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Development of Composite Auxetic Structures

for Civil Engineering Applications


Scientific Guidance
Prof. Raul Fangueiro
Prof. Daniel Oliveira
P. SUBRAMANI
PhD, Centre for Textile Sci. & Tech.

Introduction of Auxetic Materials


Poissons Ratio (v): Generally, materials possess positive Poissons ratio, i.e. stretching expected to make a
material thinner and compressing results in bulge.
Auxetic materials behave just reverse i.e. become wider when stretched and narrower
when compressed, that is, they possess negative Poissons ratio.

Reference: Liu Y and Hu H. Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5 (10), pp. 1052-1063, 18 May, 2010

Auxetic Materials Across the Length Scale


The auxetic materials and structures (man-made and natural) have shown in length scales.

Figure shows that metals, ceramics, polymers,


and composites now exist in auxetic form and
it span all the major classes of materials.
Auxetic materials have enormous potential in
many practical and technologically important
applications.

Reference: Alderson A and Evans KE. Adv. Mater. 2000, 12, No. 9, pp. 617 628.

Properties of Auxetic Materials


The Negative Poissons ratio of auxetic materials exhibit a series of fascinating
properties compared with conventional materials,
Increased shear modulus
Higher indentation resistance
Higher fracture toughness
Good energy absorption
Porosity/permeability variation with strain

Conventional material Auxetic material

Synclastic curvature

Ref: Liu Y and Hu H. Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5 (10), pp. 1052-

Auxetic Structures

a Re-entrant honeycomb
b Chiral honeycomb
c Star shaped honey comb
d Double arrow head honeycomb
e & f Missing rib
e

Objectives
Development of auxetic structures from fiber reinforced braided composite rods.
To study tensile and auxetic behaviour of developed auxetic structures.
Optimization the developed structures by studying the effect of structural and material
parameters so that developed structures will be suitable for civil applications.
Development of analytical and numerical modelling to study the auxetic and tensile
behaviour of the developed auxetic structures.
Performance study of auxetic structures reinforced structural elements (mortar and
masonry) under tensile and flexural loads.

Fiber Reinforced Braided Structure


What is Braid?
Braid is a complex structure or pattern formed by
intertwining three or more strands of flexible materials
such as textile fibers, wire or hair.
In practical terms, braid refers to a family of fabrics
continuously woven on the bias.
Braiding technique normally used for ropes and cables and
also interesting for composite reinforcement due to their
properties
like
in-plane
multi-axial
orientation,
conformability, excellent damage tolerance and low cost.

Reference: Ahmadi et al. eXPRESS Polymer Letters Vol.3, No.9

Development of structures: preliminary work


Vertical rod angle w.r.t node

- The angle formed between vertical


and horizontal rods at the node
- Vertical rod rib length

- Horizontal rod rib length


The angle formed at the bending of
horizontal rods

r2

r1

Structural parameters
Structure
1
2
3
4
5

Angle

Value
(degree)
45
91
52
102
64
122
68
127
79
138

Rib
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2
r1
r2

Value
(cm)
7.0
3.5
6.3
4.0
5.6
4.6
5.4
4.6
5.1
4.6

Evaluation of auxetic behaviour


The auxetic behaviour of the structures were evaluated by image-based tracking method
and results are reported here.
Parameters of Photo-mechanical set-up
Speed of tensile testing 25 mm/min
Acquisition frequency 1.0 Hz
Lens = Nikkon F 50 mm
Working distance 2755 mm
Shutter time 14 ms
The images were taken at periodically
throughout the test and images were
processed in MATLAB software and
dimensional changes were calculated to
calculate the Poissons ratio.

Auxetic and tensile behaviour


Structures with high initial angle
exhibits high negative Poissons ratio
(means structure has high transverse
expansion) and vice-versa.

Structures tensile behaviour also depends


upon its initial angle . High angle structure
shows higher tensile load and less elongation
and vice-versa.

Optimized structure
Structure
S1
S1
S1
S1
S1
S1
S1
S1
S 2*
S 3*

Core
Core fiber,
Angle ,
fiber type
tex
Glass
2400
66
Glass
4800
66
Glass
6000
66
Glass
9600
66
Glass
4800
72
Glass
4800
78
Basalt
4800
66
Carbon
4800
66
Glass
4800
66
Glass
4800
78

Rib length, cm
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.60 & r2 2.35
r1 2.50 & r2 2.35
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.70 & r2 2.35
r1 2.50 & r2 2.35

Note: * S 2 and S 3 consists both undulation and straight


longitudinal rods

Figure. (a) schematic diagram of basic structure, (b) structure-1, (c)


magnified portion of structure, (d) schematic diagram of modified
design of missing rib, (e) structure 2, and (f) structure-3.

Evaluation of strain components and Poissons ratio


Cross-head speed of tensile testing machine was
25 mm/min.
To measure dimensional changes of the structures
during tensile load, a image-based tracking method
was used.
With suitable photo-mechanical set-up the image
was captured continuously throughout tensile
testing.
Later the images analyzed in ImageJ software to
calculate lateral strain and longitudinal strain
values of the structures.

Formula used
,

, -

F
Structure 1
Structure 1

Structure 2

Structure 2
Structure deformation at various
stages of tensile loading

Effect of parameters on auxetic behaviour


-2.5

-1.8

Glass fibre
Basalt fibre
Carbon fibre

2400 tex
4800 tex

-2.0

-1.2 ratio
Poisson's

-1.5 ratio
Poisson's
-1.0

-0.6
-0.5
0.0

0.0
0

3
4
5
6
7
Longitudinal strain [%]

-4.0

4
5
6
7
8
Longitudinal strain [%]

Angle 66 deg
Angle 72 deg
Angle 78 deg

-3.2
Poisson's ratio
-2.4
-1.6
-0.8
0.0

3
4
5
6
7
Longitudinal strain [%]

10

10

Auxetic behaviour of modified structure


-1.2

-3.0

Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3

-1.0

-2.5
-2.0
Poisson's ratio

-0.8

-1.5

-0.6
Poisson's ratio
-0.4

-1.0

-0.2

-0.5

0.0
0.0

Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3

1.5

3.0
4.5
6.0
Longitudinal strain [%]

7.5

9.0

-0.7

0.0
0.0

0.7

1.4

2.1

2.8

Longitudinal strain [%]

3.5

4.2

Tensile behaviour of auxetic structures

Structure
S1

Fiber
type
Glass

Tex
2400

Angle
,
66

Avg. max. Avg. elongation


tensile load, at max. tensile
kN
load, %
4.2 (10.6)

10.0 (4.1)

Avg. work
of rupture,
J
35.2 (12.0)

Tensile Load [kN]

S1

Glass

4800

66

4.9 (15.2)

9.3 (6.3)

38.2 (2.7)

S1

Glass

6000

66

5.9 (10.5)

9.1 (2.2)

49.2 (5.0)

S1

Glass

4800

72

5.1 (12.7)

7.2 (6.5)

42.9 (6.0)

S1

Glass

4800

78

6.9 (10.1)

4.3 (9.7)

47.8 (8.7)

S1

Basalt

4800

66

6.1 (14.7)

9.5 (1.9)

45.7 (14.5)

S1

Carbon 4800

66

7.3 (15.5)

8.7 (5.6)

71.3 (12.4)

S2

Glass

4800

66

3.4 (11.2)

8.9 (5.0)

43.7 (10.5)

S3

Glass

4800

78

5.5 (8.3)

3.0 (7.9)

48.8 (6.1)

Structure
1

4
3
2

Elongation [%]

10

12

Re-entrant hexagon or Bow-tie design

a, c and d Horizontal
rib length
b vertical diagonal
rib length
angle formed b/w
horizontal and vertical
diagonal rod
2D Re-entrant honeycomb structure
from hexagon
Basic reentrant
hexagon
auxetic design

Modified reentrant
hexagon
auxetic design

Developed structures and their parameters


Structure

Structure 1

Structure 2

Structure 3

Core
fibers

Core fiber linear


density, tex

Glass

2400, 4800, 6000

Basalt

4800

Carbon

4800

Glass

Glass

4800

4800

Angle

Value
()

76

76

83

Rib

Length
(cm)

3.0

4.1

3.0

4.1

3.0

1.0

3.0

4.0

2.0

2.0

Structure 1

Structure 1

Structure 2

F
Symmetry line

Structure 2
Structure deformation at various stages of
tensile loading

Effect of parameters on auxetic behaviour


-9.0

-8.0

-7.5

-6.0
Poisson's ratio

-6.0
Poisson's ratio
-4.5

-4.0

-3.0

-2.0
Glass Fibre
Carbon Fibre

0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0
Longitudinal strain [%]

-1.5

Basalt Fibre
3.0

4.0

0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0

4800 tex

3.0

4.0

Longitudinal strain [%]

-5

-6.0

-4

-4.8

Poisson's ratio
-3

-3.6 ratio
Poisson's

-2

-2.4

-1

-1.2
Sample 1

Sample 2

0
0

2400 tex
6000 tex

2
3
Longitudinal Strain [%]

0.0
0.0

Sample 1
Sample 3
0.3

0.6
0.9
Longitudinal strain [%]

Sample 2
1.2

1.5

Tensile behaviour of auxetic structures

Structure

Fiber
type

Tex

Avg. Max. Tensile


Load, kN

Avg. Elongation at
max. tensile load, %

S1

Glass

2400

9.21 (0.46)

5.72 (2.10)

S1

Glass

4800

10.40 (8.33)

5.14 (5.45)

S1

Glass

6000

15.43 (8.33)

4.82 (9.63)

S1

Basalt

4800

14.58 (9.85)

5.92 (10.88)

16

Structure 1
Structure 2

14
12
10
Tensile Load [kN]
8
6
4

S1

Carbon

4800

22.25 (12.08)

6.20 (12.49)

S2

Glass

4800

8.23 (7.31)

4.90 (6.57)

S3

Glass

4800

15.23 (0.88)

4.04 (12.15)

2
0

3
5
Elongation [%]

Auxetic Structures Reinforced


Structural Elements

Structures reinforced mortar

Composite grid
used as
reinforcement in the
clamp area

Acrylic mold for


sample preparation

Structure RF mortar: 600 x 140 x 15 mm

Tensile testing of structures reinforced mortar


Tensile test carried out using Universal tensile testing
machine.
The speed of the tensile test was kept as 0.5 mm/min.
To avoid crack in the sample during sample fixing in the
machine, new bottom clamp was designed and utilized.

Tensile testing of structures reinforced mortar

Tensile Load [kN]

Plain Grid RF TRM


Modified LG66 RF TRM

Elongation [%]

Lozenge grid or Missing rib structures


RF Mortar

Basic LG RF TRM
Modified LG78 RF TRM

Plain Grid

LG Basic

LG Mod. 66

LG Mod. 78

Tensile testing of structures reinforced mortar


3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5 stress [MPa]
Tensile
1.0
0.5

Plain Grid RM
Basic Design RM

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
Strain [%]

REA

Plain grid

Modified REA

Auxetic structures reinforced masonry wall specimens

Schematic of masonry sample

Masonry wall w/o any reinforcement

Brick dimension

Masonry wall during reinforcement

Auxetic structures used for reinforcement

Masonry wall after reinforcement

Flexural testing of masonry wall

Middle

Back

Right

Left
Front

Test Standard: EN 1052-2:1999


Applied flexural stress 0.48 MPa/min ( i.e.
the velocity of load is 0.008 mm/sec)
Age of Masonry Specimen 80 days
Age of specimen after reinforcement 45
days

Flexural stress,

where,
F = load at a given point on the load deflection curve,
(N)
L = support span, (mm)
b = width of test beam, (mm)
d = depth of tested beam, (mm)

Flexural behaviour of structure reinforced masonry wall


15

18
15
Flexural Load [kN]
12

12
Flexural Load [kN]
9

3
0

Sample 1
Sample 3

6
9
12
Displacement [mm]

15

Sample 1
Sample 3

Sample 2
Sample 4

18

Sample 2
Sample 4

4
6
8
Displacement [mm]

10

12

20
16
Flexural Load [kN]
12
8
4
0
Flexural Load [kN]

Sample 1
Sample 3

Sample 2

Displacement [mm]

Sample 1
Sample 3

Displacement [mm]

Sample 2

Flexural behaviour of structure reinforced masonry wall


10.0
Sample 1

8.0
Flexural load [kN]
6.0

S. No.
1

Specimen description
Non-reinforcement

Flexural stress (MPa)


0.68

Lozenge grid RF

1.15

Re-entrant RF

1.24

Plain grid (6VR) RF

1.41

Plain grid (14VR) RF

1.35

4.0
2.0
0.0
0.0

0.4

0.8
1.2
Displacement [mm]

Specimen description
Non-reinforced masonry
Lozenge grid RF masonry
Plain grid (6VR) RF
masonry
Re-entrant structure RF
masonry
Plain grid (14VR) RF
masonry

Avg. peak
load, kN
7.3 (9.7)
12.3 (6.1)
15.2 (8.6)

1.6

2.0

Avg.
Energy
displacement
absorption,
at peak load,
J
mm
1.44 (11.6)
-9.38 (29.2)
84.9 (22.6)
6.87 (18.6)
77.5 (22.4)

13.4 (15.2)

4.45 (14.5)

50.2 (20.8)

14.4 (19.5)

4.11 (18.9)

47.6 (10.7)

Failure and crack behaviour masonry specimens

Conclusions
Auxetic structures were produced using core fibre reinforced braided composite rods based
on missing rib and re-entrant hexagon design.
Auxetic and tensile behaviour of the structures were studied by varying their structural and
materials parameters.
Compared to material parameters, structural parameters show significant effect both on
tensile and auxetic behaviours.
Analytical modelling were derived to predict the Poissons ratio of the developed structures
and it shows better correlation with experimental results.
Numerical modelling using DIANA was developed to study the tensile and auxetic
behaviour of the structures and results showed better correlation with experimental results.
Flexural testing auxetic structures reinforced masonry showed high ductility and higher
energy absorption than commercial grid design.

Future
Work
The surface of braided rods (i.e. contour of braided rod surface) can be altered to improve their
adhesion with masonry elements

Development of analytical modelling to study tensile behaviour of developed auxetic


structures based on missing rib or re-entrant hexagon design
auxetic structures can be used as reinforcement to the masonry and study their performance
under impact load.
Development of auxetic composite and use as strengthening material of civil structural
elements and study their performance under impact, flexural loading, etc.
Develop auxetic structure reinforced sandwich panel and auxetic knitted composite from
advanced technical fibres and use as strengthening materials for civil structural elements.

Thank You