IN
SOIL MECHANICS
AI{D
FOT]NDATION ENGINEERING
A'M'LE'(ndia);
[ForB.E.(Civil);M'E'(Civil);
Examinationsl
U.P.S.C'andotherCompetitive
DEBASHIS MOITRA
\\\
,j r u"
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i i ,
Note: This book or part thereof may not be reproduced in any form or translated
without the written permission of the Author and the Publisher.
OTHERUSEFT'LBOOKS
1. AdvanceTheoryofStuctures
N.C. Sinha
MI. Gambhir
S.P. Bindra
N.V.Nayak
Preface
This book is primarily intended for the undergraduatestudentsof Civil
Engineering. However, it will be helpful also to the diplomalevel students,
A.M.I.E. students,and, in some cases,even to the postgraduatestudentsof
Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.
FirstEdition1993
Reprint :
1998
Price:Rs.60.00
Calcutta,
9, March 1993
Ptfulishedby
Prittted at
DEBASHISMOITRA
1
WEIGHT.VOLUME REI.ATIONSHIPS
CONTENTS
Clwpter
Page
"{
WeightVolumeRelationships
,/,
24
,/. I
49
'g..r'
lz,
Seepageand Flownets
81
StessDistribution
to7
Consolidation
133
Compaction
165
Nr
Shcar Strength
181
'9J/
Earth Pressure
2r3
10.
Stability of Slopes
?54
L1.
Bearing Capacity
?33
12.
Deep Foundations
310
/J
,.
: Water :
Fis.1.1
I
I
'.
\
s
RelationshiP
WeightVofume
i.e.,
v
t=ixrWva
...(1.4)
G =Mny : 
1.c.,
grains
M" = massof anyvolurneVofsolid
M. = massof water of volume V'
then in the C'G'S' systen
If this volume V is arbitrarily taken as unity'
of solid grains (y') and
dersity
the
to
Lqu't
M" and M. become **..i".iry
density of water (1.) respectively' Thus'
(i)Voidratio(e):Thevoidratioofasoilisdefinedastheratioofvolurne
of voids to the volume of solids'
massolunitvolunggllglids Ts
O massof unitvolumeof water Y
and,
V =V r+V,
0r,
V=Vr+Vo+Vn
vu
i.e.,
"=v,
where,
...(1.1)
Thevoidratioisadimensionlessparameter,thenumericalvalueofwhich
with increasing degree of compactnessof the soil'
decreases
aefineAas the ratio of the volume of voids to the
1i4 frsity (n): ttis
as a percentage'
total volume of the soil mass.It is generallyexpressed
i.e.,
fu= + x rooe,o
...(r.2)
i.e., ,/
w...
*=frxlooVo
"'(1'3)
,/
(s) : The degreeof saturation of a soil mass is
4i{ O"gr"" of saturation
of voids. It is always
defineias tf,e ratio of volume'of water ro tbe volume
expressedas a Percntage'
...(1.s)
T"= G'Y'
or'
I ;
M*
\n
...(1.6)
where
" '(vit\ Y= unitweightof thesoilmass'
of,thetotal
Butka"nrityl, unit weight(v): It is ogrineo15n;ratio
KN/m
'
gm/ccor t^n or
,o.,, of u soil to its totalr olume.Its unit is
l.e.r,
\=T
...(1.7)
w,
Y " =%
...(1.8)
ws
\d=V
i.e.,
...(1.e)
vu
"= v"
= Vv + V " , o r , V " V
But,
vu
vr/v
v,/v
(1+e)
Fig.1.2
vv
We know that,
Vr.
[ . =
+l
V r ,= e . V r .
Let us considera soil masshavingtrnitvolume of solids'
= T ? ; t'"J
e =
" = i = 1 . "
n =
Again,
=
+, or vu n'v
=
Cqnsideringa soil masshavir:ga totalvolume V l,
 n'
V . .= l ' n = n , o r , % = V  V , = 
v,
...e=Vs
V,
vr/v,
vu
o r ' ng v J v " =
Wm=
ys
Now,
...(1.10)
n = T
(b)
(o)
L  n
Again, by definition,
...(1.11)
L + e
v . =r  "
ri
. " n =
,5
n
l  n
, = w% ' t "
Vn'\n
G=!,
Y" = G'Y.
Of,
ln
vn
Vn'ln
Ws
By definition,
tu
,9e
G
Wn+W,
Vr+V,
Vn.yn + V".Gyn
_
_ t v
Vr+V"
Vu+V"
(1.13)
=
From
eqn.
weBet,Tsar
Iw
(1.13)we get,fd =
From.eqn.
V = 
Wn+W"
Wn+W"
...(1.13)
t  9
Olt
w"
wnr w'
l
or,
(V, + GV')/V,
 F;Tq4
tn
or,
(G+e)/e
tw
 . r t
(l+e\/e
G+e
tw
l+e
w"
l a = 1 i , o r , V = j ,ld
...(ii)
l+G.(I/el
...(i)
Y =  
Again,
t+l/e
'
We know that,
G+se
4 . r ,
#.r*
= GTn
l;"
l+e
v' =  . v
l + e
.u
u = fi
t\r
l+l/e
+#
Foradrysoil,s=0
tw
...(1.ls)
Vn + G.V"
E
Iw
G^tn
Vn.\n + %.y"
Vr+V"
v =  =  = 
ot,
G/e
 + l/e
\d = TTe
0f,
'
Vr,+V"
V".G\n
%'y"
Vr+V,
s.e = w.G
W
V
...(1.14)
G.Vs,/Vv
V"/V"
'
G + e
lJl'Yw
vJV,
s
G/e
.f
Ysar=
of'
=
=
vr.Gr" y" .G (vr/v,) ' c
= VJV"
c =
tw
Y=
Yd =
Wn+W,
(.
=w'
a
Wr\
T;;
...(1.16)
t
= V(Y."r  Y)
The apparentdensity or submergeddensity of the soil is given by,
V(Y."r  Y,r)
W'
Ysub=V =
V
==+Required
' t : [Ta,
' .s,A;l'
...(r.r7)
Y
.,. ' d  l + w
Here,
Ysub=YsatYw
Solution:
may be :
= V
Mass of displacedwater = V . \n
or,
WeightVolume Relationships
\d = T#n=
r'6e6gm/cc
In order to solve for the other two unknowns,viz., s and e; two equations
are required. Evidently, the following equationswill serve the purpose :
vrG = st or re = (0.12)(2.65) = 0.318
Again,
or,
or,
G+se
l + e
v' = _ . l n
r.n= f41l@)tr.ol
l * e
l+e=
 .
) '
1.56,or,e=0.56
'{a=
of'
G'tn
yl s,
=(f?P,
1.6s6
OT,
1.696+1.696e=2.65
or,
"=ffi=o'56
...(t
10
. = 9 ! 1 9 = 0 . 5 6 8= 5 6 . 8 v o
0.56
From (i),
e
" = Ti;
Answer.
0.56
, . ;s.
= n0.36= 36vo
wn
w=w
Now,
wn
;
l
Void ratio,
"=2=ffi=os6
Porosity,
=36vo
" =+ =ffi x roovo
= rrr,
r'n
volume of 300
Problem It2'F'nundisturbed specimenof soil has a
its weight
hours'
24
for
105'C
at
oven
in
drying
After
+66got'
"" tJ*.igh.
reducedto+sog*.oeterrninethevoidratio,porosity,degreeofsaturation
and water conteut. Assume G = 2'70'
Solution:
Wn = o.lZgm
0r,
= l'I2gm
Totalmassofthesample, W = Wo + W4
rYr " =
Volume of solids,
v' t ' =
Volume of water,
W"
T
wn
Weight ofwaterevaporated,
Vo=V(%+V)=0.092cc
=
.'. Volume of voids, V, = Vo t Vn = 0.12+ 0'fp.2 0'2l2cc
vn
o.r2
=
Degree of saturation,
t=
fr
ffix
'1"'n't' t I
cir"n,fr wg5 cf+ Required
' "
= o'12  0.12cc
Methodl:
I
W'
 0" .' 3"7 7* c r
,, =
=
c\"= (2f5)(l)
l*
,, =+ =#F = r'6nsm'/cc
Dry densitY,
Method II:
Letusconsidera'specimenofthegivensoilinwhichthemassofsolid
1'3'
grains = 1 gm. The tnreephasediagrari of the soil is shown in Fig'
11
r o o % 5o 6 . 6 7 o
Wa = 456 gn'
W='W Wa= 498 456 = 42gm'
=
0'0921= 9'21%
Watercontent,w  Y
456
wd +G'r'u
\d=T;e
Dry densitY,
\d =
But
wa 456
= r.szpm/cc
v
300
G'tn
= L5z
l + e
\h
(0.092cc1
Vw
(0'12ccl
V
( 0 . 5E 9 c c )
1.s2(r + e) = (2.7)(r)
+1.52=2.7
L.S?z
e  0.78
Void ratio= 0.78
or,
or'
:Woter : :
 _:________
of,
VJ
(1'12gml
Again,porosity
Vs
(0.377rc)
, 
e
TT;
F i g .1 . 3 .
, = I9
LZ
WeightVolumeRelationships
Ort
(o.oe2r\
(2.7\
"=ff=0.319=3l.9flo
V=:==42cc
Volume of solids,
AS6'
= 168'8e
cc
'
0f'
V'=VV'
Ot,
Vu = 3N  168.89= 131.11cc
" =
vu 131.11
= o'78
=
16s,
,"
vu
,=T=
s=
w=
Vn
fi
Again,
131.11= O . 4 3 7 = 4 3  7 V o
3Of
Wo
W=
42
trfu
2'67+  x e\(1'o) =
1'954
r + e
)
1.854+L,854e=2.67+e
0.85k = 0.816
e = 0.955
0r,
V=300cc
Total volume,
tu, = l].u
But,
Y"
,?in
Required
:
yw
of'
Given,W, VEe+
w...
Volume of water,
Volume of voids,
Solution:
wn=498456=42gm
Weight of water,
13
= o32= 327o
42
=9'2lc/o
^5t=0'0921
(0L0255)
 0.358= 35,.8vo
* =X 
..u
t
Prcblery{.
A ftrlly saturatedsoil samplehas d volume of 28 cc. The
sample was drled in oven and tle weight of the dry soil pat was found to be
48.86 gm. Determine the void ratio, moisture content, saturateddensity and
dry densityof the soil mass.Given G =2,68.
V=?3cc
Volumeofdrysoil, % =
{ 1 3 1 . 1c1
)c
Required
:
T#"c=18.23cn
w (4 9 8 g m l
Sotid
Void ratio,
v,
Ws{ 4 5 6 9 m )
=
Fig.r.4
Vn
 v " v ,
l r =  = 
o11
ffi
= o'536
l'.'v"=vnT
t4
Wn = V*'\*
= (9.77)(1.0,
Wt
)Cs
=1.7889n/cr
'td=i=,"5
= 9.77 grn
Moisture eontent,
g'77
wn
v=fi=ffi=0.2=20%b
Drydensity, ro =Y= #
= 2.09 gm/cE
= r.745sm/cc
V v= 9 ' 7 7 c c
h(a=9.779m
W= 5 S ' 6 3 9 m
Ws=4E.869m
Vs=18'23cc
FiB.1.5
.
Problem l.rf,. An undisturbed sample of saturatedclay has a volume
of 16.5 cc and weighs 35.1 gm. On ovendrying,the weight of the sample
reduces to 29.5 gm. Determine the void ratio, moisture content, dry density
and the specificgravity of solids.
Solution :
Method I:
Given
: Vn we+
Weight of thesaturated
sample,
Weightof thedry sample,
tF,*l,d, cl
Required
W = 35.1gm
Wa = 29.5gm
.'. Weightofwalcrevaporated,
Wn  W  Wa = (35.1 29.5\gm
tu, = l]].t*
= q, t" ,
2.127
i
But.
2.127+2.127e=G+e
or,
or,
G=l.l27e+2.127
G'tn
I a=
tu,={i#
2.ryism/*
...(i)
V r
Again,
l + e
G , 1
1.788 =  :r + e
=
G
1.788e+ 1.788
or,
...(ii)
= r8.evo
 = E = gr'}lu *0.18e
oI'
Method II :
Wd = 29.5 gm
Weightofwater,
Volume of water
Vn = V, = 5.6 cc
V = 16.5cc
V, = V  Vu = (16.5 5.6)cc = 10'9cc
Volumeofsolids,
Total volurne
Void ratio,
" = ? =# = o s l ,
Moisture content,
* = V = # = o . r 8 e r 8 . e %
= 5.6grn
Nou,,
15
r7
Vy15
=. 5 c c
sotriior: GiveE
,W@+
V * 1&5cc
W  3629m
Totalvolume
Totalweigh!
Wa  3%gm
Dry wcfhl
t V #
Bulk density,
Fig. 1.6
Ws 29.5
\a = V = ,rj = l.19gm/cc
Dry density,
Required
,F yr,r, ", c I
Dry density,
wd
loi
 Le6gm/cn
 326  I . 7 6 g m / c c
1g5
y" =
Unitweightof
solids,
=ffi
= Z.7ogm,/v
='#
= 2.70
of solids, c =
Specificgravity
*
/
Problen i!/ m. initial void ratio of an inorganicclay is foundto be
0.65,while the specificgravity of solidsis 2.68.Determinethe dry density
andsaturateddensityof thesoil.AIsodetermineitsbulk densityandmoisture
content,if thesoil is 5A%saturated.
+ Required:
Solution:
Given' TZJ
Saturated
densityof thesoil,
lu, = f]f.U
to'=9o = ff#i

ffiff(l)
(t) = 2'o,gm/cc
= L62sm/cc
Whenthesoil is 50%saturated,
its bulk density
G + se
2.68 + (0.5)(0.65)
Y  ffi'Y
Moisturecontent, w
Now,
0f'
or,
yd =
,/
Probleqgf.
A sample of silty clay has a void ratio of 0.8. The soil is
allowed to absorbwater and its saturateddensity was found to be 1.92gmlcc.
Determine the water content of the saturated sample.
Method I:
, w'e;W=0.12=127o
/
Problem \1
The volume and weight of a partially saturatedclay
After drying in an ovenat 105'C
sampleare 185cc and362gmrespectively.
for 24iho!rs,its weightreducedto 326gm.If thenaturalvcid ratioof thesoil
36
=llVo
326=0.11
I+G  S,
"I9
Solution :
= 1'82gm/cc
 f wn
r=
G'=l=,
1 . 7 6 ,
1 + 0.54
G * (1.76)(1.54)= 2.71
Again,
= ('iltH]])
Dry density,
9*trl
1+u.o
or,
G + e
[J'Yr
_ r.v2
G(1.92r(1.8)0.8  2.656
se
 + w = 1q,
2.Ew
(1) (0.8)
w=A=ffi=030
4.32w=l+w
ort
Now, ru =
W
#,
= w gm
or,
w=0.30=3OVo
e = 0.8
*Y =
o.t
s
We have,
t d 
Here,
ya = 1.80gm/cc, y = 1.95gm/cr
l + w
105
0(,
1.80 = ;L
%*=#=fr=r.x,..
l + w
 + w = 1.95/1.80= L.0833
w = 0 . 0 8 3 3= 8 . 3 3 9 / o
Or'
of'
V=Vs+Vn
=1.?5w+w=2.?5wcc
Again, we have,
yd=
G^t*
I + e
=q?9
1.80
r+e=ffi=r.cl
of,
2'25wcc
e = 0.49
Ort
vtG =se
Now,
1 2 5 v er r
O f ,
J = 
(2.68)
r,,C = f(0.0833)
f
Fig.1.7
Totalweightofthesoil,=
WW n + W d =
.
But,
(1 + w)gm
0.456=45.69o
Problem l$.The
density of a partially saturatedsoil was found to be
1.88 gm/cc. If t[e moisture @ntent and void ratio of the soil be 24.8Voand
0.76 respectively, determine the specific gravity of solids, and the degrec of
saturation.
W
l + w
ysar=f =
LZS*
yot = 1.92 gm/cc
"
Solution:
We have
rnd,
G+se
T= 1*.:'Y,"
...(i)
ttfr = Se
...(ii)
G(l + w)
Y ' 197'rn
0r'
1.88={fffirtl
( 1 . S 8 )( 1 . 7 6 )
.t _W  2 . 6 5  , ;
ol'
##*
(ii)
= 19.03gm
Volume of water to be added
(i) the quantity of the given soil to be uscd for this purpose
(ii) quantity of water to be mixed with iL
Solution : (i) Volume of each specimen  olh
= (59.64  a1.61)gm
= 18.03 cc
=_f.#:rf (7.s)cc
Total volume of three specimens,V  (3) (82.83) = 248.49 cc
Wa = V x ld
Weightofdry soilrequired,
= (248.4e)(1.6)
= 397.588ln
Moisturecontentof finishedspecimens, w a lSVo
But,
w
6r=],
wd
or, Wnw
,Wd
ta = 1fi
(2.68) (1)
ffi#
= I1'605
sft/cn
"*"]
E)(ERCISEI
f
A
soil
sample
has
a
porosity
of.35Vo.Thesoil is 7SVosafiiratedand
J.l.
the specific gravity of solids is 2.68. Determine its void ratio, dry density,
bulk dercity and moisture content.
[Ans : e = 0.54,ld  L.74gm/cc,l = 2.0 gm,/cc,w 'l57ol
1.2. The mass specific gravity of a soil is 1.95, while the specific
gravity of soil solids is 2.7. If the moisture content of the soil be 22To,
determine the following :
(i) Void ratio (ii) porosity {iii) degreeof saturarion(iv) dry density (v)
saturateddensity.
, [Aor : (i) 0.69 (ii) 4leb (iii) f]6% (iv) r.597 gmlcc (v) 2.00 gm/w I
The saturatedand dry densitiesof a soil are 1.93 gm/cc and 1.47
Vl.
gm/cc respectively. Determine the porosity and the specific gravity of the
solidSris.
[Ans : n = 45.9Vo,G=z^721
l\9, A partially saturatedsoil samplehas a natural moisture content of
l7%band a bulk density of 2.05 gro/cn.If the specific gravity of soil solids be
2.66, detennine the void ratio, degreeofsaturationand dry density ofthe soil.
What will be the bulk densiw of the soil if it is :
(i) Fully saturated
,t
(ii) 6O%saturated?
[Ans : Part  1s = O.52,s = 8'77o,\ a = 1.75 gm/@Part2 : (i) 2.09 gmlcc
/
/
23
l"/.
An undisturbedsoil samplehas a volume of 50 cc and weighs 96'5
gm. On ovendrying, the weight reduces to 83.2 gm' Determine the water
content, void ratio and degreeof saturationof the soil. Given, G = 2.65'
=72%7
[Ans:w =l6Vo'e =O'59,s
I
Lfr. The bulk density and dry density of a soil are 1.95 gm/cc and 1.58
gtn/&'..spectively. Assuming G" = 2'68, determine the porosity, water
content and degreeof saturation of the soil.
=89.2o/ol
[Ans: n =4l7o,w =23Vo,s
1.7. A cylindrical sampleof saturatedclay,7.6 cm high and 3'8 cm in
diameter,weighs 149.6gm. The samplewas dried in an oven at 105"C for 24
hours, and its weight reduced by 16.9 gm. Determine the dry delsity, void
ratio, moisture content and specific gravity of solids.
=
=
=
[Ans : 1a = 1.54 gml cc, e 0.74, w 12.7Vo,G 7'68]
I,
,4t)
25
INDEX PROPERTIES,ANDSOIL
CI.ASSIFICATION
G =
WcWtW3+W2
wzwr
...(2.r)
, = t"irut' ,t
...(2.2)
WT
( EmptY
Bot)
Wt
YIZ
W3
(
B
o
t
.
*
S
o
i
l
+
W
q
i
e
r
)
lBot.*DrySoit)
{ Bot + Woter)
D =\@.
...(2.3)
liig ) 
(A
26
and,
where,
/v=
V
(r1 + C^  rn) x IA}a/o
W"'y
*''
D = particlesize in mm
...(2.4)
analysis, then the percent finer, N , of the particle size D rrun, with respect
to the total quantity of sarnple,is given by'
.y'' = N "
Is
V
tu,
27
w.
T
995
1000
10 0 5
ya\
r(,
Z,=Hr+;lh;l *
^ /
where, V1 = volume
or lyoroor.t.'),n
."
...(2.7)
W . LL. e v e l Immersion
I n i i i a tW . L l
...(2.s)
j l+l lz r
t l
l, L
'i
V h /2A
T
bulb, in cm
Hr=
where,
(ra+I)11
r4
x L
...(2.6)
In eqn.(2.4),
f{ = percent finer.
V = Volume of suspensionin'cc
I7, = weight of dry soil takenin gm
r = readingof hydrometerin distilledwaler at roorn temperature
Cm = Ireniscus correction
If t{2,be the weight of dry soil passing through the 75 p sieve during
sieve analysis,which is subsequentlyused for bydrometeranalysis,and if
I{2,be the total weight of sample taken for combined dry and wet mechanical
Fig.2.2
g
Dto
...(2.8)
"=Dto"Doo
...(2.e)
28
29
IndexPropertiesand SoilClassificatian
100
90
80
70 I
60
I
E
50
1!'
aul
(s)
30
20
(r
z
u
J 0
r0
F8,2.3
where, Dfi, Dpand D6grepresenttheparticlesizesin mm,corresponding
to l0%o,307o and 6O7ofrnet respectively'
When
is mcdium
f . n p . J, o" *il
t0
If OsRes
d\ptiditY
Index,
R., =
where,
o
"t*
max  min
where,
Ydmax
 Ydmin
wlwp
WlWn
9lWn
Ip
wIwp
...(2.13)
...(2.14)
w1 t wO and ltz stand for the liquid limit, plastic limit end the
na0ral water content of the soil.
(iv) Flow Index (I): It is defincd as the slopeof the w vs. loglg JVcurve
obtained from the liquid limit test.
wl r=w7=
...(215)
i.e.,
'II,  ,
lqls N2/N1
n^ o =
whete,
...(2.10)
(iiD Consistency
Index, I"
wrwP
Ip
'
3.
It is a measureof the degree of compactnessof a
2.4. Relative l)ensity:
cobesionlesssoil in the state in which it exists in the field. It is defined as,
wnwP
t i = T
wbere,
..(2.rr)
(v) Toughnessindex,
,r 
...(2.16)
(vi)ActivityNumber,,
ffi
Soils can be classified accordingto various indices, as follows:
...(2.17)
30
a)
Plasticin Index
Degreeof Plasticity
Typeof Soil
Nou  plastic
Sand
<7
Inw plastic
silr
717
Medium plastic
Silty clay or
clayey silt
>17
Highly plastic
Clay
Consistency
0.0  0.25
stiff
0.25 0.50
Medium to soft
0.50 0.75
Soft
0.75 1.00
Very soft
(")
Clottrft"ofion orrordiog
,, The activity
nurnber of a soil representsthe tendency of a soil to swell or shrink due to
absorption or evaporationof water. The classification is as follows:
I
Vo
l_
o) Iniiiot Slste
b} Af S,L
the shrinkage limit. With referenceto thesefigures, the shrinkage limit can
be determinedby the following two methods:
Method I:
Wrcn G is unbwwn :
LetVs andV1be the initial and final volumes of the sample and Wg andW6
be its corresponding weights. By definition, the volume of the soil at
shrinkagelimit is equal to its final volume. I*tWnbe the weight of water at
this stage.The shrinkagelimit is then given by,
Typeof Soil
< 0.75
Inactive
0.75 r.25
Normal
> 7.25
Active
c) Drystste
Fig.2.4
!. u s = 
Activity Number
31
wn
Wd
W*=(WoWi(VoViy*
 Wi  (Vo V) t*
*^" _(Wo w
d
Method II:
Let
WhenG is lotown:
% = volume of solids
...(2.18)
V,+
wd
c4*
w n  ( v a  % ) r  (n'  b*)'"
But,
Va'ln
l?s
ws
G
wd/G
.\"
 VTa ' l n
silt
so
50
v1'
"/" OF S I L T
< 0.002
Fig.2.s
0.002ro 0.075
the soil is then detenninedaccordingto the narneof the segrnentin which the
inleisectionpoint lies.
Sand:
(i) Fine sand
0.075 ta 0.425
(ii) Mediumsand 0.425 to 2.0
(iii) Coanesand
2.0
tCI 4.75
Gravel
o e
...(2.20)
Clay
o^^*
...(z.re)
te
Soil Type
o
o
10
40
o<
lYa
ws
olt
\uu
wd
Vd.ln
EO
4.75
ro 80
M
C
L
T
H
Silty soils.
Clayey soils.
Organic soils.
l,ow plasticity
h{edium or intermediateplasticity
High plasticity
34
50
Diameter
of Grains
(mm)
35
Weight
%
Retained R.etaincd
Gm)
Cumulative To
Retained
Vo
Finer
:;
a.75mT
4.75
9.36
1.87
1.87
98.13
 4 0
2.40mm
2.&
53.75
10.75
12.62
87.38
1.20mm
t.2n
78.10
t5.62
28.24
71.76
500 p
0.600
83.22
\6.64
44.88
55.r2
425tt
0.425
85.79
t7.16
62.04
37.96
300p
0.300
76.82
15.36
77.4)
22.60
150p
0.150
6't.02
13.40
90.80
9.20
75w
0.075
33.88
6.78
97.58
2.42
o\
OJ
C
 3 0
>. 29
!:
ii
+I
M H /O H
I
ro
7
I
30
40
50 54 60
70
* Clayey soils
 Organicsoils.
EXAMPLES
/
The results of a sieve analysis performed on a dry soil
Piroblem*l.
sample weighing 500 gm are given below:
 1.97o
1.8770
Coarsesand:
98.lVo 927o
Mediurn sand:
92Vo38/o
= 549'o
Fine sand :
2.4%o
38%b
= 35.60/o
SiIt:
2.42%;2.4%
Mediumj [oqr
Fi n e
Sond
= 6.lVo
t00
90
to
70
,osf% L
l
e
t
sol
I
.E

rg_f s
3 o l
torl'r* t
0.010,020.040.060.t0e 04 0.6 
2
P q r t i r l e S i z e( m m l +
Fig.2.7
lo{,*r.
s roT
36
in a sieveanalysis'
Problem 2,/. 500 grn of dry soil samplewas used
''as
i' the steel
collcctcd
p.ssed firough tie T5 p sieve.and
178.;;;;;;i#i1
rnadeby
was
suspension
*u,ttktn and a 1 litre
fun, ouTof which 50 grn
cylirrder
measuring
a
it
in
agentto
^OOiogdistilled water and dispersing
'il" uoiuoit of the hydrometcr was 50 cc' the
navinl a diam,elerof'615crn'
e'Jll,:Thc
of calibrarion^9L+.*:i"
is.s.t atrdthelength
steln
fi;d?;iilt,
;L
l5
30
As
G =7.67,
A.1 ?5"f,
Z,
i,i}ti
^!s=2'67gitt/cc''
1o = 0,9971En/cc,
Yr \
t\" o)
=
f,rs'tsl' 2elo6cnz
 so/zs.7o6)
= Ht +
lot.t
Z,=Ht+6'908
or,
...(ii)
Using eqn.(2.6),
H1 _ ( r a + 1 )  r r ,L
r4
Here,
L = 9.7 crn,
f 1 + 0 ' 0 5 r1
H . ' = \l
0.05
...(iii)
" =,,k
r(.
Hcre,
or, ly' =
"
x i0'"'
8.95' .j
=
llili :ir'/ ctn
p = 8.95 rnillipoises
Here
Z,=Ht+
o = V t s o o P" { z :
...(i)
Usingeqn.(2.5),
60
containing the
Whrrn the hydrometerwas immerse<lin distiiled *'atcr
thereading
susptnsiorr,
tilt:
in
prt:serrt
thal
as
agent
sanrequarrtityof dispersing
grn/ccand
is$.99'
/l
*'ater
of
ggg.5.
unitweight
lt?s;C,the
*as found tobe
is
solids 2'67 'The
i1svfs6:osit!is 8.95 millipoises.The specificgravity of soil
meniscus correclion rnay be taken as 0'5'
to each
Find out the diameter of particles settied corresponding
ck
volumetrir':
Negiccl
fir{letv:+ltrcs.
hydroincter reading and the respcctive
expansiondue to temperaturcchange'
The terrrperaturot:orrectioll allrjil:r: *isittlrsiriii agent
Solijtion:
neeclnotbe applicd here'
correction
'
t/o
using eqn'
The diameier ald ccnesponding tiner rnay be <ieiermined
.
it will
int'olve'd'
are
calculations
as
repetitive
12.:; tnrougn (2.?). Howevei,
forms by sul)stituting
t" uarrunt"!"ous to reducetheseequationsto simplified
col$tant
rernain
wbich
factors
the values of the
Using eqn. (2.3)
Y"Y*
i/L
D  0'09e1 Y ;
()r,
()r,
ir,lc(rt
2.61
"
2'67  0.9971 +f
+ c .  r  )x l o o
x 100
x0'ee71(r1
+ 0'0005 0'eee5)
N = ? , 1 8 2 ' 8 ( 1 1 0 . 9 9 9 )
...(iu)
N'=N.#=0.3s77N
...(v)
Eqn. (i) through (v) rnay now be usedfor the computations'The results
are tatrulatedbelow.
/ .. ,2.
38
Time
Hydrometef
reoding
60
120
24
480
900
1800
3600
r.024
r.023
r.020
L.Ol7
1.013
1.010
1.006
1.001
p =
t
L
0.0ss1v
I
0.eee)
(%)
g")
5.O4
0.0625
79.57
?3.6
76.39
27.32
5.820 12.728
0.oM
o.0323
66.84
23:9L
6.402 13,310
0.0233
57.29
20.49
7.\78
14.086
0.1697
44.56
t5.94
7.1ffi
14.668
0.0126
35.01
t2.52
8.536 t5.444
0.0092
22.28
7.97
9.506 16.4L4
0.0067
6.37
2.28
r1.952
5.238 tz.16
ff='
1y'=
3182.8 0.3s77
x(yrxlV
(mm)
(cm)
(cm)
(sec)
30
Zr=
I{r =
195x H t +
(1.0s6.908
ri
/
Problem 2./. Distilledwaterwasaddedto 60 gm of dry soil to prepare
I suspensionYf t litre. What will be the readingof a hydrometerin the
susperuionat t = 0 sec,if the hydrometercould be immersedat that tirne?
Assume,densityof water=  gmlccandspecificgravity of solids=2.70.
Solution: At t = 0 sec,the solid grainshavenot startedto settle.The
havingconstantdensityat any point
tberefore,is homogeneous,
suspension,
in it.
As G = 2.7o,\" = 2.70Emlcc.
#=
22'22cc'
= 46.64 cc.
= ffi=o.o466cc
= 1  0'0466 = 0'9534 cc
weight
":T.I;'fiffi
rotar
39
=1.0248
sm.
grn/cc.
Theretbre,unit weight of suspension = 1..0748
(ii)
" =t'i*J".d
,, = ffi=0.0222cc.
Volume of waterin unit volumeof suspension,
= O'9778cc'
Vn = ' O'O222
ol'
p =
18p x G
Y"T.
, = 1=
,r#*
= o.133cmlsec
40
F = 8.36 millipoises =
8.36 x L0'3 =
8,522 x 106 gmsec,/cm2
981
=
Ys = 2'68 gfit/c'.c, y,,, 0.9963 gm,/cc
41.
55
^ 5 0
o\
D =
crn
0.398
x 100= 31.86%'
LZ4g
Hence the coordinates of the requiredpoint on the particle size
E 4 s \tlU=Ir3"h
o
D = 0.035mm
L,
I
t
L l O
.J
+
CJ
35
\
30
lo
7, Irner =
/'o
zo 25 30
No.of Blows r'
50
60
Fig'2'8
As the plasticrityindex is greater than17Vo,the soil is higltly plaslic itt
nafure.
indexis lessthan1, the soil is friableat liquid lirnit'
As the toughness
Protrlem 2SY^brr^tory testson a soil sarnpleyielded the followittg
results:
Liquid linit
= 547o
Plasticlimit
=25%
32'l
(a) Determine the lkluid limit of the soiltsoil be 23To,find out the Plasticity index,
iUj ff 1tr" plastic limit ot the
comment on the nature of the soil.
Hence
flow'index anJ toughnessindex.
Solution:(a)Fromthegivendata,acrrrvebetweenthewatercorrtent
shows
and the number oiblows is plotted on a semilog graph paper' Fig' 2'8
as
to
25blows'
corresponding
content
watr
The
curve.
this w vs. loglg.lV
437o'
is
sotT
the
obtained from the curve, is 43%o.Hencnthe liquid limit of
237o =20Va
(b) Plasticity index, Io= w1wo= 43Vo
Flowindex, ,, = ffi
t,=If,=ft
Toughnessindex,
I
= = 38'687o
= o'sz'
(a) Determine the liquidity index of the soil aild courntenton its
consistency.
(b) Find out the activity nurnberand comrnenton the natureof the soil.
(c) Classify tlre soil with the help of a plasticitychart'
w_ 
Solution:
indcx'11=
(a) Liquidity
,i
v'P
 ?5
= o'138
= 29
54  ,s
andis stiff'
As 0 < I1<0.25, thesoilis in theplasticstate
(b) Activitynumber,A =
% i.00,
^^
42
s4)s
o==1.611
of'
Jl e i
l 1 '
( 1 + e 1)
r f
l
lI
{eLe5)
nnF
,$,re
:Woter::
  I
 .t F=wJ;=
t l
t_+_
Ai L.L
(Voidrotlo = el)
AI S.L
( V o r dr o i i o = e s )
ts)
tbl
Fig.2.9
wehave,
Atliquid limit,
= er cc
= t x  = et Em
W e i g h t c . fs o l i d s
= V r ' G \ n = 0 ) Q . 6 7 ) = L 6 l gm
el
2.67
t  , _ 1.602 0.668
= 0.359
1+1.602
l+et
AY = 0.359V = (0.359)(20)= 7.18cc
Av
v
Hence,final volume at
SL = 20  7'18
= 12.82cc
=Vr'G\n=1'G'L=Gce:
Weightofsolids
wn
* =
* = " t
w= 527o=A.52
" = +Y,s o r , v r = e . v ,
Vu = et'l
w*
w"
w=ffiVa=0'6.
But,atII,
43
 = o . s zor,, et
= 052G
e s = 0 ' 1 7G
Similarly we obtain,
But,
t *o
csrd
1 . o52G
+{]dq=o'3e
)
44
Here,
,.*qra=o'39
G = 2.65
or.
G = 2.7.
Solution:
(1)
(13.e7)
wn*
= :
= :190 = 13,97cc
'las
rJ'o
rs
Volume of solids,
v" =
w,
G+se
1 = T;T"t
26.20/2.7 = 9.7 cc
ws
a )j
ffi
Wc have,
Solution:
=G(l+w).
=G+r+6
1 * ""{w
e
'
l
w
1 +
w=
',=ffi;j=0'163
45
+0.23),,,
1.95=2.66(1
l + e
e = 0.678.
()r.
= 0'163= 163o7o
Degreeof safuration,9 =
v6 _ ({J.23\(2.66\ =
0.902 = %,Tt
0.678
e
Again, usingeqn.2.10.
Rrr=W
l + ' 2 c1c
H*rc,
=i;11
RD
tiJf=osj
13'97cc
2520g m
As
_f
Fig.2.10
W1
'
Rr, . i,
"
cf * givr:n';r,;;is as fsrla{v.i;
Prcble m 2,1.1. The.r+lt'.pr:silii:n
Sartd= 37'/0, Sill = 39%, {\a',: = 29olcDraw a lriangularciassifitationchartand elassifytlie;oil'
i.
I
G
1
Y
I
46
47
in the direction of the arrow (i.e., parallel to the side AC representing the
percentageofclay).
(ii) Similarly on the side BC, locate the point corresponding to 39Voand
draw another straight line making it parallel to 8A, These two lines intersect
eachother at P.
(iii) If now a third line is drawn from the appropriate poinr (29%) on the
clay side, making it parallel toAB, it will pass through P.
The point P then represenlstbe given soil in the triangular classification
chart. The point lies in the sector marked 'clay silt'. Hence the given soil is
classifiedas a clav sih.
EXERCISE 2
2.1 The following data were obtainedfrom a specific gravity test
performedin thelaboratory:
= 2OI?5gm
Wefghtof emptypycnometer
During the hydrometer test, 50 gm of soil retained on the steei pan was
rnixed with distilled water and dispening agentto form a suspensionof 1"200
cc in a measuringcylinderhaving a diameterof 6.2 crn.The hydrometerhad
a volume of 50 cc. The length of its bulb and the calibrati,onon the stem were
16 cm and 10 cm respectively. The range of calibrations was from 995 to
1035. When itnmersedin distilleOwatir containingdispersingagent, the
hyctrometerread998.5. Meniscuscorrectionmay be taken as0.4. Thq specific
gravity of solids was 2.69. The viscosity and unit weight of water at the room
ie mperatureof 28"C were respectively8'36 millipoise a1d 0'9963 gm/cc.
Plot the particle size distribution curve and detcrmine the percentageof
gravel, sand,silt and clay.
i7Draw a rough sketchof the particle size distribution curve of a sand
sanrplehaving the following properties:
= 0.17 mm
Elfective size (D16)
= 298.76gm
Weightof pycnometer,
soil aid waler = 758.92gm
Weigbtof pyorometerfult of water
= 698.15gn
Detem,rine
thespecificgravityof thesoil.
2.2 The resultsof a sieveanalysisaregivenbelow:
t&s. 2.654]
Wt of Soil
Retained(gm)
Unifonnity coefficient
Coefficient of curvature
\
= 1,2.
tOOgrn of dry soil was mixed with water at 4oC to fonn a L000 cc
r{.5
suspension.lf G = 2.72, determine the initial unit weight of the suspension.
T<l what depth with the particles having effective diameterof 0.05 mm settle
aftcr 5 rninutes?Whatwill bethe time requiredby a 5 micron particle to settle
through L0 cm? The vlscosity of water ri4oC rrruybe assumedas 0.85 x 103
poisc.
2.6 T\e results of a tiquid limit test are given below:
= 5.5
,,1
I
48
Draw the tlow curve and detenninethe liquid lirnitand flow irrclexof the soil.
IrAts: 47%o,I8.9%l
2.7 The Atterberg timits of a given soil are:
LL = 68%o,pL = 37To,SL = 22Vo
If the naturalmoisturfcontent of this soil at the sitebe4zvo,thendetermine:
(r) Plasticiryindex (ii) Consisrancy
index (iii) Liquidiry index.
Comnent on the nature of the soil on the basis of theJe indices.
[Ans. (i) 3rvo (ii)0.83e (iii) 0.161]
2.8 A si'gle liquid lirnil test wes pertbnned with casagra.de's liquid
,
limit device on a soil sample witlr known Atterberg lirnits. ihe nurnber of
blows required to close the groove was recorded .r s:. f]l" corresponding
noisture coutcrntof the samplewas found tobeZgvo.If the liquid limit
and
plastic linrit of the soil be 74vo and4lvo rcspectively,determin. ir" tou!hr,.r.
index.
[Ans.0.231
.2'
2.4 The weigbt and volume of a fully saturatedsoil sample were 55.4
gm and 29.2 cc respectively.After dryi'g i'a'ove. for 24 hours,its
weight
and volume rerjuced to 39.8 gm and zt.t c. respectively. Find out trrc
shrinkage limit of the soil.
fAns.t8.8%l
2.10 If &e dry density a'cr unit weight of sorids of a soil be 1.6g grn/cc
and2.65 grn/cc rcspectively,determineits shrinkagelimit.
1ens.il,.Srf"1
z.1l A cylindrical soil sampreof 7.5 .'n height and 3.75 cm diarnerer
has been prepared at $e shrinkage limit. If the sample is now arowed
to
absorbrvaterso that irs water conlentreachesthe liquid lirnit, what will
be its
volurne? Given LL = 6ZVo,pL =34%o,SL = ?\Vi,G = 2.6g.
2.12A cvli*dricar
mourd
.f 10crninternar
diamerer
andlT;T*l
weighs 1894 grir. The ril.,uid was filled up with dry soit, first at
its loosest
stateand then at the denscststate,and was found to weigh3zT3gm and 353g
gm respe.ctivrly.{f the naruralsoil existingat the field be submerged
below
the grountl rverarr
tahl* and hasa water contentof zjvodetennine riie relativc
densiiy +{ tl;t $flil and {roinrnelton ils stateof corlrpactness.Given, G = 2.65.
54'75vcl
z,tr3 l},e Allerberg limits oia Evr:r s'ii "r" u, rotto*rf,fu
LL = LVq,,
FL = Z9g/*,SL = l8.,qo
.
D;o',,..
* i;lastieitfi.ii:ir.ilud classif,vihi brli1.
Dfirr,' a triangurarcrassificationchart ai:r1iiassiry rbe soi! rravirir,
 !:14
[he fcllowirg u:;ri;rosilion:
Sand= 43Vo.Silt=3!Vo,Clay
=26Eo.
nt
4
ni
4
'h'
'n"'ln
Again,verticalcoruponnl
of &e surfacetensionforce
7".il. c.os
cr
nt
14
t+ 
or
At
' h.'ln
'
4Lcosa
i.u
and, y*lgm/ct
."(3.1)
50
51
Fie.t.l
Assuming the tube to be perfectly clean and wet,.cos cr = cos 0' = 1
o'=ffiiftfit'r
,
ort
(4')(75.6 x 108)
0.3084
.
n, = 7cnr
...(3.2)
. = c
tt,
zzG
...(3.3)
FiB.3.z
,
3.3 Tota[ Effective and Neutral stresses: when an externalload is
appliedon a saturatedsoil mass,the pressureis immediatelytransferredto
thc porewater.At this point,the soil skeletondoesnot shari any load.But
with passageof time, the pore water graduallyescapesdue to tbe pore
water pressureinducedand a part of tbe externalsnesJis transfenedto the
solid grains.irhe total stresso is thereforedivided into the following
components:
(i) Effective stressor intergranularpressure, o,
(ii) Porewaterpressure
or neutralstress, u.
or,
O=at+tt
...(3.4)
3.4 Distrlbution of vertical stressin various soilwater systems
(i) Free water : In free water,the hydrostaticpressuredistributionis
linear.At anydepthz belowthewaterrevel,theverticalpressureis givenby,
u=Zl_
l
i
1
I
...(3.s)
.tt/)
52
53
t
H$
FHIw
{ I
where,
t lLr,,r*,J.1.*,*r',Jrrro
Jlw{Frsot H +
Fig.3.3
Y = eft'eclive unit weight of soil
Fig. 3.4 illustrates the pressuredistribution diagram.
lL\_ t\ l\i \ \
IJ_
f
1
L\
* .lJn"o
iiil Effective
Stress
Fig.3.5
II
= H(Yr"r  Y)
...(3.8)
o' = y"ub.H
or,
(iv\ Saturated soil witlt capillary water i In Fig' 3.6, the soil mass is
saturatedup{oa height/r. abovethewaterlevel,dueto capillaryrise of water.
The total stresses,pore watcr pressuresand the effective stressesat various
levels are worked out below:
II
L
1
Fig"3.4
(iii) Submergedsoii : Fig. 3.5 showsa soil masssubmerged in water with
free waier standing upto a height Hi,lf" H be the height of the soil, the total
pressureat the bottom of it is given by'
e = Tsub.H + \n (H* + H\
0r,
o=(y*l+\o)H+\nHo
{rr;
o=Ysar'I{+Y*Hn
Pore r+'aterpressure,
.'. Eftbctivt sness
hc
+II
h
I
I
...(3.6)
...(3.7)
tr = lw(ff + H*,)
I
Jrru61t,*t
c)*rnh
lDistributionof
EffectiveStress
q ' = ( I  l t
* Hn)
Fig.3.6
,,/
54
oa=0
og = \e1. hc
1n2
o6 = Ysat Qt + hr)
thr
t
lt1= 0
ilC = \nh"
(e)
Effectivestresses
O,A
6'B
d,C
= oA 
uA = O  (hr\nl
= o B  u g = y s a l: h ,
 a6
6'c
Fig.3.7
 0 ='{o.t,hc
At any depth z below the top of the soil mass (i.e., sec. X X)
.z t ln(z + h2)
oz = Ys*b
h,
= ysat.h + y*6.1r.
...(3.e)
and,
ur=\nQ+12)
o'z=ozil2
6'c
Flow
1 g 1! s Y r n v , 6 r d
= h"\n
= ysar.fi + (y"",  \)
or,
t b l U p y o r dF l o w
{o} NoFlow
= y s r b .z * ' ( n @ + h 2 )  Y  ( z + l q )
...(3.10)
Theeffectofseepageofwaterontheeffectivestresscanbeanalysed
with the following laboratory experiment'
through a Utube' The
Two containirs C1 and C2 arc interconnected
water standing to a
free
with
ft1
"oooirrtt C1 contains a soit miss of height
and may be raised
water
upwith
neignt ft2ablve it. The ontainer C2 is filied
C1 and C2 are
both
in
levels
*tt"t
or lowered as and when required.Th"
pipes'
outlet
and
inlet
of
help
the
with
maintained at constantleveli
This condition occurs when
Csse 1 : When no flow of water nles place:
level' as shown in Fig'
the water levels in both containers are "t the same
3.7(a).
0f,
o'" = y*6 .2
'.(3'11)
uz =\n(z+lt2h)
o',
=62llz
= Y s u bz. + y n . h
=Ysub'z*\w'+''
i
of,
where,
a',
= Ysub.z + 7n iz
...(3.r2)
i= hydraulic gradiefi=L
/ ' l
/(a.lt
56
a
A cornparisonbetweenequations(3.11) and (3'12) clearly showsthat
increase'
to
downward flow causesthe effective stress
cc
cose III : Upwardflow : This condition occurs when the water level in
b)'
37
C1
in
is at a higher level than that
ig'
At the sectionX  X,
where,
oz =Tsub.Z+\nQ+h2)
ttz =y*(z+h2+h)
O ' , = Y s u b . Z' . \ o l t
Table 3.1
lt
= Y s u b ' z l w
z
hyjr"yllgf,qr_
o
orr
ic
Orr
ic
Ysub
Y *
G  r
(G  l)
7:'
r + e
v c c i
olt
v  ki
Gravcl
to
l}z
103 to
1,
10s to
1o3
1o6 to
1os
1oe to
106
q=kiA
...(3.16)
where,4 = unit discharge,i.e., the quantityof waler florving througha crosssectidnalareaA in unit time.
3.8. Allen Hazen's Formula : Allen Hazenfounclexperimentallythat tbr
loose filter sands,
< k = C.4a
. ,..
lwt rw
where,
...(3.14)
l + e
i.e.,
k (cmlsec)
Typeof Soil
...(3.13)
o'" =ysub,zrln iz
or,
57
...(3.1s)
...(3.17)
58
59
CapittariryandPermeabilitY
flere
l!
L
=:
...(3.18)
_lI
tl
ll
ilr L
__f_:
Lrt,
Me os u r i n g
t y ti n d e r
( b ) F o t t i n gH e o dT e s t
[ o ) [ o n s t o n t H e o dT e s l
Fig.3.8
o . ' t=
 o# ' "
or,
Q=ki A
Ak
;Io'=
 dh
h
...(3.1e)
# f " =l, a,
 J h
,r
s=?
"
kiA=*
Q = k iA
Ak.
of'
attz
hL
 rl)= ,or"?
'&
60
or,
ltt
aL
,
K =
At.toB" 6
where,
t=t2tl
. q.log.(R/o)
an$ft?)
...(3.20)
rvhere,
soilswhile
The constantheadlxnneameteris suitabletbr coarsegrained
the falling hcad permeanreteris suitablefor finegrainedones.
In the t'ield, the coefficieut of
3.10. Field Determination of ft :
deposit can be determinedlry
permeability of a stratified or heterogeneous
tests.
The purnpingout tcsls for
either pumpingout tests or purnpingin
below:
aquifers
are
described
uncontlnedas well as confined
(a) {}nconfinedaquiftr : Fig. 3.9 illustratcs.atest well fully penetrating
aquifer.Aswater is pumpedout from thewell, water percolates
an unc.onfined
from all sidesinto it. When the dischargeq equalsthe rate of percolation,the
waler levcl in the well beconressteady.
Considera point P on the drawdowncxrye at a radial distancer from tbe
ceutreof the well. The hydraulicgradientat this point is given by,
6t
rr = radiusof testwell
R = radiusof iufluence
R = 3000sfr m
where,
. d v
' d r
P(x,y
l
e' = k i dA = k .r + . Z n t s '
d.r
;=
2nk
q.tot
Ir
*l
+l
+l
+l
+!
l
Integralingbctwcenproperl imits,
i t a r  zn k 'J
t
rl
where,
and
rlandr)
+ 11JfF
12 i
)' tlY
hr
OT,
h,
lot{.
""
r.,
rl
o _
6WT
+l
+l
+l
Again, if /r be the headof water at P then the rateof radial flow of water
througlr a cylinder of radiusr and heighti is given by,
or,
...(3.22)
= 2xk
{:
Q,3 t,il
2
q togl:(rz/r_)
n (t6  hi)
...(3.2r)
Fig.3.9
fully penetrating
(b) Confined aquifer : Fig' 3'10 illustates a test well
inlo a confined aguifer ofthic*ness z'
4 = kiA
FronrDarcyklaw,
or,
0r,
. d v
e =k't'zxrxz
dx
7=
Z n k zo' t
,
i*
rL
zntz !'
n 1,"'
=
* h)
tos"(rs/r1'1
ryUA,
or,
Of'
q.lo1" (r2/r)
ls=
2xkz(tA  h)
Alternatively,
lg=
Ohserva
tion
Wetl
...(3.23)
qlq. R/a
2xkz(lrz  ht)
...(3.24)
Zz
u2*
{kz)
0bservolion
V,/ett
@
Fig.3.ll
;l
I
I
+l
*l
h2 *l
*l
*l
=
*l
I
l
I
I
I
The difference inwater levels on theleft andright hand side of the deposit
This
headdifference causesa horizontal flow ofwater. Since at any depth
is lr.
below G.L. the bead difference is constant and equals ft, the hydraulic
gradient i (= hll) is the same for each and evcry layer.
Let Q1,Qz,.....,qrbethe dischargethroughtheindividuallayersand 4be
the tohl dischargethrough the entire deposit.
q=qt+qZ+......,+Qn
or
Q = k r i z l + k 2 i 4 + . . . , . +k o i z o
...(D
Q = kniz
From(i) and(ii) we geg
k l i z = k 1 i z 1 + 4 i 4 , * . . . . . . . .+. . k n i z n
or,
k 12 1 + 4 2 2 + . . . . . . . .+. k o z n
=
kh =
zt + ZZ+.......+ Zn
...(ii)
2 k;zi
'':
2ti
il
...(3.2s)
64
l
UsingDarcy'slaw
...(iii)
or,
h e a d t o sh s i z
EXAMPT,ES
il
II
It
I
V l = V 2 = . . . . . . . = y n = V
h\
it
Here,
Q 
Z z 1
k,
kr
or,
_ = _ + _ 4
or,
ku=
z1
, _"c
v
t  ' o n
Att
zn
' k_ n
4
k2
Z2
zn
=t.a,, ;
6" k+""''"+T;
 ; 
it
Ki
{
    { {
...(3.'2s)
Solution : When a capillary tube is perfectly clean and wet tle upper
meniscusof water in the tube is tangential(i.e., cr= d;. me Ueignt of capillary
rise is then given by,
47"
LI
_l{_
,:=::=:
(kr)
ir
fu
zz
i2
fu
{ k2)
7j
i3
{rr
{k3}
zn
in
i \'
( knl
7_
J_
Fi1;.3 12
0.3
= 70.59cm = 0.706m.
(Q.85)
(0.m5)
 L"'.J
II
0.3 cmz
e = 0.85
Dlo = 0.05mm = 0.005cm.
v
4
v
= j:, Zt t
j.L
;,zZ
K
"
\
k
2
" 'Dto
Here,
h, = .,r n dI
gtm/cc,
T, = 72.8dynes./cm,Tr,  0.99{30
d = A.l mm = 0.01cm, I = 981crn/sec2.
\.
\
l'" ' qqen$ffiearl qt  Ze:4cffi'
,.
Problen $),./Thevoid ratioof a givensoilA is twice that of another
soil B, while thecffectivcsizcof particlesof soilA is oncthirdthatof soil8.
The heightof capillaryrise of waterin soilA on a certainday is foundto be
40 c.m.Determinethe corrcpondingheightof capillaryrise in soil8.
66
Sofution:
We hav,
tt.^ =
C
Z.DtO
, = c
r,,
;hi
hA
6=;r^,
ea.Dn
0=
6*ilfu,
,
(assuming
c = 0.5cm2)
= 42.Ocm = 0.42m.
Hencethesandwill be saturated
upto0.42m abovethewatertable.The
remainingportionof thesandabovethislevelwill be dry.
For thesandlayer,
e 3 1 . D B
t'
anq
Do=
"o=,
Now,
67
CapillarityandPermeability
G + e
t", = ffi'v,
es Dt
=d
= l'89t/n3
t:/nf
,o=, *fu"={?u*P = L43
D^0/2)(3)=1'5
= 2.65+ 0.85,.
ffi(l'o)
_ *G = (0.22)(2.75)
T
= 0.605
" =
"
@'42)(1)  o'42Vn?
effectivestress,o' = a  ll
= 7.98  (0.42)
= 8.40Vrt.
AtC (z6.0m),
b) Pore
c) Totot
Pressure Siress
Fig.3.13
d) Effeclive
Shess
o'= o  y  o= $.TTt/mZ
AtD qz=8.0m), o * (1.43)(5.58)+ (1.59)Q.42)= L2.55Vmz
u = (2]O)(1.0)= 2.0 Vr#
o' * 12.55 2.0 = 10.55Vmz
AtE (z= 14.0m),
s'  (1.43){5.58)+ (1.89)(2.42)+ (z0e)(6.0)
 E.@ VmZ
68
{ s1 6 0 7 " ) tys
=0'65) I
C t o y{ 6 = 2 ' 7 0 , e
lrm
P e o t( 6 = 2 . 2 5, e = 2 ' 8)
,
G  I
I. =
1l7'Y,o
At the denseststate,
i,=?fl_!(l)=1.0s
.
2 . 6 7r . . =
'" =
0.84
1;0.98(1)
Problem
lt is requiredto excavatea long trench in a sanddeposit
Y:t
upto a depth of3.5 m below G.L. The sides of the trench should bevertical
andaretobe supportedby steelsheetpilesdrivenupto 1.5rn belowthebottom
of the trench. The ground water table is at 1 m below G.L. In order to have a
dry working area, water accumulated in the trench will be continuously
pumped out. If the sand has a void ratio of 0.72 and the specific gravity of
solids bc 2.66, check whether a quick sandcondition is likely to occur. If so,
what remedialmeasureswould you suggest?
Rock
Fig.3.14
Solution:
Bulk densityof silty sand (s = 35Vo)
= Aqq#g4)
(1.0)= 1.8rt,2.3
solution.
Fig. 3.15 illustrates the given site conditions. It is evident
that there will be an upward flow of water through the soil massMNDB. The
differentialheadwhich rzusesthis flow is,
h=2.5m
Again, thicknessof the sciil massthrough which this flow occurs is,
L = MB =.y'D= 1.5 ln.
Satuntcddensityof claybclowG.W.T.
, +#
(rl  La3vmg
''f***r
peat Satureteddensityof
69
(1)  1.33l,t^3
Hydraulic gradient,
. 5
t. =h t 2= T
3=
\
*lus
(1)  1.gotzm3
G  1
I + e
1.67
= 2 .=6 5  l
 + 0.72
0.965
70
. h 2 . 5
t =
L = ;
,=
or
1.5
Here,
=1.61.0=0.6m
I = length of soil massthrough which flow takes place
= 2.0 m.
t. = T0.6
tr=u.s
Q = 0.03 cc,/sec
cm2
A = 0.28 m2 = 0.28 x 104 cm2 =
?300
0.03
,
e =
cmlsec
tO:
Again, we have,
ic
i = hydraulicgraoient= I
L
wherc,
...(i)
iF.,S.=*=1.5,
Now,
7l
0.!)65 =
t.5
...(ii)
o.643
and,
=ffiffiffim/daY
= 0.0308m/day.
,l
Suppt
+0 . 6
SheetPites
f
L
3.5m
II
2.6n
1.5m
lz*J
Fr..3.l6
.
Fig' 3'15
'/
From Darcy'slaw, q = k i4
or
ft o
3_
iA
Pmblem p{
e sample of coarse sand is tested in a constant head
permeameter.The sample is Z) cm high and has a diameter of 8 cm. Water
flows through the soil under a constantheadof 1 m for 15 minutes. The mass
of discharged water was found to be 1.2 kg. Determine fhe coefficient of
permeability of the soil.
Solution:
7?
rnassof dischargedwater
Volume of dischargedwater,
Now,
Timc of flow ,
Head Of water,
= l'Zkg
Q = 1200 cc'
t = 15 min' = (15) (60) = 9O0sec'
h' = 1 m = 100 cm'
A  L4 * *
L = 2O qn'
^, _
A = (n/4\(9.8)2 cmz
L  1 5 cnm,/ = 12 min = (12') x (60) = 720 sec.
 1200 gm'
h t = 6 0 cm, h2 = 45 cm
(rs).to96
tu/4\(o.7sf
l s = _";.
fu/a)0.8)"QZA)
= 5O'26 crt
(1200)(20) . =
0.0053cm./sec.
(eoo)
{too;(s0.26)
3.51 x 105 =
 29/3o cn/sec
4 = 58 cc/mtn
We have, from DarcY's law
unit discharge,
3_
ft
of,
q=kiA,
*, = T i . roe"i
a
Here,
. 4 5
.tog.
T
@/$(s.8f (20)(60)
oIr
0r'
=##
=2'l.f!6. rn
10 cm'
(iii) L,eu be the time required for the head to dropfrom 45 cm to
hr
Now,
aL
'=71 'ta&'6
iA
crn,/sec.
o = po)(r#@,ru) = 0.0145
gL
(n/0 (0.75)'(r5)
. 4 5  0.479
tw.
h
45 =
"o'479 1.615
of the soil.
0
E
a 15
ncylindrical rnould of diameter 7'5 cm contains
Problem ln/
under
soil
tbe
through
flows
fine sand. when water
"* il;;;in6t
between two points 8
constant head at a rate of 58 cclmin', the loss of head
of permeability
coefficient
tbe
cm apart is found tobe l2.1cm. Determine
Solution:
73
@/a)Q.7s\2(1!)@//t0.8)2(3.51x 1os)
. lor"fr
= 3764.65 sec.
= t hr. 2 min.. 45 sec.
problem S,kd'
Awell is fully penetratedinto a 16 m thick layer of
the well at a
sand which isfnderlain by a rock layer. Waler is pumped out of
wells
observation
two
in
constant rate of 450000 litresitour. The water level
2.6
m
and
at
3.7
to
be
tbund
situated at 15 m and 30 m from the test well are
mrespectivelybelowthegroundevel.Determinethecoefficientof
pcrmcabilitYof the soil'
Solution:Forarrunconfittedaquifer,thecoefficientofpermeability
is given by:
74
e.log" (r2/r)
(18s7.6)
.
[ log, (20/8)] = 3^^
8 .,7 0m / d a y
k=#
(t4.04)'
r [ (14.53)'
I
"Qg_ h?)
Here,
Q = 45NOO lire/hour
(450000)(1000)
= cc'lsec = 125000cc'lsec'
(60Xe0)r1 = 1 5 m = 1 5 0 0 c m
r2 = 3 0 m = 3 0 0 0 c m
lrt = (16  3.7) m = 12.3m = 1230 crn
.log.(r2/r)
Sofution: (i) We trave, ls = Q
"@3 h?)
Q = 2L.5 lit,/sec
(21'5)(100q)(86400)
=
,n3/d^y = 1857.6^3/dry
106
'rl=8m,
tZ=20m.
k = c .4o
^ ^^^
Pmblem 3.13y' A pumpingout test was carried out in the fierd in order
to determine thgr{rerage coefficient of permeability of a lg rn thick sand
layer. The groundwater table was locatedat a dep& ofi.2 rnbelow theground
level. A steady statewas reachedwhen the dischargefrorn the well wis 21.5
litlsec' At this stage, the drawdown in the test well was 2.54 m,while the
drawdowrs in two observation wells situated at g m and 20 m from the test
well were found to be 1.76 m and 1.27 m respectively. Determine:
(i) coefficient of permeability of the sand layer in m/day.
(ii) radius of influence of the test wcll
(iii) effective size ofthe sand.
Here,
75
Drc=
ort
Assuming
,m
Q 
Drc=
4.48 x 10a =
2.12 x 103 cm
100
= 0.021'2mm
ne subsoil at a site consislsof a fine sand layer lying
Problem SlK
in between a clf,y layer at top and a silt layer at bottom. The coefficient of
permeability of the sand is l(n times that of clay and 20 times that of silt,
while the thickness of the sand layer is orietenththat of clay and one third
that of silt. Find out the equivalentcoefficient of permeability of the deposit
in directions parallel and perpendicularto the bedding planes,i1 tenns of the
coefficient of permeability of the clay layer.
lrt & be the coefficientof permeabilityof the clay layer'
coefficient of permeability of sand = 100 t
Solution:
and,
co'efficientofpermeabilityofsilt
Again,
t0.f;O=
tO
thicknessofsilt laYer = 3 z.
Equivalent coefficient of permeability parallel to the bedding planes,
and,
k r z t + k z z z + k 3 z t _ ( & ) ( 1 0 2 )+ ( 1 0 0 / r ) ( z )+ ( 5 k ) ( 3 2 )
*, .h _    ; 7
toz + z + 3z
4,
4
(u
I
Engineering
Problems in Soil Meclwnics an'd Foundation
76
t<
10 + 100 +
77
lt<
.o=.ftv=E.e3k
4
E k;z;
Equivalentcoetlicientofpermeabilityperpendiculartothebeddingplarres,
*"=
z t t z t * 2 7
t'l
,
Kh = T
1 0 2 + z + 3 2
4
i.t.t
3z
,
*
r
o
o
k
*sk
k
l}z.
2z i
i1
l4k
 1 4 0 0k = t . 3 l 9 k
10+l+3
ft, =
= =1061
+
I + 60
looo
1
3
::::
:
1O +
loo
Loi*T
'
,/
:

^i+^
h^ra*
z .t
i=l
k"=71
z't
;ltk;
8 + 1 + 6 + 1 0
1
* t * ,6= + u1 ' 7 20
nov(k=28x108cm/s)
F i n eS a n d
( k = 8x 1 0  3 c m / s
iltt
a
EXERCISE3
Iosrse Sand
/s
tk =7.2x 102cm
Fig.3.l7
Solution :
h + k + k 3 + k a
it^u = :T3 x 1 0 4 + 2 . 5 x 1 0  8 + 8 x 1 0  3+ 7  2 x t O ' 2
= 2 x l02 crn,/sec = O.OZcm/sec'
horizontal direction'
(ii) Equivalent coefficient of penneability in the
the ground
3.1, Determine the height of capillary rise of water above
of 0'12
water table in a homogeneo,it U.O of sand having an effectivesize
was
found
table
water
mm. The moisture contentof the soil below th.eground
cni]
62'5
:
=0.5
cnf '
[Ans
tobe?57o.Take, G =267 and C
radius is
A pcrfectly clean and wct capillary tube of 0'1 mm
t.2
and the
3d_c
is
temperature
room
immersed in a container full of water. The
waterlevelinthetubcisfoundtorisetoaheightoft4.54crn.Iftheunit
detcrmine the surface tension at
*"igh, of water at 3dC be 0.996 gm/cc,
tAns : 71.03dYncs/cml
30oe.
immersedin distilled
3.3 Adry capillarytxbeof 0.3mm diameterwas
was found
wa*; I dC. d. upperrneniscusof thewatercolumnin thetubc
colurnn.
water
the
of
io Uei"cf incOat 3dC to thc vertical.Find out theheight
waler=
of
tension
=
surface
Ciu"o, d f C,unit weighrof watr 1 gmlccand
:
[turs 8'9 un]
?5.6dynesicrn
is
3.4 Thc subsoil at a site consistsof a 2 m thick layer of clay which
bclol
m
at
3
is
tablc
water
ground
nttural
Thc
underlainby r dcepsandlaycr.
78
GI. The unit weight of clay is 1.8 t/m3,while that of sandabove and below
water table are 1.75 Vm'and l.92tJm' respectively.Find out tbe total and
effective stressesat a depth of5 m below the ground l":"1.^
a
2 _ ^
[Ans ::9.19 t/m" ,7 .19 tlnf I
I
") m
'
I
L
r;
l'
3m
3m

penneability.
    w c i t Copit[ary
er
o.w.r
)Irotum ll
3.12 How many litres of water will flow through a cylindrical soil
sample of 8 crn diameter and l2 crn heigbt in a day under a constanthead of
65 cm, if the coefficient of penneability of the soil be 0.01 mm/sec ?
[Ans : 23.5litres]
( r = 1 . g fs/ m 3)
StrqtumIII
( t r = 1 ' 8ft r0
/uml v3, )
,s_r'sv
Rock
Fig.3.18
3.6 A sandsampleis 507osaturated
andhasa bulk densityof 1.75t/m3.
The specific gravity of solids is 2.65. Determine the critlcal hydraulic
gradient.
[Ans:0.96]
3.7 How will the critical hydraulic gradienr of thc soil in Prob. 3.6
change, if the soil is crrmpactedto increaseits bulk density by LoVo,without
[Ans : Increasasby73.8Vol
is 1.2 x 10{ cm/sec. If, keeping all olher factors constant, the soil is
compacted so as to reduce the void ratio to 0.60, what will be the co.efficient
of permeability of the soil? [ Hints : * n ?tt
6.1
ShatumI
{ r = 1 . 7t / m 3 )
79
+ el
[Ans :6.5 x lO)cm/sec]
C
I
t
I
I
f
80
a distance of 30 m from the pumping well was found to be 1.1 m. If the initial
ground water table was at 1.5 m below G.I .., compute :
(i) the field co'efficient of penneability of the soil
(ii)
4
SEEPAGEAND FLOWNETS
4.1 Introduction : When a waterretainingstructqre(e.g., an earth or
rockfill danr, a concrete dam or weir, sheetpili cutoff wall etc.) is
constructedto maintain a differential head of water, seepagethrough the
structure itself and/or the foundation soil takes plaee. The quantity of water
which flows from the upstreamto the downstreamside,tenned as the $eepage
loss,is of paramountimportancein designingsucha structure.Moreovei, the
percolating water exerts a pressureon the soil, whid'is calted the seepage
pressure. In impermeable structures (vrz., a corcrete dam) the seepageof
water results in a vertical uplift pressureon the base of the dam. When the
seepagewater reachestbe downstream side, soil particles may be lifted up
resulting in a 'piping' failure. The stability of the side slopesof an earth dam
may be substantially reduceddue to seepageof water.
All of these problems can be analysed graphically by constructing
flownets.
4.2. F,quaticn of Continuity:
Laplace's equation of continuity, as
applicable to twodimensional flow problems, is given below:
k'#**,fr=o
..(4.1)
Therefore,
a2h
'+
af
ay"
4=o
l
..(4.2\
82
v'=
and,
ao
dx'
vY=
ao
aY
..(4.3)
83
FLr
aqr
EL;
Fig.4.Z
Seepogeand Flownets
Hydraulic gradient,
It*=1"ry#
t. = A/t
T
...(4.s)
(lt' 
Sirnilarly,
b.t
Lqt=kxA/rx;:
.2
Pr=hnln
p, = La.lw
wht:rt:,
4 = k x N1x Lh
of
Again , if I/ be the initial differenceof headandN,gbe the'number
)(
...(4.8)
lc
.,(44)
Astheflowelementsareboundbycuwedlirres,itisnotpossibletodraw
particular
them as true squares.However, the averagelength and breadth ofa
touching
circle
inner
an
that
such
flow element shouldbe equal to each other
drawn.
all four;ides of the element can be
,"1d1n ya*natic Pressure : The hydrostatic pressureat any point within
the soil massis given bY'
il=hn\n
i, is theexitgradient=
...(4.7)
ancl
*=#r
4kxH#
...(4.6)
=T
= / )'
l{owever, if the elements are made orthogonally squared (i'e'' b
=
x
k'
Aft
=
Aqn
Lqz
then,
Mt
the total
If t{1 be the nurnberof flow channelspresentin the flswnet then
\
o'61(\  h2)
t r =h
hn'hl
 l'r
by,
if'
The dischargequantity throughall flow channelswill be equal
b',
b2
bL
lt,)
4
h= 1t, :tj
l1
t in Anisotropic Soils :
.fn
K, 7
, a z h= u.
+ Kv ,
0xor,
Let,
From eqn.(4.1),
af
t f n a* z h= "'
k/{. ut
ur?
=x '
@.x
r a z h f n
...(4.e)
Vr a7=#
oI'
...(4.10)
86
dinrensions Vy',/t<rttq.
elernepts.
87
Seepageand Flownets
b k r
l k 2
if k1 < k2' they
> t2, the tlow channelswill get broadened'while
If &&1
channel canying a certain
will get shortened.In other words, *f,"n u flow
a greaterarea to carry the
discharge enters a less permeablesoil, it requires
more permcable soil' a smaller
same discharge.However, when it entersa
areais sulficieut.
(a) and (b) respectively'
These c.ondirionsare illustrate.din Fig. 4.4
,EL2
I EL1
I
I
'l
I
I
P ?  '
I
I
Ft
oclI
.i
b ) W h e nk t < k 2
a) When kt > k2
Fig.4.4
I
I
I
I
'ELt
rrfu
Phreatic Line: When an impermeable structure
glSr"filgqAr{t
.*/
water' all the boundary conditions
(".g., u sheetpile or a coicreteweir) retains
flow or pressure flow'
are kttowtt. Such a flow is known as the contlned
earth dam) the upper
an
(e'g"
However, when the structureitself is pervious
a flow is termed as
Such
boundary or the uppermost flow line is unknown'
is called the
boundary
upper
this
and
an unconfined flow or. gouity florv,
phreatic line.
parabolahas to.be drawn
In order to obtain the phreatic line, the basic
at the entry and exit points have to be
first and then the n""or"ryt*ections
,'t
,ELz
'
/ EL3
@
Lt
Fig.4.3
The portion of the flowilet lying in layer 1 is first drawn in the usual
manner *ith rqu"r. flow elements. When the flow lines as well as
equipotential lines enter layer 2, they undergo deviations according to the
following equation:
h = tan0r
kz
tan P2
...(4.11)
consequently, the flow elementsin iayer 2 are not squaresany more, but
become rectangles,and their widthtoheight ratios are given by,
T.TI. ,"ro*ction
'
88
(ii) Locate the point P such rhatEP = O.3L. The point P is the first
point of the basic parabola.
(iii) with P as centre and PC radius draw an arc to intersect the
extendedrvatersurfaceat F.
(iv)FromFdrawFGIDC.TheineFGisthedirectrixofthebasic
parabola,wlrile C is the focus.
(u) locatethe rnidpoint Q of CG.
(ui) Let G be the origin, GF the Yaxis anclGD theXaxis'
(vii) Cltooseany poittt H on CD, such that GH = xl' With C ascentre
and x1 radius, draw an arc to intersectthe vertical line through I/ at R. The
point R(x1,y1) is anotherpoint on the basic parabola'
(viii) In a sirnilar lnanner, locate several other points viz', (xz' v) '
(xs, ys), ........,etc. Join these points witlr a smooth curve to get thebasic
parabola.
89
Seepageand Flownets
t
lo
:lf
' 6
o.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
o
30
6oo
9oo
l2oo
l5o"
lSoo
A u
Fig.4.6
&:'o"
p< 900
9 o o <P < 1 8 0 o
Toe Drsin
Fig'4.5
ED is an equipotential line
4.E.2 Conections at Entry and Exit Poinls:
and the phreatic line is a flow line. These t'wo should meet each other at right
angles. This necessitatesthe correclion at the entry point, which should be
drawn by hand.
The phreaticline should meet the down streamfaceBCtangentially. This
necessitatesthe correction at the exit point. The basic parabola intersectsBC
= La,
at M. But the phreatic liire should meetBC at N' Iet CN = a and NM
the
of
angle,
slope
p
the
on
depends
+
Aa)
of
Ml(a
ie
The magnitu
downstream face. Its value may be obtained from Fig' 4'6'
I = 11 8E00oD r o i n o g eB t a n k e t
Fig.4.7
EXAMPLES
earthdam,30 rn higlr, hasa free board
Problem$r1 A hornogeneous
and
of 1.5 rn. A flownet was constructed the following resultswere noted:
No. of PotentialdroPs = 12
No. of tlow channels = J
90
9l
(I  k.H.#
I\ aI
k = 3.55 x 1.0actnlsec
Here,
Nf=3'
Na=12
q =
H = 3 0  1 . 5 =28.5 m
(0.3067)(28.s)(3)
t2
= 2.185
^t
14
N= K H , H
Herc,
Na=lZ
(3.s)(7) =
_ (1.728)
3.53,n3/d^y
t2
I m p e r v i o uLsa v e r
Fig.4.8
Problern 43IWith referenceto Fig. 4.8, determine the following:
(i) The piezometric headsat the points A, B, C, D andE.
(ii) The exit gradient
(iii) Factorof saftty againstpiping. Given, G =2.67, e = 0.95.
Solution:
(i) Initial piezornetricheadat the groundlevel on upstreamside = 4 m.
Headdifference
4  O.5
= 0.2977m
Head drop AH =
ofhead
No.
drops
12
Now, numberof headdropsupto the pointA = 3
.'. Head loss at A = (3)(0.2914 = 0.875m.
Residualheadat A = Initial headhead loss
= 4  0 . 8 7 5 = 3 . 1 2 5n .
Similarly, the piezometricheadat B,C and D are computed.
Piezorrretriclreadat B = 4  (5) (0.2917\ = 2.542 n.
ar C = 4  (10)(0.2917)= 1.083rn
92
93
n =
7 !.,8
= l.S
 ( 7 . 5 ) ( 4 . 2 9 1 7 )= 1 . 8 1 2 m .
P i e z o m e t r i c h e a d a tE = 4
I/=18m
Usingeqn(4.4),
= 0.265
i" = + = ry
Exitgraclie*t,
gradient
is givenby,
(iii) Thc criticalhydraulic
.
Gt
t'=Ti
= 2 . 6 7  t = u^ ' ^6 ) t r
1.0.95
=
;
*#
= 3.23
_ (o.os61gx18)(4)
= 0.311*3/duy
13
Problerrylr*'
A concreteweir of 15 m length has to retain water upto
5 rn above G.L. The crosssectionof the weir is shown in Fig. 4.10. The
foundation soil consistsof a 12.5 thick stratumof sand having & = 0.015
cm/sec.In orderto reducethe seepageloss,a 5 m deepverticalsheetpile cul
off wall is placed at the bottom of the upstream face of tbe weir. Draw a
flownet and determinethe quantity of seepageloss that will occur in one day,
if tbe widtlt of the weir be 55 rn. Also determinelhe factor of safety against
piping if the soil has G = 2.65and e = 1.08.
Solution : The flownet is given in Fig. 4.10. the number of flow
channelsis found to be 5, while the number of head drops = 16.
,=
k = 0.015 cm./se<
(0'015) (86400)
m/day = 12.96 m/day
ff
Iy'=5rn
Fig.4.9
Solution
Nf = a'
Na = ll.
Fig.4.10
94
95
Seepageand Flownets
This is the quantity of seepage loss across unit widtlt of the weir.
Considering the entire width of 55 m (on a plane perpendicular to that of the
paper), total quantity of seepageloss per diy = (n.?5)(55) = 1113.75 rn3.
35m
Exit gradien
t
i. 
H
N s x l
c6t,
= o'?6
 t
^_^
= u't9
i , = 7 #= 2.65
1  1^08
=f f i = 3 . 0 4
T r a n s f o r m eS
d ection
Fig.4.11(a)
Solution:
As the coefficieuts of permeability of the soil in the
horizontal and vertical directions are different. the <rosssectionof the weir
should be transformed before conslructing the flownet. All vertical
dimensions of the transformed section will rernain unchanged. But all
horizontal dimercions should be multiplied by a constant factor C, where,
c frkh =
 0.668
Section
Origionol
Fig.a.l1 (b)
nninlc should
shnlld then be
helocated
lc
on the retransfom ned
determined. These grid pohrts
section. Joining thesc points in the appropriate order will give the true fl ownet
in which all flow elernents will be rectangular.
phreatic iine. The rem:r:fling portion of the basic parabcla is shown wit& a
llrokcnlinc.
Nr
+
22n
Now,
97
Seepageand Flo*'neti
96
30
Il=181.5=16.5m
Nt = q.a, ff; = 10
*{"
I
)
(4.6)/(10)
q = ,/(Lzs6)(usze)(16.s)
= 6.57 ^3/duy
It maybr notedherethat,if we areto find out only the dischargequatltity,
the true flownet for the retransformedsection is not required to be drawn, as
the flownet for the transformed section ciln selve the purpose' However, for
the determinationofexitgradient, hydrostaticpressureheads,uplift pressures
etc.. the actual flownet has to be drawn.
Fig.4.t2
'i;r
8 = 45'. 
a+La
By measurement,
= 0.34.
f_28mJ
tl
T
I
a + A,a = 19m.
62 = (0.34) (19) = 6.46 m.
The distanceCC' is laid off suchthat, C C'= 6.46 m. C' is the true qutcrop
point. Draw another smooth curve to mcet tangentially the basicparabola at
one end and the downstrearn face at C'. The cuwe EC' is then:the required
L.
Fig..i.t3
98
H = 44  4 = 40m.
(0'3)69)(24)
= o.432 n,/day.
k = 0.3 rmn./min
and,
Sccpageloss ac:ross
the entiredam
= (39.168)(175)= 6854.4,n3/d^y.
Na=17
Again,
99
Problern;pltr
Fig. 4.15 shows the crossseclionof au earth dam
toe
cousistirtg of
filter at the clownstrearnend. Draw the flownet auil
dtrlerminethe quantityof seepageloss per day acrossunit width of the darrr.
The darnis foundedon an impewiousbaseand the rnaterialof the dam has a
coefticie{t of permeabilityof 3.28 x 10r crn/sec.Explain the procedureof
obtainingthe flownet.
@.42)@GA == r 3.zs
' L r r ^3/d^y.
l
0 =
Solution :
9 0 m Fig.4.14
Lsl
loss for unil widt[
Using eqn. (4.4), the quantity of seepn.3qe
\
Q = k H ' Ntr
Here,
Na=15
,_r _(8.64)
_ T _(r7)
_ (4)
39.168^3/d^y.
s'
f=_
L Toe
28m_
Fig.4.l5
Here,
101
Seepageail Flownets
100
nrarkedas2.l ,2.2elc.
Nt 7
2
(2.834) (23\ (2'3) = 11 A
z1'a2 n'/day'
q = v?':i:
Na = lo'
numberof headdroPs,
it:, lt
Frc[,!,';.:4.11. i ?C In big,lie'anl]dal:ihavitiga toBwidrlr o 2i}
t , . . , . , ' i . 1 : t t i . f f i 4 q : 1 1e l l d ? f r * c b r r a E i ! + f , ! i ; i r f l r : : : . r ' : ! t d s * . o 6 0 n ' . t b i c k
k for clammaterial
g = 3 O 3 = 2 7 m .
(27\(2.?5J ,. 5
= rr'i
m3/day.
(2.592\
q = l0
problem yY'
Fig. 4.17 shows the crosssectiottof an eartlr daln
of
tbunded on a fervious stratum of 60 n thickness. The coeffic:icrtt
of
the
while
that
x
cm/sec
104
1.6
qf
is
dam
the
material
tbe
o[
pcnneability
itrundation soil is 1.6 x l01 crn/sec.Draw the flownet and detennine the
quantity of seepageloss in m'lday.
solution : Here the tbundation soil is 10 times more Pe.nneablethan
thc lnaterial of the darn. Heuce Inore emphasiswill be given ort seepage
throughthis soil.
Draw a kial flownet in thc. foundatiou soil neglecting the earth dam'
Extend all equipotential lines frorn tlie foundation soil into the dam. These
lines shouldo.ui.t" from the inlerface,but tlris shouldbe doneonly by hand
nnd eqn.(4.11) neednotbe considered.Now draw the flow lines in the dam
scction aud try to rnake the flow ilet orthogonally squared. This rnay
especiallytbr the last flow line in tbe dam,
necessitate"".tuiu readjustments,
which should enter intrr the foundation soil. AII previously drawn flow lines
in tbe foundation soil may have to be lowered. The final flownet is shown in
tii;
Fig.4.17.
4 16
li
il
t02
Seepageand Flownets
103
120m
+ 4.sf
7sr
2 0 m _
''r
)b:t
,/ 0.2 7
7:;?
k2=10k1
rs, J
55m
Fig.4.18
Fig.4.l7
As tlre coefficient of permeabilityof the darn rnaterialis 1/10tb of that
of foundationsoil, a flow channelin the dam is equivalentto 1/10thof a flow
c'.hannelin the foundation soil. Consequently,the flow channels in the daru
are rnarkedas 0.1,0.2,and 0.3. No. of full tlow channelsin the soil skaturn
= 2.5. Hence,
Nf = 0.3 + 2.5 = 2.8.
da=9 . ,1 1 =3 6 m
&&for foundationsoil
lrd
(1.382)(36) (2.8)
= ra4
r ' t4 1 * 3 / d u Y '
n=,
,/
Problem 4.lQr/ Fig. 4.18 shows the crosssectionof a zoned earth dam
consisting of two zones. Zone I adjacent to the upstrearnface has t = 0.001
cm/sec while zone II adjacent to the downstream face has /c = 0.fi)3 cm/sec.
Draw the flownet and determine the quantity of seepageloss in.37d"y.
.
, = @P@
= 832 ^3/d^y.
It nraybe notedthatthemethodsemployedinProblem4.11through4.13,
ht)wcvcr crude they may seem to be, will yield results which are within
r.l0%, of the results otrtainedby a rnore accurateand vigorous solution.
EXERCISE4
4.1 On a waterlrout,a sheetpile wall of 8 m height is embeddedinto
tht: soil upto 6 m bclow G.L. The free board is 1 m while water on the
dowrrstreamside standsupto 2 m aboveG.L. The foundation soil consistsof
a 15 m thick sand slratum (t = 0.009 crn/sec)which is underlain by an
inrpcrviouslayer. Draw the fiownet and determinethe quantity of seepage
Iossncrossa I m wide sectionof the sheetpile.
lO4
105
Seepageand Flowmets
4.5 Draw the phreatic lines for the ctamsectionsshown in Fig. 421(a)
through(d):
Drainoge
Btqnket
(b)
(o)
C hi mn e y
Oroin
t ,2m
"Tffi
'f6
30m

o.st
i00m {
(d)
(c)
Fig.4.19
_6fuN
r
N__aom
J
Fig.4'21
4.6 Sketch the flownets and detennine tbe quantity of seepageloss
the
aqrossunir width of the earthdarnsslrowu in Fig. a.22(a) through (c)' All
=
dams are foundedon impervioussoils.Take & 0.002 cmlsec'
^
rJ1^n L
L .3m
lzom
J'!
II
2m
f_ro.sm__]
16m___l
Fig.4.20
i 60m{
1s0mJ
(c)
Fig.4.22
II
II
II
"rd
106
4.7 construct the flow'et for the zone earth darn shown ,tFig.4.23.
Hence cornputethe total quantityof seepageloss if the width of the reservoir
bc 125 m.
5
=0 ' 0 0 2
cm/ s e c
k =0 , 0 1
rm/seE
asmJism
J
Fig.4.23
4.8 A'earth darnhaving an overall height of Lg rn, a top width of 10
m and a free board of 1.5 m is founded on layer of clean sand having a
coefficient of permeabilityof 0.01 cm/sec.A rock layer existsat a depth of
45 rn below the ground level. The earthfill in the dam has a coefficient of
penneabilityof 0.00.2crn/sec.Draw the {low net and detenninethe quantity
of secpageloss in m'/day.
'
STRESSDISTRIBUTION
S.l. Introduction:
The applicationof an exte'ral load on a soil mass
r(:sults in an additional vertic:al stress (i.e., iu addition to the existing
ovcrburdenpressure)at any point in the soil. The rnagnitudeof this stress
dccrt:ades
with increasingdepth anclincreasingradial distancefrom the line
o l ' a c t i o uo f t h el o a d .
The stressconditionsin a soil massdueto externalloadscanbe analysed
by thc theory of elasticity,assurningthe soil to be a perfectlyelasticmaterial
which obeysHooke's law of proportionalitybetweenstressand strain.
5.2 c)verburden Pressure: The overburdenpressureat any point in a soil
nrassis defined as the initial vertical stressdue.to the self weight of the soil
nrass,and can be obtainedfrom
o' = Y'
...(s.1)
...(5.2)
s.4. Boussinesq'sEquation: Boussinesq'smethoclof determinationof
slrcssincrementdue to an extemalload is basedon the assumptionsthat the
soil mass is elastic, hornogeiret'rus,
isotropic and serniinfinite while the
cxlcrnal load is concentratcd
at a point and is appliedon the ground surface.
With referenceto Fig. 5.1, at a depth z below the ground level and at a
radial distancer from the line of actionof the load p, the verticul stressatr.
is given by
108
109
StressDistrihution
C}
A o , = K"o .z' +i
and
...{s8)
...(s.e)
7
Fig.5.1
...(s.3)
A oU
A
. =:9 =
l # 1, 1st2
lt ; T\ )' /' lJ
13i2
,..({.x0)
e+
Ao
 Z =
f il q
R '
tt; '
i*J:l
. xEt
. r(;)"j
l, '?'!;js
= 17;77
or'
i7
whc.rc,
r = {/7Q
R = {7;7
or'
{6/ertl)
...(5.4)
(i BL.
Ar a depthe, thisloadis distributedo?cran area(I + z) (B + z). Hence,
s.he.ss
intensitvat tbis level.
.
=
Au'
oBL
&6tE;4
...(5.11)
..(s.s)
A o = K r ' q
z
whcre, KB
3 f
1 1
xa = 2n'l;/rf"l
l'
'lzl
s n
'(s'6)
KBT
,..(s.7)
r ..{*r3
{l rrJ
1
Ij
Fis.5.2
110
Stess Distibution
5.7. kobar:
If the vertical stressintensitiesat various points in a soil mass
due to an external load are computed, and the points having equal stress
intensities are joined by a smooth curye, a number of stresscontours, each
having the shapeofa bulb, are obtained.Theseare called isobars.The zone
in the soil rnassboundedby an isobaris called a pressurebulb. An infinite
number of isobars can bc drawn. The zone contained by the isobar
corresponding to a stressintensity v.,hichis equal to lOVoof the applied stress
is taken to be the zone within which appreciableeffecls of the applied stress
may oqcur. This zone is termed as the zone of influence.
. t 1
l  t
)
where,
'
whcre,
...(s.16)
(6) Draw the radial lines with tbe deflection anglesthus calculated,
With the help of the Newmark's chart (Fig. 5.15) the stressintensity at
nrrypoint dueto a uniforrnlyloadedareaofanygiven shapecanbedetermined
ns follows:
(i) Adopt a drawing scalesuchthat the depthat which the stressintersity
is required is representedby the numerical value of z on the basis of which
Ntrwmark'schart is drawn.
'(ii) Draw lle plan of the toadedareaon a tracing paperwith this drawing
rcxlc. l.ocate the point P below which the stressis required.
(iii) Place the tracing paper on the chart in such a way lhat the point P
on thc tracing paper coincideswith the centreof the circles.
(iv) Count the number of elementscovered,fully or partly, by the plan
of the area.
(v) Calculate A o" as:
...(5.13)
whcrc,
ill
...(s.17)
II
...(s.14)
t/ = influence factor
= l/no,of
r; = radiusofthat circle.
where,
...(s.1s)
0 = $q
...(s.r2)
2 =n  ;
n
ort
3 /
* l
Ir:\tl
,ffi'"1
o,"=o#=#['
l1+ ll I
\'/ )
[
1i1
t. 10. StressDue to Vertical Linear Ioad: The load resulting from a long
bul nanow wall, or a railway track, is an example of a vcrtical linear load
Ll?
tL3
(Fig. 5.3 a). The vrriical strcssat a depth z andat a.radial dirtaicr of , &+m
the line of action of such a load of intensily f tlm, is given by,
_T
rc==;ffry=#l,tb=]'
...(s.18)
q
oc
\
\
/unit qreq
 
l
l
\.nzl
d,1 {1
.q
. i
\
\i
7
N
I
\ B.
\1
..o(r.
i
y_
l!
Yt'{
'.. .:
{
P ( y , z)
z
Fig.5.4
A a, =
i{n
...(s.1e)
+ s i nc r c o s( c r * . 2 p l)
ITITil]
,
I'"
L"l oJ i"JoJ
F,i
l
I
$r
q ,
t ,it..
i l 1
ra_r.r
.' fq
i'"'i
I
I
"./2!l
qlt
Fig.5.5
t b\
{
\
\
'{l
\
c f eI r
n1
ill
t.LJ
t
I
ss
tr't
1iP
i
j
1i4
StressDistribution
2. Thc trapt:zoidABCDE is cxtcnded to fonn L AFD by adding an
imaginarylriangular load BFC.
3. Stress intensity at the point P (lying below the ceutre of the
enrbankmcni\due tr the triangular loadsAFD andBFC are obtained.The
differencebehveenthesetwo givesthestressintensitydue to half theembankment. Hence for the entire ernbankrnentthis intensity has to be doubled.
5.14. Influence Line for Vertical StressIntensity: The combinedstress
interuity at any poitt due to a systernof extemal loads can be detennined
usrng the concept of influence line diagrams.The melhod of drawing an
influencelinc is explaincdbclou,:
1. Considr:ra unit load aptriliedon the grouud surfaceat O.
2. Considera horizottal plaueMrV at a depth zbelow G.L.
.3. Using Boussinesq'sequationdeterminethe vertical stressintensities
at various points on Mif due lo the unit load.
4. Choosea vector scaleand lay off the correslxrndingordinatesat the
rrspeclivt: points to represenlthr computedslresses.
5. Join theseordinateswith a smoothcurve. This is the influenceline.
115
EX.A,MPLES
,/
Problem6/J.
A concentratedload of 40 kN is applied vertically on a
horizontal ground surface. Detennine the vertical stress intensities at the
followingpoins:
(i) At a depth of 2 m below rbe poinr of applicarion of the load.
(ii) At a depth of L rn and at a radial distanceof 3 m from the line of
action of the load.
(iii) At a depth of 3 m and at a radial distanceof 1 m from the line of
action of the load.
Solution:
3Q
ao, =
?n?
(i) Here,
qt'l
Q = 4OkN, z = 2 n
r/z=A
1s"
and r=O
Henceeqn(5.4)gives
(3)(40]
tQ"
=
Lo, =
= 4.'17kN./rn2
(2n) (2')
2nt
(ii) Inthiscase, O=40kN, z=lm, r=3m
Ao,=
ffi
(iii)Here,
O=40kN,
ttt]'n
z=3.m,
,,=t*
(3)(4ol
Lo"
llft"
'/ = (?n)Q)z
lr * lrttl2l
=o.o6kl.r,/m2
= r.63kN,zm2
r1,7
Stess Distibutian
tt6
La,=#l;4'"
= 1rr.ut)
[+l''
l1 + (r/zYl
A nurnber of points are chosenon the given plane and the sfress intensity at
eachpoint is calculated.Thesearetabulatedbelow:
r/z
t 1.0
t 0.5
t 2.0
r 3.0
* 4.0
t 1.0
*. Z0
= 5.0
x.2.5
< /',
1
l;l
1  ' ' StessAintensiry
s,
lr + (r/z)'I
t 1.5
1.0
0.572
a.n7
4.052
0.018
0.007
E O U S S IENS O , S
METHOD
DISPERSION
METHOD
_\_
I
f t z . o ei
ll12.66
&Nlm2 )
71.62
4.97
Fig.5.7
12.68
3.72
t.28
0.50
(100)(2)/?\
sB
=*=30kr\,,m',
(2+21(3+2)
Q + z)(B + z)
The distribution of stressintensitieson the given plane, as obtained from
Boussinesq's equation and 2 : 1 metlod, are shown in Fig.5.7.
A o z, =
flfT[fTTl
=
I I I i r i I t i 11 100kN / m2
^r*_
,o.r*
= (3)(600)tl=lt"
(2)(3.14)(2')
11* {rll
[ \'/l
Radialdistance
r
(n)
i Q= 600kN
method
(iii) Evidentty,thepressure
distributiongivenby Boussinesq's
is morelogicalandshguldbe usedin ordinaryfield problems.
,a
(i)
Lo,=ffi[;io1'"=
r lr;*1"'
95.49
)
1
l
,i
II
j
'l
l*.
118
No.of
point
Deptlt
(m)
Plane Y2 Y2
PlaneYlYl
r/z
L, o, (t/m2)
r/t
A,o, (t/m21
0.004
r.254
r0.00
5.00
3.33
2.50
t.2
r.643
2.{JO
a.273
3.0
1.0
1.875
1.67
0.380
4.0
0.75
1.955
r.25
0.568
5.0
0.60
t.770
1.00
0.685
6.0
0.50
1.518
1.20
0.28s
10
8.0
0.375
t.473
1.60
0.062
0.5
6.0
0.06
1.0
3.0
0.302
1.5
2.0
0.159
2.4
1.5
2.5
6
x
0.028
0.083
StressDistribution
0.r68
t'r',,
_ ( 2 . 7 0 ) {ot r
.,, =
+t,
I**l'=l.74tzrn'
. L , = ( 1 . 7 4 ) ( 3 . 0=) 5 . 2 2t , n l ,
Now,
2
J
yr
FE.s.8
y2
"
.
/
The footingsof threeadjacentcolumrsof a building lie
Problem 5/
on the sames{raightline and cary grosstoadsof 100 t, 150 t and 120 t
distancebetweenthe t'irst and second
respectively.The centretocentre
footingis 4 m while thatbetweenthesecondandthethird is 3.5rn.Tbesubsoil
119
6
7
8
I
l0
1l
t2
l3
l
Pz (Iso t)
r/z
aozl
(t/n2)
(n)
o.6?
4
o.33 4.08 5
0 531
I
0.33 4.08
2
0.67 2 . r 2
3
1.00 0.94
4
1.33 0.4r
5
1.67 0.19
6
z.M 0.09
7
2.33 0.05
t)
2.50 0.04
8.5 2.83 0.02
9.5 3 . 1 1 0.01
0
3
l
0
Pt (l)) t)
Ao:2
(tln")
(n)
Att
l+ A,,
'u' ao,,
I
l*A'r',
2)l{r',r:I
!ttt^21lttt^21
+
1il:
;i ; : :
,l;;;
,l ; ; ,
3.5
4.5
r.50 0.42
).)
1.83 0.20
t s.22
5.36
I
0.r'. i 1.5l 2:7lI I 5 ) ?
0 .  1 3i 4 . 9 2
i
t20
t21
StressDistributian
0.0764
(3)(1)_
A ov:=A
l _ _ J . 1 t " = ,______3n
e r , ) ( zl.rr_z4 1
(1 + 0.16f)
1
L tz'sY
\
Lro=,*ffih?l =
and,
0.0306r
5.22ttn?
X
0 v e r b u r d e nS t r e s s
No.
r (m)
a6t
(tlm21
1.
2.
S t r e s sI n c r e m e n t
5.
(\l
rP
o\
o
GI
o\
r\,
l
\l)
.9
(\
fn
''1
t
*t
q{
tn
cO
Q
GI
\D
({
rJ1
ct
ql
o
r.rl
(2.srJ
ct52
(t + 0.t6r)
4.
5.
6.
7.
G r o s sS t r e s sI n t e n s i t Y
V
{ e c t o rs c q t e '1: c m= 1 0t / m 2}
0
r0.25
r 0.50
r 1.0
r 1.5
r2.O
* 3.0
No.
Lro
r (n)
ho,
@n?1
0
0.0764
0.0745 r 0.0075
0.0693 t 0.0139
0.05n t 0.0211
0.0354 rO.0213
4.0222 * 0.0178
0.0G2 * 0.0099
L
9.
10.
11.
12.
t3.
t 4.0
t 5.0
t 6.0
x.7.0
t 8.0
* 9.0
0.0032 t 0.0051
0.0014 x.0.0027
0.0006 tO.0015
0.0003 * 0.0009
0.0002 * 0.0006
0.m01 * 0.0004
Fig.5.9
4
0 0 . 5 t  . 5 2
c\l
I n f l u e n c tei n e fa verticolstress
La,#l+if"'
Lao'#lTi7l'"
and
Here,
5
Q=Lt"
z=25m
Lto
ftln?1 ftn?)
l n f l u e n c el i n e f o r s h e o r s t r e s s
( s c o l e: 1 c m= O ' O 3 i / m)2
Fig.5.10
122
/
P.oblem f.6.
usi'g the i'fluence ri*e plotted in Fig. 5.r0 plot the
distribution of vertical stress intensity on a horizontal plane through the
rniddle of a 5 rn thick clay layer dueto theloadingschemeshown in Fig. 5.t t.
Solution:
At any point on the given plane, the combined stress
rntensity can be obtained by summing up the stress intensities due to the
iudividual loads,whiclr, in tum, rnaybe deterrninedby the processexplained
in Art. 5.14.
StressDistibution
Prnblem Vrt
ft is proposedto constructa sftip footing of 1.5 m width
to carry a load <if 12 t per metre run. The footing is to be placed at the ground
level over a hornogeneousdepositofsand having the following properties:
G=2.65,e=0.65,s=lOVo
Determine the vertical stressinlensity at a depth of 3 m below the centre lintr
of the footing, before and after its construction.
Solution:
Dist.
Dist.
fro
the
origin
(m)
(m)
2
l
0
t
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ll
3
5
6
7
8
I
Pz (80 0
Ordinate of
ILD
A Ozr
(t/^:)
(t/m2)
0.0222 1 . 1l 0
0.0527 2.635
0.07643.,20
0.0527 2.635
0.Q222 l l 1 0
0.tK)82 0 . 4 1 0
0.0032 0.160
0.00!4 0.070
o.(xn6 0.030
0.m03 0.015
0.0002 0.010
0.0001 0.005
Dist.
L azz
(tl^21
(t/m)
(m)
5
4
3
2
l
0
I
2
3
f,
Pt (65
Ordinateof
II.D
0.0014 0 . 1 1 2
0.0032 0.256
0.0082 0.656
o.0222 t.776
0.0527 4.216
o.07u 6.112
0.0527 4:216
0.0222 t.776
0.00a2 0.656
0.0032 o.256
0.0014 0 . 1 r 2
0.0006 0.048
Dist.
(n)
9
8
6
5
4
3
2
l
0
t
G + se
2.68 t (0.10X0.6s)(1.0)
= r.66t/m3
t = 1  ; Z ' Y .  ., _
1+0165
Pt (s0 t)
Ordinate of
il,D
(t/m2)
a oz3
Qzo=lz
! Au,
= ( 1 . 6 6 ) ( 3 . 0 )= 4 . 9 8 t / m ? .
(t/^2)
0.0001 0.006
0.0002 0.013
0.00c1 0.019
0.0006 0.039
0.0014 0.091
0.0032 0.208
0.0082 0.533
0.0222 r.433
o.0527 3.426
0.o7u 4.996
o.0527 3.426
0.0222 1.443
(tln2)
r.23
2.91
4.40
4.45
5.42
6.73
4.91
3.29
4.tl
5.24
355
1.50
A o , = 1 , r o * s i n c c o s ( c r+ 2 p ) l
1l'
The maximum stressintensitywill occur directly below the centreline
of the strip load. With referenceto Fig.5.3 (b).
u=ranrf+) = o'245tad'
I
p =0
and
1Z
1l
A, = Oro+ AO,
laor
Isot

\ J, ' /
= 1.83t/rYr2
1"23
X{m)
//
4.98+1.83 =6.81t/m2
Prcblemf$
Two long boundary walls of small width run parallel ro
each other at aYistanceof 3 m apart.The selfweights of the walls are 25 and
15 kN/m. Plot thc distribution of vcrtical stess intensity due to the walls on
a horizontal plane 3 m below the ground level.
L
S c o l e : 1 c=mJ t / m 2
F i g .5 . 1 1
124
t25
StressDistrii;tttion
Usirrgeqn.(5.18),the verticalstressintensitydue to a line toad q is givc.n
by:
A
Llu
2q I
I
f
xtz
it + \rtzl.l
.+.l;l
from
origin
Stressdue to 25 kNlm
lood
r (m)
r/z
Ao:r
'Stress
due to 1,5N/M
Ioad
r (m)
r/z
(kNlm2)
.)
1
1
J.
4.
0.67
6.
1.00
1.33
r.67
0.37
1.
2.
8.
Loz2
(kNlm2)
Totai
,9tress
Lor, +
Loz2
2.53
)
1.67
4.3r
5.31
*1.33 0.42
"1,00 4.79
4.73
4
3
4.31
z
4.67
1.52
5.83
2.53
1
4.33
2.56
5.09
1.33
3.18
4.51
0.69
0.33
2.56
3.7
0.67
1.52
1.89
0.33
(wlm2)
4.67
o.33
a.z2
t
Prcbiem 5.9. A long flexible strip footing of 2'5 m yiqt!h1uiog
run.
kN/m
80
of
load
smooth i;.irir, is subjr+:irriio a uniformly distributed
Detenuiuc the vertical stressitttettsitiesat a depthof 2 rn below:
{i) ce.ntreline of the footing
(ii) side fac:eof the footing
line of the tboti.g at a dista'ce of 3 m
liiii a li'e paraliel to the ce'tre
liorn it.
in Fig'
Solutlon: The r:rosssectionof the given tboting is presented
..*hich
repre$ented
the siressesareto be determinedare
:i.12.1"Lciocations;il
2.75
6.10
2 5k N/ m
I 5 k N/ n r
5ggls:1:50
Fig.5.13
By measurtmertt
o. * 64' = l.1L? radian
*0'558 radian
l} * *J2' =
{i'; Foittt A:
usicgeipt. i5.19),
ai!
A 6 , r ; r = : ' '  i 1 . 1 1 7+ s i n{ 1 . i 1 ? }c o s{ 1 . 1 1 7+
:i.
Fig.5.12
= 51.3:1kN/n::.
(ii):1'n;r*t8; Here, u = 51.5" = 0.899radian'
F=0"
2 ( o.sssill
A o, 16)=
StressDistribution
Now,
= 23.96 kN,/m'.
s, = 26"  0.454 radian.
Of,
Lo,(r)=
if
A . 4 5 4 +s i n ( 0 . 4 5 4 ) c o s ( 0 +
. 4Z5.4. x 0 . 6 3 7 ) l
q { y
A o, =  l i ' a
/J.r\D
= 9.81 kN,/m2.
For
oo", =
For
LBFC,
.
oo,, =
fitz
* 0.497 o) = o.ltt/m2
c.T
c
\
_ 611
t.
\ I
<l
lp
2E.s'}'l
oP
I
L i n e q rs c q l e: 1 : 7 5 ,V e c t o rs c o l e : 1 c m= 0 . 2 t l n ?
Fig.5.14
Nio'*5'2ou
r
5 ' 4 ^ 
L
fitz
oo
 s i n 2' \) p l .
LA.FD,
y = yd(I + w)
llmt
I
FC = BC
BE
AE,
. BC (5.4)r' s)
BE
nA =
= =J= 4.5t/m.
nC
ln
FD = FC + BE = 4.5 + 5.4 = 9.9t/m.
I
I
i
3!0' =
The anglcbctweentwo consecutive
radiatlines=
tg.
20
 Now, usingeqn.(5.72),theverticalstressat a depthz belowthe cente
of a circularareaof radiusr, carryinga uniformlydistributealoadg is given
bv:
128
_ Ji__L_

Ao= all
" I
L29
3'2
I
I r * 1 ' z ' t 3 iJ
t
Ao.
_ = = 1 _
q
0f'
StressDistibution
[
J
7/)
l"'"
" I
lr + (r/z)"I
", /?
ao. )
a f
{l
= l r'
0fr
l + (r/z)2
"'
) /7
! + (riz)z
of'
=i 1
I
a o, \,

, l i
/*Ao.\'r,.'r
n"!(
'.
 = Vll*,
' . 4 I1
,
or,
..'(s'21)
Circ
,t{o
i,
!1cn1lpmtlN
; i o_r_*
. _J__*_l__"*_
l{c@l(cm)
I
i * . r i o r t or .i i , , u s l? jl oa. .s7i r i r o.i r s ! : . ; *
' r . " * s:x. :j i r o :
l t . s o la
i*.t lc.CIri:5
I
I
_i
l_ll_
i_
I
i
i._  _ J
I
{ine ccncentrlc circles are drawn wrt} the r:cii sirowriis rhe table. ,t!,
rer of r*dinl lincs ar+ lheir drawn frtw lhe centre al ';;:ual deflectial:r"rf l8o.
Ibe resulting Nernna;k'ri chart is sbr:wn in Fig. 5.15
ls*
Influencevalue= 0.005
Fig.5.15
PrcblemSs//
Using the Newmark's chart preparedin problem 5.11,
determine the vertical stressintensity at a depth of 2 m below the pointA of
tbe raft fo"otingshown in Fig. 5.16. The uniformly distributed load on he raft
is 8.5 Vrn'.
Solution: In Problem 5.11 the Newmark's chart was prepared for z =
2.5 crn. In order to usethis chart for the rnmputation of vertical stressintensity
at a depth of 2 m below any loaded arca, the plan of the area is to be drawn
in sucha scalethata distanceof 2.5 crn in the drawing may representan actual
distanceof 2 m.
130
+
T
4m.
II
14m
II
15m
f
II
J
6m
_L
l,0'f r''l'
Fig.5.l6
3#
= 1 : 80.
The plan of the given raft footing is drawn on a tracing paper to a scale
of I : 80. The pointA, which is the point of intersection of the two diagonals,
is located. The tracing paper is then held on the Newmark's chart in such a
way that the point A coincides with the centl"of the chart. During such
= (0.005)
(39 + 15/2 + aft)$.s)
o
= 2.A3Un?
EXERCISE 5
load of 50 t is applied on the ground
concentrated
5.1 A vertical
at a point 3 m belowtheground
intensity
stress
vertical
the
surface.Compute
of
theloadby:
of
action
line
the
from
away
m
and
2
level
!*
StressDbtributi tt,
131
(i) Boussinesq'smethod
(ii) Westergaard'smethod, assumingF = 0
[Ans.(i) 1.058t/n?1i;10.681Vrn2]
5.2 A 2 rn x 2 rn squarefooting carriesa grossload of 550 kN. The
tboting is foundedat a depthof lT5 m below G.L. The subsoilconsistsof a 2
m thick layer of sand having a unit weight of 1g kN/m3. The sand layer is
underlainby a 4 m thicklayerof softclayhavinga unitweightof lj.2kN/m3.
compute the maximurnvertical stressat the rniddle of the clay layer betbre
and after the constructionof the footing.Use Boussinesq'seguation
.
tAns. 70.4 kN/m' ; 80.9 kN/m,l
5.3 A vertical concentratedloadof 100 t is appliedat the groundlevel
over a 6 m thick clay stratumwhich is underlainby a deepsandstraturn.plot
the distributionof verticatstressintensityon a horizontalplaneat thc middlc
of the clay layer by :
(i) Boussinesq'smelhod.
(ii) Westergaard'smetbod.
(iii) 2; I disJrersion
merhod.
Given, Poisson's ratio, p  0.
5.4 Plot tlre distribution of vertical stressintensity on a vertical plane
due to a vertical concentratedload of750 kN appliedon the ground surface
at a lateraldistanceof3 m from the given plane.
5.5 Draw the isobarsfor?Svo and10%stressintensitiesdue to a footins
of 2.5 m x 2.5 m, carrying a uniformly clistributed load of l0 Vm2. UsI
Boussinesq'smethod.
5.s A building is supportedby a raft t'ooti'g of 15 m x 1g rn pra* area.
The gross load of the building, including tbe self weight of the ratt, is 405ffi
kN. Plot the variation of vertic:alstressintensities with depth (z) below the
ground level, taking 0.5 m < z s 5.0 m, at equal intervalsof 0.5 rn. Use
2:ldispersionmethod.
s.7 Two adjacent footings of building, placed at a centretoccntre
distance of 4.5 m, have to carry gross loads of 750 kN each. using
Boussinesq'stheory,plot the distribution ofvertical stress intensity at a deprh
of 3 m below the baseof the footings.
5.E Three consecutivefootings of a building are carrying gross loads
of80 t, 120 t and 110 t respectively.The centretocentredistance between
the first and secondfooting is 3.0 m, while that between thc secondand third
footing is 4.0 m. All tbe footings are foundedat 1.5 m below G.L. Determine
tbe maximum vertical stressintensity due to the focting loads at a depth
^of
3.5 rn below G.L.
t A,ns. 15.06 r/m2 ]
1i2
5.9 (a) Draw the influence line for the vertical stressintensity at a depth
of 2.0 m bclow the point of applicationof a unit load.
(b) Solve Problem 8 using the influence line thus drawn.
5.10 A strip footi4gof 2 m width carries a uniform load of 8 V*2. Tn.
tboting is placed on the ground level over a homogeneous deposit of clay
having the following p;operties :
G = 2 . 7 2 , e = 0 . 7 8 , w = l Z % o,
Determine the initial and final overburden pressure at a depth of 3 m
below the centreof the footing.
I i\ns.5.a9 Urt ;7lVr#'l
5.11 Two long boundary walls run parallel to each other at a
centretocentredistanceof 1.5 m apart.The width and height of the firstwall
are ?50 rnrn and 20fi) nrn respectively, while those of the second are
respectively 125 mm and 3000 mm. Plot the distribution of vertical stress
intensity due to the walls on a horizontal plane,2 m below G.L. The walls
have negligible depth of foundation and are made of brick masonry having a
unit wegnt of 1920 kdto3.
5.12
Fig. 5.16. shows the
crosssection of an earth dam. The
unit weisht of the carthfill is 1.85
t/*3. Dlt.rmine lhe maximum
stress intensity at a depth of 5 m
below the baseof the dam.
t
J z o mI
6.2 Definitions:
The following terms are frequently used to express,the
compressibilitycharacteristics
of soils:
Fig.5.l7
T
3m
I
I
12n
_T
3m
'f
lr,]r  tzn43n:r
CONSOLIDATION
95mJ
:ae
a"=
Lp
eoe
6
oo
where,
e6 and e are the void ratios of a soil under the initial and final
vertical stressestr6 and o respectively.
(ii) Coefficient of volutr,e change or volume compressibility (mu): It
is definedasthechangeinvolume ofa soil massperunitof itsoriginal volume
due to unit change in pressure.
l'e't
L V l
*, " V.G
...(6.2)
Fig. 6.1 shows a soil masshaving an initial void ratio eg . If the volume
of solids be unity, then volume of voids is given by,
V u = e O . V "* 0 .1 = f o
.'. Total volume.
Fig.5.18
...(6.1)
vn=vr+v,
Consolidation
134
But,
AC
BC
A C = %  e = L , e
and
BC =logrcp  logropo
= 1 + e o
to e due to increasein pressure,then
Ifthe void ratio uow decreases
V t = l + e '
LV
or, changeinvolume
= Vo  Vt
eoe
=
...fu.ol
logropfogropo =:+
togroq/p' \
I
eoffiffi[i iidilma} alsobe
determined
fromrhe
=  + eo  (1 + e)
= e 0  e
The value
following ernpirical formulae:
= Ae.
,
Ae
T1.
l+
wherc,
ui9h%
C, = 0.007 (w1 
...(6.sa)
...(6.sb)
10)
wt = liquid li;,&(n
woref
( r nedl
Fig.6.1
;
o
^,=#;0.*
G,
!
'o
L e 1
m'=Td
r"0
av
ffl  =
...(6.3)
a
L + e g
V i r g i nC o m p r e s s i o n
of'
R e co m p r e s s
C"  gradientofA.B
 tanO
0.5
0'3 0.40.5 0.7 
4 5 6789tO
t ogt' p {Fig.6.2
136
6tt
6l=u,
where,
a2u
;
al
...(6.6)
F:Tl
!L.. = 
where,
...(6.7)
Hu\n I
i " Y
fEcoetficient ofpermeability, cm,/sec
From the results of the test, the following three curves are drawn:
(i) e vs. logrOP curve, to determinethe value af. C.
u=f(T")
where,
where,
Cu't
_F
In order to plot the e vs. log16p curve, the void ratio of the sample at
the end of each load increment has to be detennined from the corresponding
dial reading. This can be done by either of the following methods.
...(6.e)
(a) Height of solids method.' After the corrpletion of the test, the
sample is taken out from the oedometer,dried in oven and its dry weight
177 is detennined.
wd
for
ocu<S3vo,
h,=Yi=h
where,
"'(6.10)
6.4 Laboratory Consolidation Test: f h order to determine the cornpressibility characteristicsofa clay deposit,'laboratoryconsolidationtests are to
be performed on representativesamplesof the clay collected from the site. A
knowledge of such characteristicsis required for:
vu vv"
A.hA.hs
=
=
A.lrrv"
%
hh,
ofr
'(6'llrlr/
...(6.12)
"=
W7
""=T=Gy*
the determination of Iu :
For
,o 0",".*ine,the value of c,
...(6.8)
U = degreeofconsolidation.
t37
Consolidution
e =
...(6.13)
hs
Thus if the value of ft is known at any tirne during the test, the
correspondingvoid ratio can be determincd.The value of ft may be obtained
from:
h =H  R.C
r
138
where,
a, =
or,
139
gt
=1]34
...(6.r4)
Thus, knowing the values of e1 and ft, ihe change in void ratio at any
given instant can be determinedif t[e.conesponding value of A ft is known.
6.5 Determination of C, : For a given soil, the value of C, is not constant
but depends on the magnitude of the applied skess. In order io determine the
degree of consolidation of clay layer under an external load, it is required to
determinethe initial and final pressures( o , and o. + Ao, respectively ) on the
soil. If, for example,the initial and final pressurebeforeand after the application
of external load be 1 kg/cm' andZ xglr:;rf , thenthe value of Cumust be obtained
{rom this particular range of loading il the consolidation test.
The value of Cumay be determinedfrom either of the following metlods :
(a) Squareroot of time fitting method: Cu =
:Wof :::
er
(T,)ssx rt
tq
...(6.ls)
So l i d
,,
= 9)#!
S=S;+S.+S"
where,
Fig.6.3
Now
hA
h.A
=
W
=v
LV
lq  loz
Lh
h, =E
then,
Similarly,
V2=Vr(l+e2)
{ . ' . '" t =
olr
h
M=
h
v"/v"l
...(6.18)
ez)
s ; = q B . $  v h. r ,
V"(e1 e2)
LV
=T
=Z
E+er)
where,
Le
1 +e 1
...(6.r7)
Si = immediate settlement
.Sc = primary consolidation settlement
Ss = socondaryconsolidation settlement.
Vt = V, + % = e1V" t V"
= V"(1 + e1)
...(6.16)
q
I
F
E
=
=
=
....(6.1e)
140
Consolidation
L4l
,,=+'+
Inf'luencefacnr
v a p
For a laterally confined soll, area ofcrosssectio'.4
Square
Circular
Rectangular:
L/B = 1.5
L/B= 2.0
UB = 2.5
L/B = 5.0
L/B = 10.0
LV
t.t2
1.00
0.56
o.64
0.95
0.85
0.82
o.79
1.36
0.68
0.76
1.05
r.27
r.69
r.20
1.06
1.30
1.83
2.20
2.96
LzA
r.52
2.10
2.54
3.38
1.70
2.ro
v =WT
1 " = A$ H
cr=
Table 6.2 : Elastic properties of various soils
or,
1..Coarsesand
(p = 0.15)
$[i.^r
(tr= 0.2) $[i"^r
$[/"^r
$[i"^r
0.3s)
Medium
Fine sand
(tt = 0.25)
Sandysilt
= 0.30 to
0.61to 0.70
43
45200
38
32qO
is constant.
= LEHI
L,p
...(6.20\
The
change
in
thictnessof
rhe
soir
rnass,
andhencr the consolidation
settlement,canbedeterminedfrom eqn.
6.mi,
Again, by definition.
3.4
0.41to 0.50
LH.A
Le
l%rcPr/po
Le = c..logrcp;
v o =l + e 0 ,
N
45200
38
39300
35
3240/0
or,
38
366A0
36
27600
32
23500
But
36
13800
34
1t700
30
10000
Hence,
a n d V 1= l + e ,
AV= 1 + e g  ( 1 + e o ) = e o  e = L , e
AV
Le
vo
i.A
AH
LV
...{6.2r)
142
or,
L,H= Ht,fu.torro P o + L P
Po
s.,
...(6.22)
i1
EXAMPLES
Prcblem e/
enonnally consolidatedclay stratumof 3 m thickness
has two permeablelayersat its top andbottom.The liquid limit and the initial
void ratio of the clay are 36Vo and 0.82 respectively,wlrile the initial
overburden presdureat the rniddle of clay layer is Zkg/an'. Due to the
construction of a new building this pressure increasesby 1.5 kg/cmz.
Compute the probableconsolidationsettlemett of the building.
Solution:
C.
i
'logrn
",
Po+&
p0
Cc = o.oo9(w7 1o)
= 0.009(36 10) = A.234
H=3m=300cm
ea = o'82
Po = Zkg/crt
...(6.2r)
S.=
143
(tutsolidotion
Ap = t.s kg/ctt
' rosro
[ti"]"
s. = (3oo)
= 9'37 cm
(wl  1o)
c" = o.ooq
= 0.009(53  10) = 0.387.
H,=3rn=3(X)crn
eo = 0'65
of claylayer'
at rniddepth
pressure
(i) Initialoverburden
.
(1.85)= 9.65tln'= 0.965kg/cttf
po = (4.0)(1.72) + (3.012)
eqn.,themaximumstressintensityat themiddleof
FrornBoussinesq's
claylayer,
A' e _
(3)(2m)  =3.r6t/n?=asrckp/q}
(4+ 1.5)'
(2)(3.14)
^ = (300)(0.387)
r.
T_fTIil.
togto
0.965+ 0.316 =
8.66cm
tg6
= 4'5 m
6,,, =
(3)(200)  =
4.7tr/m2= a.4lrkg/rmz
(2)(3.r4')(4.s)'
144
('tmsolidotion
145
Using eqn.{6.20),
=
S,
frr'Ho'LP
wltt'rc,
iltApl
Su b toyer
I
= 2.5 cm for the soil sampleand 300 cm for the soil insiru.
4p = changein effective pressure
=42=Zk,/cnz.
II
1m
*illo:JrL^P;
Subtoyer
III
l'or lht:laboratorytest:
Rock
= 2.5cm
Tlricknessundera pressureof 2kglctnz =2.5 0.26 = 2.24sn.
Thicknessuudera pressureof 4 kg/on2 = 2.5 0.38= 2.12crn.
lrritialthicknessof the sarnple
Fig.6.4
(2)(3.14)
(s.sr
= O.965kg/artz
0.t2 = (m")(2.s)(2.0)
= o.3l6kg/cnl
(6.sr
(2)(3.14)
or,
m, = 0.024. z/kg.
t46
Le
LH
l
+
e r
H l =
Again,
where,
and,
ol,
Here,
.'.
,5. = rn,,llg Ao
= (0.08)(2s0) (2  1) = 20 cm.
llcnct:, lhc rt:quiredsettlementof tlie structure = 20 cm
Solution :
when
AH
A e = ( t + e 7 ) . u .
I lcrr',
"I
o = Z.}kg/cm"
Agrin, usingequ.(6.7),
c '. , = k
frr\n
NI = 1'88 136=
lf trc,
m ,  0 . 0 6 5" n 2 / k g
 0.065 t 103 "rn2/grn
0'12trm
Le = (0.95)(0.12) = 9'114
Hence,void ratio at
y  1 gm/cc.
Letm,,betheaveragevalueofthecoefficientofvolunrechangeinthe
pressurerange of 1'0 to 2.0 kg/on.
We have frorn eqn. (6'2),
mv
Le
l+eg
.1=0.065"*z/kg
= ef  Le
= 0.786  0'238 = 0'548'
l'0kg/cn?'
 0.73= 0.r2
mv
"'(i)
o=
1.
L,p
N t = z   = Ilf./cmz
Ae = 0.95AH
Again,when
'
L,e
l+es
eo = 0.85,
Ae = 0.85
Hence,void ratio at
Usingeqn.(6.2),
frv=
Ae= (1 + 0.786)
#t
of,
t47
l)rrrblenr *Y
In a laboratoryconsolidationtest,the void ratio of the
silnrlllc rcducedtiorn 0.85 to 0.73 as the pressurewas increasedfrom 1 to 2
kg/t'rnr. If the coefficientof penneabilityof tbe soil be 3.3 x 10{ crn/sec,
r l cl cr r ni n c :
(i) coefficicntof volume change
(ii) coelficicnt of coruolidation.
wG = (0.29)(2.71)
= o.786
" t _
=
(1)
,
Then,
('on.rolido lion
1
Ao
(0.672 0.548) .
_
=
= J ^1.0)= o . o 8 r 2 / k g '
(2.0
(1 + 0.548)
cr=
3.3 x 10a
(6.sx to5)(t)
= 5.07" 2/""".
'f'lrc
Solullon :
Usingequ.(6.9),
148
Consolidation
,,=sffq=
375crn
cr't
149
If
Tr.t?
ot,
I =
Tr, =
'=
C,
n(u\2
Altrrl
H
For double drainagecondition, h =
2
600
2
r u / 5 0 \ 2=
a[.'*/
= ffi0^' "
300 cm .
(0.197)(300)2
, s e c =3.546 x 107sec
5 x l0'
3.546x 107 .
oays = 410 days.
s6400
Problem fy
Araft footing is to be constructedon a 7.5 qrn thick clay
layer which lie3 betweentwo sandlayers.In order to predict the time rate of
settlernentof the building , a 2.5 crn thick undisturbed sarnpleof the soil was
tested in the laboratory under double drainagecondition. The sample was
found to have undergone5O%corsolidation in 12.5 minutes.Determinethe
time required for 5O%settlernentof the building.
Solution :
= 0.?a6
Again, using eqn. (6.9)
T,,
C r x t
=
of,
C, =
Trt?
In thelaboratorytest,
7, = time factor for 50% consolidation = 0.197
h =
12.5min.
H
2
2.5 =
l.?5 cm
2
' or, C, =
Tr,' h2
It2
h'
t =
c,
(0.197)(375)'
 mtn
= 0.0246
0.197.
5 x 10a"nl2,/r.".
and,
T,' h2
t = 17min.
h = 2.5/2 = 1.25cm
(0.2s6)
(r.?52=
vv = di
0.A263cm'/min
H _ ( 3 )(2)
(1oo)=15ocm
(0'285X150f
= z44nxamin= r70 days
,' 0.0263
( i i ) In this casethe soil layer is drained at top only
H=5m=500cm
150
(0'4q)L500)z
= 2 1 l 8 6 3 n n i r t = 1 t t 8 8 r l a y s= 5 . 1 7 y e a r s .
', 0.0263
,/
The consolidatiottsettletnentof a new structuretbunded
Problem Q/
on a 5 m thick layer is estimatedas 6.5 cm. The structurewas found to have
settledby 1.6 cm in 6 monthsafter the completionof couslruction.If the c{ay
layer is underlainby rock and overlainby a layer ofcoarse sattd,detennine:
(D tle timc required for 50% consolidationto occut
(ii) the amount of settlementwhich will take place in the next six
montls.
Degreeof consolidationoc:curredin the first six months
1..6
=
x Lo07o = 24.627a
;;
151
Consolidation
*rfl
L
= 0'0974'
,,
= 35.22o/o
u == v&q*ee.ozo
t
3.14
()f,
U=4;xr00
o.)
or,
'=T#
=z.z()cn
Solution :
U = 24.62Vo
T, = (x/4) (24.62/10q2 = 0.048.
Solution :
h=H=2.5crn
(o#8,)(t2)
tu = 1o;1ru,1 =
Problem &J${ndisturbed
sampleswere collec.tedfrom a 3 m thick
t'lay stratumwhich lies betweentwo sandstrata.A laboratoryconsolidation
It:sl was performed on a 2.5 crn thick sarnpleof the clay. During the test,water
was allowedto drain out only throughthe top of the sample.The time required
t<tr 50Voconsolidationwas found Io be 35 minutes. Determine the time
rtquirt:d for 60% and907oconsolidationin the field.
6.67x 1o3^z/d^y.
7,,= O.197.
'' = gfft
(0.1e7)(s2)
C,
6.67 x lO'
= 738.4days
= o'o3s
"'n2'l*i"'
= 1.781 0.933 logls (100 60)
= 0.286
= 2yearsand8.4days.
(ii) L,et U be the degree of consolidation that will take place in the next
six rnonths, i.e. at the end of 1 year since the completion of construction. We
have already found that the time required for 5O% consolidation is 2 years
and 8.4 days. Thus, degreeofconsolidation occurredin 1 year must be less
than 50Vo.
The corresponding time factor may be determined using eqn. (6.10),
T" = (n/4)(U/LOC)' =
"r.P
40000
(6.67x 1g3)(36s)=
o.oe74.
Tr=
(5")
t,t = H = ; 3n
i
= l50cm.
Tu*'h'
t6o =
7:
(0.286)
(1so)2
(0.03s)
= 183857
min
= 127.7days o 128days
For 90% consolidation,
r52
153
at 2 rn below the ground level.The unit weight of sandabove and below water
iable are 1.90 and 2.10 t/m'. Tbe propertiesof tbe clay are as follows;
,u*.*
tco =
Consolidotion
C,
= 545143
min
*"*tP
= 379 days.
Pnoblem 6.1I. A flexible footing of 2 m x 2msize carries a total load
490
kN, inclusive of its selfweighlThe footing restson a sandlayer having
of
a modulus of elasticity of 400fi) kN/m' and a Poisson'sratio of 0.38. Estimate
the probable settlement below the cenlre and below any orie corner of the
footing.
Here,
s ; = R 0
 t') r'I'
.,*, Pt
L , H = H n ' r Q
'opo'
l+e6
intensity of loading
= g99] = 02.5kN./m2
(2) (2)
eo = A'72
B = 2 m
Ho = 2m = 2l)0cm.
p = 0.38, E = 40000kN./m2
The influencefactor//may be obtainedfrom table6.1.,
/y(corner) = 0.56
Dcpthofmiddleofthe sub.layerbelowG.L. = 8 + 2D =9 m
11.6m_J
/1(centre)= L.12.
Roft
Immediatesettlementbelowthecentre,
 @#
si(centre)
(I=1'90
t/ m3)
'0.r2)
t Y =2 . ' t 0 t / m 3 )
* 0.59 crn
Sond
S;1e4
ff
= o.295crn.
6m
>
zlzz>
Ctoy
( e e =g , 7,26 = 2 . 7 1 ,
r o L = L 2 a /Cov = 2 . 2 x t 0  3 c r l l s e c l
>7 t>>7>rr>zt>
r2l=t>z>7ztz
I m p er v i o u s S h o l e
Fig.6.5
,>z
,2
154
= 0.317
As single drainagecondition prevailsat site,
h = H = 6m = 600crn.
tlsing eqn.(6.9),
7,,fi
t=
c,
'kat = 2.1t/m3
 (0.317)(6od) = 51872327
sec
(2.2 x l0'\
= 60,0days
155
Consolitlalion
Iclay
G + e
l + e
t w
(2.7r + 0.72)
l'
= !L.4t/rn2 = l.l4kg/cmz
Again, depth of middle of this sublayer below the base of footing
=91.5=7.5m.
Using the 2 : 1 dispersion method,
u
  Q'2)iroo)vo= z7.5vo
(8)
= 3.15t/m2 = A31^5kg/cnl2
pr = po + Lp = 1.14 + 0.315 = 1.455kg/ctn2
^,
^ _) ( r . 4 s s \= r'55cm'
A r / _ ( 2 q g ) . ( 0 . 2'rogro
8, 8
(r + oJD
r14
I
,J
But,
T, =
C,
O l t
T,
0.059
H'
7=
C,,
.=
H'
0.039
. =
ort
Cu't
_F
ls
...(D
r, =
?;=
c..
I
(o.o3e)
(10.s) '..; = o.o3el
= 0.4095.
'
t55
t57
Consolidation
of'
(1'781: q'4095)
= 1.47
(0.e33)
NI=H #a
or,
 (2)(1oo)(q.g9s)
= 8.44crn
(1 + 1.25)
100U=29.51
U= 10029.51=70.497o
or,
^"=#^.b
cr=
0ft
Po+Lp
,
loglo po
A e = L" fo$19
ps + L,P
p,
L e = (0.31s)rogls{(2 + 2)/(2)}
= 0.095
.'. Final void ratio = e6  L,e
= l.?5  0.095 = 1.155
(ii) Let A/1be theconsolidationsettlementof the clay layer.
LH _
Le
_
H
1+tu
= o.o2tcm2lkg.
(2)
(1 + 1.25) +
C,' = Jfrr\n
Usingcqn.(6.7),
k = 2.8 x 107cm,/sec.
Hcrc,
m v = 0 . 0 2" 1z / u ' g
ln = lgm/cc = I x 1o3t'g/cc.
(2'8 x 1o') =
0.0133orr2/r""
(0.021x 10')
.
w have, Tu= O.197
consolidation,
For 5OVo
Usingeqn.(6.9),
a..
"
T,,.h2 (0.197)QN/z)z
sec'
' = T = afi133;
= 1.71days.
testwas performedon a 2
Problem 6.L5. A laboratoryconsolidation
cm thicksampleof a siltyclay,andthefollowingresultswcreobtained;
Pressure
(kglcm2)
Pressure
(kslcnl)
o
0.25
5.590
5.234
2.00
3.9U
4.00
3.515
0.50
4.gffi
8.00
2.785
1.00
4.6M
5;224
The final moisture content of the sample after swelling was fouttd to be
32.57o.The specificgravity of solids = 2!lO.
159
158
Consolidation
table',"t Ot:t
Note that, in column5 of the above.
::t1"1tt:^?:::rT":
: 9,tl2 I:bvsubtracting
* noiff"T:;ilJl""ail t""i'*"a*':ri''tiEdetermined
:ll. l:1"::
:il":ffiffi ffi;;;;;"*'1ry:
ofAeo:*':l1 Tri
e=*G
_ ( 0 . 3 2 5 ) ( 2 . 7 0=
, )0 . 8 7 t .
(1)
Now, we have,
N]
H
Le
l + e
MI ,.
.
+ e)
O" =
T(1
or,
0.90
0.Es
Ar/
Le = tH tt iO:#t' = 0.e565
...(i)
lo.
I
The c.hangein void ratio, and hencethe final void ratio after each load
incrernent,arellow detenninedby puttingthe correspondingvaluesof AH itt
eqn. (i). The cornputedvalues are showttbelow in a tabular form :
Pressure
ranSe
Pressure
itrcre
I ncrease
in
ment
(kg/cn2)
&
NT
(kglcm2)
(cm)
Change
in void
ratto
Le
Equilibrium
void
ratio
4.00 to 8.00
(5)
(4)
(3)
o.034
o.0356
0.879
+0 .25
+0.25 4.O274 o.026 0.863
+0.50 o.0356 4.034 0.829
+1.00 4.0640 o.061 0.768
+2.00 {.0549 o.0s3 0.715
+4.00 {.0730 o.070 0.645
8.0Oto 0
8.00
(1)
0 to 0.25
0.25to 0.50
0.50to 1.0O
1.0Olo 2.00
2.00 to 4.fi)
/t\
mv
'f/ Ae\
a u \
4oJ
= 1 . 
C,
L
;0.
o
L
E'
6 0
e
'"g. k/
l

7 8910
1c^2/k91 (cn2/kg)
(6)
0.136
0.104
0.068
0.061
0.027
0.015
(1)
o.072
0.055
0.036
0.019
0.014
0.008
toglgp*
(8)
Fig' 6'6
0.086
0.113
0.203
0.t76
0.199
i
l
160
161
Consolidation
2000
1900
1800
I972
16.00
t727
0.25
L92L
36.00
1642
1.00
1870
64.00
1555
2.25
1848
100.00
I49r
4.00
1813
144.N
L449
9.00
1769
1700
1600
1500
1400
13C0
tr
2' A number of points, each represe'ting a certain dial reading a'd the
corresponding value of vl are obtained. A smooth curve is drawrithrough
them.
12
1L
16
18
Fig' 6'7
y'tco= 1l'o
/so = 134'56min
From Fig.6.7,
10
T,(n).hz
.u= _6_
Now,
Here,
Ir (m) = 0.84[t,
h = 2.5/2 = l.?Scrrr
(  (0.848)(1.25)2
" = llffiI&r
= L64 x
10a.,.,2./r..
3._ The straight portion of the curve is projected to intersect the yaxis
_
at R". This is taken as the initial reading.
(3oo)2
= 1.081x tossec
, r o = W =(0.1971
1.64x 10
t* =
T,(gqxh2
C,
5386days
= 4.654x r'ssec
= (p.q{8)(iqql2
1.64 x l}a
14years9 monthsand6 days.
162
Consolidation
163
[5.8acm]
6 . 3 . A 3 m x 3 m s q u a r cf o o t i n g , c a r r y i n g a g r o s s l o a d o 1f 2 5 t , h a s
been constructed over a 5 rn thick sand layer whicb is underlain tirst by a 6
m thick layer of soft clay and then a layer of irnpermeableshale. Compute the
consolidation settlement of the footing by considering the clay layer (i) as a
whole (ii) divided into three layers of equal thickness. Given,
unit weight of sand = 1.8 gm/cc
compression index of clay = O.42
water content of clay =32Vo
specificgravity of clay particles=2.7
KD 3.6 an (ii) a.29 cml
6.4. During a laboratory consolidation test, the void ratio of a soil
sample decreasedfrom 1,2 to 1.05 when the pressureon it increasedfrom 2
to 4kglcn' . Determine the coefficient of compressibility and tbe coefficient
of volurne change of the soil. Will thesevalues remain the sarne if pressure
cm2ltg]
increasesfrom ito 8 kg/crn2.
[0.075 .t?/rg;o.o:+
6.5. A consolidation test was performed on a samplc of saturatcd clay
in the laboratory. Thc liquid limit and the initial void ratio of thc soil were
487o ard 0.96 respectively. What will be the final vo^idratio of the soil if the
pressur is increased from 0.25 kg/*rz to 1.0 kg/cnr2 ?
[0.721
6.6. Sample of a silty clay wassubjected to a laboratory oedometertest.
Under a veitical pressureof Zkglun'the equilibrium void ratio was found to
be 1.05. On increasing the pressureto 3 kg/crn2, the final cquilibrium void
ratiq reduced to 0.93. If the coefficient of permeability of the soil be 1.2 x
104 cm/sec, detennine the coefficient of consolidation in t# rc^y.
[439 cm]
t64
(kglcm2)
Pressure
7
COMPACTION
Plot the e vs logl6 p curve and check whether the soil is overconsolidated.
If so,determinethepreconsolidation
pressure.
Given,G = 2.67.
?
7.1 Introduction:
Constuction of structureson weak soils (e.g., soft clay,
loose sand, etc) sometimesrequires "stabilisation" of the soil mass, i.e., an
artificial improvement of ib engineer.ingproperties,
There are various methods of soil stabilisation, the most common one
being the mechanical stabilisation,and the simplest technique of mechanical
stabilisation is compaction
A soil mass can be compacted by cither a dynamic process or a static
one. In the dynamic metlod the soil is compactedby repeatedapplications of
a dead load, while in tbe static method compaction is done by a steadily
increasing static load. Generally, the dynamic merlod gives better results in
coarsegrainedsoils and tle static compaction is suitable for less permeable
finegraincd soils.
72 MoisturedensityRelationships:
Whilecompactinga soil inthe field,
it is always desirableto compact the soil in such a way tlat its dly density is
maximum. If a given soil is compactedunder a specified compactive effort,
its dry dcnsity will be the maximum at a certain moisture content, known as
the optimum moisture contenL Hence, before compacting a soil in the field,
its optimum moisture content and the corresponding dry density must be
determined in the laboratory. The test employed for this purpose is called
StandardProctor Test.
73 Standard koctor Test In this test, samples of the given soil are
prepared at various moisture contents and are compacted in t cylindrical
mould, 127.3 mm high and having an internal diameter of 100 mm. The
eample is compacted in tfuee layers of equal height, each layer being
oubjectedto 25 blows of a compaction rammer having a selfweight of.2600
gm and a heigbt of free fall of 310 mm.
Samples are cornpacted in the mould at increasing moisture contents.
After each test, weight of the sample compacted is detcrmined and ie bulk
and dry densitiesare cornputed.
A curve is then plotted to show the variation ofdry density with moisture
content (Fig. 7.1). The curve is usually parabolic in shape.Initially thc dry
166
2.O
ry
t'8
> l 7
S t o n tl ord Pr octer
I Test
)
'ld 
We have,
At any given moisture content, the dry density of a soil in the fully
saturatedcondition can be derived as follows:
I
A A S H 0T e t
t.9
rd= ##c
\
15
"'(7'1)
From eqn (7.1) it is evident that, for a given soil, an increasein moisture
content will always result in a decreasein y4. Hence the zero air voids line is
always a steadily descendfurgline.
r.5
t0
wG = e
F o r a f u l l y s a t u r a t e d s o i ls, = 1 ,
G,{n
l + e
wG=se
and
IA
3 rs
167
Compaction
20
25
2'0
W o t e rt o n t e n t( 7 " )
Fig.7.1
1.9
,\
U
U
I.E
I
=
c
1,7
^
807' Soturation
t
,l [i n e
 Z er r i o i r v ' o i d sl i n e I
(
SoturotionlineI
\ 10.0cl'
q,
?'..
L
\
t.5
1.4
l0
l2
l4
l5
l8
20
22
WuterContent
{7")
Fig.1.2
75
Califomia
n8{fg3i!s1prob&le
The California bearing ratio is defined as the ratio of the force per unit
area required to drive a cylindrical plunger of 50 mm diameter at.the rate of
168
169
Compaction
1.25 mm/min into a soil massto that required to drive the same plunger at the
same rate into a standardsarnpleof crushedstone.
Thus,
cBR=###"
xroovo
...(7.2)
or
Y
L
The test is performed by first compacting the given soil in tle AASHO
mould at the specified compactive effort as stated in Art. 7.3. The sample is
compacted upto a height of. 127 rnm at the particular moisture content and
density at which the CBR value is required. The plunger is then driven into
the soil under a steadily increasingstatic load. The settlement of the plunger
is measured wifl the help of a dial gauge while the corresponding load is
obtained fron the proving ring, From the results a loadsettlement curve is
plotted and the test loads for 25 mm and 5.0 mm penetrationare determined.
The values of unit standardloads coresponding to thesetwo penetrationsare
70 kgcr# and 105 kg*? respectively. Therefore, the CBRvalues at 2.5
mm and 5.0 mm penetrationscan be determined.
C u r v eB
o
gr
c
600
CL
400
=
c
o
orrected5mm
Penefrotion
ct
o
J
200
Corre
cfed2.5mm
(mm)
Penetrqtion
\F\
Shift of origin
Fig.7.3
Generally, the CBR valu e at 2.5 mrn penetation should be greater than
that at 5.0 mm penetration. In that case,the former value is acceptedas the
CBR value for design purposcs.
If the CBR value correspondingto 5 rnm penetrationexceedsthat for 2.5
mm penetation, tle test should be repeated,However, if identical results are
obtained once again, the CBR value for 5 mm penebation should be used.
EXAMPL'ES
Proctortestareshownbelow:
Problem7.1.Theresultsof a laboratorv
No. ofTesl
.'
\7.92
20.39
= L.636k.g = 16369m
w
Bulk density,y =
1636 =
v= 9n
l.64gm/cc,
l7O
and,drydensity,
\d  *
f#*S::
22
= 1.515
gm/cc.
The dry density y2"of the soil correspondingto the zero a ir void condition
may be obtained from eqn. (7.1).
o
,/
*F
);
h.
1.1
1.2
louc='ts.z.
1s
15
ro
zo
22
Wotertontent {7.)
Table 7.1
a
a
3.526
8.33 10.40
1636
t82t
t907
1.641
1.826
1 . 9 1 3 2.V22
2.UO 1.998
Dry density,ya(gm/cc)
1 . 5 1 5 t.654
r.705 t.740
1.730 1.660
2.I90
2.018
1.810
2.I47
1.869
Frg.7.4
Problem T./.=T,\eoptimum moisture content of a soil is 16.5% and its
maximum dry density is 157 gnlec. The specific gravity of solids is 2.65.
Determine:
(i) the degreeof saturation and percentageof air voids of the soil at OMC.
(ii) the theoretical dry density at OMC correspondingto zero air voids.
3.v24 3.882
?n34
Solution: (i) When the sorl is at OMC, it hasa moisturc content of 16.57o
and a dry densityof 1.57Bm/cc.
1992
Now,we have,
0r'
1.964
1.808
L.747
t.67
fd = *
!'5't =
t.733
The compaction curve is shown in Fig. 7.4. From the curve we find,
7.4.
ta
c
o,
2.M6
d6or= 1.752
qm/cc
>\
(2.69)(t nt
v,
, 4 e o= t + 0 . 2 f r = z l 4 7 g m / c n
2.86
I
z Z e r oa i r v o i d s
.q:<
1 0/o
: oir voids z
U
U
=t
"_g_(%fa@ _0.248
9)
2.O
(2.68)
I * (0.0833)
Again, when the soil has IO% ait void, its degree of saturation isgOVo.
No. of test
{
>E 1 . 8
G ' b , , , ! ? 1 % l : 9 1
= .= Z . r e g m / c c
Y* " GG
17l
Compaction
oft
(2'65)(1'0)
l + e
r + e= f f i = t . e a
e = 0.688
Again, se = w G, or, ,f = n G
e
(0.16s)
(2.6s)=
0.635 = 63.5Vo
(0.68s)
Hence,therequireddegreeof saturationis 63.5%o
of
andthepercentage
air void is (10063.5)Vo= 36.5Vo
(ii) At zeroair void thesoil is fully saturated,
i.e.,s = 1.
I7Z
" = 8
(2.6s)=
 (0.165)
0.437
(2.6s:" ^'
=1.844gm/cc
ta=ffi,
Therefore, the theoretical dry density at OMC for zero air void = 1.844
gmlcc.
During tie construction of an embankment, the density
Probten.@.
attained by field compaction was investigatedby the sandjar method. A test
pit was excavatedin the newly compactedsoil and was filled up by pouring
sand. The following were the observations:
'w*\
W n = w . W d * = ' f r' J; t
l
thepit,
sorurion:
to"'";'="i:
L)z
\
Volume of the pit = 1550 cc.
Wt
B u t , 1 =7 i , o r , W 4 = \ d . V
ffr
173
Compaction
= 37.35t
= (0.22s)(166)
content
soilis 1'78t/# anditsmoisture
of theexisting
Thebulkdensity
is9%6.
Dry densityoftheexistingsoil, y4 = #;
J::
or'
thesoil, t =
.'. Insitubulkdensityof
#i
= 1.86gm/cc
'P=tfl=I#G=r'66gm/*'
,a
Yr=1fu
r'633t/nf
, r = Y  #l.oJJ = 1 0 1 . 6 5 m 3
ld
Weight of water availablefrom tbis soit,
Wnr= Wd. w5 = (166)(0.0) = 14.94t
.'. Quantity of water to be added=(37.35 t4.94>t
tobeadded=
ofwater
Volume
##Hi#
But,densitYofwater,Y,o = 1 gm/cc
= 106 t/cc
= (1000)
1ro6;tzfit
= l03 tlir
174
Problemsin SoitMechanicsandFoundationEngineering
Here,
( 3 3 6 3 . 6  2 1 i
00)_12
l'J39 gm/cc
(r43^3r)
= =(t''?n)r. = 1.2o6gm/cc.
Y( 1+ 0 . 1 1 )
l+w
8857.42100I
b u l k d esni.t V  f t * f f = l . f i 6 2 g m / c c
la=l.72gm/cc,G=2.68
y,r* =
drydensity,
 1.505gm/cc
Y/*
ld  ld^o
Relativedeusiw. R^ =
x l00vo
.

se = wG, or " = Ag
e
(9.155)g{s}
" =
 0.744 = 74.4vo
(0.55u1
Again,
Yd
$"n
Y/r""
Ydro
={i#i{i#+#i 0oo)'/.
Problem7.6.rnorderto determine
thererativedensityof a sandsampre,
its
naturalmoistureconte.ntandburk densityweredetermined
in the fiero and
were found tobe 770and1.61grn/ccrespectivery.
Sampresof this soirwere
thencornpactedin a procror'smourdof i/30 cft capaciiy,
at the toosestand
thedensest
states.
The followingdatawereobtained:
Weightofemprymould= 2100gm
= r.677gm/cc
lnsirudrydensity,
Va= ffi
e = 0.558.
#Tfrb
t+"ffi
ot,
=udffiul cc=e43.8ecc
ln the denseststate,
We have,p =
_ (a*ga
1.72
ort
t75
Compaction
its type.
= 70.74 7o
/
Problernl]l
It is required to construct an embankment having a total
volume of 64000 cu.m. The required soil is to be collected from borrow pits.
It was found that tbe cxisting soil has a moisture content of l4Vo, void ratio
of 0.63 and specific gravity of solids of 268. Iaboratory tests indicate that
the OMC and maximum dry density of the soil arc l9.5Vo and 1.72 gm/cc
respectively. The soil is to be carried from the borrow pit to the construction
site by trucks having averagenet canying capacity of 5.5 t. Determine the
total number of trips the trucks havc to rnake for constructing the entire
embankment.Also find out the quantity of water to be addedto the borrowed
soil before compaction.
Solution:
Insirudrydensity
of thesoil, ,u = fP
l +
176
= g'6CIi1'P= L64sm/cr
(1 + 0.63)
Compaction
177
Solutiron: When the rock presentin the fill is compactedto the densest
state, its dry unit weight is given by,
= 1.64t/m3
.'. Insitubulk density,\ = \a(1 + w) = (1.64,(1 + 0.1a) = L87 t/m3
Now, in 1 n3 of borrowedsoil, quantityof dry soil presentis 1.64t, and
quantityof waterpresent= (0.14)(1.64) Wn = w . W6l
t...
= O.23t
while constructingrheembankment,
this soil hasto be comDacted
at a
moisturecontentof l9,5Voandat a dry densityof 172 t/m3.
For I m3of finishedembankrnent,
dry soil required= 1.72t,
G'{n i;
(2.s6)
(t.o) _
=
= 1.48gm/cc.
Y/. =  . " _
o;i
andwaterrequired = (0.195)(1.72\t
= 0.335t.
quantityof dry soil required= (1.72)(6.t000)= 1,10,0g0t
*P
""Quantitv'
*".:il;,#'_',o,:HrTlffiX'l
Problem 7.8. The rock content in a filr is 8TToby dry weight. The rock can
be compactedto a rninimumvoid ratio of 0.73.The maximum dry unit weight
to whic.h the soil fraction can be compacted is 1.63 gm/cc. wbat is the
maximurn dry density to which the fill can be compactid ? Given, specific
gravity of the rock = 2.56.
= 0.54cc.
#cc
#
= 0.123 cc:.
=
=
W
L
 1.508gm/cc.
0J63
Problem 7.9. The results of a laboratorv CBR test are shown below :
= 67,122
n3
No. of tesl
Penetratron
0.5
Lmd (kg)
(.)
1.0
1.5
)n
?.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
a)7 )
t0
't.5
II
L:
10.0 L?.5
401.7431.8458.3
Determine the CBR value of the soil. Given, unit standardloads for 2.5
mm and 5.0 mm penefafions are 70 and 105 kg/cm" respectively.
Solution: Fig.7.5 shows the load vs. penetraiioncurve. As the curve is
initially concaveupwards, an initial zero correction is required.
The shaight portion of the curve is projectedbackwardsto intersect the
Xaxis at O , which then becomesthe new origin. Consequently,all points on
the penetration axis are shifted to the nght by an equal amounl
From Fig. 7.5 we obtain,
test load for corrected2.5 mm penetration= 200 kg.
and,
= * fS.Ol'"*2  19.635cmz
4 '
178
.'.Unittestload
forLmmpeneftarion
=
ffi.
and,unittestloadfor 5.0mmpenetrat
ion I
lv.oJJ
t6. *
= 10.19
kg/cn
= 16.91ks7cm
(i) Plot the water content vs. dry density relationshipand determine the
optimum moisture content and the correspondingmaximum dry density of
the soii.
(ii) If the specific gravity of soil solids be 2.70, pl<rtthe zero afuvoid line.
= 1,74 gmlccl
[Ans. OMC = 17.6%,Y,rmax
1.007o= 14.6%
x l(fi%o = 16.lLo
105
Thus, CBR value for 5.0 mm penetrationis greaterthan that for 2.5 mm
penetration"Therefore, the cBR test has to be repeatedand if similar
results
are obtained once again, then the cBR value of ie.tvo should be accepted.
500
400
ET
)<
11.6
14.9
t7.7
20.r
22.s
Wt. of soil and mould (gm) 3263.4 3523.28 3734.8 3852.9 3832.7 3765.1
The height and intemal diameterof the mould are 12.6cm and 10.1 cm
respectively. The ernpty mould weighs 1950 grn. Plot the compaction curve
and determine ttre optimum moisture contentand the correspondingdry and
bulk densitiesof the soil.
AIso plot the zcro air void line and tbe SOqosaturationline.
Given, specific gravity of solids = 2.69. [Ans: OMC = l7Vo,y7 ='1.6gm/cc,
7.3. Tlre insitu dBnsity of a soil mass is being determined by the'''ifure
cutter method. The height and internal diameterof the core are 12.7 cm and
L0 cm respectively and is weight, wheu empty, is 1847 gm. When the core
is filled with soil, it weighs 3674 gm.If the specificgravity of solids be 2.67
and the degree of saturation of the soil be 63%, determine the insitu dry
densityof the soil. The insituvoid ratio of the soil is found to be 0.85.[Atts.
1.526gm/ccl
7.4. An embankmentof hapezoidalcrossscctionis to bc constructed for
a 2 knr long highway. The embankmentshould have a height af 2.2 m and a
top width of 10 rn. The sides of the embankmerttare to be sloped at 2H : 1'
V. The soil obtained from the borrow area is tested in the laboratory and is
found to have the following properties:
Natural moisture content = l2Vo
c,
EN
=
crc
o
EI
E
CI
,
P e n e t r o t i o(nm m l
Fig.7.5
= 1.8{./m3
Insitubulk density
Optirnummoisturecontent= 19%
E)GRCISET
7.1. The following are the results of a proctor compaction test performed
on a soil sample"
7.8
y = 1.87gm/ccl
WaterContent(%)
179
Compaction
9.2
I.524
L2.7
1.749
15:5
1.949
18.3
2.U9
2A.2
2.4t9
= t.65thf
.31
7.5, Determine the magnitudesof compactive effort imparted to a soil
during:
(i) StandardProctor Test
!
i
i
I
I
l1
i1
,l
jt
';
Il
)
180
Load (kg)
19.8
50.1
81.8
Penetration
(mm)
0.5
1,0
r.5
Plot the loadpenetration curve and determine the CBR value of the soil'
Conrment on the test results. fAns.23.7%l
8
SHEAR STRENGTH
When an external load is applied on a soil mass,
8.1 Introduction:
sbearing stressesafe induced in it. Ii the shearstressdeveloped on any plane
in the soil exceedsa certain limiting value, failure of the soil occurs. The
maxirnurn shear stresswhich a given soil can withstand is called its shear
strength.
The factors goveming the shearstrengthof a soil are :
(i) internal frit:tion, i.e., the resistancedue to particle interlocking
(ii) cohesion, i.e., the resistancedue to the internal structural bond
which tends to hold the particles together.
According to Coulomb's law, the shearstrength,r, of a soil is given by:
'E = c + otan
...(8.1)
0
where,
T
{
J(bt
Fig.8.1.
L82
and,
"=Y.rycos2o
...(8.2)
" = 9l:or
z
...(8.3)
,in 29
183
Shear Stength
8.3 Pole: The conceptof the pole, or the origin of the planes,is very usefrtl
in such problems where the locations of the principal planes are not known.
Consider the soil element subjectedto a system ofexternal stressesas
shown in Fig. 8.3. It is required to determine the normal and shear stresses
acting on the planeAA, inclined at an angle 0 to the horizontal.
Considering the free body diagram of the element it can be proved that
the element can be in equilibrium only if, T, = ayx.
The procedure for drawing the Mohr Circle and locating the pole are as
follows:
(i) Choose tle coordinate axesand selecta vector scale.
(ii) Locate the points A and B such that they representthe stresseson
tbe horizontal and vertical boundariesrspectively,of the element.
(iii) JoinAB. It intersectsthe oaxis at C.
(iv) With C as centre and CA = CB as radius, draw the Mohr circle.
(") The point A representsthe stress conditions on the horizontal
plane. From A, draw a straight line parallel to this plane. It intersects the
circumference at P. Again, if from .B a line is drawn parallel to the vertical
plane (since the point B representsthe stressesacting on this plane), it will
intersect the circle at tle samepoint P" This is the pole of Mohr's circle.
T
(r rTtyl
^ 
!y, .'A
xv'
Try
(0,0)L/
QlqT)
A
Txy
cr
"i+"3
Io
vlrv
"i"3
,
T
Fig.8.3
t FliRorhincipol
Strrss
a,
(,Tl \
c\
T
Fi8.8.2
(uD From the pole P draw a line parallelto the planeon which the
shessesarerequired.This line intersectsthecircleatQ.T\e coordinates
of
give
the
nonnal
and
shear
stresses
on
given
planeAA.
the
Q
Thus,thepolemay be definedasa particularpoint on thc Mohr's circte
suchthat, if a line is drawnfrom this point makingit parallelto any given
184
plane within the soil mass,lhen, the coordinatesof the point of intersection
of this line with the circle will representthe stressesacting on that plane.
8.3.1 Sign convention'
The following sign conventions are rormallv
followed for plotting the stresscoordinates:
Normal stress: Compressive stressesar taken as positive and tensile
stressesas negative.
However, soils can with stand only compression and
not tension. Hence the normal stresson any plane of a
soil element which is in static equilibriurn is always
positive.
Shcirrstrcss: The sign of a shearstressis determinedon the basis of
the direction of its moment about any arbitrary point
inside the soil mass. If tbe moment acts in the anticlockrvisedirection, the shearstressis positive, whereas
if it acts in the clockwise direction. the shear stress is
negative.
8.3.2 Ltrcation oJ the failure plane : Fig. 8.4 representsa soil sample
subjected toa rnajor principal stresso1 and a minor principal stress03. As
the sample is on the verge of failure, the Mohr circle has touched the failure
envelope at P. Evidently, the pole of the Mohr circle is at A.
The highest point on the circumference of the Mohr circle is the crown
R. The lineAR is inclined to the oaxis at 45'. The corresponding plane in
the soil is MN, which is the plane subjected to the maximum shear stress,
r,no. Howev er, theIntential failure plane in the soil is not MN, but theplane
represented by the poiru P, becausethe stresscoordinates given by P are
,B
/ , N
ShearStength
185
such that coulomb's equation is satisfied as the point P lies on the failure
envelope. In order to determine the location of this plane,join PA and PC.
Now,
LPCB=LPAC+/APC
AC = PC,
As
LAPC = LPAC = a
LrcB=ct+
Again,since
InAPDG.
q = 2 a ,
or,
a = 45' + g/2
or,
...(8.4)
or,
where,
"
ffO = flo'w value = tan (45" + 0 /2)
...(8.6)
...(8.7)
l:boratory tests :
1. Direcl ShearTest
2. Triaxial CompressionTest
3. UnconfinedCompressionTest.
Field Test :
1. Vane ShearTest
For a detaileddescriptionof the testprocedures,the readeris refened to
any standardtextbook of Soil Mer:hanics.Only the essentialpoinf,sregarding
the computationof shearstrengthwill be highlightedhere.
B.
3
H, ,r8/
A
e
Fig.B.;
186
V r t L V
A'=  nt
i
where,
[o)
(b)
(c]
Fig.8.5
Three samplesofa soil are testedunder different cell pressures.From the
results, three Mohr circles are construcied, and a common tangent is drawn
to them. This is the failure envelope.
The normal stressat any point during the test is determined by dividing
the normal load obtained from the reading of the proving ring by the
crosssectionalarea of the sample. Due to the bulging of the sample during
shear, the crosssectional area should be modified using the following
equation :
Ac = As/(t  e)
...(8.e)
where,
Ac = coffected area
A0 = initial area
where,
...(8.10)
q3ta6
r1 =
187
Shear Strength
+ Q/Z)
ar = o3vn4 (45' + 6/21 + ktang,"
03 = 0, for an unconfined cotnpressiontest,
or = 2c tan(45' + Q/2)
...(8.11)
or,
Vones
qu = 2c
eu
c=T
...(8.12)
airfi.ffil
The apparatusconsistsof fourmetal
blades, called vanes,mounted on a steel
rod, as shown in Fig. 8.6. The device is
pushed slowly upto the desired depth
I.
r/
l ol
Fig.8.6
Vanes
188
189
Shear Stength
and is rotated at a uniform speedby applying a torque through the torque rod.
The amount of torque applied is recorded on a dial fitted to the rod. Failure
occurswhen the vane can be rotatedwithout any further increasein the torque.
For a cohesive soil, Q = 0. Hence coulomb's equation reducesto :
S = C
Thus, for a cohesive soil, the shearsrrengthis equal to its cohesion.In a vane
shear
test,
thecohesion,
r"I:y
*.ryry*n
bederermined
from:
:,"=.d4{A \
I
t2 6l I
_ i .  
'
"(sr3)
+  l
I : torqueapplied (= p.a)
i/ = heightofthevane
where,
a =
and,
Nature of clay
I
t2
Insensitive
f,owsensitive
Medium sensitive
Sensitive
24
48
8L6
>16
Extra sensitive
Quick clay
 r.r\
Q
r = #sin
and
sclution: (a) Analytical method: The normal stress,o and the shear
stress,r on any plane inclined at 0 to the major principal plane is given by :
o ==0?
1 * o 3 '* 0 T
1  o 3
L_
.^ x 60')
(2
 (0.45)(sin120') = 0.39kg/arr2
TlKglcnz]r
0.75
0 t1.33,0.39)
0.50
I
0.25
0'39K9
0
t75
EXA.MPLES
Pnoblern
V. A soil sample is subjectedto a major principal stressof 2
kglon and a rninor principal stressof 1.1 kg/r' . Determinethe uonnal and
shear stressesacting on a plane inclined at 30o to the nrajor principal stress.
cos2o
= l.32skg/cmz
f.5 c
.
sin 20
Here,
ol('3
2.5 {
( K g/ c m 2 l
Fig.8:7
190
Shear Strengtlt
l m2 y
(ii) From the centre C of tlris circle, CD is drawn at atr augle of 120o
( = 2 0) to the oaxis. This line intersectsthe circle at D.
Altenratively, frorn the pointA correspondingto s3, a straight lineAD is
drawn at an angle of 600 1= 0) to the oaxis.AD also intenects tbe circle at
the samepohrt D.
N(40,'t0)
:16'5kN/m?+1
t
T = 3 ' 6k N /
o = 1.33kg/cmz
30
r = 0.39kg/crnz
Problem
Y.
19.
LS S
10kN/m2
(20,10)
2 0 k Nm
/
iot<Nl#
tDr
_T(kN/m2)
to)
Fig.8.8(b)
D
Fig.88(a)
(i) The points of intersection,R and $ between the circle and the oaxis
give the principal stresses.Here,
ol = 48 kN,/rn2
(iii) If the soil hasa colresionof 5 kN/m2 and an angleof intemal friction
of 25o,find out whelher a shearfailure is likely to occur along the planeXX.
ot = l6.2kN/m2
and
on
= 16.5kN/m2 andrps=3.6kN/rn2
t92
193
Slrcor Strengtlt
oxx = 2'35t/mz
5Kg/cm2
rnr = 0'95t/n2
artd
ZKglcnz
(a).
5Kglc nz
50kN/m2
(o)
5 5k N / m 2
(a)
Fig.8.e
40kN/m2
8.61
kN/m2
T ( k N/ m 2 )
A
a?
50k N/m2
60kN/m2
a 7 ( K g/ c m 2 )
55kN/m2
q__L
8.57k N/m2
30
40
cr
( k N/ m 2 )
+ 2
0.95
Fig.3'it'
P.
T(Kglcnzl
tb)
Fig.8.e(b)
t94
r = 8.67 kN/m2
(ii) The free body diagram of the soil element pqr, bounded by the
vertical plaile, the horizontal plane and tbe given plane AA, is shown in
Fig. 8.10 (c).
(iii) The free body will be in equilibrium if the sum of the components
ofall forces acting on it along any two orthogonal axcs separatelybe zero.
Let,
P4 = 1unit,
p
o
pr=ffi=6;=2units
g
r'e'
and

ar
' 7 'o PQ
tanh=m{3n
1'732unia
or,
OI,
n{d
GTn
Shear Stength
195
G + e
Ysar= ll;.Yw
Now,
2.68+ 0.654,. ^,
= la
g654 tr'ut
Z.OTgm/cc= 2.02Vm3
(i) The normalstresson thegivenplane.,
a = ld, 21 + l*6. 22
= (r.62,(2) + (r.02)(3\ = 6.3t/m2
..'. Sbearstrengthof tbesoil at thisplane,
., = c + otano
 0 + (6.3)(tan35')  4,41t/n?
(ii) In this casetheentiresoil massis submerged.
o  ysub.z= (1.02\(5, 5.tt/m2
= (5.1)(ran35)  3.57t/mZ
/,, s
Problentd Specimens
of a silty sandweresubjectedto the directshear
testin thelaboratory,in a shearboxof 6 cm x 6 cm size.Thc normalloadand
theconesponding
shearforcesat failureareshownbelow :
and,
area .
.
These are shown in a tabular form below :
lll'
IU
?o
30
Shearforce (kg)
9.90
t5.4t
20.88
Normal stress(kg/cm2)
o.28
0.56
0.83
0.275
0,428
0.580
Shearstress(kglcm")
L96
Shear Strength
tgl
e\I
8.5
g0'5
(vii) Join PA andPB. Thesetwo lines are parallel to the directions of the
planes on which 03 and 01, respectively,act. From the figure we obtain,
3 a.t
o,
L
+
AAB
v)
u 0.2
c =0 . l 2 k g l c n z
a./l
0
Hence the minor and the rnajor principal planes are inclined to the
horizontal at 32.5" and 57.5" respectively. The orientation of the planes are
shown in Fig. 8.12 (b).
ct
OJ
lo.2 0.4 06
O.g lo
N o r m oS
l t l e s s , r ( K g l c m 2)
Fi8.8.11
and r =
(iii) Since the soil is a dry sand, it should not have any apparentcohesion
and tle failure envelope should passthrough the origin, Join the origin O and
the point 8.O8 is the failure envelope.
(iv) The point Q representsthe stresseson tle failure plane. But in a
direct sheartest, the failure plane is aly3lrs horizontal.Now, the point p must
must touci the iailure
envelope. If Q can be joined to the centre of the circle the resulting line will
GI
F
; t.2
gr
.Y
7oJ o't
Principot
Ptane
+
t/l
L 0 {
o
(b)
CJ
E
t/l
2,4q 2.8
NormolS tress(lQ/cm2l
(a)
Fig.8.12
198
,SampleNo.
Crll?ressure(W*\
< l 1= o 3 l V 1+ 2 c ' l N 6
D.eviarorstress
(tg/cmJ
1.
0.5
0.80
2.
1.O
o.97
1.5
1..t3
0.5JV{+Tcfi=t.3
Determinetheshearparameters
of tle soil(i) graphically(ii) analytically.
solution: In a triaxial testthe cell pressureactsas the minor principal
stess,while themajorprincipalstressis thesumof thecell pressureandthe
deviatorstressal failure.Tbe valuesof o3 ando1 areshownbelow:
SampleNo.
os (kg/cm2)
oa(kglw2)
or (kgcqr2)
0.5
0.80
1.30
2.
1.0
o.97
I.97
3.
1..5
L.t7
2.67
1.
199
ShearStength
where
Similarly, for the second and third samples, the following equations are
obtained:
and,
Nq+2c4$=1.97
1.5/V6+ k,/q = L63
....(ii)
...(iii)
0rt
olt
oft
c = 0.27W*r2
0 = 8.5"
....(i)
f'
ot,
Substitutingfor f in eqn.(i),
(0.s)(1.34)+ (2c) (1.157)= 1.3
ort
c = 0.27W*?
Fig.8.l3
2OO
?ol
Shear Strength
SampleNo.
Ccll pressu;e
(kgicml
Deviator stress^at
failure (kgicrn')
Pore pressureat
failure (klcm')
1.
1.0
2.U2
0.41
2.
1.5
z.t8
o.62
J.
2.0
2.37
0.70
With o3 =Zk{an?
8.14).
'sincetlesampleismadeofcoarsesandandsinceitisinthedrystate'
passesthrough
no apparent cohesion will develop and the failure envelope
the origin.
to the Mohr.circle
Iriorder to locate the failure envelope,draw a tangent
fromtheorigin.Byrneasurement,theangleofobliquityofthislineis3l''
Hence, the shearParametersare:
'
c = O , O= 3 1 '
(ii) We have, from eqn; (8.6)'
o1 =o3Nq+2c4$
Asc = 0, ".
o1 = 03 lV6
01 = 03 tan21+5' + Q/2')
or,
o ' = 6  l l
"'(i)
(\a
E
c'l
Sample
No.
=
v,
v,
o,
o3
gg"r"1
ad
(kg/cm2)
o1
( ol + oa)
g'l
o'3
(
a
s
*
)
ot
1 ;r)
Gc/"1
(kg/cm") (kg/cm:)
(kg,/cm2)
+
tt
L
E
o,
E
3/'l
NormolStress (Kg/cm2)
Fig.8'14
Here,o3 =3k{u?,0
= 31'
g'37kg/ctt
o1 = (3)[tan(45"+ 3r"/2)f =
Deviatorstress'o7 = 01  03
 g.373=6.37 kg.tt
^
problen g.l {Tl" tollo*ing resultswereobtainedfrorn a laboratorytriaxial
test with aX6ngementsfor porepressuremeasuremenls:
1.
1.0
2.U2
3.U2
0.41
0.59
2.59
2.
1.5
2.t8
3.68
0.62
0.88'
3.06
t,
2.0
2.37
4.37
0.70
1.30
3.67
Total stressanolysis:Three Mohr circles are drawn using the three sets
of values of o1 and o3. In Fig. 8.15, thesecircles are shown by firm lines. A
common tangent is drawn through them, which is the failure envelope for
toal stressanalysis.From the figure we obtain.
'
c =o.75 Wt"f and O = ?.5
Effective stess analysis:In this casethe Mohr circles are drawn with the
three sets of values of o1' and o3'. In Fig. 815 the effectivc stresscircles are
representedby broken lines. Thc values ofthe correspondingshearstrength
paramete$ are,
c' = 0.65 kg/un2 arld O' = 13'
t
202
Now,
o+
O 13o
e
q
.Y
203
SIrcar Stengtlt
a7 = a1  63
c 
I.
...(ii)
01 =l;68+r
olt
_G
lo!'
' 0 5
c =0 ' 7 5
l.
ntitni''
t.5
nn
20
33
a.o oil
0ft
'
N o r m oS
l tressllQ/cm2)
Fig.8.15
,.'
Problgm S.{'fle shearstrengthparametersof a given soil are, c 0.26'
kglcm" an{ 6 = 21'. Undrainedtriaxial lests are to be carried out on
specinensof this soil. Determine:
, (f deviator stressat which failure will occur if the cell pressurebe 2.5
kglont.
(ii) the cell pressure during the test, if the sample fails when the deviator
stressreaches1.68 kg/crn'.
Solution:
(D We havefrom eqn.(8.6).
01 o3'lVq+zc'l$
x = 0.83
ot,
i
i'
$ll preslure
, (kN/n')
1.
:50
2.
3.
Deviatorload
at failure
(kN)
Change in
Volume
(cc)
Axial
Deformation
(mm)
0.f/11
 0.9
51,
i00
0.659
 1.3
7.O
150
0.0956
 1.6
91
1.68+x=2.Il7x+O.757
l.Ll7x = 0.923
 1.455
be obtained from
Hence,eqn (8.6)reducesto :
or  2.117os + (21(0.26)(1.455)
"^c
=vrtLv
LrLL
ot;
at  2.1!7 a3 + o.757
When
a3  25Woo2
 (n/4)(3.82) (7.6) cc
o1 (Lll7)(LS)+0.757
= 86.19cc
 6.05kg/ct&
....(i)
Here,
Lt  7'6crrr
zo1
/r'
problenr SWAv
unconfined compression test was performed on an
of
norrnallyconsolidatedclay, having a diameterof 3.75
sample
undisturbed
occuned under a vertical compressive load of
Failure
crn
high.
cm and 7.5
recordedat failurewas 0.9 cm. A remoulded
de
formation
axial
t 16.3kg. The
sAnrpleof the same soil failed under a compressiveload of 68.2k9, alrd the
correspondingaxial cornpressionwas 1'15 crn
7f,:ilf
:.
0.0711 =
59.L0kN/rn'
12.03x 10a
ad=
o3
1rxlm2)
Fa
(kN)
LV
(*)
AL
("m)
Ac
(".2)
od
o1
GN/#)
ltcN/m2)
50
0.0711
 0.9
5,1
12.O3 5 9 . 1 0
109.10
100
0.085e
 t.3
7.0
t7^36
69.50
169.50
o.tB56
 1.6
9.1
12.65
75.61
225.61,
15(l
205
Shear Stengtlt
t = + = ffi = o.r,
Axialstrainarfailure,
Corrected atea,Ar=
*
11'04  1"55cm2
= L.'
=
T=d.tz
Normalstressat failure=
= 9.27kg/anz
stength,4u = 9'27kg/cri
Unconfinedcompressive
J
and,cohesion,= + =
; t00
o
Y
t4
L
= 4.64kg/cn?
stote:
(b) RemouMed
15 1.153
= 1T. 3
=L
o
h s n
ct
0
c
:y!_L__
50
3t
a. = , 1l#sl = 13'o3cm2
r00
n32nn
150
It Az
N o r m oS
l t r e s s( K g / c m 2 l
Fig.8.16
sttengthin theundisturk
Scnstttvlty=@t"
246
pressureparameters
A andB.
torque head at failure was 417.5 kgcm. The vane was then rotated very
rapidly in order to comptetely remould the soil. It was found that the
remoulded soil can be sheared by applying a torque of ?83.2kgcm.
Determine the shearstrcngthof the soil in the undisturbcd and remoulded."statesand its sensitivity.
Solution: Weknow tha!
S 
S 
L , u = B [ A o 3 + A ( A o 1 Aor)1, whereAandBare
Skernpton'sporepressure
parrmctcls.
hrthefirstcase,Ao3 = 3  2 
 s 
S 
...(D
or,
Orr
T
(xl (7.52)(rr.25/2 + 7.5t6)
T
ttr3.67
state,f = Ctl.Skgcm,
In the undisturbed
4175 
lkg/em2' Ao1  I
o . 0 8 + B [ 1+ A ( O  1 ) l
B(l  A)  0.8
"nfr
'?)
Solution:We have
or,
2W
ShearStrength
...(iD
rtt}.67
o37Wr;rr2
Sensitivit, W
1.48
lA
 0.08
15 A
0.42
1  A
oft
To'6'l
'or,
oI,
B(l0.6)=0.08
0.08
^ = a 7 = u n^
E
.z
I .
Problem ttfl6. A vane sheartest was carried but in the field to determine the
sbearing strength of a deepseatcdlayer of soft clay. The varte was 11.5 crn
high and 7.5 cm across the blades. The equivalent torguc recorded at the
EXERCISES
8.1. The normal stresssacti4gon two orthogonalplanesof a soil
sampleare250kNlm2and110kN/m{ Findoutthenormalandsbearstresses
"
ofl a planeinclinedat 60 to thedirectionof themajorprirtcipalsress.
[Ans. o = 215 k].[/m2,r = 60.6 trtl/m2]
t.2. The stressconditionson a soil elementare shownin Fig. 8.17.
Dctermine:
(D The orientationandmagnitudeof thc principalstesses.
(ii) The stresses
actingon thehorizontalandthc verticafplanes.
[Ans. (i) ot = 2,76kg.t]
0.3k4/cm2;
248
lKglcrs?
209
8.5. In problem 8.4, if the water table rises from a great depth to the
ground surfaceso that the soil becomesfully saturatedand its natural moisture
content increasesto l9%o, how will the shear strength on the given plane
change?
[Ans. Reducedby 0.85 t/m']
lKglcn?
2Kglcn2
0'5Kglcr]
015Kg1c62
Fig.8.17
8.3. Fig. 8.18 illustratesthe stressconditionson a soil elemenl
(i) Determine the normal and shear stresseson the planeXX.
(ii) Draw a free body diagram of the element bounded by plane XX
and show thesestresses.
1l tn2
X
Fig.8.l9
2.5iln2
2 . 5 tt n ?
(iii) Prove
trrat
theu* o'iii',
Plot the failure envelopefor the soil atrd detennine its shear parameters.
i,TJi::?ftg*,r, r =0.65rg.'/,l
[Ans.c=0,0=33']
8.8. A given soil has a unit cohesion of 2 vumzand an angleof internal
friclion of 28'. Samplesof the soil were testedin the laboratoryi4 a triaxial
apparafusunder the undrained cnndition.Determine :
(i)
(ii) The applied cell pressure,if the sample fails under a total vertical
pressureof 5.09kg/on2.
tAns. (it332 k4.lcmz, (ii) z.s kg/cmzl
8.9. A set of triaxial testswere performed on three samples of a isoil.
The cell pressuresand the deviatorstressesat failure are given below:
210
CellPr. (kN/m2)
Deviator stress(kN/m)
2M
690
300
855
400
1030
Sample.No.
SampleNo.
Cell Pr.
Deviator load
Axial Deformation
(tg)
(".)
$il"fi
Deviator load
at failure
(ke)
Changein
volume (cc)
Atial
Deformation
(cm)
0.5
45
1.1
0.92
1.0
52
L.5
1.15
'/ z.o
79.5
L.7
L.22
SampleNo.
ztL
Shear Stengtlt
Plot Mohr's circles and determine the apparent val'ues ot\hear paramelers of the soil.
[Ans. c = 1 kg/crn', e = 18.7"]
1.45
29.5
0.98
2.70
37.9
L.t3
42.8
1.16
1.0
2.0
3.0
Deviator Stress(kgicm')
L.31.
I.62
1.89
(kg/cmJ
Porepressure
0.18
0.42
0.86
Cell Pr.(kg/cmJ
0' = 9.8'l
2t2
whentheloadreachedl5lkg,andlhecorrespondingaxialdeformationwas
:
2 cm. The sarnplewas made of clay and had the following properties
G=2.67,s=O.69,w=26Vo
Determine the sndarparametersof the soil
o, =
[Ans' 0 = 0 c A'77 kglc11n'i
cylindrical
8.L7. An unconfiinedcompressiontest was performed on a
sample
The
75
mm'
of
a
height
soil sample having a dihmeter of 3?.5 mm and
at
recorded
strain
axial
The
kg.
23.5
failed afa vertical cornpressiveload of
53'
at
inclined
to
be
observed
was
plane
failure was L.16 "* .od the failure
the soil'
to the horizoiltal Determine the apparentshearparametersof
= 16"]
[Ans. c = 0.68kg/on2, 0
an
8.L8. A triaxial test was performed on a sample of dry sand having
applied
5
"ppui.",6urlue of 36'.Initialiy, a chamberpressureof TglT.ytt
Keeping this
and the deviator stress was gridually increasedto 3 kg/on''
reduced. Al
gradually
the.
was
deviator stressunchanged,the cell pressure
will
fail?
what value of cell pressurethe sample
[Ans. 1.05tg/"*2]
to prevent
8.19. Determine the minimum lateral pressure required"
The shear
kg/on'.
10
of
stress
vertical
a
total
to
failure of a soil subjected
"'
=
17'5
=
kglcm',
0'3
:
c
given
as
I
parametersof the soil are
[Ans.4.94 xgcrtl
an undisturbed
8.20. A laboratory vane shear test was performed in
6'3 mm and
were
vane
sample of soft clay. The diameter and height of the
of 110 gm
torque
applied
an
if .: * respectively' The sample failed under
rapidly'
vane
the
by
rotating
cm. The ,.*pl" was ttren "ott pi.t"ly disturbed
the
Determine
gmcm'
of'45
torque
"
The rernouldid soil failed ,tna"t
states
remoulded
an{
undisturbed
the
in
undrained shear strength of the soil
respectively; 2'5]
and compute its sensltivity.[Aor.0. 55 and}.22kglurr2
in
8.21. If a field vane shear test is performed on the soil mentioned
determine
above problem,witha vane of 11.3 cmheightand 7.5 crn diameter,
states'
remoulded
and
undisturbed
the
in
soil
the
to
fail
required
the torques
BARTH PRESSURE
9.1. Inhoduction: It is often required to maintain a difference in the
elevation level of the ground on the left and right hand sides of a vertical
section. Such sihtations call for the construction of an earthretaining
structure,e.g., a retaining wall or a sheetpilewall. The earthretainedby such
a structure exerts a lateral thrust which is of paramount importance in the
design of the retaining structure.
Depending on the conditions prevailing at the site, tle lateral earth
pressuremay be divided into the following three categories:
(i) Earth pressuteat rest.
(ii) Active earth pressure.
(iii) Passiveearth pressure.
9.2. Earth kessurc at Rest: Fig. 9.1 (a) shows a retaining wall, embedded
below the ground level upto a depth D, and rctaining earth upto a height l/.
If the wall is perfecfly rigid, no lateral movement of the wall can occur. And
hence,no deformation ofthe soil can take place.The lateral pressureexerted
by the soil is then called the earth pressureat rest.
S o i tW e d gA
eBt
Ur',
Pa
Fig.9.l
214
Theconjugaterelationshipbetweenthelateralearthpressureandthe
vertical overburden pressureis given by:
"'(9'1)
ol = Ko'ov, or oh = Ko'\z
where
Y = unitweightof soil
z = depth at which lateral pressureis measured'
The value of K6 dependson the properties of the soil and its stresshistory,
and is given by:
& =t h
where,
.,(e.2)
9.3. Active and Passive Earth Pressupes: In reality, a retaining wall is not
rigid, but flexible, i.e', it is free to roiate about its base' In Fig' 9'1(a)' let
pl and pg,be the atrestlateral thrusts acting on the back and front faces of
the wall respectively. Due to the difference in elevation levels, Po , Po''
Hence, a flexible wall will yield away from the bac$fill. The soil wedgeABC
will then tend to slide down along the potential slidilg surface BC. This
condition is illustrated inFig.9.1(b). The frictional resistanceFR againstsuch
movement will act upward alongBC. Its horizontal componentFs will act in
will
the opposite direction to that of Pg. Thus the net pressureon the wall
decreaie. Such a stateis called the active stateof plastic equilibrium, and the
lateral pressureis called fte active earth pressure'
simultaneously,thesoil w edgeDEF inftontof the wall getscompressed.
The frictional resistanceFn' io this case acts along ED and its horizontal
componentFg' actsin the samedirection asthat of P6', Hence the net pressure
on the wall increases. Such a state is called the passive state of plastic
equilibrium and the lateral pressureis called the passiveearth pressule..
The active and passiveiarth pressuresare usually computed by either of
the two classical ""tth pr"tt.tte theories, viz., Rankine's and Coulomb's
theory.
g.4. Rankine's Earth Pressure Theory: This theory is based on the
following assumPtions:
l.Thesoilishomogeneous'semi.infinite'dryandcohesionless.
2. Theback of the wall is perfectly smooth and vertical'
3. Deformation of the wall is sufficient to create a state of plastic
equilibrium'
2t5
Earth Pressure
o 1= o 3 N 4 . k  q
...(e.3)
3m
J
1'5m/
Jl
t.toyeySond
I = 1 ' 8 5t / m 3
Q=2t"
c=1tlm2
0enseSantl
Y = 1'95t/m3
@=36o
Fig.9.2
But, o, = 1z
EarthPressure
2t6
and,
\z = pa'ilq + 2cVF
2c
\z
n = L  :
ro
'l{o vflo
of,
...(9.4)
/. .t
t{d
;,ta^
toT
r.tlt
But, ot, = yz
and,o7, = passivepressureintensity = po
Ht3
_L
J *otH+(b)
(ol
...(e.s)
Fig.9.3
Fig. 9.3 (b) shows the disnibution of active Pressure intensity. The
magnitude cf resultant thrust per unit length of wall may be obtained by
multiplying the averagepressureintensity by the height of the wall.
0+KyH
Average pressureintensity,pou
=
=
.'. Resultantthrust,P4
l,*'rrr'
IX,IH'H
Pa = N+
or,
II
"'(g'7)
Po = Ko'{ z
Ar the top of the wall
(z = A), Po = O
i.*or,
...(e.8)
Eqn. (9.6) and (9.7) can be usedto compute the active earth pressurefor
various backfill conditions, as discussedbelow:
(i) Dry or Moist Baclfill with Horizotxal Ground Surface:
Fig. 9.3 (a) shows a retaining wall supporting a homogeneous'backfill of
dry or moist soil, uPto a height.FL
At any depth z below the top of the wall.
It is evihent from eqn. (9.8) that the resultant thrust is given by the area
of the pressuredistribution diagram. This thrust acts through the centroid of
the hiangleA.BC, i.e.,is applied at a heigbt of Hl3 abovethe baseof the wall.
"'(9'6)
Po = Kalz
This condition is shown in Fig. 9.a (a). As the soil is frrlly submerged,its
effectiveunitweightis'
T, = ysar_ yw
t
I
I
At any depth z below the top of the wall, the total active pressureis the
sum of pressuresexertedby the soil and water. According to Pascal's law, a
fluid exerts equal pressurein all directions at any given depth.
Hence, at a depth z,
Pa=KaY'z+Ynz
...(e.e)
pressure
distributiondiagramis shownin Fig. 9.4 (b)
The corresponding
(iii) Part ially Submerped Bqcffit t:
(a) Backfill havingsimilarpropertiesaboveandbelowwatertable:
218
219
Earth Pressure
Eqns. (9.10) and (9.11) may be usedto determiile the resultant thrust aild
its poirit of application correspondilrgto any pressuredistribution diagram'
KqYhr
D
T
lB
Y1 Pz
P r l
Yz
(b)
(o)
iPs
F_
I
Fig'9.4
Ilr Fig. 9.5 (a), the retainiug wall has to retain earth upto a heightfl. The
ground water table is located at a depth ft1 below ground level. The active
pressureintensities are given bY:
Above ground water table: Po = Koyz (O s z s h)
Below ground water table: Po = Koyhl + Koy'z + ynz (A < z s h2,
zbeing measuredtfromG.W'T.)
Fig. 9.5 (b) shows the correspondingpressuredistribution diagrarn.The
resultant active thrust pbr unit run of the wall is given by the entire area of
this diagfam. It is easierto detennine the areaby dividing it into a nurnber of
triangle and rectangles' In Fig. 9.5 O).
Pt = LABP,
P2 = areaof BCED
Ps = LDEF,
P4 = LDFG.
(b)
(o)
Fig.9.5
11
Kqrlrhr
I I'
ttst
H I
Resultantactive thrust,
q=11h1
I ,
Pn=Pt+P2+P3+Pa=)4
...(e.10)
j1
2 't''t
il
0f'
v=;lp,
t 1
f
(q)
y'ro
**r,n,i*"rtin4
l
(b)
Fig.9.6
220
' " _ q
Y
221
EarthPressure
.,(e.r2)
zs=gttlt,,
9/unitareq
* )r
H
Fig.9.8
JJ*ou
(o)
tQlH'J
...(9.14)
BC = H (1 + anetan p)
onthisimaginaryplaneBC,usingeqn.
(iv) Determinetheactivepressure
(e.13).
(v) For designingtheyall, computethe selfweightof the soil wedge
ABC andconsideris effecton thestabilityof thewall separately'
(b)
Fig.9'7
where, &=cosp #
...(e.13)
Fig.9.9
(b) Cohesiveftictional Soils:
From eqn. (9.4), the active earth pressureat a depth z is given by,
.rz
2c
n = L  :
re
Vffo
/{6
'JrrQ
r +L{w4
Ipv'
Problems in Soit Mechanics {tnd Fottndotion Engineering
222
Atz = 0, pa =
or,
v1%
where,
A t z =eH^ ,= f rf t
1
1 + sin$
ltittq=4
=&
=U,Or,
",
H, _
or,
Pp = Ko\z
Kp = coefficientof passiveearJhpressure
No=oo'(a5"+$/z)
rtq
223
Earth.Pressure
ZE\q
...(e.1s)
, 2 c
{G
]'1b
46.j
r
2clNo
L
,
{o}
d
l
(b)
Fig.9.10
Fig. 9.10 (b) sbows the distribution of active pressure.The negative side
of this diagram (i.e., A abc) indicatesthe developrnentof tensiottupto a depth
flr. Since soils cannot take tension, rracks will be formedin this zone. Tbe
depth .I{, is, therefore, called the zone of tension crack. The resultant lateral
thrust is obtained by computing the area of the positive side of the diagram
(i.e. L, cde).
(B) Pcssive Errrtl, Pressurei
(a) Cobeslonlesssoils:
soil, eqn.(9.5) reducesto:
For a cohesiortless
PP = ^lzNf
C * Soil
(c)
Fig.9.11
r,
J.tH
' N @ / F _l o
{o}
I o h e s i o n l e sSso i l
(b)
Atz=0,po=Zcfi
alz=H, Pe=tHNr+Ufi
ThecorresponctingpressuredistributiondiagramisshowninFig.9.ll
(c)'
EartftPressure.
224
andthc failurc
In the activc statc,thewall rnovcsawayfrom thc backfill
frictional
down'
slides
it
As
wedge C.BCtends to move downwards'
(soilwall
wall
the
of
r"sisln"es actupwardalongthebackfacc
lifion),anO
of rhefrictionalforceFar,
the failureplane(soil+osol rruion;. In absence
backface'Butnow
theactivethrustPwouldhavebecnactingnormallyonthe
to
the normalon the
6
an
angle
at
inclincd
is
Fx,
the resultantP4 of P and
6i+Qtz
backface.Duetosimilarreasons,thcsoilreactionR4willalsobeinclinedat
an angle{ to thc normalon thc failurclurfacc'
Thesamcargqmcntsleadustothcconclusionthatinapassivestatealso
to the normalson
nr
{n rii arwill b! inclinedat angles0 andf respectively
of Pa andR4 lie
action
of
the
lines
state,
^nafC.However, in thc actlve
linesof action
the
state'
passive
inthe
whcreas
belowthc respectivcnormals,
them.
of P andR lie above
""'A
of
il"b.t oigt.pniol andanalyticalmethodstqr tllaejgrn]i'ation
theory'
Coulomb's
trt"rui ""rtl prorit"iave beenproposedor thebasisof
The mostirnPortantmethodsarc:
(i) Culmenl.'smethod
Graphicalrnethod:
(ii) Rebhann'sconstruction
B
a ) A c t i v eS t o t e
b ) P o s s i v eS t o t e
o
Fig.9.t2
EXAMPLES
./
prcblem g.{ nS m brghrigid retainingwall hasto rctaina backfill of dry,
cohesionlesssoil havingthe following properties:
22s \
(i)Plotthedistributionofhteralcarthpressureontbewall.
andpoint of appticationof rheresultant
tiii ij"t"rrr"e rhc magnftude
thrust
in thelateral'thrustif the waler table
(iii)
' ' Computetbe pcrcente"ng"
risesfrom agpeatdepthto the top of the backfill'
I
226
=t,54t/nf.
rd=*=?T#?
= 'o'tf='=A56?5
Ko==L
1p
10.36
At the top of the wall (z = 0), po = 0
227'
EarthPressilre
to retaiu
Problem 9.2. A retaining wall with a smooth,vertical backfacehaos
placed
is
t/rn"
of
5
surcharge
unifonn
rn.
A
of
+.5
a
leignt
upto
a sandbacktill
over the backfill. The witer table is at 2 m below G.L. The specific gravity
of solidsand the void ratio of thebacktill are2.68and 0.82 respectively.The
soil above the water table has a degree of saturation of lo7o. The angle of
internal friction of the soil, both aboveand below water table, is 30'.
Detenninethe magnitudeand point of applicationof the resultantactive
thruston the wall.
Solution: Bulk densityof the soil abovewater table,
G + s e
y=
 +7'l*
(0.s62s)
(1.s4)
(s.0)
= 4.j3/mz
The distribution of lateral earthpressureis shown in Fig. 9.13.
(ii) Resultantlateral thrust on the wall (consideringunit width),
1
Ps = lKgyH'
= (r/2!(0562s)(1.s4)(s.o)z
(0.10)(0.82)
2.68 +
(1) = 1'517t/rn3
1+0.82
densityof thesoil belowwatertable,
Submerged
2 . 6 8 1 r , , = 0 . g 2 3 t / m 3
G1.
Ysub=lllY,=11537(r/
Coefficientof activeearthpressure,
1sin30'
K"=fi61F=5'
t/nz
ttr = o'e65
*oy,ubH2
t.tf
Ir l
at B dueto moistsoil abovewatertable
Active pressure
= Kr,tz=
[})
= 0.77t/mz .
= KaTsubr= fl Q.gz3)(2.5)
\'/
/l)<t.ol = t.67t/mz
Resultantthrust
=
= Ko =
dueto surchatge
Activepressure
I
5m
I
J
width of thewall,
Fig.9.13
228
229
EarthPressure
Solution: Coefficient of active earth pressure,
 ffo'^ s"or
Kd=co
e0m
5t ln2
*70
. coslo"G'1{re
=(coslu=l:
t
= 0.296
= []l1o.zro)
(s)2
(r.82)
Yl
= 6.734t/m
(bl
Fig.9.14
P1  ( 1 . 6 7 ) ( 4 . 5 ) 7 . 5 1t
P2
= fif 1t.ot1(2)
 1.0tt
\")
Ps  (1.01)(2.5)  2.52 
!r=4.52=2.?5m
h= 2.5+ 2t3=3.r7m
h=
2.512= 1.25m
/r \
Pa
Gfr
/
l'76m'
This thrust is inclined at 10" to the horizontal (i.e., acts parallel to the
ground surface) and is applied at a heigbt of 5/3 = 1.67 m above the base of
the wall.
Problen 9.4. A retaining wall with a smooth vertical back has to retain a
backfill of cohesionlesssoil upto a height of 5 m above G.L. The soil has a
void ratio of 0.83 and the specific gravity of soil solids is 2.68. The water
table is located at a depth of 2 m below the top of the backfill. The soil above
the watertabl eis2}Vosatutated.The angleof internal frietionof the soil above
and below water table are found to be 32' and 28' respectively. Plot the
distribution of active earth pressureon the wall and detennine the magnitude
and point ofapplication ofthe resultantthrust.
Solution: Bulk density of the soil abovewater table,
G+se
t
t w
l + e
2.8 + (0.2)(0.83)
ffi(1)
= 1.55 t/m3
Ysub
?#
i#fffffff
0.307
AtA(z  0), pa = 0
AJB(zzmpBKor\zl
 (0.307)
(1.55)
(2)  o.sSvrt
234
Active pressure below water table: In this casethe upper layer (i.e., the
moist soil above water table) should be treated as a uniform surcharge, for
which the interuity 4 is equal to the selfweight of the layer.
"
231
Earth Pressure
./
For the retaining wall shown in Fig. 9.16 (a), plot the
Problem 95
distribution of active earth pressureand determine the magnitude and point
of application of the resultant active thrust.
Now,
1o7st_
1vd411m
f
1.2m
= 5.llVmz
The pressuredistributiondiagramis shownin Fig. 9.15(b)
/1 \
A L ooseSond
(y=1.54tlm3,+=
2f )
L,ooseSond
{lro1=1'8t/m39=22o;1
C
DenseSsnd
(Yo1=2.05t/m31
+ = 32o)
yrJz+2/3=3.67n
f zooJ"l2.30+
lz = 3/2 = 1'5rn
P2=0.12)(3)=3..36ttm
L
(q)
(b)
\.J
= Pt + P2 + P3
ResultantthrustP4
= 10.29t perm run.
(t)
t_p!6)(1.5)+ (s.e8)
Fig.9.16
Solution: Active pressuresexertedby various strata are as follows:
StratumI:
<
" iin ' 7? { o = 0 . 2 1 0 6
1 + sin25"
pe=o
10.29
K ='
"at
= 1..41.
m
.', The resultantthrustof n.29 t per m run is appliedat 1.41,m above
thebaseof thewall.
t/m2'
0.95
3'67mI
Now,
= I.64t/nf .
Qr = Trq = G.64)(1.0)
  sin22' = 0 . 4 5 5
K""=
t*G6
pB = Koz ql = (0.455)(1.64)= O35t/^2.
Pc = KozQt + Kory'2H2 + ynH2
(sl
 0 . 7 s + ( 0 . 4 s 5 ) ( 1 . 8 0 1 . 0 ) ( 1 . 2 ) + ( 1 . 0 ) ( 1 . 2 )
Fig.9.r5
232
233
Earth Pressure
c = l.5t/m2,0
y = 1 . 8t / r f ,
.Z.ffiVtt.
= 12'.
sin 32', t
'
K",i;jffi0.307
Pc=K".82+lnHZ
 (0.307)(2.60) + (1.0)(1.2)
 0.80 + !.2  2.0OVn?.
PDPc+Ror{gHg+l*Hg
1?fht
Computationof forcesandleverarms:
P1 = (0.5)(1.0)(0.67) = 0.335t/m /r = 3'5 + l0/3 = 3.83m
Pz = Q.2) (0.?5) = 0.90t/m
h = 2.3 + t.2/2 = 2.90m
2'06n
P3 = (0.5)(r.2)(0.44)=0.2641/m
h  2 . 3 + L  2 / 3= 2 . 7 o m
Pa = (0.5)(1.2\(1.2\ 0.72t/m
lq = 2.3 + 1.2/3  2.70m
Ps = (2.3)(2.0)= 4.6t/m
fs = 23/2 = 1.15m
P6  (0.5)(n)Q.74)  0.851t/m % = 2.3/3  0.77m
P7 = (0.5)(2.3, (2.3) = 2.&5 t/m
h = 2.3/3 = 0.77m
'
sI
fI
'94m
I
J!
'17r/#l(b)
(o)
Fig.9.17
Pa,= D Pi = Lo.3tSt/m
iL
2c
o , vzf r @
IAaa
il
Y='=ffi=1'409m
\Z. P ,
; l
Here,
= 1.525
ff' = oo'(45' + t2'/21  1g11251'
= 1.235
4
At the top of thewall (z = 0),
and,
234
W=3.47t/mz.
H"=?:ifi,
(2)(t'tlt'zrst 2.06m.
r. 
olt
The resultant active thr,ust is given by the part abc of the pressure
distribution diagram.
= 5.!ot/n2 /
.^ = fl Q.s4)(3.47)
\" J
ov=q+\z
/ ) ^=
rA
o+vz
No
+  :
2c
Vtro
# . 2 c
A t z = 0 , p e =,,0
VFo'
But the magnitude of q is such that, at z = 0, pA = O,
ft#,r=o
or,
(r.23s)= 3lt/m2.
Q = ?rvN; = (2)(1.s)
atz= H, O^=
Again,
235
 :'z t !t='e)(s)
 (2]=(1'l= 5.et/n2
1.525
1.235
= 2.43
=  (?{1'i)
t/m2.
+
r.235
Vilo
pr=(#
Earth Pressure
...(i)
166 
1.438
 _( 2r) z
( 13. 0E) _a  rr 't o
r ,l / y 1 2 .
Pn =
PB
= (1.8ilg'e)_ (2](1.i0)
= 0.33t/m2.
2.04
7.438
(2)(l'o)lt'a3e)
= 1.55m
H" =
(ii) Loose sandlayer:
a,=fffi=033
Equivalentsurcharge
interuity,41= (1.85)(1.9)= 3.5LVri
= t.t7th#.
pB = Kozql = (0.33)(3.51)
Pc = KozQr+ Koz\2H2= 1.L7+ (0.33)(1'72)(1.0)
'
= l.I7 + 0.57 = t.74t/^2.
(iii) Densesandlayer:
a,=lffi=o'26
Equivalent
surcharge
intensity,qz=(f .S5)(1.9)
= 5.?3r/mz
+ (1.72X1.0)
Pc = Kot,qz= Q.26)(5.23)= 1.36t/mz
PD=Kotch+KorlsHl
ft
= 1.36 + (0.26)(1.88)(1.6)
236
at 10' to the horizontal. The angle of wall friction is 20'. Determine the total
lateral pressureexertedby the backfill, using:
T
1.55m
+
0'33t/m2
to;il,
P1
Dense
Sond
Y= 1 ' 8 8 t / m 3
0= 36o
I
1.6m
Yt
)
D
(o)
Solution: (e) Culmann's method: Fig. 9.19 illustrates the solution of the
problem by Culmann's method. The procedurpis explained below:
LooseSond
't=1'72tlm3,@=30o
1.0m
a139/,htr
SondySitt
Y= 1'85t/m3
c = 1.0t/mz
Q= 20"
1.9m
I
I r.:slo.zs
{bt
Fig.9.18
P1 = (0.5)(0.35)(0.33) = 0.06r/m, y1  2 . 6 + 0 . 3 5 / 3 = 2 . 7 2 m
P2 = (1.17)(1.0)  L.t1 t/m,
Y 2  L.6 + 1.0/2 = 2.10m
P3  (0.5)(1.0)(0.57) 0.29t/m,
P4 = (1.36)(1.6)  2.l8/m,
237
Earth Pressure
*  4'32t/m
BN '7
i  1
n
<t<
il
!;*ffi,=1.216m
S P t .
Z.
i  l
Oii) iHffi',Cr/,rll
atr1.
tointenectBDl
8x isdrawn
238
0\
O.
oo
N
(o
ll
l
Earth Pressure
c!
6
oo
lJ.
24O
2.41
EarthPressure
CE denotes the
(ix) A tangent to this curve ls drawn at E, such that
joined
and extended
is
maximum ordinate of the pressurecurve' BE
plane'
the
failure
is
to intersect the ground line at D' 8D
the distance C4
The magnitude of t6 resultant active thrust is given by
cm'
the length of which is found to be 1'58
P,1  (1'58) (3'61)  5'70 t/m'
(b)Rebhann'smethod:Fig.g.20illustratesthesolutionbyRebhann's
method. The procedure is as follows:
(i) The backface is drawn to a scale of 1 : 100'
8C and rpline BX ate draq'n'
lilj fn" ground lineAC, $line
BC as diameter'
with
<irawn
is
fiiii e semfcircle
intersectBC at E'
to
drawn
is
BX
A,AE
ll
iiui fto*
the semicircle at F'
to
intersect
irawn
is
BC
I
ff
f"l
BF as radius, an arc FG is drawn' It intersects
liij Wm a as centre and
BC atG.
(vii) From G, GH ll 8X is drawn to intersectAC at 'FL
and GIr as radius, an arc I{r is drawn to intersect
li.iiii witn G as centre
BC atI.
(ix) IIIis joined.
(x) HJ LBC is drawn'
The total lateral thrust is now given by,
P,q  weight of the soil wetlgef/IG
1
= +'GI'HJ'y
 5'77t/m'
= ,0.r,(2.76,(L35t(1.78)
rough backfacetaving a
Problern g"9. A gravity retaining wall with a
backfill upto 4.5
positive batter angle of 1b", has to ietain a dry, cohesionless
:
m above G.L. Tbe properties of the backfill are
\*llkN/m3,Q?5
Theropoftbebackfillisslopedupwardsat20.tothehorizontal.Theangle
the total active thrust on the
of wall friction *"y u* taken as 1i" Determine
wall bY Rebhann's construction'
by the conventional
Solution: This protrlem cannot bc solved
at a great distance
meet
will
and
fline
Rebhann's rnethod, as te groundJine
over Rebhann's
modifications
certain
However,
l'.' B is nearly equa! to 4 i'
in Fig.
presented
is
solution
The
problem.
the
*
u,olu*
method will enable *
9.21, while the procedure is explained below :
of 1 : 80'
(i) The backface of the wall, A8, is drawn to e scale
Fig.9.2l
(ii) The groundlineAC Qline BD and rfline BX are drawn'
Here,Q = ff)  (10' + 15') = 65'
(iiD An arbitrarypoint E is taken onBD'
(iv) A setnicircle is drawn with BE as diameter'
(v) EF lleC is drawn.lt interscctsABat F.
(vi) r.G ll BX is drawn. It intersectsBD at G.
(vii) GIl L BD is drawn. It intersectsthe circle atFl
arc II1 is drawn to intersectBD
1"iiij witn B as centre and 8Il radius, an
at I.
(ix) F/is joined.
( x) N ll F/ is drawn. A"I intersectsAD atJ.
(xi) From .[ JK ll BX is drawn to intersectA C at K'
an arc KL is drawn to intersect
lxiii Witn J as cente and JrK as radius,
BD AtL.
242
(xiii) KL is joined.
(xiv) FromK, KM I BD is d,rawn.
Now, P4 = weightof thesoil wedgeJKl = l.XU
a
.LI y
Earth Pressure
243
(i) The backtaceAB, ground litte AC, Slirc BD and Eline BX are
drawn as usual.Here,q, = 90'  l0'  15' = 65".
(ii) An arbitrary point E is rakenon the Oline.
(iiD EF' ll BX is drawn to inrersect.ACat F.
(iv) Witb E as ceutre,an arc FG is drawn to interseclBD at G.
(v) FG is joined. L EFG is rhepressurelriangle.
(vi) FH LBD is drawn.
Now, P1 = weightof the wedgeEFG
=
1
.y
;.GE.FH
= (0.s)(4.28)
(3.e0)
(1.8)
= 15.02r,/m run.
Prob[ern 9.11. It is required to constructa gravity retaining wall to retain a
sandbackfill upto a heiglrtof 3.5 m. The wall is requiredto have a backface
which is batteredat 10'. The surfaceof the packfill has an upward slope of
8' and carriesa uniform surchargeof I tlm?.The unit wciglt and ary;ie of
intenralfriction of the backfillare 1.80t/rn'and 33'respectively.Delennine
the total active thrust on the wall.
solution: As the value of angleof wall friction has not been supplied,
)
= (z/3) (33") = 22.
we wiil assume,0 =
;0
The unifonn surchargeplaced over the backfill may be repracedby an
equivalent soil layer which will exert the samevertical stresson the backfill.
The beightof this equivalentsoil layer is,
, =
q 1= . 0 =
tt"
U.56m.
m
i
The problem can tlow be solved by Rebhann's rnethod, with a few
modificatiorn as explained below :
(i) The backfaceAfl ground line AC, gline BC and rpline BX are
drawn as usual(ii) FrornA, a vertical line AA' is drawn and the diskncer4.41is laid off
from it such that,r4A = he = 0.56 m.
(iii) Through Av A1c2 is drawn parallel to the ground line to intersect
the g Jine at C2.AB andA1C2 are projectedbackwards to meet at
Az. A2B andA2Ct will now be treatedas the modified backfaceand
the ground line respectively.
The problem is then solved by Rebhann's construction in the usual
maruler.With referenceto Fig, 9.23, the resultantactive thrust,
Fig.9.22
Earth Pressure
244
245
s
cl
!b
r
E
I
Fte.9.23
.
Pa = weight of the wedge
 FGH = z\ ,,
. GI . y
246
247
Earth Pressure
(i) The backthce A.B, ground lhte AC, Qline BC and rpline BX are
d r a w n a s u s u a l ' H e r e , r p= c r  6 = 7 8 '  1 5 " = 6 3 " .
(ii) A numberof points,Cr C2,...,C5 arechosenon the ground lineand
8C1 through.BC5arejoined. Thesepoints are chosenin sucha way
that the line of aclion of the linear load passesthrough one of them.
In the presentproblem, thesepoittts are chosenat equal intervals of
1.41m.
(iii) Sell'weightof the trial failure wedgesare now cornputed.
 6") =
It = AB'cos(12'
eachwedge,
Altirudeof
+;ffig'
= (3.6) (cos 6')./cos 12" = 3.66 m
.'. Selfweight of eachwedge = (ll2\ (1.41) (3.66) (1.8) = 4.64tm.
Vector scalechosen: 1 cm = 4.64t1m.
(iv) Lay otTthe distancesBD pnd BD2 from BC, using the chosenvector
scale, to representthe selfweight of ABCI andABC2 respectively.
Just after crossingC2,the linear load c.omesinto action, and has to
be addedto the selfweightof ABC2and all subsequentsoil wedges'
From D2 lay off the distanceD2D2' to representthe linear load.
i.e.,
D2D2'='#
= 0.54m.
?F5
,7
noA \
?0.\
,'r< 
)4l
Rr\'\^4
bl
o a  \ 1 " '\l
\i\l
\,,\,,\i
\*.
Prr=63'5kN/m
\_,
Par=110.1
A?=94'9kN/m
kN/mtt=rnU*r.torriaU*r,
)Yt1
Fig.9.25
248
Equal distancesAC1 = CtC2 = ... 3 C4C5 = 1.5 m are laid off from
AC. The lines 8C1, BC2, ..., BC5 arejoined. Theseare tle trial failure lines.
Let W1,W2, ..., W5 be the selfweigbtsof the wedgesABC1,C1BC2,...,
C&CS:Accordingtotheconstruction,l[ = Wz =...= W5 = lf(say).
249
EarthPressure
(1e)= 73.4kN/m.
:.Wr= (rl2)(r.s>(s.1s)
For each wedge, the resultant aclive lhrust acts at an angle 6 = 20", to
the normal to the backface of the wall.
Again, for the failure planesBCyBC2, ...,8C5, the resultantsoil reactions.R1, R2, .. .,R5 areinclined to the normalson the respectiveplanesat,
o .=33'.
= 113.5kN,/m.
wall"r. Jf*l:lt"tlun,
e.1.Aretaining
vertical
backhas
, smooth
250
e,7.Aretai'ing
wauhaving
a smooth
vertical
rjffjfiTfi:
cohesionless backfill. State, giving reasons, how the active earth pressure
exerted by the backfill will change in each of tlre following cases:
(a) the backfill becomes saturated due to capillarywater, while the
ground water table rernains belgw the baseof the wall.
(b) the ground water table rises above the base,but there is no capillary
water.
(c) the given backfill is replacedby a cohesionlesssoil having :
(i) sarneunit weight but greater angle of internal friction.
(ii) same angle of internal friction but greater unit weighl
(iii) same unit weight and angle of internal friction, but having a small
apparent cohesion.
9.8. cornpute the total active thrust and its point of application for the
retaining wall shown i'Fig. 9.26. The wall has a smooth backface.
I Ans. 3.6 r/m, 0.90 m above the base]
3m
I
r1'5m
CtoyeySond
f = 1 . 8 5t / m 3
* =2lro
c= ll/ p2
D e n s eS a n d
I = 1 . 9 5/fm 3
g=36o
Fig.9.26
y = 19 li.{,/m3, 0 = 36'
251
EarthPressure
(a) Determine the active thrust on the wall if the backfill has a horizontal
top surface.
(b) Determine the percentchangein the active thrust if, insteadof being
horizontal, the backfill is now sloped upwards at an angle of 15" to the
by 8.85%l
horizontal.
I Ans.(a)39.52kN/m.(b) Increases
9.10. A masonry wall has to retain a cohesive backfill having an
unconfined compressivestrengthof 4 t/m' and a bulk density of 1,72 gmlcc.
The overall height of the wall is 6 m. Determine :
(i) the depth upto which tensioncrackswill be extended.
(ii) the magnitude and point of application of the active thrust
IAns. (i) 2.32m (ii) 11.63kN/rn at 1.23m abovebase]
9.11. With referenceto Problem 9.10, detennine the minimum intensity
of a uniform surcharge,which when placedover the backfill, will prevent the
formation of tension cracks.
I Ans.3.08tAn]
9.12. A5 m high masonry retaining wall with a vertical backfaceretains
a horizontal backfill of dry sandhaving T = 20 kN/m3 and 6 = 32'. Compute
the resultant active thrust on the wall by :
(i) Rankine's theory
(ii) Coulomb's theory, using the trial wedge rnethod.
Which one of the results is more realistic and whv?
!t
.,
directionof thisthrust.Assurne,6 = i 0.
J
I Ans. 155kN/m]
252
C l e o nS o n d
(Y=19kN/m3,
@ = 3 3 oc, = g 1
Fig.9.27
9'17. T\e backfit praced behi'd a 5 m high masonry
retaining walr
consists of a partiaily sarurated crayeysilt, havin!
rhe follo;ing pfir,i.r,
unir weighr = 18.5 kN/m3
cobesion= 10 kN/mz
angle ofinternal friction = 21"
angle of wall friction = 12.
adhesion between soil and wall = g kNlm2
surchargeangle ofbackfill = 10.
The back of the wail is inclined to the horizontar g0'.
at
Determine the
magnitude and direction of the aclive thrust by the triar
wedge "rtoJ. arro
determine the depth to which tension cracks wiil be
extended.
27.5
kN/m run; 1.57m]
IAns.
A retaining wall, 4.5 m high and having a positive batter
_ _^ ?.18.
angle of
15" has to retain a cohesionlesstactnfl having a unit *.ight
of 1.g5 t/*?;;
an a.gle of internar friction of 31'. usi'g Reiharur,s
meilod, aetermine rne
magnitude of laterar thrust on the walr, ii the surcharge
angle of the backfilr
is:
(i) 10'(ii) 2s. (iii) 31".
9.19. A4 m high retaining wall with a vertical backface
was eonstructed
to retain a backfifl of loose send with a horizontal top
surface nurt.a to tn.
top of the wall. raboratory investigations revealed
that the sand had the
following properties:
EarthPressure
253
255
Stability of Slopes
and,
...(10.3)
10
STABILITY OF SLOPES
10.1 Introduction: A slope in a soil mass is encountered
when the
elevation of the ground surface gradualy changes from a rower
lever to a
h.igherone. Such a slope may be either naiurar
6i lirty region) or manmade
(in artificially comkucted ernbankrnentor excavations).
The soil mass bounded by a slope has a tendency to slide down.
The
principal factor causirrgsuch a sridi'g fairure is the serfweight
of the soil.
However, the failure may be aggravateddue to seepageof water
or seismic
forces. Every manrnadesrope has to be properly desig'ed to ascertai.
the
safety ofthe slope againstsliding failure.
various methods are availabre for anarysing tbe stability
of slopes.
Generally these methods are basedon tbe following assumptions :
1. Any slope stability problern is a two_dirnerrsionalone.
2. The shearparametersof the soil areconstantalong any possible
slip
_
surface.
3. I* problerns invorvi'g seepage of water, the flow'et ca'
be
constructed and thc seepageforces can be determined.
10.2 stability of rnfinite sropes: In Fig. 7o.r,xx represe'ts a.
infinire
slope which is inclined to the horizontal at an angre p. on any prane yy
(YY ll w
at a depth z below the ground lever thJ roil prop"rti"i and the
overburden pressure are constant. Hence, failure ,my o""ui along
a plane
parallel lo the slope at some depth. The co'ditions for such
a failure may ue
analysedby co.sidering the equiribrium of the soir prismA,BCD of width
b.
Considering unit thickness,volume of the prism V = z b cos
F
and, weight of the prism,
W=yzbcosp
Vertical stess on llPdue to the selt'weight.
",=l=yzcosp
Fig. 10.1.
r = T!
\t):f
...(10.1)
...(r0.2)
...(10.4)
rf = c + otano
soil,c = 0,
For a cohesionless
r/ = otan0
in eqn.(10.4)
Substituting
ohno
F =
a
''tzcosPsinP= ;;ft
r1t
"'(10's)
o = o, cosp = yt.or2B
c * otano
T
) ^
,' _ c + yzcos'Ftan0
yzcospsinp
/
...(r0.6)
257
Stability of Slopes
6
t nq
4_ffi
or,
Hc+
Of,
q) Foce
 cos"B(tanF
 tano)
...(10.8)
 tano)
Sn= cos2B(tanB
...(10.e)
:?
or'
...(10.7)
c) Base
Foilure
Fig. 10.2
s'=yt
b) Toe
Foi [ure
Foiture
,+'
I
...(10.10)

cn=q
Then,
...(10.11)
^
c
r "  c
yE= F;yH
tr
P
\!
\ \
B

ro
...(10.12)
y4=+rH
or,
F, = + = Fn.
assuffiilli6Efifll
oI a circle.
Fig.10.3
Let Wbe the weigbt of the soil rnassA.SICBacting vertically downwards
through the centre of gravity and c be the unit cohesionof the soil. The
selfweight tends to causethe sliding while the shear resistancealong the
planeASIC counteractslt.
Now, arc le4gth ASIC = R '0
where, Q = IAOC
(expressedin radians)
258
Stobiliry of Slopes
Mn = nOc x R = R20c
il),rl>l ! o.
d (r.t lLk
...(10.13)
I
,
 \
\
u
V
W = A . I . y = A t
where, Y = unit we.ightof the soil
A = crossseclionalareaof the sectorASr CB.
The areaA can be detenninedeitherby using a plauirneteror by drawing
the figure to a proper scaleon a graph paper and counting tht'.number o[
divisions ofthe graph paper coveredby the area.
Now, disturt'ringrnornent,MA = W .a
where,
Nr
<
l
M*
=  =   a
MD
cRzo {rWd
...(10.14)
A rrurnber of trial slip circles are cboseu and tbe lhctor of sal'ety with
respectto each of them is computed.A curve is then plotted to show the
variation of factor of safety with various slip circles (the curve F1 F2 Fg in
Fig. 10.11).The slip circle correspondingto tbe minimurn factor of sat'etyis
identified from this curve. This is the potential slip surface, and the
corresponding factor ofsafety is the factor ofsafety againstfailure ofthe slope
AB.
(b) Cohesite frirtional soils: With reference to Fig. 1O.4,a trial slip
circf eASlC is taken and the sector 1,SlCB is divided into a nunrber of verticzl
slices,preferablyofequal width. The forcesacting on eachslice are:
(i) Selfweight, 17,of the slice, acting verticalty dounwards through the
centre of gravity. ConsiCeringunit thickness of the slice,
W=\xboxln
...(10.15)
where, boantlo represent the average height and length of the slice
i
respectively.
(ii) The cohesive force, C, acting along the arc iu a direction opposilg
the probable motion of the sliding soil.
Fig'l0'4
C = c'la
whert:, c = unitt:ohesion,
lo = averagelengthofslice
(iii) Iateraltlrrusttiorn adjacentslices,El andEp .In simplified analysis
it is assurned that, E1 = ER 'Hence the effects of these two forces are
neglcctcd.
(iv) Soit reactionR ac.rossthe arc:.According to the laws of friction, when
the soil is about tc slicle, R will be inclined to the normal at an angle Q.
(v) The vertical stresses,V1 and7p , which areequal and oppositeto each
other and henceneednot be considered.
The weighl W is resolved into a normal componentN and a tangential
colnponent L For sorneof the slices Twill enhancethe failure, for the others
it will resist the tailure. The algebraicsurn of the normal and tangential
conponentsare obtainedfrom :
and,
Now,
2 T = 2 ( U rs i n c )
t t/ = E (I4zcoso)
Mo=R2T
driving lllomellt,
...(10.17)
...(10.18)
...(10.1e)
260
...(10.20)
Slope
(V, H)
...(10.21)
Table 10.1
.y't c{_9__t_X_ffeLQ.
Vr =
zr
or,
261
Stability of Stopes
Valuesof angles
cr1
Q.,t
40'
37"
35'
1:1.5
33"48'
29"
28"
26"
L:2
26"36'
25"
35'
1:3
18"24'
25'
35'
1:5
11'1g'
25"
27"
1 : 0.58
60'
1:1
45"
o (Fig. 10.6a)
3. ComPuter (= fi sin Q) and draw anothercircle of radius r, with O as
the centre.
4. Now considerthe equilibrium of the sliding soil mass under the
following forces:
(i) SelfweightWof the sedorABCD.
1il; fne cohesiveforce C along the planeADC, the magnitudeand
directionof which canbe computedasfollows :
Let c be the unit cohesion.\\e arcADC is dividedinto a numberof
be themobilisedcohesiveforcesalong
l*t C1,'C2,...,Cn
smallelements.
them.
The resultantC of theseforcescanbc determinedby drawinga force
polygon.
Now, themobilisedunit cohesion,c', is givenby :
Fig.10.5
262
263
Stability of Slopes
c, =
acfualcohesiorl
requiredcohesion
c
cr
...(10.27)
(b)
Fig. 10.6
.,.(r0.22)
' c
...(10.23)
But, sumrning up the moments of all forces about o and equating to zero,
we get,
C'Lo'R=C.Lr.a
...(1o.24)
"= !^
r'= Rsin0n
...(10.2e)
Lc
...(10.28)
,
c '
c ^ = n
,
C=C^tr=
tan 0
tanOz=
n
...(10.2s)
alother trial.
(iv) In this mauner, adjust the radius of the circle until ,FOand F.
becorneequalto eachother.This value is theuacceptedasthe factor ofsafety
for shearstrengthof the soil w.r.t. the given trial slip circle.
10.9 Taylor's Stability Number: Taylor carried out stability analysis of a
heights, slope angles and soil
large @rious
proposed
a simple method by which
basis
of
the
results,
he
properties.On the
given
can
be
easily detennined with
a
finite
slope
safety
of
the factor of
reasonableaccuracy.Taylor introduccda dimensionlessparameter,called
Taylor's Stability Nurnber,which is given by,
,./r,, = F , \
...(10.30)
265
Stabilityof SloPes
0'18
020
0.16
o
%
/,
I
I 01s
2
#
L'
L
(U
o
E
a
z a.n
>
=
ct
+ 0.14
I
e.
a
!
@
4.12
E
a
z
t
5
o
+
0.10
../l
+
t/l
0.05
,l
10
/,
0.06
20 30 /.0 50 60 70 80
*
Angte(Degrees)
Slope
0.05
;
90
D e p t hF c c t o r , n 6 *
Fig.10.8
Fig.10.7
where,
w.r.t cohesion,
The stability numbers are obtained for factor of safety
unity'
as
taken
initially
is
Fq
friction,
w.r.t'
while fte factorof safety
ThevaluesofS'obtainedfromFig'10'Tareapplicableforslip.circles
of limited
passingthrough tne ioe. However for slopesmade in cohesivesoils
the
below
passes
circle
slip
the
critical
ieptn i'na "nierlain bya hard stratum,
toe.Insuchcases,thevalueofs'shouldbeobtainedfromFig'10'8'Intlis
as :
figure, the depth factor plotted along the 'r'axis is defined
nc=
D + H
H
...(10.31)
n =xf r
l
266
261
Stttbility of Slopes
(b)
{o}
Fig. 10.9
EXAMPLES
/
Problern l0y'J A slopeof infinite extentis rnadein a densesandlayer at
an angle of 30'to the horizontal.Detenninelhe factor of safety of the slope
againstshearfailure if the angle of internalfriction of the soil be 36'.
Solution: With referenceto Fig. I0.I, XX representsthe given slope,
while )Yis a plane parallel to it at a depthz.
Vertical stresson XIldue to overburden.
oz=lz
where, Y = unit weight of the soil
Normal stresson YY,
o = oz cos2p
Fig,10.10
at P'
line PQ represents oue sucli equipotential line, which intersects \Y
Hence, the piezonetric head at P is given by PR'
F t o wL i n e s
Therefore,neutralpressureal
',r   ' f r
o"cos'F tanO
 t a n0
ozcosBsinB lan0
tan 36'
=rr"3tr=I'46'
/
Problem nd
fslope inc:linecl
at 16' to the horizontalis to be made in
a cohesionlessdeposithaving the following properties:
G=2.70,e=0.72,0=35',
Detennine the factor of sat'etyof the slope againstshearfailure if water
percolatesin a direction parallel to tlre surfaceofthe slope.
Solution:
1 ^
P = 'l', z cos p
" = i = l;;"'P't"P
y.ubtan 0
yr", tan p
268
Now,
ysar
(2'79*0J3li1'0)=
r./rn3
Il +*e "' nu...=
1.988
(l+0.72)
Ysub
1.983X=0.988t,/m3
Fs=
(0.988)(tan35')
6trsffi=r'2r
Stability of SloPes
1.55
= &
rr 2?'5m
= 2.3m.
(vii) Three trial slip circles are drawn with P, P' and P" as centres and
PA, F A and F' A respectively as radius. The factor of safety with respect to
each circle is determined separately.
Fig. 10.11 shows the determination of Fg with respect to the first trial
slip circlg having its centre atP.
The ptocedure is statedbelow :
(i) The area under tle slope and the slip surface is divided into 7 slices.
The first 6 slices have a width of 2 m each while the width of the 7tb slice is
2.2m.
Jo,
Fig.10.11
distutbittg
(ii) Considering unit thickness; the area, weigbt and the
sliie are d9trmine4'Thes?a4 lablla
o*K f*.".h
r'=
Width
lstu"
llVo.
(n)
I
2.0
Averagelenglh
(n)
Area
o*t
2.2
4.07
abovl P
(m)
3.7
(tm)
15.06
210
Slice Widtlt
No.
Aterage Iengrlt
(m)
2.0
2.0
(m)
2.4+ 4.0
2 *
  =
Area
Weiglt
(yxAxI)
(^2)
(t)
6.2
1 l
1 . f
Typeof soil
gfl=o'ut
9.3
t7.21
tr.J
11.6
2r.6
z.)
49.36
2.0
6.3+5.6_.o.
"2
r 1.9
22.01
.1. t
94.64
2.0
wl2=o'"
9.5
17.58
6.3
r10.75
4.29
7.94
8.4
66.1O
ff=r.ns
MD
c (kNlm2)
r7.5
L2
41
Mediurn claY
18.0
35
7 t4
Stiff clay
19.0
68
14o
Roclk
probablebase
Cotnpute tlre thctor of safetyof the slopewith respectto a
radius'
m
of
13.5
lailure along a slip circle
prcibletncan
solution: Fig. l}.l2illustrates the given conditions.The
be solved by the Swedish c:irclemethod'
this
1DGE representsthe slip circle of radius 13.5. O is the centre of
circle.Astheslipcirclepassesthroughthreedifferentlayers,thefailure
 l Y l= 1 ? ' 5k N/ m 3
qI
tr = 78 ril/m2
2M = 292.A5tnt
Disturbing Mornent,
Q ( /
04
5.16
y (Wlmi)
"
2.0
2.2
19.50
.
50' to the
Problern 10.4 A 10 rn deep cut, with the sidesinclirted at
follows:
as
are
conditions
horizontal.hasto tretnadeat a sitewlrerethesubsoil
Let,er Moment
Qrm about P
ebout P
(m)
(tm)
T1.47
27L
Stabilityof SloPes
292.05 tst
 r Y 2 =1 8k N / m l
r g2=
35;1r11s2
ln
c R2.o
c = 2.5t/nt?
R = PA = 9.9rn
g = LAPD = 102.5'= 1.789radian
[ = 1 9k N / r n 3
? m C 3 = 1 51 P 7 6 1 2
=
=
Facforofsal'ery
#; ffi=
1.50
Fig.10.12
of
wedgeconsistsof threedifl'erentiones. lrt IV1,W2and W! be the weights
O.
about
th" t[r.. zonesand.r1,.r2and .'3 be the correspondinglever arms
FromB,drawBlLHF.Zorrelmaylrowbedividedirttotlretriangle
BHI and the rectangleB/FE
Weight of
I
272
Asthesipcirclcpasst:sthrclughtlrrccdift.ererrtsoillayers,tlreresisting
along the three segtneutsof
tbrce cotrsistso[ thc cohesivclbrcesmobilised
in the figure'
the slip circlc. Thc corrt:spcndinganglesare shown
Thcrclbre,lotal rcstoriltglllorllellt
= c t R 2 o 1+ c r R ? 0 , + c 3 R : 0 3
= .41(cr01 + cr $ + ca 03)
+ (36)(r4'2)+ (78)(16'2)]
= (13.s2)
#
[(26)(101'5)
= 14039.69kNrn'
Factor of safetyalonglhe givt:n slip circlt:
=
Slice
No.
l.
Widtlt
tm)
3.5
z.
Area
(^2)
Weight
(kN)
4.55
96.3
7.6
:731.8
9.45
t79.5
4.6
825.7
1.4
140.6
z.l
295.3
15.9
342.1
0.4
120.8
19.5
370.5
3.4
t259.7
Itu.n*6.1)=6.5
=5.3 15.9
*4.5)
lrc.t
3A2.1
6.4
L933.4
r7r.a
9.9
1692.9
Average Imgtlt
(m)
!{o*r.u)=t.t
l{z.u*t.r)=t.rt
2
A
q.
a 1
=
lo., *6.e) 5.3
3
6.
o.s ro)=zzs
9.0
273
Sttrbilityof StttPt's
Lever Moment
4rm
about O
ubaut O ( w m )
(m)
14039.69 =
Tzsollg
1.09
/ii'i\
'72sF
/ ri\.\/(
2 M = 3153.9
W3 x x3 = 3153.9kN  m
N1
T1
 (s60.5)
(7.5)+ 3rs3.e
(9.7$ + (s72,4)
= 12906.L9
Ws
&=l'ls
Tg=0
f,
1"1
Fig.10.13(a)
274
%(1 6 s)/
Pzn't+9)
Slice No.
P8{1.82)
P1
(t.eq)
Ps(1,65
)
\t1.71

4 ' 5H
(b)
Fig.10.13
Average
length (m)
Weight
(t)
t{
(r)
T
(t)
2.4
17.76
t4.7
10.1
6.2
45.8t1
44.7
9.9
8.7
64.38
64.4
10.3
76.22
73.8
19.4
9.65
71.4r
62.3
34.6
6
7
2.8
8.4
43.51
30.1
31,.2
2.8
3.6
18.7
10.1
15.9
c R 0 + I y ' y 't a n q
Ir t z r
= 8 1 . 1t
Widtlr
(m)
2 W = 3 3 7 . 9 t ,X N = 2 5 5 . 4 t , : r
I
t
275
Stahility olSlqtas
By rneasurernent,
R = 15.8m,
and,
= (lffiLI*o.= z.oo7rad.
o = 115"
(2.s)(15.8)(2.007)+ (2s5.$(tan5')
=l.E
F s =
In order to Iocate the critical slip circle, i.e., the slip circle with the
rniuirnumthctor of sat'ety,proceedas follows :
(i) Measure.the distancePyB,le.tit be I.
(ii) With P0 as centre fonlr a grid consistingof 9 points such that the
length of each side of the grJd= 712.
(iii) Draw trial slip circles taking each of these9 points in turn as the
ccntre.Computethe faclor of safetyof the slopefor eachslip circle.
(iv) Plot the values of F5 thus obtained for each grid point and draw
contour lines for different values of F5. The slip circle having the minimum
value of.F5 can be detenninedfrom this contour.The conespondingvalue of
F5 is the factorof safety of the slope.
271
Sttrbility of SloPes
Problems in Soil Mechanics und Foundation Engineering
276
The processis illustratedin Fig. 10.13(b). It is found thal tht: slip circkr
having the rninimum factor of safely is lhc outr drawn with P,7as lhc ct:nlre.
Thus, Fellenius'methodyields an accuratcrcsult in this case.Tlre tactoro[
safety ofthe slope.is found lo be 1.25.
Prolrlern 10.5 A 12 rn high ernbankutcuthas sidc'gtopc.s
oL I V :2 H.
The soil has a unit weight of 1.8 Vmr, cohesionof 1.5 t/m/ and angle of
internalfric{ion of 15".Determint:the factorof saft:tyof tht:skrpr:with r(:sp(:ct
to any chosenslip circle. Use the tiiction circle rncthocl.
Solution: The slopeis drawn in Fig. 10.14.A triat slipcircle AEC is
drawnwith a radiusR= 20.5m. The cbordAC isjoined and ils lcrrgthis lirund
to be 32 m. [,etD be the rnid point ofAC.
The centre of the slip circ{e P rs jointd lo D aud PD is r:xltndcd. It
intersectsthe slope at .F and the slip circlc at E. Thc rnidpoint G of EF nray
be taken as the centreof gravity of lhr an:aABCE.
Norv,
areaABCE = MBC
Tlrroughtltcpoirrtofintcrsecticltrof!Vatt<lC,drawastraightlirrernaking
the third force F.
it tangent ti tt " tii.iio,r circle. This line represe'ts
to representW in
Choose a vc(lor scale and draw :t straight line
of C and F'
of
actiort
,nugil*J. and dircctiorr. Using the kuown lines
it'
C
tiorn
of
.oipt"t. the t'orcetrianglc attd detennine the tnagnitude
The.valut: of Cj oblainedhere'is 41 t'
Mobilised cohesion,
F,=;=ii=1"34
friction' F0 = r'0'
F, = l.34when the factor of safetywith respectto
that they 4reequal
However,thesetwo factorsof safetyshouldbe so adjusted
to one another'
Fa = l'20
As a tlrst trial, let
tanQ=s8=q#
+ Ar(:aADCE
= :.BH.AC + 1AC . DE
z
_
t
l
"*=?=*t"=r.rtt/mz
0 = 8'36''
or,
= 1 9 4 . 1n r '
R s i n@
R s i n@ m
= 349.38t.
Now, deflectionangle 6 = 102" = 1.78radian
. ' . A r c l e n g t h o f A E C = L = R 0 = ( 2 0 . 5 ) ( 1 . 7 8 )= 3 6 . 4 9 r n .
The lever arm /o of the cohesiveforce.with respec to P is given by,
t" = ?.R
LC
#(20.s)
= 23.38
m
Fig.10.14
278
Hence the l'a<{orot safety of the given slope for the slip circle under
is 1.18.
consideration
I
,o 
= rc
sr, =
F"=
F r n (H
Using eqn.(10.30)
F'F+
Solution:
= l.l8
F , = +
r.zl
F a c t o r o f s a f e t yw . r . t c o h e s i o n ,
' or, F.
Sny/{
26
= 1.40
(0.172)(18)(6)
279
Stabitityof SloPes
1.6
'E.  (0.046)(1.8)(12) = 1 . 6 1
However,asfrictionwillnotbefullyrnobilised,tlreactualvalueofF.
by trials'
will be less than this, and is to be found out
'Fo = l'25
LeI
tan 15" =
o'2r43
tanQ= ffi
0 = 12'1"
Referringto Fig. 10'7,for F = 30"
S"=0'075
when 0=10",
or'
when
Q=15",
. ' . w h e nb = 1 2 . 1 ' ,
S'=0'046
s,=0.46.ffi
= u.058.
+=offina=r'277r:5
of safety of the slope
Hence, as F. and F6 are nearly equal' the factor
may be taken as 1.25'
E)GRCISE I,O
slope of 35' inclination
10.L. Compute the factor of safety of an infinite
madeinasanddeposithavinganangeofinternalfrictiorrof4o".[Ans.1.2]
l0.2.Arrirrfiniteslopeof6mheightand35.inclirrationismadeina
:
layer of densesand having the followingpropcrties
G
=
2
3
0' w=o7o
s = 4 . 5 V r n  ,d = 5 o , e = o ' 8 5 ,
againstsliding'
(a) Determine the factor of safety of the slope
280
(b) How will the fac:tor of safety changc if the slope gets fully
submergcd?
[Ans.(a) 1.2s(b) 1.e81
10.3. Detennine the fac'torof safetyof the slopeAB with respectto tht:
given slip circle shown in Fig. 10.15.The soil hasa unit weigtrt ot ig.5 kNln3
and a cohesionof 42 kN/m'. Use the Swedishcircle rnethocl.
[Ans : 1.42]
10.4. A 12 rn deepcut is rnadei'a silty clay with side slopesof 3()".The
soil has the tbllowing properties:
Y = 1.9gm,/cc:, c=0.25 kg/cm', O = 8".
Stability of Slopes
281
3.tn
l
y=;f;,',';,t,H'=,:;:
6m
/
15m
\Y
,/
./
sirt
crou.r
y = 1 . 9 f / m c3 =
, 1.5t/m2
cb=6o
Stiff ttov
6'5m
,/
\=195t/m3,:yr/
12n
Rock
Fig.10.16
Fig.10.15
Locate the ccntre of the critical slip circle by Fellenius' method and
detennine the factor of safety of the slope against sliding tailure by the
Swedislrcircle rnethod.
lArrs. 1.45]
10.5.Deterrninethe factor of sat'etyof theslopeshown in Fig. 10.16with
respectto the given friction circle by the standardrnethodof slices.
10.5. A 10 m deep cut is to be made in a soil with side slopesof 1 v: 1
.F/.The unit weight of the soil is 1,.8gm/cc and the soil has an uncontjned
cornpressive strength of 0.63 kglcm". Deterrnine the factor of saletyof the
slope againstsliding,
1 ' 9g m / c c
0 . 4K g1 c m 2
o
)
9m
Fig.10.17
Detenniue the thclor of safety of the side slopes of the canal against
10.7. cornpute tbe factor of sat'etyof the slopeshown i' Fig. 10.17 with
respectto the given slip circle by the tiiction circle methocl.
10.9. An ernbankment
is constructed
with a cQsoil havingthe following
properties :
[Ans.1.25]
?82
to both
The ernbar*rnentrnusthave a ihctor of safetyof 1'5 with respect
friction'
cohesionand angle of intemal
of the
(a) What will be the maximum allowable slope if the height
embartkrnentbe 12 rn ?
of the
(b) What will be thc maxitnutn allowable height if the sides
enbankment are sloPed Lt45" ?
11
l0.l0.A6rnlriglretnbaltklnenlistobemadewnitlraclayeysoilhaving
exists
a unit weight of 1.7itlm3 and a cohesionof 3.5 t/mz. A hard stratum
if
a'gle
slope
the
be
wlmt
should
at a depth;f 3 m below the ground level.
33"]
?
2'0
[Ans'
the requiredtactorof safetyJgainstslidingbe
l0.ll.DetennirretlrefactorofsafetyoftheslopeshowttirrFig'10'18
with respect to the given slip circle. use the friction circle method.
Y = 1 8k N/ m 3
c = ' lf / m 2
BEARING CAPACITY
11.1 Introduction: Structuresofall typeshaveto rest on the soil existing
is transmited to the supportingsoil
at the site.The load of the superstructure
throughstructuralmemberscalledfootingswhich ate to be designedproperly
so as to ensure:
(i) The shearstressdcvelopedon any plane in the loaded soil mass
does not exceedthe shearstrengthof the soil. In other words, shearfailure
doesnot occur.
(ii) The settlenent of the footing due to the applied load does not
excred the tolerablclimit.
The bearing capacity of a given footing hasto be detenninedcorsidering
both of these factors. The present chapter deals with the detennination of
bearingcapacityof a footing from the point of view of shearfailure.
ll.2
Fig.10.18
e, = e  ,(D
...(11.1)
284
285
Bcaring Copacity
.,(rr.z)
J
rB
l
9
u
l
e'=!+Yn
+
.,(1r.4)
F i g .l l . l
...(11.5)
whcrc,
...(11'6)
c' = 1c
5
...(11.7)
Q'= r an(l3t." )
...(11.8)
...(11.e)
...(11.10)
286
e,, = cNrs,dri,
N.
Nq
0
5
10
15
20
?5
30
35
40
45
50
5.7
7.3
9.6
12.9
17.7
N.1,
37.2
57.8
95.7
172.3
347.5
1.0
1.6
2.7
4.4
7.4
12.7
22.5
4r.3
81.3
r73.3
4r5.1
0
0.5
1.2
2.5
5.0
9.7
19.7
42.4
100.4
297.4
1153.2
N.'
N;
NY,
5.7
6.7
8.0
9.7
11.8
14.8
19.0
25.2
34.9
5r.2
81.3
1.0
0.o
r.4
0.2
0.5
0.9
1.7
3.2
5.7
10.1
18.8
37.7
87.1
1.9
2.7
3.9
5.6
8.3
12.6
20.5
34.1
65.6
0'
5'
10" 1 5 '
20"
25'
&
...(rr.r2)
sy
1.00
1.00
L + 0.2BIL
L + 0.2BlL
L 0.4BtL
Square
1.3
r.2
0.8
Circular
1.3
r.2
0.6
Sa
1.00
dq
dr
 + 435 DlB
1.0
ForQ>25', dq=d,
dc
...(11.13)
...(11.14)
11.6Brinch
".","#:rr#;;;ffi'#T
95.41240.85 t81.84
N=*6 2a
+O.28/L)N,6
KC
sq
Rectangular
(ii) whenP.E:?j:
i/.=(1
50"
45"
N,I
Contiuuous
c = cohesion.
= Bearing capacityfactor which dependson tle shapeof the
t'ooting as well as on the depth of foundation.
The ultimate bearingcapac'ityis given by:
40'
It
{;
35'
N.
Shopeof footing
where,
folguglg,aLdcircurarfioorings'
30'
...(11.I 1)
qn = cN, + YD
...(11.16)
+ q N o s u d u i u + 0 . 5y B . l / r t y d , r \
q ='{D
where,
1gY
287
Beoring Copacity
l6
...(11.ls)
,' 
J.Brinch
Hansen, the
{
l
I
, t
H
2cBL
tq
 o.s+
ly
i?
288
. . .( 1 1 . 1 7 )
...(11.1ti)
289
Bearing Capacity
of the soil. When the soil is fully submerged,the submerged density 1ru6
shouldbe usedin placeof 1. But if thewatertableis at the.baseof the footing,
only tbe third term is atfected.The generalbearing capacity equatiou is,
theretbre,moditied as:
"'(11'20)
Qu = cNc + 7D1N.W1 + 0'5yBNrW2
where, W1 and W2are the correction factors.
For most soils, 1*6 is nearly equal to half tlre value of y' Hetrce,the
correctionfaclon are given by (Referto Fig. 11.2):
Wr = 0.5(I + 4/D)
Wr = 0.5
Whenthewatertableis at G.L.,
= 10
I4l1
of
footing,
base
is
at
the
when
it
and
Wz = 0.s (l + z2/B)
.,(rr.2t)
...(rt.22)
The shape fac:torssc , .egand s, are thrr same as lhose used in Brinch
Hansen'sequationand canbe obtainedliorn Tablc 11.3.
The dcpth factorsare given by:
d,=l+{t.2(DtB\'$q
dn=dr=1tb rQ<1 0 '
.tFig.112
The inclinationfactorsaregivenby:
i, = iq = (l  s/g}f
.
i I^ . = f r  g l
t\
a /l
290
291
Bearing CaPacitY
dimensionof the
In caseof single eccentricity (Fig' 11' a) the effective
7 e'
fotrting in the direition of eccentricityis reducedby
,
ll.gEccentricallyLoadedFootings:Afootingissaidtobeeccentrically
thc cre[lreof gravity of
loaded if the resultantload on it is appliedaway from
theload.Suclrfootingsrnaytredesigrredbyeitlrerofthetbllowirrgrnetlrods:
(alMetlwdl:[nthisrnetbodtheloadQofeccetttricityeisreplacedby
of magnitudeM = Q'e'
un .i*t concentricload Q and a balancingrnorneilt
load as well a.sthe
Stress distribution digrams due to the concentric:
stressintensity of
maximum
balanc:ingmoment a." plotied (Fig' 11'3)' The.
bearingcapacity
allowable
the
than
the superlnposeddiagramstroutaU" less
B ' = B  2 e
i.e.,
Incastlofttoubleeccentricitythe<limensionsinbothdirectionsare
as fol lows:
rcttuct'.<I
L ' = L  Z e t . a n c lB ' = B  Z e B
 2eBl
A' = L' x B' = (L  2e7)(B
of the footing.
fi=
*f
1.p
"'(11'23)
"'$l'24)
rB
I
. l
_I
Ptan
n
st'l
F i g1
. l'a
r+t_]
{eFEievot'ion
J_
o/A
0riqinotFooting
Etevotion
FootinqUnden
Loodinq
Eouivolent
capacity of a footing
11.10 Bearing Capacity from N'value: The bearing
PenetrationTe st
Standard
frorn
obtained
Nvalue
ile
irom
may be.de.ternrL"o
carried,out in the field from the following equalions:
For striP footings:
T
J  l
For squaretbotings:
J_
Qnu
M.e/l I
Q M e
A . I
f' P
ressurcDislttlgilg!
Fig.I1.3
this method if a footilg is
(b) Methotl II (Meyertwf's method): In
plan area ofthe footing is
ofthe
portion
a
"*polJaio an eccentric ioto, ooty
effective area'
the
as
termed
is
"o*ia*t"e to be useful' This area
where,
N = averagecorrectedblow count'
D = depth of footing.
f i = width of footittg.
"'(11'25)
r':'dr table'
293
BearingCaPacitY
Problems in Soil Mecltnnics ttnd Fottndution Engineering
2gZ
I Be@ + 0.3)l2
Pp=PtB@.0t.
where,
...(rr.27)
problem 1l.l/
A 2 m wide strip footing is founded at a deptb of 1.5 m
the
below the gtouM tevel in a hornogeneousbed of dense sand, having
following properties:
0  36', T = 1.85 1,/rn3.
Determineheultimate,netultimate,nctsafeandsafebearingcapacity
of the footing. Given, for E  36"
/Vc  60, Nq = 42' Nt= 47'
Assume a faclor of safetYof 3.0.
Solution: As 0  36', a general shearfailure is likely to occur'
(i) Ultimate bearing caPacitY:
Here,
786.5t/n]'
(ii) Net uttimatebearingcapacity:
4*4nlD
Q n "   1 8 3 ' 7 = 6 l . Z t / m 2 .
3.0
= l}.3lt/rri'
(ii) SkemPton's methd:
1 7
Here,
D/B=#=o'4at2'5'
Eqn.(11.13)is aPPlicable.
N" = (1 + 0.2D/8, ff.lsrrrace)
= 6.N'
But for squarefootings, ffc (surtace)
4 = { t . r y a } t u . r o l 6 ; e
295
Bearing CaPacitY
Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foandatian Eng'ineering
294
I
issubjccttoa Sross
Problem LI{4. Asquare footingof 2m x 2msize
soil
is I m.Thefgynda{on
i. me o.,ptlof ioundation
""r,i;;iffio?Yio
Q^, = cN"
= (2.75)(6'7s)= t8.67t/t#
=
e, = e* + 7D = 18.67+ (1.3)(1.2) 20'83t/n?
of 1.85Vm' attd an
coilsistsof a depositof densesandhavinga bulk densisty
of safety againstshear
,ngte or intcrnal friction of 3d. Determine the factor
failure.
Solution: We havc, for Q = 36"
Qnu
+ \u
Q" = 7, s
1e 6't
footing*Tit:
!.3c'N"'+ vD(N, 1) + o.4vBN,
Here,
,
2
^,,^2
" = j,=(2/3)(1.2)=0.8r/n}
N"' = 11.8, ffq' = 3'8, xy' = 1'3
qn,,= (r.3) (0.8)(11.8)+ (1.65)(1'6)(3'8 1)
+ (0.a)(1.6s)(2.2)(1,3)
= 12.27+ 7.39 + 1'89
= 2t.55 t/rt
The safebearingcapacityof thefooting:
2l='25 (1.65)(1.6)= lr.?tt/mz
Qnu
+
q " = F ;  + ' ,o =
?.j
Grosssat'eload to be carriedby fte footing'
 es X Areaof footittg
 {ll'76)(2'2f  5a'51'
N"=60, Nq=42,N\=47
as c = 0'
Using eqn.(11.9) and noting that the first term vanishes
q, = (1'8s) (1'0) (42) + (0'4) (1'8s) (2.0)(47)
= tql3t/n].
= 1455 t/mz'
uuu = 147'3 (1's5)(1'0)
Now, actual bearing pressureat the baseof footing'
But,
o,,
qa =
o _
m 'z .
 t 8 o = 4J5 "t /''
T
Ae>
qb=
? *,o,
=3'3i.
F,=
#i4=*ffi#do
carryinga net verticalload of
=
Frorntable11.1,for 0 = 30', N" = 3'7.2,Nq = 22.5,N., 19.7
296
a1'^'^
/(
RC.C. column footing of f.8 m x 1.8 m size is
Problem tt/.'en
founded at 1.5 m below G.L. The subsoil consistsof a loose deposit of siity
sandhaving the following properties:
 = 1.75t/n3' q = 20", c = l.lvrt
tbe
ultimate bearing czpacity of the footing when the ground
Determine
water table is located at:
(ii) 0.6 m below ground level.
(i) ground level
(iiD 2.0 m below the base of footing (iv) a.0 m below the base of
footing.
= 5 .7 4 f + 2 0 96r t
f+3.6582=24.04
Here,
q, = I[lo{ivu  rl +
Q"=
0f'
, ' = ? , = Q / 3 ) ( 1 . 1=)0 . 7 3 t / m 2 .
\ = 1 . 7 5 t / m, l D = 1 . 5 m ,B = 1 . 8 m
(1.s)(3.8)wl
(11.8)+ (1.75)
s, = G3) (0.73)
'
+ (0.4)(1.7s)(1.8)(1.3)wz
olt
ffi
=
17.472d+ 10.039 45.061
(ii) When the water table is at 0.6 m below the ground level,
z1 = 0.6m,
Qs=77.472d+10'039
W2 is againnot applicable
= 45.M1t/rt
d=2.fi)m.
The footing has to be founded at a depth of 2'00 m belorv G'L'
...(i)
(i.e.,W, = 17.
W2is notapplicable
0 . a V B N r ]+ \ D
Again,actualcontactpressure,A" =
or,
297
BearingCapacity
2g8
er,
Q=37.5t
safeload on eachcolumn = 37.5 t'
required
tbe
Hence,
(ii) In this case,Brinch Hansen'sequationis expectedto yield a more
reliable result.We have tiom eqn. (11'16)'
stdttt
4 , , = c N r s r d r i .  + T D N u s n d n i o+ 0 ' 5 v B N r
For Q = 10", referringto table 1L'2,
N. = 8.34, Nq = 2.47, Ny = 0.47
The shapefactors,cepth factors and inclination tactors are obtained trorn
t a b l e sL L . 3 ,1 1 . 4a n d 1 1 . 5 '
For a rectangularfooting of 2.0 m x 3.5 m size,foundedat a depthof 1.2
m below G.L., we gct,
s" = rs = 1 + (0.2)(2.0/3.5\ = l'll4
sY = 1  (0'4) (2/3'5) = 0'77
d. =  + (0'35)(r'2/2'0) = r'71
strafutn of :
(i) Saturatedsilty clay (f = 1'9 t/tn3 , c = 4'6 t:nh
(ii) Partially saruratedinorganicsilt
(y = 1.e t/n3, $ = 10', c = l'6t/m2)
solution: Total c:olumnload to be carried by the combined footing :
( a ) l o a d f r o r n t h e c o l u t n n s= Q + Q = 2 Q
=O'ZQ
ib) selfweightof footing (say l0% of columnloading)
g r o s sl o a d = 2 . 2 Q
(i; t' tnis case,as the tbundatio^ soil is purely cohesive,Skempto*'s
formula may be applied'
Here.
299
BearingCaprcity
Bylinearinterpolation,for
$ = lO", dq = 1.0 +
= 1'084
Sincetheloadingis vertical, i, = iq = ty = 1
(2.47)(r'rL4)
(1.0)+ (1'84)(1.2)
.'. 17,= (1.6)(8.34)(1'114)(r.2r)
(0.77)(1'0)(1'0)
(2.0)
(0.47)
(1.084)(1.0) + (0.s)(1.84)
= 17.99+ 6.59 + 0.67 = ?5'?5t/m2
U s i n g e q n s . ( 1 1 . 1 1 ) ,( 1 1 . 1 3 )a n d ( 1 1 . 1 5 ) ,t h e n e t u l t i r n a t eb e a r i n g
capacity of a rectangularlooting is given by,
* =='o'l.,',:
u,
:'T*]u.,i
i 0,,,,,,n
; :?'1,'
= 29.51.
t/nz
a factorofsafetyof2'5, thesafebearingcapacity,
Considering
,o ql
n,=t#=rr.Bt/mz
Safe gross load on the footing = Q"'A
= (11.8)
(2.0)(3.s)= 82.6t
2.2Q = 82.6
{14;1!} rtol
Qt
300
applied at a height of 3.3 m abovethe baseof the footing. Determine the factor
ofsafety ofthe footing againstshearfailure :
(i) using Brinch Hansen's method.
(ii) As per IS : UIJ3  1981.
solution: The loading condition of the column and the footing is shown
in Fig.11.5. Due to the presenceof the horizontal force, the rcsultant load on
is inclined, and the footing becor4eseccentrically loaded. Let e
th" ilun
be this eccentricitY'
301
BearingCapacity
(i) Brinch.H ansen'seqn:We havefrom eqn.(11.16)'
eurt= cN.s"d.i" + yDNrsndnio + 0'5 yBN,tsy4\'
For 0 = 20", N" = 14.83,Nq = 6.4, Ny  3.54
s" = sq  1 + (0.2)(2.4/3.5\* 1.137
s' = 1  (0.4)(2'4/3'5) = 0'7t4
dc =  + (0'35)(l5/L4)
For
(E%:P
i = zot;'do = t.o *
= L'219
(20) 1.262
4=l'o'
'1.8
m
e = 0'52m
\it=$.szrf0.&48
(1.5)(6'4)(1'137)
(0.34s)
(1.21e)
+ (1.75)
(1.137)
q, = (r.o)(14.83)
(1.0)(0.84t)
(0.7ro
(3.s4\
(L4\
(r.7s)
(0.s)
(0.e21)
(1.262)
+
Fig.11.5
= 33.79Vmz
Safe bearirqgcapacity,
o"=ff*to
Rv=74"t
summing up tle moments of all forces about tbe midpoint of the base
G,
Q,weget,
RvxPQ=LLxz.
ort
Of'
3 t ' 1 g l+ L 6 l r  1 1 . 8 6
I"
+(r.75)(r.s)
o"=ry+2.68
Actual contact pressuredue to the given loading'
,'
7n
Q'*g=ll'86t/m'
e = O.52m
n"=E2=#U?
F"  3'37
(ii) As per15:64031981:
Valtresols',snallcls,aretlresarneasilroseobtainedtbrBrirrclr
Hansen'snrethod.
VFo = tan (45' + 20"/2) = r'428
Now
d,=1.@!#Jg=1.18
d q = d y =t . U T f @
= l'oe
Bearing CaPacttY
(i)Plottheloadvssettltnenlcurvearrrldeterrrrine,theultimatebearing
of the Plate.
capat:ity
'
x 1'5 m' placed
(ii) Detenninetheultirnateloadwhich a iboting of 1'5 rn
settlernentis
allowable
the
if
ixrry
will
soil,
same
at 1.2 m below G.L. in the
2 rrnt.
11'6' In ordcr
Solution: (i) The loadsettlenentcrulveis shown in Fig'
were
two
tengents
plate'
to <teterminethe'ultimate bearing capacityof the
load
The
figure'
the
in
drawn to the loadsettlemeutcurve as showu
be
to
found
is
tangents
t*'o
these
of
.orr.:sponding1o the intersectioil point
3.75 kg/cnt.
= 37'5 t/m2
{a (plate)= 3'75kg/cntz
of the prototypelboting is given
(ii) Using eq. (11.27),the settletucltt
i , = if^i = ( t  *9I0
\
= o'81i
(r8'93\=0.:oo
,' r = l . ' n ,v.Jw
(1'137)
i. Qu= (1.0)(14.83)
it.rtt't(l.18)(0.811)+ (I.75)(1.s)(6'4)
(0'306)
(1'0e)
(0'714)
(1.0e)(0.811)+ (0.5)(r'7s)(z'4\(s'3e)
= 35,72t/nt2
3 s . 7 2 g . 7 s ) ( 1 5 )+ ( 1 . 7 5 ) ( 1 . s )
Sal'ebearing caPacitY, 4s =
r"
n"=#
or,
I B (8, + 30.5)l2
P=Ppl4iffio'j
= lQ gq1'
2 c n r = 2 0 m m , B = l . 5 m = 1 5 0 c ' m 8o
Here,
t 150(30 + 30.5)12 =
2 A = P"
(iso  3o.t
30
20 =
P p = 2.809 7 . 1 2m m .
or,
+2'6?5
U
33.095
a
t
* 2.6L5= *s
o"_.
or,
F" = 3.Sg
./
problem ll.116. The following rc.sultswere obtainedfrom a plate load
dcpth of 1'2 m
test perforne<! on a squareptate of :C cm x 30 cm size '1 2
ofsand:
belorv the ground level in a homogeneousbed
Applied Load
(ks/cm')
L
E
A
"
'Efr
GJ
e12
o
L ttc,
u. j6
I
Settlement (mrn)
1?
*' "
18
F i g .I 1 . 6
f,.XO9 pp
3O4
305
Beoring,Copucity
c , " =f +
++=B.zEt/rn2.
s z . )
(ii) Computation of SettlementzAs the underlying soil is saturatedsilty
clay, only consolidation scttlcmcnt will take place. The zone of influcnce
below the brse of tboting is extendedto a tnaximum depth of twice the width
of the firoting, i.e., 4 m below the base.lnFig' ll.7,XX is a horizontal plane
throqgh the rniddle of this consolidating laycr.
Norv, initial cffcctive ovcrburdenpressuronXX
pe  'l zl + ^{subz2
= ( 1 . 8 )( 1 . 0 ) + ( 1 . 8  1 ) ( 0 . 5 + 2 . 0 )
= 3.8t/n2 = 0.38 kg/cmz
Usirrg 2 : 1 dispcrsion method, stressincrement al X'X,
Lp
' =
1m
Po
Ap
tLl __lJ l
(8'28) (2'{J)(2'0)
(2.0 + 2.0)'
oJ8
tr + ossi
Fig.1r.?
Solution:
wtere,
Here,
N" n
H'
5 ( r + 0,2D/Br(l + 0.28/L)
Q  1 . 5m ,
B = L  2.0m.
4nu
l
\
(6.9)
 6.9c
{31 ZOJt/mz
 . "o'
(4o0)
(o.2se)
0ft
= 6.e
* (0.2)(o.r))
sf r . (o.?P)tt
''v
Nc
= lu')d ctn'
(1 + 0.85)
= ,t
logro
Po + LP =
7.5
logro
Po
P o + L P=
logro
Oft
p0
0.1339
Po+LP=
1.1433.
Po
306
t+*^1
= L36r2
Solving,we get,
But,
uP =
L'372=
@iAT;d
@ zf
q(*)^
(2 + 2)'
or,
Q=5.49t/m25.5t/ri
Hence, a loading intensity of 5.5 1,1p2will result in a consolidatiott
setflement of 7.5 cm. Therefore, the required allowable bearing capacity of
the footing = 5.5 Vrn2.
EXERCNSE 11
11.1. Determine the ultimate bearing capacity of the following footings
placedat 1.2 m below lhe ground level in a homogeneousdepositof firm soil
having y'= 1.8 t/nf , O = 20' and c = l.8t/n2.
(i) a strip footing of 2 m width
(ii) a squarefooting of 2m x 2 m size
(iii) a ci'cular footing of2 m diarneter.
given,forE = 2g', N. = 17.'7, Nq ='7.4, ffy = 5.0
tln?l
tAns.(i) 56.rrth# (ii) 6s.12r/mz liii; 62.80
11.2. A2.5 m x2.5 m square tboting is founded at a depth of 1.5 m
below G.L. in a loose soil deposit having the following properties:
,{ = r.65 t/m3, c = o.2kg/cmz, 0 = 15"
Determine:
(i) the ultimate bcaring capacity
(ii) the net ultimate bearing capacity
(iii) the net safe bearing capacity
(iv) the safe bearing caPacity.
The factor of safety should be taken as 3.0. Given, for Q = 15',
N, = 12.9, Nq = 4.4, Nr = L5, N"' = 9.7, Nq' = 2,.7, fly' = 0.9.
Beuring Capacity
307
fridion of 28" anrt a bulk densityof 18 kN/mr. The water table is locatedat
a grcat depth. Dt:lerrnine the safebearing capacity of the footing' Assumea
= 18'8 atd
gJreral shear thilure' Given, tbr Q = 28" N. = 32'5' ff,
Nv = 15.7.Thc faclorof safetyshouldbe takenas3.0. [AIs. 373.7kN/rn']
11.4. In Problern11.3,if thewater.tableriseslo the groundlevel due to
noodiilg, detcrminethe percentchangeill the sal'ebearifig capaeityof the
[Ans: DecreasesbY l8.6Vol
lootirtg.
I 1.5. A squarefooting of 2.2 m x 2.2 msize is foundedat a dpthof 1'2
m bclow G.L. in a honogeneousbed ofdry sandhavinga unit weight of 1.95
the
Vrn3 aild an angle Of intemat tiictiou of 3d. Determinethe safe load
tailure.
shear
footing .un ..rry with respectto a factorof safetyof 3.0 against
Givt:n, forq = 36', N. = 65.4, Nu = 49.4, Ny = 54'
'be
foundedin a bed ol'
t 1.6. A 2.0 nr wide strip tboting is requiredto
an
angle of shearing
and
of
2.0
4ensity
Vm'
a
bulk
havi*g
sa'el
4cnsc
rcsistanceof 35'. Plot thevariationof ultirnatebearingcapacityof the tbotittg
= 35"'
wilh depth of tbunclatiou, Dp tbr 0 s Dy s 3.0m' Given, for q
N. = 58, Ns = 41.5, Ny = 42.q.
the safeloada Circularfootingof5 m diameterfouuded
I1.7. De.rermine
at a depth of 1.0 rn below G.L. can caily. The foundationsoil is a saturated
claV lraving att uucoutineclcolnpressivestrengthof 6 t/rn2 and a ulit weight
.rf i.fS t/nr5.Assumea faUorof iafety of 2.5.Use Skempton'sandTerzaghi's
nrelhods attd cotupare the results. State,givilg reasons'wltich one is more
rcliable.
t, Skempton'smethod]
[Ans: Terzaghi:15492t,Skenpton: 131.48
I I .8. A strip footing has to carry a grossload of 120 kN per tnetre run.
Tht. footing is platedat l.?5 m below G.L. in a homogeneoussandstratun.
The unit *.ignt and algle of internalfriction of the sandare 19 kN/rn' and
32' respectivily. Detennine the rninimum width of the footing required in
= 44,
or<ler to lrave a factor of sat'ety of 3.0. Given, tbr S = 32", N"
[Ars:2;18m]
Nq  29, Nt = 2a'
I 1.9. The size of squarefootingmustbe restrictedto 1'5 m x 1'5 m' The
footing has to cany a net load of 150 t coming from the superstructure.The
tbundation soil has the following properties:
y = 1.91gm,/cc. c = 0, 0 = 36"
For I = 36', N' = 65, Nq = 49, ffY = 54'
Deterrnine the rninirnurn depth at which the footing has to be placed in
ordertohaveatactorofsafetyof2.5againstshearfailure. [Ans: 1.10m]
11.10. cornplete shear tailure of an RCC footing took place under a
grossload ot6245}kg. The dirnensionsof the footing wetezE mx2.75 n
I
309
Bearing Capacity
308
and the depth of foundation was 1.4 m, The rubsoil consistedof r deepstretum
of medium clay (y  1.8 t/m3). Find out the average
 unit cohesion of the
[Ars: c = 3.5 tlnzl
clay.
11.11. The fmting of a column is 1.5 m x 1.5 m in size, and is founded
at a depth of 1..25m belcnvthe ground level. The properties of the foundation
soil are:
c  0.1 kg/un2, 0  15', \  1.75 gm/cc'
Detennine tlc srfc load the footing can carry with a factor of safety of
2.5, when thc water tablc is at:
(t) 0.5 m below the ground level.
[Ans: (i) 24.99 t (it) 28'29 tl
1iq O.Sm below the base of fmting.
11.12. The subsoil at a site consistsof a homogeneousbed of ilormally
consolidated soil having the following properties:
y = 1.85 t/m3, c = 3.5 t/m?, 0 = 10'
AZ m x 3.5 m footing is to be foundedon this soil at a depth of 1'5 m'
Detennine the safc load the fcroting can cary with a factor of sat'ety'of 2.5.
Use Brinch Hansen's method.
Given, for $ = 1g', N. = 8.34, Nq  2.47, Ny = 0'47'
[Ans:152.44t]
by IS:
recommended
the
method
11.13. Redo Problem 11.12 using
=
l'22'
NT
=
2'47'
Ns
8.35,
N.
10',
64031981. Given, for $
[Ans: 152'0$ tl
11.14. Detennine the factor of safcty against shear failure of a 1.5 rn
wide strip footing located at a depth of I m below the ground level in a bed
of dense sand having Y = 1.9 t./m3 and 0 = 40", if it canies a uniformly
distributed load of 22tpet metre run. Use Terzaghi's equatiou. Given, for
 64.18, and flr  95'et'
[Ans:2'61]
0  40o, N, = 75.32, Nq
11.15. An R.C.C. column is subject to a vertical force of 900 kN actittg
through its centrc line and a horizontal thrust of 120 kN actingat2.T m above
G.L. ihe column is supportedby a squarefooting of 2.5 m x 2.5 m size, placed
at a depth of 1.2 rn below G.L. The foundation soil bas an angle of internal
friction of 35' and a bulk density of 18'5 kl'I76'' Assuming a factor of safety
of 3.0. detennine the safe load. Use:
(i) Brinch Hansen's method
(Nc  46'12, Nq = 33'3' /VY  4[.69)
(ii) Recommendation of IS: 64O3 1981
(N. = 46'12, Nq = 33'3, IVY = 48'03)
[Ans: (i) 3458 kN (ii) 2687 kNl
180  360
Seulement(mm)
0.82
1.78
720
5.40
9.30
3tl
Pile Foundotions
L2
PILE FOUNDATIONS
According to Terzaghi, a foundation is called a de.ep12.L Introduction:
Various types of
fcrundationif its width is less thin its depth (i.e., DIB > L)'
are:
deep foundations
1. Pile foundations
2. Well tbundationsor opell caissons'
3. Pier foundations or drilled caissons'
thc load of a
l2.2 Pile Foundations: Piles are generally used to trhnst'er
of piles
applications
other
The
structure to a deepseated,strong soil stratum'
are as follows:
(i) to compacr a loose soil layer (compaction piles)
subject to uplift or overturning forces
1ii) to nori down structures
(tension Piles)
provide anchorage against borizontal pull applied on earth(iii);
retaining structures(anchor piles)
vessels
(iv) to protect waterfroni structures from the impact of tnarine
(fender Piles)
(v) L resisioblique compressiveloads (batter piles)'
2.3CassificationofPilesAccordingtoloadDispersalCharacterktics:
classified into the
on the basis of the rnode of load dispersion, piles can be
following two categones:
but its tip
(i) Bearing piles. when a pile passesthrough a iveak stratum
the
pile
transfers
the
p"n"ii.Gilrrtoa stratum of substantialbearing capacity,
pile.
bearing
a
called
pile
is
a
ioad imposed on it to the stronger stratum.Such
a pile is extendSdto a considerable depth in a
(ii\Fri9!ion!!9When
capacity, it derives ia load carrying capacity from
sratumTt poii66riirg tn.rt
on ihe sides of the pile. Such a pile is called a
the frictionof the soil
friction pile.
of a pile may be
12.4 Bearing Capacity of Piles: The bearing capacity
a pile without
by
defined as the maximum load which can be sustained
producing excessivesettlement'
Er,u.r
=#r
a=#+4
...(12.1)
where, g = safHoad in kg
W = weight of hammer in kg
H = fallofhamrnerinctn
s = averagepenetrationof the pile in the last n blows in cm
For drop hamrners, n = 5
for steam hamnters,n = 2A
additional penetratiou of the pile which would have taken
placehad therebeenno loss ofenergy in driving the pile.
For drop hatntners, d = 2.5 cm.
for steam hammers,g= 0.25 cm'
c =
Equ. (12.1) gives the general fonn of the Engineering News Fonnula.
The specific fonns of this fonnula for dift'erent types of harnrters are given
below:
h
=
(i) For drop hammerI A = J
6 (s + 2.5)
...(r2.2)
wh
=
(ii)ForsingleactingsteamhammertQ
OG r
)
(W
p)
h
+
a
(iii) For doubleactingstean hammer:n 6 (s + 0.25)
...(12.3)
n2.4)
9"=
,*u,
...(12.s)
 etficieucYof hamtner'
\b =
w +3P
w;;
eP12
t t b w +wezl PF lwl w
r
1
313
Pile Foundations
312
Q"=Q1+Q6
1?r
"'(12'6)
wbere, ql 
.,(r2.7)
/l
c,' = t.77Y!
A
p
c, = o.ostQiL
Ap
...(12.10)
.,
q =3.ssfr
where,
.4rLrl)
eu
l. Colrcsive Soils:
...(r2.r2)
,..(r2.ts)
where. c= unitcohesion
Qu=scAl+9cA6
9u
Q b= c N "
/',
Fig.12.1
...(rz.e)
aver;r+euniiskin frihion
...(12.8)
...(12.14)
where,
C=Cr+C2+C3,
...(12.13)
Ou=X* andAy=nBD
...(12.16)
.'(12.r7)
...(12.18)
314
to:
Eqn.(12.14)thercfort:reduces
...(r2.re)
Consistency
Colrcsion (tlm2)
Adltesion foctor
ct
soft
nrediurn
stiff
o 3.75
3.757.50
7.50 15.0
Steel
solt
ntc:diurn
0  3.75
3.757.50
1  0.90
0.90 0.60
0.60 0.45
1.00.80
0.80 0.50
sriff
7.50 15.0
< 0.50
= fir u K,tan6
q,
,t
i.e.,
qa=
Jq. sY = ShaPetactors
B = width or diatneterof Pile
D = length of Pile
For a squareor rcctangularpilc, sy = 0'5
...(12.24)
...(12.21)
...(12.23)
averageou.rffi
v"z
sv = 0'3
e u= , t D N o s o
Qa=
Timber &
Concretc
where,
315
Pilc Foundotions
and,
Hence,
qr=3QNq
"'(12'24)
Smootb (polished)
Rough (rusted)
0.54
0.76
0.64
0.80
Parallelto grain
Perpendicularto grain
0.76_
0.88
0.85
0.89
o.76
0.88
0.80
0.80
0.98
0.90
Nq
$ (degrees)
Nq
1.0
30
9.5
t.z
35
18.7
10
1.6
40
42.5
15
2.2
45
115.0
20
3.3
50
422.4
,q
5.3
3r6
I
317
200
Pile Foundations
150
piles is generally less than the product of capacityof a single pile and the
numter of piles in the group. In or4er to determine the bearing capacity .f a
pile group, 9g, a correctionfactorrl, is requiredto be used.
...(t2.28)
Qr  nQut1,
100
rt
z.
f;/
50
re
20
25
30
35
S(Degrees)*
/.0
/.5
12.7 Pile Capacity frorn Penetratfun Tests: The pile capacity czn also be
detennined from the results of the standard Penetration Test or statie cone
Penetration Test performed in the field, using the following equations:
(i) Standard Penetration Test:
where,
...(r2.2e)
Fig.12.2
Qr=4NAu+O.OZNA1
, r g = 1* [ W ]
...(r2.2s)
g = tanl 4
where, d  diameterof eachpile
s = spacingofthePiles
(ii) LosAngelesformula:
.
a
,lr o ;#,
L^ln
,r;:
r) + n (mr\ +,/T@:11@r11 ..'(12.30)
12.9 Dcsign of a Pile Group: The piles in a group are conttectedto a rigid
pile cap so that the group of piles behavesis a unit. The group capacitymay
te derirmined by rhe efficiency equation (eqn. 12.24). A more rational
fI
I
L
...(r2.26)
l,u"o,
...(r2.27)
r]f r ll
SoftSoit
tt
rB
S e cA  A
Fig.12.3
318
319
Pile Foundotions
P= H # " ' r o s r o
o6 + Ao
o6
...(r2.34)
0rr=?
...(r2.32)
Qr = N'Q,
Rock
Fig.12.4
...(12.33)
of IS : 2911 @art
12.10 Spacing of Piles: As per thc reccrtuurcudatious
1)1964,the spacingof pilcs n'raybe oblainedfrorn lhr: following gcneral
rules:
(i) tbr triction piles, s f 3 d
( i i ) t b r e n d b e a r i n g p i l e s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h c o n r p r c s s i b l es o i l ,
s ]2.5d
(iii) tbr endbearingpilespassingthroughcornpressiblesoil but restitg
<rnstiff c:lay, s * 3.5 d
(iv) tbr compactionpiles, s = 2 d
l2.ll Settlementof Pile Group: The colsolidationicttlenrentof a pilt:
group in clay is detenninedon the basisol the Lbllorvingassutnptions:
(i) The soil urassbetweenthe top of tbe piles and their lorver tliiril
poiut is incornpressiblc.
of lhc layer
where, I/ = thickness
C. = cornpiessionittdex, eo = ilitial void ratio
oo = initial stressat the ceutreofthe layer
due to pilt:s
A o = stressinc:rement
= A%
A' = areaover which the load is distributedat the centre
of tlre layer.
12.12 Negative Skin Friction: Thc downwarddrag actingott a pile due to
the relativemovementof the surrounding soil tnassis calledthe negativeskin
320
friction. This tcnds to reducethe load canying capacity of the pile. Its
magnitude can be dctermined from:
1 1 ' wH ' n 5
vu = rll7l
...(r2.3s)
.,(t2.36)
where, p = perimeterofrhepilc
W > eP
Y = unitweightof soil
K = coefficientoflateral pressure (Ko s K s Ko)
rlb=
EXAMPLES
Here,
I,I/
I/
c
s
=
=
=
w+P
e , = W &l.O
Q + $2.5/2
I=42.47t
Now, using eqns.(12.9) through (l2.ll),
 \ft\@z'!) = o.1o6crn
cr = r.779"
Ap
o
Y =
+ (o.ss2)(l.s)
w * &p = 2.0
= 0.7
7.0+1.5
6 = friction angle, (6 s Q)
,
321
Pile Foundations
I x (30)2
4
wH
6(s + c)
,r=94JJ2,/9)J4J. = 0.868
I x (30)2
4
(3.ss)(42.47)=
/,
0.213cm
w3 _=  ,
3[l
= ? = 6mm = 0.6crn
)
O= f f i =
x (30)2
1 0 7 ' 5 k N
Problem 12.2. Determine the safe load that can be carried by a pile
having a grossweight of 1.5 t, using the modified Hiley's formula. Given,
weight of hamtner = 2.4 t
= 91 cIn
height of free fall
hanmerefficiency =75Vo
averagepenetrationunder the last 5 blows = 10 mm
= 22 n
length of pile
= 3iX)rum.
diatnr'tt:rof pile
coefficicntofrestitution= 0.55
Let
= L.397cm
Qu= Sot, :. c = tt'tat/:l+tot
e,=PffiP=56.2st
Let
Qu=55t,.'.c=W=L.537
Q,=ffi=sot
322
1 1=
Qu =4=rr.ur.
g'
7." z.)
t1
Here,
= arerageoverburdeupressure
,tH
\ ! 7
= {!ggq = rzt/m2
For loose sand,Ks = 0.5
The value of 6 may be obtainedfrorn Table l2.2.For a srnoothRCC pile
embeddedin dry sand,
6/q = 9.76, or, 6 = (0.76)(25') = 19'
Q , = e 1 . 4 1 +e u  A u .
As the pile is driven into a cohesivesoil,
Q f= a ' c
Solution:
373
Pile Foundatians
Using eqn.(12.24),
qt=3eNq
= (3)(1.6)(1s)(s.3)
= 38r.6t/mz
Af = xBD = r(0.4t))(15)= 18.85m2
Again,wehave, % = 9c
go = (2.066)(18.8s)+ (381.6)(0.126)
)
n
=  x l   /. E
=O
l t2=0.07m'
= 38.94 + 48.08
= 87.02t = 87 t
U0o/
.'.safeload,
P" =
ff
 s.ter.
e,=+=Y=2gt
f
1 5 k N . / m 2 ,Q = 2 0 " ,
yr*18kN/m3
Derermine the safe bearing capacity of the pile. Given, for Q = 20", the
bearing capacity factors are:
N"=26,
Nq=10, Nt4.
325
Pile Foundations
Engineering
Problems in SoilMeclwnics and Fottndation
324
Qf=ac+flK"tan6'
cr = 0.5, K" = 1, 6/$ = 0.80'
6 = (0.s0)(20') = 16"
(125/2) (1'0)(tan16")
a1 = (0.s)(15) + (1s 10)
Again
= 21.84kN,/m2
Af = n(0.4)(12.5)= r5'71m?
and,
'7,
D
= 528.67r/nz
1
Ir
,^"
a r r < . 1e u = i ' ( 0 . 5 ) ' = 0 . 1 9 6 m 
(0'196)
+ (4)(4'7r)+ (5?f67)
Q, = Q.4)(7.85)
= 18.84+ 18.84+ 10362
= 141.3
= \(0.40)2 = 0.126m2
s l4l'3
= 47.rt  4it.
n
E
3
4.
= 343.1 + 163.3
= 506.4kN.
O" =
ty
= 168.8
kr{ s 168kN.
at a deplh of 1'5 m
tZ.l fl"colurnn of a footing is founded
10
by a number of piles each having a length of
b"b;;I.;,Mrupp,.d
given
are
which
the properties of
m. The subsoil consists of thiee layers'
below:
rll=6'5m
Iayerlzc=3t/rT?., 1=1'85t4t3' 0=0"'
rl=3m
\=t'go;/nr3' 0=0"
LayerIII c=st/r&,
= 30" rI = 15m
1  1'80t'/m3' 0
kyertrI i c = o,
pUl"
= (0.9) (3.2)
and,
Qf, 
[Assuming c
= 0'901
= 2'88t/mz'
Ar = n(0'30)(15) = l4'I4mz
= ? (3'2\ = ?l,3t/m2
Qo = 9 c
eu = i(o'302)= o'o?lm2
Determinethesafeloadoneachpileifthediameterofthepilesbe500
25' Assume' adhesion factor
mm and the required factor of safety be
ct = 0.80.
piles in the three layers are
Solution: The depth of embedmentof the
respectivelY,5 m, 3 m and 2 m'
Forthe firstlayer'
Assume,
of eac.h
Pile,
IndividualcaPacitY
(14'14)
+ (28'8)(0'071)
=
Qff)
Q,
= 42'77t
=
Groupcapacity,
Qus = (15)(42'77) 641'55t
l>
I
I
I
A
I
326
 (1.e)(1s)(2.7)(s.1)
3n
PiIe Foundutions
= 17757kN
a block failure'width
(ii) Consideringgroupactionof piles:.Assuming
B=2(1.25) + 2(0'50/2)
ofUloct<,
= 3m.
lengthofblock, L =3(1'25) + 2(050/2)= 425m
depthof block, D/ = 30 *'
= 337'5kN/m2
4f = lOkN,/m2,%
(3)(4'25)+ 3A(2x3 +2 x 4'25)(30)
GroupcapacitY,
Qs = (337.5)
 (11)(30)(3) (4.2s)
< 17757kN
= 13145.6kN
Hence,groupactiongovernsthecapacityof thepile group'
kN.
O, = 13145.6
Q,c=ry=:x6'62tr,6t'
.,..
problem qr{
egroup of 12 piles,eachhavinga diameterof 500 rnm
a raft foundation.The piles are arrangedin 3 rows
and 30 m long,supports
andspacedatl.?s m c/c.Thepropertiesof thefoundationsoil areasfollows:
'lkN/m2,
y' = 11 kN,/m3, Qu 0 = 0"'
Assumingcr = 0.80 andF" = 2.5, determinethe capacityof the pile
group.
Solution: (i) Consideringindividualactionof piles:
=
Qf = dc = (0'80)(75/2) 30 kl'[/m2
qb = 9c = (9) (75/2) = 337'5kN,/m2
Af = x(0'50) (30) = 47'Dt#
m2
eu = X(o.sd)= 0.1e6
Capacityof eachPile,
g, = (30)(47.12)+ (337.5)(0.196)
= 1479.75kN
Groupcapacity= (I2) (1479.75)
a, = ry
 5x8kN.
= S?;i8.ZkN
of 40 mm
Problern 12.9/ Agroup of 20 piles,eachhaving a diameier
The capacitvof
m
c/c'
1'0
spacing
a
at
+
rows
""d i0;i;;;
,i(^"^ierdin
the piles'
each pile is :g0 kN. Determinethe group capacity of
pile group'
Solution: Using eqn. (12.28), the capacity of the
Qc = n' Qu'rls'
Here,
by either of the
The efficiency of the pile group' Ie may be determined
following formula:
(i) Converse Labarre Formula: Using eqn' (12'29)'
,rr=,Xlffi
= 2t'8'
o = tanr4s = arrrf94q'l
\ l'ui
 t) + + ( 4  t) s l  0.624 = 62.4To
' r 8= ,  2 L'8[( s
e ol  1 o t
trl
d
;,*Im{n1)
+ n(n1) +
{T@:TJ6:T
Problemsin SoilMeclnnicsandFoundationEngineering
328
y 6 y ( r ) t 4 ( s +15) ( 4  1 )+ y ' 2 1 +  1 1 6  X ,
= .'  ; 1 a0.40
= 0.771= 77.r%
The lower valueshouldbe used.Hence,the capacityof the pile group
Q8 = Qo) (380)(0'624)
= 4742.4kN  4742kN.
Problern l?.lf It is proposedto drivea goup of pilesin a bedof loose
sandto suppoflvrafl Thi group will consistof 16 piles, eachof 300 mm
ani 12m length.Theresultsof standardpenetrationtestsperformed
Oiameter
Now,
4 = I ' (40 . 4 0 ) 2 = o . L 2 6 r r ?
CapacitYof each Pile,
L) + (21'6)(0'126)
gu = (2.16)(r.2s7
or,
L + o'eol
Ot = 7 = o'eos
the averagevalue of N = 9
n,=f,{lo)Z =7n.86cm2
= ?5650k8 = 25.65t'
Asthespacingofpilesisashighas5D,itcanbeassumedthatthereis
no overlappingof stressedzones.
GrouPcaPacitY,Qs = n'Qu
= (16)(25.65)t
= 4101
ii
Qu = 2.715L+ 2'722
ofeachPile,
SafebearingcaPacitY
n
Qu=4NAt+O.02NAS
=
at = 9c  (9)(2.4\ X.16t/n?
Af = nBL = (0.40)nL = l'?57 LttJ
1'5
Estirnate the capacity of the pile group' if the spacing of the piles be
m c/c.
8 + 10 + 8 + 11 + 9 = 9 . 2 o 9
Solution: Average Nvalue =
Here,
,=t=+=2.4t/mz
=
qf = ac = (0'9)(2'4) = 2'l6t/mz' [Assumingcr 0'901
329
Pile Foundations
= 15'6?5t'
0'905t+0'907=15'625
L = I6.2''lm 16'5m
Checkforgroupaction:Consideringtheshearfailureofablockof
dimension, BxLxD,
B = L = 3 s + d = 3 ( 1 . 2 )+ 0 ' 4 = 4 m
D = 16.5m
(2'16)
.'. Capacityof the pile grolrp' Qs = Qr'6) (*) + $o's) (4 @ + 4)
 (o.e)
(r6.il(4)
= 894.24t
Sar'ebearingcapacityof thepile group
330
894.24
^
Q,t=T=298t>250L
block
Hence the designedg4onpof piles is safe from the considerationof
failure.
,/
e'rcn footing founded at a depth of 1'5 m below G'L'
Pr.oblen n.d
a dense
in a 19.5 thick stratum of normally consolidated clay underlain by
diaand
m
L2
piles
oflength
16
sand layer, is to be supportedby a'groupof
carried
be
to
load
gross
The
fonnation.
rneter 400 mm arrangid in a squari
The piles are
by the pile group (including the selfweight of pile cap) is 350 t'
level. The
ground
rhe
at
is
located
rable
*uter
;;"""d at r.2 m "/". tn.
are:
soil
foundation
propertiesofthe
w =32Vo, G=2.67, L.L= 4tVo
consolidation settlementof the pile group'
probable
the
Estimate
Solution:WithrefererrcetoFig.L2.4,theloadfromthepiegroupis
point,
assumedto be transmitted to the foundation soil at the lower onethird
)"t"
tZ = 8 m below the pile cap and 8+ 1'5 = 9'5 m below
i.e., at a depth of
=
G.L. The tirickness of the clay layer undergoing consolidation settlement
and
m
m,
3
3
thickness
of
sublayers
three
10 m. Let us divide this zone into
4 nr resPectivelY.
The settlementof eachsublayermay be obtainedfrom:
p, = H' f;
Now. we have,
'tor,oo 0 +
w G = se, or' e =
eo=
v c 
Ao
wG
s
and,
= (4 + 3 tan30")2= 32.86rt
350
^ o = for = 3 L s' 6 10.65t/mz
,,
oo=*=#h=4.r4t/m2
(300)(0.27e) ,^ 12'61]!! = 5'57cm
losto
P",= fr'dffi'
tr
Settlementof the third sublaYer:
lo = ffi
?#r*=Ti..,'s1
= (B + FI, tan30';2
A3 = (4 + 2 x 8 x tan30')2 = 175'?3m2
ryP=08s4
Ysar=
Assurningtheloadtobedispersedalorrgstraightinesinclinedtothe
horizontal at 60", the area over which tf e grossload is distributed at the rniddle
of thc first layer,
At = Q + 2H/2'tan30') (B + 2H/2'tan30')
o6
AgaiIr,
33t
Pile Foundations
(1)= l'eotzm3
= r.997t/mz
332
of 10 rn
12.2. An RCC pile having a diarneterof 400 rnrn and a length
free tall
of
a
height
with
kN,
30
weighi*g
natruner
is bei.g driven with i Orop
recorded
been
has
blows
few
last
the
for
penetration
of 1.2 rn. The average
coefficient or
as 9 rnrn. If the ettlciency of the hammer be 7O% aud the
using lnoditied
restitution 0.50, detenninettre safe load the pile can carry
a factor of
=
Assume
Hiley's fornula. Given,unit weight of RCC 24 kN/m''
200 kN]
Ans'
I
safetyof 3.0.
into a
12.3. A22 m lorrg pile having a diameterof 500 mm is driven
5.6
of
strength
compressive
deep straturn of sofl clay having ai unconfined
to
a
respect
with
pile
the
of
capacity
t/#. Detennine the staticload bearing
tl
40
tAns'
facror of safety of 2.5.
=16.
friction angle
=
=
10, Nv = 4'
[Ans. 279 kN]
Nq
=
?.6,
q
Nc
20',
for
an RCC pile of 500 mm
12.8. Deterrninethe ultimate load capacityof
subsoil conditions are
The
colutnu'
a
of
diarneter supporting the tboting
skt:tchcdin Fig. 12.5. Given'
= 0'9
adlrcsiontactor tbr soft clay
= 0'7
silt
claYeY
and that t'or
for 0 = 30' is 9'5' The water table is
factorNu
capacity
bcaring
Vt'sit"s
neglected' [Ans' 232 t]
lrx nlcrl rtt il gr(raldcpth.Skin friction iir sandmay be
Soft CtoY
l2.4.Aconcretepileof30cndiameterisernbeddedinastratunrofsoft
clay straturnis
clay lraving 1 = 1.7 t/rn3, Qu= 4'2 t/mz'Thethickness of lhe
g m and the pild penetratesthrough a distance of 1.2 m into the underlying
= 36"' Detennine the sat'e
straturnof de;rsesand,havilrg Y = 1'85 t'lm3 and Q
of 3'
safety
of
load carrying capacityof the pile with a lactor
capacity faclor
=
bearing
Vesic's
=
36',
Given, O O.gOQ and for Q
[Ans.32.3 t]
Nq=23,c[=1,K"=1.
is driven
12.5. A stnoothsteelpile of 8 m length and 400 rnm diameter
properties:
into a cohesionlesssoil masshaving the following
= 30'
Y"ar= 1.8t,zrn3' Q
= 0'60 Qand Vesic's
The water table is locatedat the ground level' If 6
the safecapacityof
=
determine
9'5'
be
30"
bearingcapacity faciorNn for 0
=
0'7.
Ks
Given,
[Ans' 12'1 t]
of
2.5.
rhe pil! with a iactor of sifety
at a
12.6. A 12 m long pile having a diameterof 300 mm is castihsitu
site where the subsoilconsistsof the tbllowing strata:
= 10kN'/m2
StratumI: thiclness =5 m, Y' = 10kN,/m3, 0=30" c
=
=
kN'/m2
Stratun II: thiclness= 16 m, Y'= 9 kN'/m3, 0 0', c 60
Detenninethesafeloadonthepilewithafactorofsafetyof2.0.Assume
ieasonablevalues for all other data'
of 500 mm is
12.7. A 16 m long bored concretepile having a diameter
properties
following
the
having
silt
ernbeddedin a saturatedstratum of sandy
'Yru,= 19'5kN'/m3' c = rlkN'/m2'
0 = 2o'
with a factor of
Detennilte the safe load canying capacity of the pile
safety of 3.0. Given,
= O'75
adhesionfactor
=
0'85
pressure
ofearth
coefficient
JJJ
PiIe Foundations
10m
Sitt
Ctoyey
1 y = 1 . Et /5n F ) , c= 6 l l m 2
2.0m
i
I
I
Ssnd
(t=1.75t/m3,@=30o)
Fig.12.5
6 rows with a
12.g. A pile group consists of 42 piles anan$ed in
pile
is 22 rn long
Each
centreto_centiespacing of 1,5 rn in each direction.
using: pile
the
of
and 500 mm in diameter.Find oul tbe group capacity
(i) ConveneLabane formula
(ii) tns Angeles formula'
Given, load bearing capacity of each pile = 78 t'
q
[Ans. (i) 2142 t (ii) 2624
12.10. A pile group consistingof 25 piles anangedin a sqlare fonnation
are L5 m and
is to support a iaft iooting. The length and diameterof eachpile
soil is
300 mm respectively,wiile their spacingis 85ocmc/c Thgfoynfation
Determine
y
1'85
VT''
a normally consotiAatedclay having c = 5 t/mt and
=
F" = 3'g'
the safe load bearing ""p""ity of thi pile group' Take cr 0'85 and
[Ans' 527 t]
placed
12.11. A multistoried building is to be supportedby a raft footing
piles
96
of
consists
raft
on a pile foundation. The pile group supporting the
water
c/c'The
m
of
2'0
of 26'm length and 400 mm diameter,with a spacing
table is located near tle ground surfaceand the propertiesof the foundation
soil are as follows:
334
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