tiP

where,

C=Cr+C2+C3,

...(12.13)

Ou=X* andAy=nBD

...(12.16)

.'(12.r7)
...(12.18)

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Foundstion Engineering

314

to:
Eqn.(12.14)thercfort:reduces

...(r2.re)

e,, =-F(B D cJ,+225 x 82 c


Table 12.1:AdhesionFactors
Pile moterial

Consistency

Colrcsion (tlm2)

Adltesion foctor
ct

soft
nrediurn
stiff

o -3.75
3.75-7.50
7.50- 15.0

Steel

solt
ntc:diurn

0 - 3.75
3.75-7.50

1 - 0.90
0.90- 0.60
0.60- 0.45
1.0-0.80
0.80- 0.50

sriff

7.50- 15.0

< 0.50

= fir u K,tan6
q,
,t

i.e.,

qa=

Jq. sY = ShaPetactors
B = width or diatneterof Pile
D = length of Pile
For a squareor rcctangularpilc, sy = 0'5

...(12.24)

ternr of eqn. (12.22) is


For piles of snrall dianrcteror width, the sec:orrd
practicalptt4loses,
all
t'or
Tltus,
tenn.
the
first
to
negligitrleas cornpared

...(12.21)

K " = co-efticient of elrth pressure,thevalue of which tnay


varv
" frorn-0.5 for loosesandto 1.0 for densesand.
0 = tiictionangiEof-GE6iiloithepilEl\ilEiC[?EpiiGon
the a:rgleof internalfriction Q of the soil.
The value of 6 mav be obtainedfrom Table 12.2.

...(12.23)

The value of Nomay be detenninedby the tbllowing methods:


(i) Vesic'smethodiAcc'ordingto Vesic:,tq = 3'

averageou.rffi
v"z

sv = 0'3

tbr a circular pile,

e u= , t D N o s o

2. CohesionlessSoi/s: For piles driven in cohesionlesssoils,

Qa=

, the point bearingrcsistanceis


For a purcly cohesionlesssoil, c = 0. Henc:e
given by,
...(r2.22)
qb = lDNrso + YBNrst
whcrtr, No. N, = Bearingcapacityfactors'

Timber &
Concretc

where,

315

Pilc Foundotions

and,

N q = u 3 ' 8 { t a n o ' t u ng25 " + Q / 2 )

Hence,

qr=3QNq

"'(12'24)

The valuesof Nn for variousvalucsof Q aregiven in Table 12'3'


Table 12.3: Bearing Capacity Factors
Q @egrees)

Table 12.2: Friction Angle

Smootb (polished)
Rough (rusted)

0.54
0.76

0.64
0.80

Parallelto grain
Perpendicularto grain

0.76_
0.88

0.85
0.89

Smooth (maciein metal form work)


Grained (made in tirnber tbrrn work)

o.76
0.88

0.80
0.80

Rough (cast on ground)

0.98

0.90

Nq

$ (degrees)

Nq

1.0

30

9.5

t.z

35

18.7

10

1.6

40

42.5

15

2.2

45

115.0

20

3.3

50

422.4

,q

5.3

(ii) Berezantsev's methodi According to Berezantstu-tl: Nn values


Aependon the D/B ratio of the pile and the angle of internal friction of the
soil. TheN4value may be obtainedfrorn Fig. 12.2'

3r6

Problems in Soil Meclmnics qnd Foundation Engineering

I|

317

200

Pile Foundations

150

piles is generally less than the product of capacityof a single pile and the
numter of piles in the group. In or4er to determine the bearing capacity .f a
pile group, 9g, a correctionfactorrl, is requiredto be used.
...(t2.28)
Qr - nQut1,

100

rt
z.

f;/

50

whe.rc, n - number of piles in the group


Ou - ultirnate bearing capacity of eachpile

re

rls - efficiencY of the Pile grouP


The value of 11,may be obtainedfrom the following empirical formulae:
(i) Converse-Lttbtrre' Formula:

20

25

30
35
S(Degrees)*

/.0

/.5

,t = numhr of piles in each row

12.7 Pile Capacity frorn Penetratfun Tests: The pile capacity czn also be
detennined from the results of the standard Penetration Test or statie cone
Penetration Test performed in the field, using the following equations:
(i) Standard Penetration Test:

where,

...(r2.2e)

where, tn = nunrber of rows of pile in the group

Fig.12.2

Qr=4NAu+O.OZNA1

, r g = 1* [ W ]

...(r2.2s)

g = tan-l 4
where, d - diameterof eachpile
s = spacingofthePiles
(ii) LosAngelesformula:
.
a
,lr o -;#,

Oa - ultimate bearing capacity of pile in kg


l{ - blow count (witboul overburden correction)

L^ln

,r;--:
-r) + n (m-r\ +,/T@:11@r11 ..'(12.30)

12.9 Dcsign of a Pile Group: The piles in a group are conttectedto a rigid
pile cap so that the group of piles behavesis a unit. The group capacitymay
te derirmined by rhe efficiency equation (eqn. 12.24). A more rational

Aa = base area of pile in crn2


A/ = tutfu". area of pile in cmZ

fI
I
L

However, for a bored pile,


Qu=1.33NA6+0.O2NAf

...(r2.26)

(ii) Statb cone penetration test:


Qu = Q"Ab +

l,u"o,

...(r2.27)

Where, Qc= Co11.e


resistanceat tip.
12.t Group Action ln Piles: A pile foundation consists of a number of
closely spaced piles, known as a pile group. Due to the overlapping in the
stressedzone ofindividual piles, the beariug capacityofa group offriction

r]-f r ll
SoftSoit

tt-

r---B

S e cA - A

Fig.12.3

Problems in Soil Meclranics ond Foundatian Engincering

318

melhod is the rigid block method recontutendedby Terzaghi and Peck.


According to this method the ultimatebearingof a pile group cqualslhe suru
of tlre ultirnate bearing capacity of block occupied by the gronp and the
shcaring resistancenrobilised along the perimeter of the group. With
referenceto Fig. 12.3.
...(12.31)
Qs = Q,BL + DIQB + 2l)s - yDSBL
where, Qg
eu

ultimate bearingcapacityof the pile group.

319

Pile Foundotions

(ii) The load o1lthe pile group is ett-ectivelytransmittedto the soil at


this lower one-thirdpoitrt.
of pile below this level is ignored'
(iii) The presence.
(iv) The tratrsrnittedload is dispersedas 60" to the horizontal'
With referenceto Fig. 12.4,the settlementof the group is given by:

P= H # " ' r o s r o

o6 + Ao
o6

...(r2.34)

ultirnatebearingcapacityper unit areaof the stressed


areaat a depth D1

B, L = width and lengtb of pile group


Y = unit weight of soil
s = averagcshearingresistanceof soil per unit areabetwt:t:lt
ground surfaceand the bottom of pile
D/ = depth of enrbedtnentof piles.
The safeload on the pile group is given by,

0rr=?

...(r2.32)

The rninirnurnvalue of F" shouldbe takenas 3.0.


Tbe aboveequationsarc applicablelo coltesivesoils. For crtd hearing
piles on hard rock (inespective of the spacing) and ort deusc sand (with
spacinggreaterthan 3 timcs pile diamt:tt:r)thegroup capacrityt:qualslht: sum
of individualcapacities.i.e.,

Qr = N'Q,

Rock
Fig.12.4

...(12.33)

of IS : 2911 @art
12.10 Spacing of Piles: As per thc reccrtuurcudatious
1)-1964,the spacingof pilcs n'raybe oblainedfrorn lhr: following gcneral
rules:
(i) tbr triction piles, s f 3 d
( i i ) t b r e n d b e a r i n g p i l e s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h c o n r p r c s s i b l es o i l ,
s ]2.5d
(iii) tbr endbearingpilespassingthroughcornpressiblesoil but restitg
<rnstiff c:lay, s * 3.5 d
(iv) tbr compactionpiles, s = 2 d
l2.ll Settlementof Pile Group: The colsolidationicttlenrentof a pilt:
group in clay is detenninedon the basisol the Lbllorvingassutnptions:
(i) The soil urassbetweenthe top of tbe piles and their lorver tliiril
poiut is incornpressiblc.

of lhc layer
where, I/ = thic-kness
C. = cornpiessionittdex, eo = ilitial void ratio
oo = initial stressat the ceutreofthe layer
due to pilt:s
A o = stressinc:rement

= A%
A' = areaover which the load is distributedat the centre
of tlre layer.
12.12 Negative Skin Friction: Thc downwarddrag actingott a pile due to
the relativemovementof the surrounding soil tnassis c-alledthe negativeskin

Problems in Soil Mcchonics and Foundation Engineering

320

friction. This tcnds to reduc-ethe load canying capacity of the pile. Its
magnitude can be dctermined from:

Q6 ' P' r' Lf

(i) for cohesivesoils:

soils: O^f = | 4 Oy K tan6


(ii) for c.ohesionless

Solution: Frorn equ. (12.5),the ultimateload on pile,

1 1 ' wH ' n 5
vu = --rll7l-

...(r2.3s)
.,(t2.36)

where, p = perimeterofrhepilc

Here, W = 3.0 t, H = 91 crn, Tln = 757o = 4.75


s=10mm=1-.0cm
N o w , e P = ( 0 . 5 s ) ( 1 . s )= 0 . 8 2 5 t

c - averagecohesion ofthe soil

W > eP

I/ = thickness of soil layer which tends to move downwards

Using eqn. (12.6),

Y = unitweightof soil
K = co-efficientoflateral pressure (Ko s K s Ko)

rlb=

EXAMPLES

Protrlem tU{. e dmber pile is being drive n with a drop hammer


weighing 20 kN and having a free fall of 1 m. The total penetrationof the pile
in the last five blows is 30 rnm. Detenninethe load carrying capacily of 1he
pile using the Engineering News formula.

Here,

I,I/
I/
c
s

=
=
=

w+P

e , = W &l.O
Q +- $2.5/2
I=42.47t
Now, using eqns.(12.9) through (l2.ll),

- \ft\@z'!) = o.1o6crn
cr = r.779"
Ap

Solution: Using eqn. (l2.lr,

o
Y =

+ (o.ss2)(l.s)
w * &p = -2.0
= 0.7
7.0+1.5

In order to find out the value of Q, assutneas a first approximation,


c = 2.5 cm.

6 = friction angle, (6 s Q)
,

321

Pile Foundations

I x (30)2
4

wH
6(s + c)

,r=94JJ2,/9)J4J. = 0.868
I x (30)2
4
(3.ss)(42.47)=
/,
0.213cm
w-3 _= - ,

weight of hammer = 20 kN.


height of free fall = I m =" 100 crn'
2.5cm
penetrationfor the last 5 blows
ave.rage

3[l
= ? = 6mm = 0.6crn
)

O= f f i =

x (30)2

C = Ct + C2 + Cs = t.187 cm < 2.5cm.

1 0 7 ' 5 k N

Problem 12.2. Determine the safe load that can be carried by a pile
having a grossweight of 1.5 t, using the modified Hiley's formula. Given,
weight of hamtner = 2.4 t
= 91 cIn
height of free fall
hanmerefficiency =75Vo
averagepenetrationunder the last 5 blows = 10 mm
= 22 n
length of pile
= 3iX)rum.
diatnr'tt:rof pile
co-efficicntofrestitution= 0.55

Let

= L.397cm
Qu= Sot, :. c = tt'tat/:l+tot

e,=PffiP=56.2st
Let

Qu=55t,.'.c=W=L.537

Q,=ffi=sot

Probletns in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

322

In the third iteration fhe assumedand computed values of Q, are quite


close. Hence, the ultimate load bearing capacity of the pile is 54 t'
Consequently, the safe bearing capacity

1 1=
-Qu =4=rr.ur.
g'
7." z.)
t1

Problem l?^3ftiurRcC pile of 18 m overall length is driven into a dee;r


stratumof soft c*f having an unconfinedcompressivestrengthof 3'5 Vm".
The diameter of the pile is 30 cm. Determine the safe load that can be carried
by thc pile with a factor of safety of 3.0.

Here,

= arerageoverburdeupressure
,tH

\ ! 7

= {!ggq = rzt/m2
For loose sand,Ks = 0.5
The value of 6 may be obtainedfrorn Table l2.2.For a srnoothRCC pile
embeddedin dry sand,
6/q = 9.76, or, 6 = (0.76)(25') = 19'

ey = $2) (o's) (tan1e")


=2.A66tln?

Q , = e 1 . 4 1 +e u - A u .
As the pile is driven into a cohesivesoil,
Q f= a ' c

From eqn. (12.L4),

Solution:

373

Pile Foundatians

Using eqn.(12.24),
qt=3eNq

The value of adhesion factor cr may be obtained from Table 12.7-Fot a


q,,
i-5
1
= 1.75t/m"crmaybetakenas0.95.
=
softclayhaving, =
;
t

= (3)(1.6)(1s)(s.3)
= 38r.6t/mz
Af = xBD = r(0.4t))(15)= 18.85m2

Again,wehave, % = 9c

n, = f,az = @/41(0.40\= o.r?sm2

Ab = c/s area of pile tip

go = (2.066)(18.8s)+ (381.6)(0.126)
)
n
= - x l - - /. E
=O
l t2=0.07m'

= 38.94 + 48.08
= 87.02t = 87 t

U0o/

At = surfaceareaof the Pile


= r(0.30)(18) = L6.g6ilf
gu = (0.e5)(1.7s)
(16.%) + (e) (1.?s)(0.07)
= 2f..2 + l.l = 29.3t

.'.safeload,
P" =

ff

- s.ter.

Problem 124/Asmooth RCC pile of 40 cm diameter and 15 m length


is d;iven into a d/eepsratum of dry, loose sand having a unit weight of 1.6
t/mi and an angle of internal friction of 8". Determine the safe load which
can be carried by the pile. Given, for Q - 25", Vesic's bearing capacity
fectoriVo - 5.3.
Solution

Using eqn. (12.20r,


qf=dK"tanE

e,=+=Y=2gt
f

concretepile of 400 mrn diameter and havirqg


Problem l&.ff{bored
is
an overall length of 12,5 n
embeddedin a saturatedstratum of c - S soil
having the following properties:
c=

1 5 k N . / m 2 ,Q = 2 0 " ,

yr*-18kN/m3

Derermine the safe bearing capacity of the pile. Given, for Q = 20", the
bearing capacity factors are:
N"=26,

Nq=10, Nt-4.

Assume reasonablevalues for all other factors.


Solution:

For piles embeddedin a c - f soil,

4b = cN" + \'D 0ro - tl + 0.5y'B,lV,,

325

Pile Foundations
Engineering
Problems in SoilMeclwnics and Fottndation

324

For tlre secondlayer, Qf, = nc,

= (1s)(26\ + (18 - 10)(12's)(10 - 1)


+ (0.5)(1s - 10)(0'40)(4)

For the third layer, the skin triction rnaybe neglected'


Again, using equ' (12'24),
=(3)(1.85 x 5 + 1'9 x 3 + 1'8 x 2)(9'5)
eu = 3qNq

Qf=ac+flK"tan6'
cr = 0.5, K" = 1, 6/$ = 0.80'
6 = (0.s0)(20') = 16"
(125/2) (1'0)(tan16")
a1 = (0.s)(15) + (1s 10)

Again

= 21.84kN,/m2
Af = n(0.4)(12.5)= r5'71m?

and,

'7,
-D

= 528.67r/nz
1

Ir
,^-"
a r r < . 1e u = i ' ( 0 . 5 ) ' = 0 . 1 9 6 m -

(0'196)
+ (4)(4'7r)+ (5?f-67)
Q, = Q.4)(7.85)
= 18.84+ 18.84+ 103-62
= 141.3|

= \(0.40)2 = 0.126m2

-s l4l'3
= 47.rt - 4it.
n
E
3

4.

gu = (2r.s4)(1s,71)+ (r2e6'$ (0'126)

ft [o undation i s supported Ot I OU"t-t-t:-ul,::is.tiit *


P roblem ly'{'ra
300
rows' The diarneterand lengthof eachpile are
3
in
of ti pit", "no-ng"a
ft'
t:
piles
the
mm and 15 m respectively'The spacingbetween
^t'?,*l
having g = 3'2 t/m' and
foundation soil consists or a sori clay layer
group'
y = 1.9 t,/rn3'Detenninethe capacityof the pile
of piles:
Solution: (i) Consideringindividualaction
Q 1= a c

= 343.1 + 163.3
= 506.4kN.

O" =

ty

= 168.8
kr{ s 168kN.

at a deplh of 1'5 m
tZ.l fl"colurnn of a footing is founded
10
by a number of piles each having a length of
b"b;;I.;,Mrupp-,.d
given
are
which
the properties of
m. The subsoil consists of thiee layers'
below:
rll=6'5m
I-ayerlzc=3t/rT?., 1=1'85t4t3' 0=0"'
rl=3m
\=t'go;/nr3' 0=0"
LayerIII c=st/r&,
= 30" rI = 15m
1 - 1'80t'/m3' 0
kyertrI i c = o,
p-Ul"-

= (0.9) (3.2)

and,

Qf, -

oc1 = (0'80) (3't = z'atltt'

Af, = n(0'5) (5) = 7'85 m2

[Assuming c

= 0'901

= 2'88t/mz'
Ar = n(0'30)(15) = l4'I4mz
= ? (3'2\ = ?l,3t/m2
Qo = 9 c

eu = i(o'302)= o'o?lm2

Determinethesafeloadoneachpileifthediameterofthepilesbe500
25' Assume' adhesion factor
mm and the required factor of safety be
ct = 0.80.
piles in the three layers are
Solution: The depth of embedmentof the
respectivelY,5 m, 3 m and 2 m'
Forthe firstlayer'

and' Af, = n (0'5) (3'0) = 4'71m'

= 390 + 900 + 6.4


= 1296.4

Assume,

= (0'80) (5\ = 4 t/n-

of eac.h
Pile,
IndividualcaPacitY
(14'14)
+ (28'8)(0'071)
=
Qff)
Q,

= 42'77t
=
Groupcapacity,
Qus = (15)(42'77) 641'55t

l>
I

I
I
A
I

Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundatibn Engineering

326

(ii) Considering group action of piles: Assuming a block failure, the


capacity of the pile group may be obtained from eqn. (12.31):
- YDTBL
Qs = QaBL + D/28 + 2L)s
With refercnce to Fig. 12.3,
B = Z(I.2) + 2(0.15) = 2.7 m
width of the block,
length of the block,
deptlr of the block,

L = 4{1.2) + 2(0.15) = 5.1 m


Df = 15 n

qb = 9c = (9) (3.2) = 28.8r/n2


s = q f = c r c = ( 0 . 9 ) ( 3 . 2 )= 2 . 8 8 t / m 2
.'. Qs = Qs.8) (2'7) (5.1) + r5(2 v 2'7 + 2 x 5'1) (2'88)

- (1.e)(1s)(2.7)(s.1)

3n

PiIe Foundutions

= 17757kN
a block failure'width
(ii) Consideringgroupactionof pile-s:.Assuming
B=2(1.25) + 2(0'50/2)
ofUloct<,
= 3m.
lengthofblock, L =3(1'25) + 2(050/2)= 425m
depthof block, D/ = 30 *'
= 337'5kN/m2
4f = lOkN,/m2,%
(3)(4'25)+ 3A(2x3 +2 x 4'25)(30)
GroupcapacitY,
Qs = (337.5)
- (11)(30)(3) (4.2s)
< 17757kN
= 13145.6kN
Hence,groupactiongovernsthecapacityof thepile group'
kN.
O, = 13145.6

= 678.05 t > 641.55 t


Hence, the ultirnate bearing capacity of the pile group is 641'55 L
Safe bearing capacity w.r.t. a factor of safety of 2.5'

Q,c=ry=:x6'62t-r,6t'
.,..
problem qr{
egroup of 12 piles,eachhavinga diameterof 500 rnm
a raft foundation.The piles are arrangedin 3 rows
and 30 m long,-supports
andspacedatl.?s m c/c.Thepropertiesof thefoundationsoil areasfollows:
'l|kN/m2,
y' = 11 kN,/m3, Qu 0 = 0"'
Assumingcr = 0.80 andF" = 2.5, determinethe capacityof the pile
group.
Solution: (i) Consideringindividualactionof piles:
=
Qf = dc = (0'80)(75/2) 30 kl'[/m2
qb = 9c = (9) (75/2) = 337'5kN,/m2
Af = x(0'50) (30) = 47'Dt#

m2
eu = X(o.sd)= 0.1e6
Capacityof eachPile,
g, = (30)(47.12)+ (337.5)(0.196)
= 1479.75kN
Groupcapacity= (I2) (1479.75)

a, = ry

- 5x8kN.
= S?;i8.ZkN

of 40 mm
Problern 12.9/ Agroup of 20 piles,eachhaving a diameier
The capacitvof
m
c/c'
1'0
spacing
a
at
+
rows
""d i0;i;;;
,i(-^"^ierdin
the piles'
each pile is :g0 kN. Determinethe group capacity of
pile group'
Solution: Using eqn. (12.28), the capacity of the
Qc = n' Qu'rls'
Here,

n = 20, g, = 380 kN.

by either of the
The efficiency of the pile group' Ie may be determined
following formula:
(i) Converse- Labarre Formula: Using eqn' (12'29)'

,rr=,Xlffi

Here, m=4, n=5,

= 2t'8'
o = tan-r4s = arr-rf94q'l
\ l'ui
- t) + + ( 4 - t) s l - 0.624 = 62.4To
' r 8= , - 2 L'8[( s

e ol - 1 o t

trl

(ii) I.os Angeles fonnula: Using eqn' (12'30)'


,1"= t -

d
;-,*Im{n-1)

+ n(n-1) +

{T@:TJ6:T

Problemsin SoilMeclnnicsandFoundationEngineering

328

y 6 y ( r ) t 4 ( s -+15) ( 4 - 1 )+ y ' 2 1 + - 1 1 6 - X ,
= .' - ; 1 a0.40
= 0.771= 77.r%
The lower valueshouldbe used.Hence,the capacityof the pile group
Q8 = Qo) (380)(0'624)
= 4742.4kN - 4742kN.
Problern l?.lf It is proposedto drivea goup of pilesin a bedof loose
sandto suppoflvrafl Thi group will consistof 16 piles, eachof 300 mm
ani 12m length.Theresultsof standardpenetrationtestsperformed
Oiameter

pile group with a


t/# a'd an effective unit weight of 0.9 Vm3. Design the
failure'
shear
factor of safety of 3 against
piles in a squale
solution: Let us use 16 Nos. of 400 rnm o R.C.C.
formation. Let the spacings be equal to 3 d,
s = (3) (0'40) = 1'2 *
i.e.
Let I be the length of each Pile'

Now,

4 = I ' (40 . 4 0 ) 2 = o . L 2 6 r r ?
CapacitYof each Pile,

L) + (21'6)(0'126)
gu = (2.16)(r.2s7
or,

L + o'eol
Ot = 7 = o'eos

the averagevalue of N = 9

n,=f,{lo)Z =7n.86cm2

= ?5650k8 = 25.65t'
Asthespacingofpilesisashighas5D,itcanbeassumedthatthereis
no overlappingof stressedzones.
GrouPcaPacitY,Qs = n'Qu
= (16)(25.65)t
= 4101

ii

Prpblem 12.1L A raft foundationhas to be supportedby a group of


concreiepiles.Thegrossloadto be carriedby thepile groupis 250t' inclusive
of
or tnewegnt of the pile cap.The subsoilconsistsof a ?5 m thick stratum
of
4.8
strength
compressive
clayhavinganunconfined
normallyJonsolidated

Qu = 2.715L+ 2'722
ofeachPile,
SafebearingcaPacitY
n

Qu=4NAt+O.02NAS

Af - u(30) (12) = 1130'97cm2


(1130'97)ke
Q, = (4) (9) (706.86)+ (0'02)(e)

=
at = 9c - (9)(2.4\ X.16t/n?
Af = nBL = (0.40)nL = l'?57 LttJ

1'5
Estirnate the capacity of the pile group' if the spacing of the piles be
m c/c.
8 + 10 + 8 + 11 + 9 = 9 . 2 o 9
Solution: Average N-value =

Here,

,=t=+=2.4t/mz

=
qf = ac = (0'9)(2'4) = 2'l6t/mz' [Assumingcr 0'901

at the site at various depths are given below:

Using eqn. (12.6),the capacityof a driven pile,

329

Pile Foundations

Actualloadto becarriedby eachpift = #


or,

= 15'6?5t'

0'905t+0'907=15'625
L = I6.2''lm- 16'5m

Checkforgroupaction:Consideringtheshearfailureofablockof
dimension, BxLxD,
B = L = 3 s + d = 3 ( 1 . 2 )+ 0 ' 4 = 4 m
D = 16.5m
(2'16)
.'. Capacityof the pile grolrp' Qs = Qr'6) (*) + $o's) (4 @ + 4)

- (o.e)
(r6.il(4)
= 894.24t
Sar'ebearingcapacityof thepile group

Problems in Soil Meclnnics and Fottndatian Engineering

330

894.24
^
Q,t=T=298t>250L
block
Hence the designedg4onpof piles is safe from the considerationof
failure.
,/
e'rcn footing founded at a depth of 1'5 m below G'L'
Pr.oblen n.d
a dense
in a 19.5 thick stratum of normally consolidated clay underlain by
diaand
m
L2
piles
oflength
16
sand layer, is to be supportedby a'groupof
carried
be
to
load
gross
The
fonnation.
rneter 400 mm arrangid in a squari
The piles are
by the pile group (including the self-weight of pile cap) is 350 t'
level. The
ground
rhe
at
is
located
rable
*uter
;;"""d at r.2 m "/". tn.
are:
soil
foundation
propertiesofthe
w =32Vo, G=2.67, L.L= 4tVo
consolidation settlementof the pile group'
probable
the
Estimate
Solution:WithrefererrcetoFig.L2.4,theloadfromthepi|egroupis
point,
assumedto be transmitted to the foundation soil at the lower one-third
)"t"
tZ = 8 m below the pile cap and 8+ 1'5 = 9'5 m below
i.e., at a depth of
=
G.L. The tirickness of the clay layer undergoing consolidation settlement
and
m
m,
3
3
thickness
of
sub-layers
three
10 m. Let us divide this zone into
4 nr resPectivelY.
The settlementof eachsub-layermay be obtainedfrom:

p, = H' f;
Now. we have,

'tor,oo 0 +

w G = se, or' e =

eo=
v c -

Ao

wG
s

and,

- 1'00 = 0'90 t/m3


Ysub= 1'90

= (4 + 3 tan30")2= 32.86rt
350
^ o = for = 3 L s' -6 10.65t/mz

(300)(0.27e) ,-- e.e-tlq4l = 14'32cn'


r'",= f1 frffi'' losto
tr
of thesecondsub-layer:
Settlement
os = (0.90)(1.5 + 8.0 + 3'0 + 3'O/2) - I7'6t/m'

,,

A2 = (4 + 2 x 4.5 x tan30")2= 84'57ri

oo=*=#h=4.r4t/m2
(300)(0.27e) ,^- 12'61]!-! = 5'57cm
losto
P",= fr'dffi'
tr
Settlementof the third sub-laYer:

lo = ffi

(II - 10) = 0.009(41 - t0) = 0'279


0.0@09

?#r*=Ti..,'s1

= (B + FI, tan30';2

A3 = (4 + 2 x 8 x tan30')2 = 175'?3m2

ryP=08s4

Ysar=

Assurningtheloadtobedispersedalorrgstraight|inesinclinedtothe
horizontal at 60", the area over which tf e grossload is distributed at the rniddle
of thc first layer,
At = Q + 2H/2'tan30') (B + 2H/2'tan30')

o6 = (0.90) (1.5 + 8.0 + 6.0 + 4'0/2\ = 15'75t/r]

o6

AgaiIr,

33t

Pile Foundations

(1)= l'eotzm3

Settlenrentof the fint sub-laYer:


oo = initial overburdenpressureat the middle of the layer
= \' z = (0.90)(1.5 + 8.0 + 3.02) -- g'st/^z
Ditnetrsionsof the block of piles,
L = B = 3 s + d = 3 ( 1 . 2 \+ 0 . 4 = 4 m

= r.997t/mz

15.75+ L99J - 3.12cm


(400)(0.279)'
roglo
'pca 1SJS
1 + 0.g54
=
+
Totalsetflement,Pc P., * Pc, Pr.
= 14.32+ 5.5'7+ 3.12
= 23 cm.
EXERCISE12
of an RCCpile drivcn
l2.l. Determincthesafeloadcarryingcapac:ity
by a drophammerweighing3 t andhavinga freefall of 1.5rn, if theaverage
[Ans'20'3t]
p.n.nrtion for thelastfiveblowsbe 12mm'

332

Problems in Soil Mechnttics and Fottndation Engineering

of 10 rn
12.2. An RCC pile having a diarneterof 400 rnrn and a length
free tall
of
a
height
with
kN,
30
weighi*g
natruner
is bei.g driven with i Orop
recorded
been
has
blows
few
last
the
for
penetration
of 1.2 rn. The average
co-efficient or
as 9 rnrn. If the ettlciency of the hammer be 7O% aud the
using lnoditied
restitution 0.50, detenninettre safe load the pile can carry
a factor of
=
Assume
Hiley's fornula. Given,unit weight of RCC 24 kN/m''
200 kN]
Ans'
I
safetyof 3.0.
into a
12.3. A22 m lorrg pile having a diameterof 500 mm is driven
5.6
of
strength
compressive
deep straturn of sofl clay having ai unconfined
to
a
respect
with
pile
the
of
capacity
t/#. Detennine the staticload bearing
tl
40
tAns'
facror of safety of 2.5.

=16.
friction angle
=
=
10, Nv = 4'
[Ans. 279 kN]
Nq
=
?.6,
q
Nc
20',
for
an RCC pile of 500 mm
12.8. Deterrninethe ultimate load capacityof
sub-soil conditions are
The
colutnu'
a
of
diarneter supporting the tboting
skt:tchcdin Fig. 12.5. Given'
= 0'9
adlrcsiontactor tbr soft clay
= 0'7
silt
claYeY
and that t'or
for 0 = 30' is 9'5' The water table is
factorNu
capacity
bcaring
Vt'sit"s
neglected' [Ans' 232 t]
lrx nlcrl rtt il gr(raldcpth.Skin friction iir sandmay be

Soft CtoY

l2.4.Aconcretepileof30cndiameterisernbedd-edinastratunrofsoft
clay straturnis
clay lraving 1 = 1.7 t/rn3, Qu= 4'2 t/mz'Thethickness of lhe
g m and the pild penetratesthrough a distance of 1.2 m into the underlying
= 36"' Detennine the sat'e
straturnof de;rsesand,havilrg Y = 1'85 t'lm3 and Q
of 3'
safety
of
load carrying capacityof the pile with a lactor
capacity faclor
=
bearing
Vesic's
=
36',
Given, O O.gOQ and for Q
[Ans.32.3 t]
Nq=23,c[=1,K"=1.
is driven
12.5. A stnoothsteelpile of 8 m length and 400 rnm diameter
properties:
into a cohesionlesssoil masshaving the following
= 30'
Y"ar= 1.8t,zrn3' Q
= 0'60 Qand Vesic's
The water table is locatedat the ground level' If 6
the safecapacityof
=
determine
9'5'
be
30"
bearingcapacity faciorNn for 0
=
0'7.
Ks
Given,
[Ans' 12'1 t]
of
2.5.
rhe pil! with a iactor of sifety
at a
12.6. A 12 m long pile having a diameterof 300 mm is cast-ih-situ
site where the sub-soilconsistsof the tbllowing strata:
= 10kN'/m2
StratumI: thiclness =5 m, Y' = 10kN,/m3, 0=30" c
=
=
kN'/m2
Stratun II: thiclness= 16 m, Y'= 9 kN'/m3, 0 0', c 60
Detenninethesafeloadonthepilewithafactorofsafetyof2.0.Assume
ieasonablevalues for all other data'
of 500 mm is
12.7. A 16 m long bored concretepile having a diameter
properties
following
the
having
silt
ernbeddedin a saturatedstratum of sandy
'Yru,= 19'5kN'/m3' c = rlkN'/m2'

0 = 2o'

with a factor of
Detennilte the safe load canying capacity of the pile
safety of 3.0. Given,
= O'75
adhesionfactor
=
0'85
pressure
ofearth
co-efficient

JJJ

PiIe Foundations

10m

Sitt
Ctoyey
1 y = 1 . Et /5n F ) , c= 6 l l m 2

2.0m

i
I
I

Ssnd
(t=1.75t/m3,@=30o)
Fig.12.5

6 rows wi-th a
12.g. A pile group consists of 42 piles anan$ed in
pile
is 22 rn long
Each
centre-to_centiespacing of 1,5 rn in each direction.
using: pile
the
of
and 500 mm in diameter.Find oul tbe group capacity
(i) Convene-Labane formula
(ii) tns Angeles formula'
Given, load bearing capacity of each pile = 78 t'
q
[Ans. (i) 2142 t (ii) 2624
12.10. A pile group consistingof 25 piles anangedin a sqlare fonnation
are L5 m and
is to support a iaft iooting. The length and diameterof eachpile
soil is
300 mm respectively,wiile their spacingis 85ocmc/c Thg-foynfation
Determine
y
1'85
VT''
a normally consotiAatedclay having c = 5 t/mt and
=
F" = 3'g'
the safe load bearing ""p""ity of thi pile group' Take cr 0'85 and
[Ans' 527 t]
placed
12.11. A multistoried building is to be supportedby a raft footing
piles
96
of
consists
raft
on a pile foundation. The pile group supporting the
water
c/c'The
m
of
2'0
of 26'm length and 400 mm diameter,with a spacing
table is located near tle ground surfaceand the propertiesof the foundation
soil are as follows:

334

Problems in Soil Meclwnics snd Foundation Engineering


Y " . r = 2 . 0 t / r n 3 c, = 3 . 6 1 / m 2 , O = 0 ' .

The adhesionfactor may be taken as 0.95.


Determinethe capacityof the pile group with a factor of safetyof 3.0.
12.12. Designa pile groupto supporra raft footing of 8 m x 12 m size
and carrying a gross load of 760 t. The self weight of the pile cap rnay be
assumedas 20o/oof tlre gross load on footing. The subsoil consists of a
homogeneouslayer of soft clay, extendingto a great depth and having the
following properties:
y' = 0.85 t/nr3, qu = 5.7 t/m2
Design the pile group with a factor of safety of 3 againstshearfailure.
Given. a = 0.85.
12.13. It is required to drive a group of piles in order to support a raft
footinqof 10 m x 10 m plan area,and subject to a gross pressureintensity of
15 Vm". The subsoil consists of a 12 m deep layer of soft clay (y = 1.8
t/rn3 , qu = 4.5 Vm2) which is underlainby a densesand layer (y = 2 tlnr3 ,
0 = 35'). The raft is founded at 1.5 m below G.L. In order to utilize the
bearing resistanceofthe sand layer, each pile should penetratethrough it at
least 4 D. The adhesionfactor for clay = 0.90. Vcsic's bearing capacity factor
.lfu for 0 = 35' is 18.7. Design a suitable pile group with a factor of safety of
2.5 againstsbearfailure.
Assume that the self weight of pile up = 25Voof pressureintensity on
the raft.
12.14. A raft footing is founded at a depth of 3.5 m below G.L. in a ?A
rn thick stratum of soft clay having the following properties:
y""1= 2.05 t/m3, C, = g.3
The gross load to be carried by the pile group, including the self weight
of the pile cap, is 8O0L The group consistsof 81 piles of 400 mm $, arranged
in a square formation, and extended to a depth of 12 m below the pile cap.
The spacingof the piles is 1.25 m. The water table is located at the ground
level. Cornpute the probable consolidation settlement of the pile group.

Otherusefultitles:
Soni, Gupta and Bhatnagar
L. A Coursein Electrical Power
& S. ChakravortY
Mukheriee
P.K.
Machines
2. Electrical
P.V. Gupta
Fields
Electromagnetic
in
Course
3. lntroductory
ortd Gupta
Seth
Materials
Engineering
Electrical
in
4. A Course
and Gupto
Dhar
&
SYnthesis
Analysis
Network
5.
R.K Gaur
Microcomputer
and
Electronics
6. Digital
Venkataraman
FundamentalsR.
&
Computer
Circuits
Digital
7. Pulse,
Fundamentalsof Microprocessorsand Microcomputers B' Ram
6.
Gupta and Satnant
9. Sub-stationDesiguand EquiPment
K.D. Shanna
(Hindi
English)
&
Engineering
Electrical
10.
N.C. Sinha
of
Structures
Theory
Advance
11.
Selvant
Manicka
V.K.
Structures
of
Analysis
Limit
of
Fundamentals
t2.
Selvant
V.K
Manicka
DYnamics
Structural
Elementary
13.
Selvam
Manicka
V.K
analYsis
Structural
Elementary
14.
V.K Manicka Selvant
15. Modern method of StructuralAnalysis
V,K Manicka Selvam
16. Rudimentsof Finite ElementMethod
L7. Multistory Building & Yield Line Analysis v.K. Manickaselvanz
of Slabs
18. Analvsisof Structurein Earth QuakeRegion V.K Manicka Selvam
R.K Sharma
19. A Text-book of Hydrology and Water Resources
M.M. Desrrutkh
24. Water PowerEngineering
O.P.Khanna
21. A Text-Book of Material Scienceand Metallurgy
O.P.Khqnnq
))
Industrial Engineeringand Management
O.P.Khanna
23. Work Study (Motion and Time StudY)
O.P. Khanna and M. Lal
24. A Text-Book of FoundrYTechnologY
25. A Text-Book of ProductionTechnology O.P. Khanna snd M. Lal
Vol.I
26. A Text-Book of ProductionTechnology O.P. Kharuta and M. Lal
Vol II
O.P. Khanna
n. A Text-Book of Welding TechnologY
M. Lal
28. AText-Book of Material Science
Askhedkar-Kulkanti
29. OperationsResearch
I.C. Gupta
30. A Text-Book of E"gl"eering Metrology
31. Computer Graphics& Design Radhakislman& Kothandarantan
32, A Text-Book of MechanicalEstimathg and Costing O'P' Khanna
Khajuia artdDubeY
GasTurbines and Jet PropulsiveSystem
JJ.
Mathur qnd Shanna
34. Internal Combustion[,ngine5
M.S. Mahaian
35. StatisticalQualitYControl
'x. Designof MachineElements
Abdttlla Shariff
Abdulla Shanff
37. Theory of Machines
Practice)
38. Computer Programmingfor Engineers(Theory &
M.M. Hasan
(CoveringDigital & AnalogueComputation)
M.M. Hasan
39. Principlesof Cobol Programming
M.M. Hasan
ulO. Computer Programmingin Basic