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1.

_______ range in color from pale yellow to


bright orange.
(A) Canaries which
(B) Canaries
(C) That canaries
(D) Canaries that are
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas butuh
subject. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya B yang
memenuhi syarat.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: Mesti terdapat
Subject dan Verb: Canaries (subject) + range
(verb)

berarti kalimat sudah lengkap. Kita sudah tidak


butuh lagi kata kerja. Otomatis pilihan pilihan C
dan D sudah tereliminasi. Pilihan B juga ikut
tereliminasi. Kalimat di atas cuma terdiri dari 1
clause jadi tidak butuh connector (which). Jadi
pilihan jawaban benar ialah A.
Cara 2: Materi Appositive. Appositive ialah noun
yang menjelaskan noun lainnya (dalam TOEFL
umumnya subject). Jadi kita cuma butuh noun
untuk menjelaskan subject (The Caldecott
Medal). Dan yang terdapat noun ialah pilihan
jawaban A.

2. _______ of precious gems is determined by


their hardness, color, and brilliance.
(A) The valuable
(B) It is the value
(C) It is valuable
(D) The value
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kata kerja (is
determined) sudah ada. Jadi kita hanya mencari
subject kalimat. Hanya pilihan jawaban D yang
bisa menjadi subject.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: Mesti terdapat
Subject dan Verb

5. The horn of the rhinoceros consists of a cone


of tight bundles of keratin _______ from the
epidermis.
(A) grow
(B) grows
(C) growing
(D) they grow
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas
terdapat Subject (the horn) dan Verb (consists).
Jadi kita tidak butuh lagi verb lainnya. Otomatis
pilihan jawaban A dan B salah. Pilihan jawaban
D juga salah karena membuat clause lain. Ingat
2 clause harus terdapat 1 connector. Jadi
tersisalah pilihan jawaban C.

3. _______ a tornado spins in a


counterclockwise direction in the northern
hemisphere, it spins in the opposite direction in
the southern hemisphere.
(A) However
(B) Because of
(C) Although
(D) That
Pembahasan Jawaban: Terdapat dua klausa
(S + V): a tornado spins & it spins. Jadi kita
butuh connector untuk menghubungkan ke dua
klausa. Dari pilihan jawaban hanya C yang
memenuhi syarat.
Prinsip Kalimat Bahasa Inggris: 2 clause butuh 1
connector. 3 clause butuh dua connector.
4. The Caldecott Medal, _______ for the best
children's picture book, is awarded each
January.
(A) a prize
(B) which prize
(C) is a prize which
(D) is a prize
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Cara 1: Kalimat di atas terdapat subject (The
Caldecott Medal) dan verb (is awarded), ini

6. Most species of heliotropes are


weeds, _______ of them are cultivated.
(A) some
(B) but some
(C) for some species
(D) some species
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di kalimat atas,
terdapat 2 verb (are) dan (are cultivated). Jadi
terdapat dua clause. Ingat 2 clause harus
terdapat 1 connector. Hanya pilihan jawaban B
yang berisi connector (but).
7. Thunder occurs as _______ through air,
causing the heated air to expand and collide
with layers of cooler air.
(A) an electrical charge
(B) passes an electrical charge
(C) the passing of an electrical charge
(D) an electrical charge passes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Di kalimat di atas
terdapat 1 clause (Thunder occurs) dan 1
connector (as). Jadi bisa ditebak kalimat di atas
mesti terdapat dua clause. Dari pilihan jawaban
hanya D yang berbentuk clause. Ingat clause

terdiri dari Subject dan Verb.


8. Researchers have long debated _______
Saturn's moon Titan contains hydrocarbon
oceans and lakes.
(A) over it
(B) whether it
(C) whether
(D) whether over
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas
terdapat 2 clause. Clause 1 (Researchers have
long debated); clause 2 (Saturn's moon Titan
contains). Jadi kita tinggal butuh 1 connector.
Hanya pilihan jawaban C yang terdapat
memenuhis syarat.
9. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark grey
clouds _______ forebode rain.
(A) what
(B) which
(C) what they
(D) which they
Pembahasan Jawaban: kalimat di atas terdapat
subject (Nimbostratus clouds) dan verb (are).
JJuga terdapat verb (forebode) jadi terdapat dua
clause. Dua clause butuh 1 connector. Jawaban
yang benar ialah B. Which berfungsi sebagai
connector sekaligus sebagai subject dari verb
(forebode). Materi ini masuk dalam materi
"Adjective Clause".
10. _______ in several early civilizations, a cubit
was based on the length of the forearm from the
tip of the middle finger to the elbow.
(A) It was used as a measurement
(B) A measurement was used
(C) The use of a measurement
(D) Used as a measurement
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Used as a measurement in several early
civilizations (digunakan sebagai sebuah ukuran
di wal-awal peradaban silam), a cubit <img

11. Only when air and water seep


through its outer coat _______
(A) does a seed germinate
(B) to the germination of a seed
(C) a seed germinates
(D) for a seed to germinate
Pembahasan Jawaban: terdapat
negative expression (only) di awal

kalimat. Dalam TOEFL ini


mendandakan adanya inversion
(pembalikan S + V --> V + S): Bentuk
inversion umum dipakai dalam bentuk
question. Hanya pilihan jawaban A
memenuhi syarat.
12. _______ seasonal rainfall, especially
in regions near the tropics, is winds
that blow in an opposite direction in
winter than in summer.
(A) Causing
(B) That cause
(C) To cause
(D) What causes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang
dibutuhkan ialah subject untuk verb
(is). Dari pilihan jawaban yang
memnuhi syarat secara structure dan
meaning ialah pilihan jawaban D.
Materi ini masuk dalam katergori Noun
Clause di mana noun clause bertindak
sebagai subject kalimat. Pilhan
jawaban A, B, dan C semuanya bisa
digunakan sebagai subject hanya saja
tidak sesuai dg kontek kalimat di atas.
SAngat mudah dengan menggunakan
pendekatan makna translation).

13. The extinct Martian volcano


Olympus Mons is approximately three
times as _______ Mount Everest.
(A) high
(B) high as is
(C) higher than
(D) the highest of
Pembahasan Jawaban: as +
adjective + as. Pilihan jawaban B yang
terdapat as.
14. The flight instructor, _______ at the
air base, said that orders not to fight
had been given.
(A) when interviewed
(B) when he interviewed
(C) when his interview

(D) when interviewing


: Pilihan benar ialah A. when
interviewed (ketika diwawancara).
15. In the northern and central parts of
the state of Idaho _______ and churning
rivers.
(A) majestic mountains are found
(B) found majestic mountains
(C) are found majestic mountains
(D) finding majestic mountains
Pembahasan Jawaban: terdapat
place expression 9In the northern and
central parts of the state of Idaho) di
awal kalimat. Dalam TOEFL ini
menandakan adanya inversion
(pembalikan S + V --> V + S): Hanya
pilihan jawaban C memenuhi syarat.

1. The hard palate forms a partition ____ and


nasal passages.
(A) the mouth
(B) between the mouth
(C) is between the mouth
(D) it is between the mouth
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan verb
sudah lengkap sehingga kita tidak butuh lagi
verb atau pun subject lainnya jika tidak terdapat
connector. Pilihan C dan D terdapat verb tanpa
connector, jadi otomatis sudah salah. Jawaban
yang paling tepat ialah B.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti
terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb).
Jika terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1
connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector.
begitupun seterusnya.
2. Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon and Rick
Blaine in Casablanca ____ of Humphrey
Bogart's more famous roles.
(A) they are two
(B) two of them are
(C) two of them
(D) are two
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat subject tapi kehilangan
verb jadi kita butuh verb. Jawaban yang terdapat
verb ialah A, B, dan D; pilihan C sudah jelas
salah. Pilihan A dan B kemudian salah karena
terdapat lagi subject. Jadi jawaban paling tepat
ialah D.

Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti


terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb).
Jika terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1
connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector.
begitupun seterusnya.
3. ____, the outermost layer of skin, is about as
thick as a sheet of paper over most of the skin.
(A) It is the epidermis
(B) In the epidermis
(C) The epidermis
(D) The epidermis is
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat verb (is) tapi kehilangan
subject jadi kita butuh subject. Jawaban yang
terdapat subject ialah A, C, dan D; pilihan B
sudah jelas salah karena terdapat preposition
(in) yang menandakan the epedermis bukanlah
subject. Pilihan A dan D kemudian salah karena
terdapat lagi verb di dalamnya. Jadi jawaban
paling tepat ialah C.
Prinsip: Setiap kalimat bahasa Inggris mesti
terdiri dari minimal 1 clause (subject + verb).
Jika terdapat 2 clause maka mesti ada 1
connector. 3 clause mesti ada 2 connector.
begitupun seterusnya.
--> "the outermost layer of skin" bukanlah
subject kalimat melainkan penjelas dari suject
sebelumnya. Penjelas semacam ini biasa
disebut dg nama "appositive"
4. During the Precambrian period, the Earth's
crust formed, and life ____ in the seas.
(A) first appeared
(B) first to appear
(C) is first appearing
(D) appearing
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai
adanya connector (and): clause 1 (the Earth's
crust formed), dan clause ke dua kehilangan
verb, hanya terlihat subject (life). Olehnya kita
butuh verb untuk melengkapi clause 2. Secara
structure, yang memungkinkan ialah pilihan A
dan C. Hanya dilihat dari tense (waktu) dan
makna maka yang sangat sesuai ialah pilihan A.
5. When fluid accumulates against the eardrum,
a second more insidious type of ____
(A) otitis media may develop
(B) developing otitis media
(C) the development of otitis media
(D) to develop otitis media
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai
adanya connector (when): clause 1 (fluid

accumulates), dan clause ke dua kehilangan


verb, hanya terlihat subject (a second more
insidious type). Olehnya kita butuh verb untuk
melengkapi clause 2. Hanya pilihan A yang
memenuhi syarat.
6. Before the Statue of Liberty arrived in the
United States, newspapers invited the public to
help determine where ____ placed after its
arrival.
(A) should the statue be
(B) the statue being
(C) it should be the statue
(D) the statue should be
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat terdapat 3 clause yang ditandai adanya
2 connector (before) dan connector (where):
clause 1 (the Statue of Liberty arrived), clause 2
(newspapers invited), dan clause ke 3
kehilangan subject dan helping verb, hanya
terlihat past participle (placed). Olehnya kita
butuh subject dan helping verb untuk
melengkapi clause 3. Hanya pilihan A yang
memenuhi syarat.
Helping verb: be (is, are, am, be, been), modals
(can, could, must, dll), have (have, has, had), do
(do, does, did)
7. A stock ____ at an inflated price is called a
watered stock.
(A) issued
(B) is issued
(C) it is issued
(D) which issued
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kita lihat kalimat diatas terdapat 1 clause yang
lengkap: subject (A stock) dan verb (is called).
Jadi kita tidak membutuhkan lagi subject atau
pun verb lainnya kecuali jika terdapat connector.
Pilihan B dan C terdapat verb namun tidak
disertai dengan connector sehingga salah.
Pilihan D terdapat connector tapi tidak terdapat
verb, hanya terlihat past participle (issued) yang
butuh helping verb. Sehingga pilihan yang tepat
ialah pilihan A.
8. Acidic lava flows readily and tends to cover
much larger areas, while basic lava ____.
(A) viscous
(B) is more viscous
(C) more viscous
(D) it is more vicious
Pembahasan Jawaban:

Kita lihat terdapat dua clause yang ditandai


adanya connector (while): clause 1 (Acidic lava
flows readily and tends), dan clause ke dua
kehilangan verb, hanya terlihat subject (basic
lava ). Olehnya kita butuh verb untuk
melengkapi clause 2. Pilihan A dan C sudah
jelas salah karena tidak terdapat verb. Pilihan D
salah karena terdapat subject lagi (double
subject). Jadi pilihan paling tepat ialah pilihan B.
9. Seismic reflections profiling has ____ the
ocean floor is underlain by a thin layer of nearly
transparent sediments.
(A) reveal that
(B) revealed that
(C) the revelation of
(D) revealed about
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Present Perfect: has + verb III
Jawaban D salah karena terdapat preposition
(about). Object dari preposition mesti berbentuk
noun sementara kalimat di atas terdiri dari
clause (the ocean floor is underlain).
10. ____ and terrifying, coral snakes can grow to
4 feet (1.2 meters) in length.
(A) They are extremely poisonous
(B) The poison is extreme
(C) Extremely Poisonous
(D) An extreme amount of poison
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Parallel structure: Extremely poisonous
(adjective) + terrifying (adjective)
11. The leaves of the white mulberry provide
food for silkworms, ____ silk fabrics are woven.
(A) whose cocoons
(B) from cocoons
(C) whose cocoons are from
(D) from whose cocoons
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas
terdapat dua clause tanpa connector: clause 1
(The leaves of the white mulberry provide) dan
clause 2 (silk fabrics are woven). Jadi yang kita
butuhkan ialah connector untuk
menghubungkan dua clause. Jawaban yg paling
sesuai ialah piliha D.
12. As ____ in Greek and Roman mythology,
harpies were frightful monsters that were half
woman and half bird.
(A) described
(B) to describe

(C) description
(D) describing
Pembahasan Jawaban: As described in Greek
and Roman mythology (sebagaimana
digambarkan dalam mitos Roman dan Yunani)
13. Not only ____ generate energy, but it also
produces fuel for other fission reactors.
(A) a nuclear breeder reactor
(B) it is a nuclear breeder reactor
(C) does a nuclear breeder reactor
(D) is a nuclear breeder reactor
Pembahasan Jawaban: Parallel structure in
paired conjunction (not only ... but also) : Not
only (clause) + but also (clause)
Kita lihat di bagian but also sudah terdapat
clause, maka kita perlu clause untuk bagian not
only. Di clause bagian not only sudah terdapat
verb (generate) makanya kita perlu subject.
Otomatis jawabn B dan C salah karena terdapat
verb lagi. Pilihan yang tepat ialah pilihan C. Kita
menggunakan does karena kalimat ini berbentuk
inversion in (pembalikan: V + Subject).
Perhatikan bentuk inversiaon pada kalimat
pertanyaan (question).
14. D.W. Griffith pioneered many of the stylistic
features and filmmaking techniques ____ as the
Hollywood standard.
(A) that established
(B) that became established
(C) what established
(D) what became established
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Adjective clause: yang digunakan dalam
menggambarkan benda ialah "that" bukan what.
Pilihan A salah karena that langsung ketemu
established (kehilangan helping verb). Pilihan A
benar jika berbentuk "that was established".
15. _____ be needed, the water basin would
need to be dammed.
(A) Hydroelectric power should
(B) When hydroelectric power
(C) Hydroelectric power
(D) Should hydroelectric power
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Inversion in conditional sentence. Kalimat

aslinya ialah "If hydroelectric power should be


needed, the water basin would need to be
dammed".
1. In simple animals, .......... reflex movement or
involuntary response to stimuli.
(A) behavior mostly
(B) most is behavior
(C) most behavior is
(D) the most behavior
Pembahasan Jawaban: (C) Most digunakan
sebelum noncount noun untuk mengekspresikan
suatu kuantitas yang lebih besar dari sentengah.
Singular verb berpasagan dengan noncount
noun (sebagai subject). Pilihan A tidak
mempunyai verb. Pilihan B, verb terletak
sebelum bukan sesudah noun. Pilihan
D, the digunakan sebelum most.
2. Although the whether in Martha's Vineyard
isn't .......... to have a year-around tourist
season, it has become a favorite summer resort.
(A) goodly enough
(B) good enough
(C) good as enough
(D) enough good
Pembahasan Jawaban: (B) Sebuah adjective
digunakan sebelum enough yang bermakna
cukup. Pada pilhan (A), kata goodly tidak sesuai
dengan aturan grammar. Bentuk adverb dari
good ialah well bukan goodly. Pilihan C salah
karena as tidak dibutuhkan dan salah. Pilihan D,
adjective digunakan setelah bukan sebelum
enough.
3. According to the wave theory, ..........
population of the Americas may have been the
result of a number of separate migrations.
(A) the
(B) their
(C) that
(D) whose
Pembahasan Jawaban: the dapat digunakan
sebelum noncount yang diikuti sebuah qualifying
phrase. Population seharunya the
population sebelum qualifying phrase 'of the
Americas'.
4. It is presumed that governing the sharing of
food influenced .......... that the earliest cultures
evolved.

(A) that the way


(B) is the way
(C) the way
(D) which way
Pembahasan Jawaban: Adjective clause
menjelaskan noun dalam main clause. that the
earliest cultures evolved menjelaskan the way.
5. Calculus, .......... elegant and economical
symbolic system, can reduce complex problems
to simple terms.
(A) it is an
(B) that an
(C) an
(D) is an
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan Verb
sudah ada. Dari posisi phrase 'elegant and
economical symbolic system' bisa kita deteksi
bahwa phrase ini merupakan appositive atau
penjelasan tambahan bagi subject 'calculus'.
6. Canada does not require that U.S. citizens
obtain passports to enter the country, and ..........
.
(A) Mexico does neither
(B) Mexico doesn't either
(C) neither Mexico does
(D) either does Mexico
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada dua bentuk untuk
menyatakan negatif dalam bentuk soal seperti
ini:
1. Mexico doesn't either.
2. Neither does Mexico.
7. The poet .......... just beginning to be
recognized as an important influence at the time
of his death.
(A) being Walt Whitman
(B) who was Walt Whitman
(C) Walt Whitman
(D) Walt Whitman was
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas
kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb.
8. ........... the formation of the sun, the planets,
and other stars began with the condensation of
an interstellar cloud.
(A) It accepted that
(B) Accepted that
(C) It is accepted that
(D) That is accepted
Pembahasan Jawaban: its is accepted that

(diakui bahwa) .....


Cara lain: kita lihat bahwa kalimat di soal sudah
terdapat 1 clause lengkap 'the formation of the
sun, the planets, and other stars began with the
condensation of an interstellar cloud' jadi kita
butuhkan ialah clause lain beserta
connectornya. Ingat dua clause butuh 1
connector. 3 clause butuh 2 connector.
9. As a general rule, the standard of living ..........
by the average output of each person in society.
(A) is fixed
(B) fixed
(C) has fixed
(D) fixes
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas
kehilangan verb. Kita pakai passive voice -->
ditandai adanya kata 'by'.
10. The Consumer Price Index lists .......... .
(A) how much costs every car
(B) how much does every car cost
(C) how much every car costs
(D) how much are every car cost
Pembahasan Jawaban: Pilihan A dan D hanya
digunakan dalam bentuk question. Pilihan D
sangat jelas salahnya karena 'are' untuk plural
sedangkan 'every' menandakan singular. Pilihan
D salah karena seharusnya S + Verb bukan
sebaliknya.
11. The Ford Theater where Lincoln was
shot .......... .
(A) must restore
(B) must be restoring
(C) must have been restored
(D) must restored
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan
adalah kata kerja dari subject 'The Ford
Theater'. 'where Lincoln was shot' merupakan
adjective clause yang menjelaskan subject 'The
Ford Theater'.
12. Fast-food restaurants have become popular
because many working people want .......... .
(A) to eat quickly and cheaply
(B) eating quickly and cheaply
(C) eat quickly and cheaply
(D) the eat quickly and cheaply
Pembahasan Jawaban: want + to infinitive
13. After seeing the movie Centennial, .......... .

(A) the book was red by many people


(B) the book made many people want to read it
(C) many people wanted to read the book
(D) the reading of the book interested many
people
Pembahasan Jawaban: After seeing the movie
Centennial (Setelah menyaksikan film
Centennial), Banyak orang .... (many people
wanted to read the book)
Cara lain: Materi ini masuk dalam reduction in
adjective clause (ke dua-dua clause mesti
mempunyai subject yang sama baru dibenarkan
untuk melakukanreduction (pengurangan /
penghilangan).
14. .........., Carl Sandburg is also well-known for
his multivolume biography of Lincoln.
(A) An eminent American poet
(B) He is an eminent American poet
(C) An eminent American poet who is
(D) Despite an eminent American poet
Pembahasan Jawaban: Subject dan Verb
kalimat di atas sudah lengkap jadi kita hanya
butuh penjelas dari subject 'Carl Sandburg'
(appositive).
15. The examiner made us .......... our
identification in order to be admitted to the test
center.
(A) showing
(B) show
(C) showed
(D) to show
Pembahasan Jawaban: made + verb 1 murni
Materi ini masuk dalam "Causative Verb" -->
Causative verb + V 1 murni
Causative verb: make, have, help
1. _____ Jane has an excellent resume, she
hasn't found a job yet.
(A) However
(B) Yet
(C) That
(D) Although
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Terdapat dua cluse: clause 1 (Jane has an
excellent resume), clause 2 (she hasn't found a
job yet). Karena ada dua clause maka kita butuh
1 connector untuk menghubungkan ke dua
clause tersebut. Dari pilihan jawaban yang ada,
hanya pilihan B dan D yang merupakan
connector. Pilihan B salah karena kata yet ketika
menjadi connector berada di tengah clause atau

di antara ke dua clause bukan di awal kalimat;


yet masuk dalam coordinate connector. Pilihan
paling tepat ialah D. Although masuk dalam
kategori subordinate connector yang letaknya
bisa di antara ke dua clause bisa juga depan
kalimat.
2. _____ several universities that have excellent
engineering schools.
(A) There are
(B) The
(C) There is a lot of
(D) Some of
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Kalimat di atas terdapat dua clause ditandai
adanya connector 'that'. Clause 1 ' several
universities' kehilangan kata kerja. Clause 2 'that
have excellent engineering schools' sudah
lengkap. Subjectnya ialah that yang juga
berfungsi sebagai connector.
Olehnya, kita butuh untuk melengkapi clause
pertama yg kehilangan verb. Dari pilihan
jawaban yg ada, hanya pilihan A dan C yg berisi
verb. Pilihan paling tepat ialah pilihan A.
3. Many Middle Eastern diplomats still feel that
the United States is intent _____ the ultimate
police in the region.
(A) to being
(B) being
(C) be
(D) on being
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Pasangan Phrase: intent + on
4. Woodrow Wilson believed the United States'
entry into World War I would put a _____ to the
war in months.
(A) to stop
(B) stop
(C) stopping
(D) will had stopped
Pembahasan Jawaban: article 'a' + noun
Dari pilihan jawaban hanya B yang merupakan
kata benda (noun).
5. _____ of New York's Erie Canal greatly
enhanced trade in the upstate region.
(A) The complete
(B) Completing
(C) A completing
(D) The completion
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah
subject untuk melengkapi kalimat di atas.

6. A leech, after _____ the skin, is best removed


by the application of either salt or heat.
(A) it attaches itself to
(B) attaching it
(C) its attaching to
(D) where it attaches to
Pembahasan Jawaban: kata after
menandakan adanya clause lain selain
clause utama 'A leech is best removed by the
application of either salt or heat'
7. _____ east of the Mississippi River.
(A) Indigo was grown usually
(B) Usually grown was Indigo
(C) Indigo usually grown
(D) Indigo was usually grown
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kata adverb (usually)
umumnya terletak setelah helping verb BE
(was).
8. _____ wrote the operetta Babes in Toyland,
drawn from the childhood characters of Mother
Goose.
(A) That was Victor Herbert who
(B) Victor Herbert who
(C) Since it was Victor Herbert
(D) It was Victor Herbert who
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan
kalimat di atas ialah subject kalimat.
9. Some of the oldest and most widespread
creation myths are _____ involving the all-giving
"Earth Mother."
(A) those
(B) them
(C) they
(D) their
Pembahasan Jawaban: those mengarah ke
subject kalimat yang plural (myths).
10. In _____ , disk technology has made record
albums almost obsolete.
(A) the decade from
(B) the decade since
(C) the past decade
(D) decade ago the
Pembahasan Jawaban: Hal ini seharusnya
sangat mudah, karena sangat umum digunakan.
Jika tidak biasa didapatkan gunakan rumus
Noun Phrase (Adjective + Noun)
11. In the first few months of life, an infant learns
how to lift its head, smile, and _____ .
(A) parents to recognize
(B) recognize its parents
(C) recognizing its parents

(D) the recognizing of its parents


Pembahasan Jawaban: Parallel Structure: lift
(infinitive), smile (infinitive), and recognize
(infinitive)
12. Juana Inez de la Cruz _____ Mexico's
greatest female poet.
(A) considered
(B) considered to be
(C) is considered to be
(D) is consideration
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah
verb untuk mengisi kalimat. Pilihan yang berisi
verb lengkap sesuai makna kalimat ialah pilihan
C.
13. Because the metal mercury _____ in direct
proportion to temperature, it was once used as
the indicator in common thermometers.
(A) is expanding
(B) expands
(C) is expanded
(D) expanded
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kita lihat terdapat 1
connector 'because' yang menandakan adanya
dua clause. Clause 2 'it was once used as the
indicator in common thermometers' sudah
lengkap. YYang kita butuhkan ialah verb untuk
melengkapi clause 1. Subject dari clause 1 ialah
'the metal mercury'. Dari segi makna ada dua
piihan jawaban yang memungkinkan ialah
pilihan B dan D. Pilihan paling tepat ialah pilihan
B karena konteks dari clause 1 mengarah ke
waktu sekarang (present tense).
14. _____ what is now San Salvador,
Christopher Columbus believed that he had
found Japan.
(A) He reached
(B) When did he reach
(C) Having reached
(D) Whether he reached
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Yang terlihat di kalimat, terdapat 3 clause dan
dua connector (what & that). Clause 1 (what is
now San Salvador), clause 2 (Christopher
Columbus believed), clause 3 (he had found
Japan).
Ingat prinsip kalimat bahasa Inggris: jika ada
dua clause maka butuh 1 connector, 3 clause
butuh 2 connector, dan 4 clause butuh 3
connector.
Pilihan A salah karena terdapat 1 clause baru
tanpa connector. Jika dimasukkan dalam kalimat
maka akan terdapat 4 clause hanya dengan dua
connector.

Pilihan B salah karena menggunakan helping


verb 'did'. Did ketika bersama WH Question
(when) hanya digunakan dalam interrogative
sentence.
Pilihan D salah karena whether bukanlah
subordinate conjunction. Subordinate
conjunction ialah conjunction atau connector
yang bisa terletak di awal dan di pertengahan
kalimat.
15. The principal purpose of aviation medicine
is _____ by people aboard an aircraft in flight.
(A) to study the stress experienced
(B) study the experienced stress
(C) to study stress experiencing
(D) study the stress experience
Pembahasan Jawaban:
is to study (is + to infinitive) adalah bentuk
umum / sudah sangat umum digunakan dalam
kalimat.
to study the stress experienced (untuk
memplejari tekanan yang dialami)
1. Over the centuries, ____ that try to explain
the origins of the university.
(A) although many theories
(B) many theories
(C) have many theories been
(D) there have been many theories
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Langkah 1: 'that try to explain the origins of the
university' merupakan adjective clause.
Adjective clause menjelaskan noun yang
letaknya sebelum adjective clause itu sendiri.
Jadi sebelum adjective clause di atas mesti ada
noun yang dijelaskan. Pilihan C sudah jelas
salah karena bukan noun yang sebelum
adjective clause tapi 'been'.
Langkah 2: Kalimat di atas terdapat 1 clause
'that try to explain the origins of the university'
yang terdapat connector 'that' yang juga
berfungsi sebagai subject dari verb 'try'. Adanya
1 connector menandakan dalam kalimat
tersebut terdapat dua clause. Olehnya yang kita
butuhkan dari pilihan jawaban ialah 1 clause.
Clause ialah kumpulan kata yang didalamnya
terdapat subject dan verb. Pilihan A dan B
bukanlah clause. Jadi pilihan yang tepat ialah
pilihan D.
2. The planet Venus is almost exactly the same
size and mass _____ Earth, with a similar

interior, including a nickel-iron core.


(A) to
(B) as
(C) is
(D) than
Pembahasan Jawaban: the same + as
3. George Washington Carver ____ international
fame for revolutionizing agriculture research
in the southern United States during the early
twentieth century.
(A) won
(B) winning
(C) who has won
(D) the winner of
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas
kehilangan verb jadi kita butuh verb.
4. Constituting one of the earliest engineering
techniques, ______ in Paleolithic time was done
in order to extend natural caves.
(A) tunnels were built
(B) which built tunnels
(C) the building of tunnels
(D) tunnels whose building
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas buuth
subject. Verb dari kalimat di atas ialah 'was
done'.
5. The tulip tree is native to the eastern United
States, _____ the tallest and largest broadleaf
tree.
(A) where
(B) where it is
(C) it is where
(D) is where
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'where it is the tallest
and largest broadleaf tree' merupakan adjective
clause yang menjelaskan noun sebelumnya 'the
eastern United States'.
6. Elementary schools in the United states
provide formal education ______ arithmetic,
science, social science, and communication
skills that including reading, writing, spelling, and
speaking.
(A) such subjects as basic in
(B) as basic subjects in such
(C) in such basic subjects as
(D) as in such basic subjects
Pembahasan Jawaban: pasangan kata yang
benar ialah such as bukan as such. Jadi pilihan

B dan D sudah jelas salah. Ingat pola noun


phrase (adjective + noun). Kita lihat dipilihan
jawaban ada kata basic (adjective) dan subjects
(noun). Antara A dan C hanya C yang memnuhi
syarat pola noun phrase (adj. + noun).
7. ______ land and money enabled construction
of the Union Pacific railroad to begin from
Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1865.
(A) By the government granting of
(B) Government grants of
(C) For the government to grant
(D) Government grants so that
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan dari
kalimat di atas ialah subject. Verb nya ialah
'enabled'.
8. Appointments to the United States Supreme
Court and all lower federal courts ____ by the
President with the advice and consent of the
Senate.
(A) making
(B) to make
(C) are made
(D) have made
Pembahasan Jawaban: Terdapat 'by'
jawabannya mesti passive 'are made'.
9. The name squirrel is commonly used for
those forms of the family Sciuridae that live in
trees, _____ it is equally accurate for ground
dwelling types.
(A) whether
(B) that
(C) although
(D) in spite of
Pembahasan Jawaban: Ada dua clause.
Clause 1 = 'The name squirrel is commonly
used'; Clause 2 = 'it is equally accurate'. Untuk
menghubungkan ke dua clause di atas kita
butuh connector. Connector yang tepat ialah
'although' (pilihan C)
10. Green plants combine _____ with water and
carbon dioxide to make food.
(A) energy derived from light
(B) energy, derived it from light
(C) energy is derived from light
(D) from light, and energy derived
Pembahasan Jawaban: kalimat di atas sudah
terdapat subject dan verb jadi kita tinggal butuh
object. Pilihan C sudah salah karen terdapat

clause tanpa connector (tidak bisa jadi object).


Pilihan D salah karena terdapat 'from' -->
combine + noun tanpa 'from'. Pilihan B salah
karen 'derived' menjelaskan 'energy' jadi tidak
lagi butuh it.
Materi ini masuk dalam topik Adjective Clause
(Reduction) atau juga Past Participle
11. From the archeologists perspective,
understanding the past is vitally important and
requires ______ of earlier cultures.
(A) the ruins examined
(B) examining the ruins
(C) of the ruins to be examined
(D) that the examined ruins
12. The Texas Legislature selected Vassar Miller
_____ in 1982, and again in 1988.
(A) was the states poet laureate
(B) as the states poet laureate
(C) the states poet laureate
(D) become the states poet laureate
Pembahasan Jawaban:
Langkah 1: Kalimat di atas sudah lengkap
Subject dan Verb. Jadi kita tidak lagi butuh verb
lainnya. Pilihan A dan D olehnya sudah jelas
salah.
Langkah 2: Ketika kita menggunakan kata
'selected' tidak lagi perlu menggunakan kata 'as'
tapi langsung saja noun setelahnya.
Contoh lain: I selected you the president of the
meeting club. Kata kerja yang lain masuk dalam
kategori kata kerja semacam ini ialah:
consider, find, believe, think, prove call, name,
elect, appoint, nominate, make, paint, suppose,
turn (mengubah), dan build.
13. The distinguishing feature of a fluid, in
contrast to a solid, is the ease _____ .
(A) that a deformed fluid
(B) to deform a fluid
(C) when a fluid that is deformed
(D) with which a fluid may be deformed
14. Oxygen and nutrients reach the bodys
tissues ____ from the blood through the capillary
wall.
(A) pass
(B) by passing
(C) to be passing
(D) have passed
Pembahasan Jawaban: Kalimat di atas sudah

lengkap subject dan verb jadi tidak butuh lagi


verb. Pilihan A dan D sudah jelas salah. Pilihan
C tidak sesuai dengan konteks kalimat.
15. _____ important development of the
Neolithic age was not in the manufacture of
stone tools but in the production of food.
(A) The most
(B) Most
(C) Most of
(D) Of the most
1. Among the 450 artworks in the White House
art collection __
(A) as is Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two
Children
(B) is Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two
Children
(C) which is Mary Cassatts Young Mother and
Two Children
(D) Mary Cassatts Young Mother and Two
Children
Pembahasan Jawaban: Materi ini masuk dalam
Inversion (pembalikan) ditandai dengan adanya
'place expression' di depan kalimat. Subject dari
kalimat ialah 'Mary Cassatts Young Mother and
Two Children'
Inversion --> Verb + Subject
2. An unconsolidated aggregate of silt particles
is also termed silt, __ a consolidated aggregate
is called siltstone.
(A) which
(B) why
(C) whereas
(D) whether
Pembahasan Jawaban: Dalam kalimat atas,
terdapat dua clause. Clause 1 = 'An
unconsolidated aggregate of silt particles is also
termed silt'. Clause 2 'a consolidated aggregate
is called siltstone'. Olehnya kita butuh 1
connector untuk mengubungkan dua clause.
Pilihan B sudah jelas salah karena why
bukanlah connector. Pilihan A salah karena
'which' merupakan connector yang digunakan
dalam 'adjective clause' yang menjelaskan
noun. Jadi posisi 'which' ketika digunakan untuk
menghubungkan dua clause berada setelah
noun yang dijelaskan. Pilihan D salah karena
'whether' masuk dalam 'noun clause' yang
berposisi sebagai 'subject' atau 'object'.
2 Clause butuh 1 Connector; 3 Clause butuh
2 Connector
3. In 1864 the American Shakespearean actor

Edwin Booth gained critical acclaim when he __


Hamlet at the Winter Garden Theater in New
York City.
(A) perform
(B) performed
(C) had been performing
(D) having performed
Pembahasan Jawaban: Dalam kalimat atas,
terdapat dua clause dan 1 connector 'when'.
Clause 1 = 'the American Shakespearean actor
Edwin Booth gained critical acclaim'. Clause 2
'he __ Hamlet at the Winter Garden Theater in
New York City'. Clause 2 kehilangan verb
olehnya kita butuh verb untuk melengkapinya.
Pilihan yang benar ialah B karena waktu nya
berbentuk past (in 1864).
4. -- are chiefly derived from petroleum.
(A) Plastics today
(B) There are plastics today
(C) Because today plastics today
(D) Due to plastics today
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah
subject kalimat
5. Most tangerine trees and their flowers and
fruits resemble __ the orange, although
tangerines are generally smaller.
(A) of those
(B) which of those
(C) those of
(D) which are of
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'resemble' ialah
intransitive verb (kata kerja butuh object).
Jadi resemble langsung ketemu 'those' sebagai
object.
6. Ohio, the center of __ the Hopewen culture,
has the greatest concentration of ancient burial
mounds in the United States.
(A) called
(B) what is called
(C) that is called
(D) is called
Pembahasan Jawaban: setelah 'of' mesti noun.
'what is called' meruapakan noun clause.
7. __, such as jazz, are often played from
memory rather than from a written score.
(A) Of some types music
(B) Music some of types
(C) Some types of music
(D) Types of music some
Pembahasan Jawaban: yang dibutuhkan ialah
subject kalimat

8. During the 1850, reform movements __


temperance and the abolition of slavery gained
strength in the United States.
(A) advocating
(B) they had advocated
(C) to advocating
(D) to advocate when
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'advocating
temperance and the abolition of slavery'
merupaka adjective yang menjelaskan /
memberi informasi tambahan terkait 'reform
movements'.
9. Many meteorites are thought to have
originated from __ that once existed between
the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
(A) where a planet or planets
(B) a planet or planets so
(C) which a planet or planets
(D) a planet or planets
Pembahasan Jawaban: 'that once existed
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter'
merupakan adjective clause yang menandakan
adanya noun yang dijelaskan sebelumnya.
10.The modem automobile is a __ composed of
more than 14,000 parts.
(A) complex technical system
(B) system of complex technical
(C) complex technical system that
(D) system is technically complex
Pembahasan Jawaban: article 'a' menandakan
adanya noun setelahnya. Selain itu 'composed
of more than 14,000 parts' merupakan adjective
yang menandakan adanya noun debelumnya.
11. __ over 100 years since the invention of the
square-bottomed paper bag.
(A) Now is
(B) Now it has
(C) There is now
(D) It is now
Pembahasan Jawaban: Yang dibutuhkan ialah
subject dan verb. dari pilihan jawaban yang
paling sesuai dg kalimat ialaha 'It is now'.
12.The novelist John Dos Passos developed a
style of fiction incorporating several
documentary devices __ to his works.
(A) lent realism
(B) that lending realism
(C) to lend realism
(D) of whose realism lent
Pembahasan Jawaban: developed + to lend
Verb + to + verb

Verb + gerund (verb ing)


13. In Earths infancy, its surface was warm
enough for life __ the young Sun was fainter
than it is today.
(A) in spite of
(B) whether
(C) neither of which
(D) even though
Pembahasan Jawaban: yang dibutuhkan ialah
connector untuk menghuungkan dua clause di
atas. Pilihan A sudah jelas salah karena 'in spite
of' merupakan preposition bukan connector.
Pilihan B salah karena 'whether' berposisi
sebagain noun: subject dan object. Pilihan C
salah karena 'neither of which' masuk dalam
kategori adjective clause yaitu menjelaskan
noun setelahnya. Seteah neither of which pun
langsung ketemu verb yg berarti tida sesuai
dnegan kalimat.
Pilihan D benar. Materi ini masuk dalam kategori
'Adverb Clause'.
14. The invention of the compound microscope
(which allowed much higher magnification
through multiple lenses) made __ the great
strides in life sciences.
(A) it possible
(B) possibly
(C) possible
(D) it was possible
Pembahasan Jawaban: Make + possible + sth
(noun)
15. Hares generally have longer ears and hind
legs than rabbits and move by jumping __
running
(A) rather to be
(B) rather than
(C) are rather
(D) as rather
Pembahasan Jawaban: rather than =
(dibanding). Digunakan untuk perbandingan
1. Many scientists believe _____ as a result of a
collision between the newly formed Earth and a
large asteroid.
A. that the Moon was formed
B. in that the Moon was formed
C. that the Moon formed was
D. when the Moon was formed
Kunci Jawaban: A. that the Moon was formed
2. The organ-pipe cactus is _____ in the United
States.

A. Rare that
B. It rare
C. so that rare
D. rare
Kunci Jawaban: D. rare
3. Willa Cather,_____, gained recognition for her
books concerning the American frontier.
A. a novelist and Pulitzer prizewinning
B.a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist
C.a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist who
D.was a Pulitzer prizewinning novelist
Kunci Jawaban: B. a Pulitzer prizewinning
novelist
4. The average wavelength of visible light is
2,000 times _____ the diameter of an atom.
A. much as
B. as great
C. greater than
D. more than that
Kunci Jawaban: C. greater than
5. _____ ants live in nests, which may be
located in the ground, under a rock, or built
above ground and may be made of twigs, sand,
or gravel.
A. Most
B. The most of
C. Most of
D. Of the most
Kunci Jawaban: A. Most
6. The banking systems of the world have many
similarities, _____ they also differ, sometimes in
quite material respects.
A. of which
B. in spite of
C. but
D. how
Kunci Jawaban: C. but
7. Learning that takes place in infancy provides
the____ for the eventual transformation of a
child into an adult.
A. foundation is necessary
B. necessary foundation is
C. necessary in the foundation
D. foundation necessary
Kunci Jawaban: D. foundation necessary
8. In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Jacob
Lawrence created many paintings _____ the
lives of famous African American activists.
A. portayed
B. portrayed them

C. that they portrayed


D. that portrayed
Kunci Jawaban: D. that portrayed
9. The Centennial Exposition, _____ in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1876, celebrated
the one-hundredth anniversary of the
Declaration of Independence.
A. was held
B. to be held
C. held
D. by holding
Kunci Jawaban: C. held
10. In the dark abyss of the deep sea _____ is
produced by luminescent fish.
A. because the only light
B. the only light
C. the only light that
D. is the only light
Kunci Jawaban: B. the only light
11. The classic American novel Moby Dick____
an account of the conflict between human
beings and their fate.
A. may be regarded as
B. as may be regarded
C. regarded as may be
D.regarded may as be
Kunci Jawaban: A. may be regarded as
12. In the metals industry, hydrogen is used to
prevent metals from tarnishing while undergoing
_____.
A. treated by heat
B. heat treatments
C. by heat treatments
D. heat-treated
Kunci Jawaban: B. heat treatments

1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the United


States developed the reusable space shuttle
________to space cheaper and easier.
A. to make access
B. and making access
C. which made accessible
D. and made accessible.
Pembahasan: to Infinitive
2. Genetically, the chimpanzee is more similar to
humans _______.
A. are than any other animal
B. than is any other animal

C. any other animal is


D. and any other animal is
Pembahasan: Comparative Degree
3._______more than 65,000 described species
of protozoa, of which more than half are fossils.
A. Being that there are
B. There being
C. Are there
D. There are
Pembahasan: There are (Subject di belakang
verb)
4.The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 ___ nearly
unanimously through the United States
Congress.
A. passed
B. in passage
C. having passed
D. passing
Pembahasan: Kehilangan verb
5.Modern skyscrapers have a steel skeleton of
beams and columns ___a three-dimensional
grid.
A. forms
B. from which forming
C. and forming
D. that forms
Pembahasan: Adjective Clause
6.The average level of United States prices grew
very little from 1953 until the mid-1960s when
____________.
A. did inflation begin
B. inflation began
C. the beginning of inflation
D. did the beginning of inflation
Pembahasan: Adverb clause --> kehilangan
subject & verb
7.The basis premise behind all agricultural
production is _____available the riches of the
soil for human consumption.
A. to be made
B. the making
C. making is
D. to make
Pembahasan: to infinitive --> be (is, are, am,
was, were) + to inf.
8.___to the United States House of
Representatives in 1791, Nathaniel Macon
remained in office until 1815.
A. Election
B. Why he was elected
C. Elected
D. Who was elected

Pembahasan: Past Participle / Reduction in


Adjective Clause
9.________ of classical ballet in the United
States began around 1830.
A. To teach
B. Is teaching
C. It was taught
D. The teaching
Pembahasan: Kehilangan Subject.
Ingat Noun + of + Noun
10.The universe is estimated ___between 10
billion and 20 billion years old.
A. being
B. to be
C. which is
D. is
Pembahasan: to infintive
11. A situation in which an economic market is
dominated by a ____ is known as a monopoly.
A. single of a product seller
B. product single of a seller
C. seller of a product single
D. single seller of a product
Pembahasan: Adjective (single) +
Noun (seller) ---> Noun + of + Noun
12.____ freshwater species of fish build nests of
sticks, stones, or scooped-out sand..
A. As the many
B. Of the many
C. Many
D. Many of them are
Pembahasan: Butuh pelengkap subject.
13.Newspaper publishers in the united states
have estimated ___________reads a
newspaper every day.
A. nearly 80 percent of the adult population who
B. it is nearly 80 percent of the adult population
C. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population
who
D. that nearly 80 percent of the adult population
Pembahasan: Noun Clause kehilangan subject
14. The foundation of all other branches of
mathematics is arithmetic, _ science of
calculating with numbers.
A. is the
B. the
C. which the
D. because the
Pembahasan: Appositive
15.Nylon was ___the human-made fibers.
A. the first of which
B. what the first of

C. it the first of
D. the first of
Pembahasan: butuh complement ... B dan C

sudah pasti salah karena kalimat di atas telah


memiliki Subject dan Verb (lengkap u/ 1
clause).

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