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C apte 5

Chapter
Planes and Directions

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

5. Planes and Directions

5.a. Miller Indices


To define a particular plane in a Untuk mendefinisikan sebuah
bidang d
bid
dalam
l
kkristal,
i t l
crystal,
t l we use Mill
Miller IIndices:
di
(hkl). Please note: we use plain digunakan Index Miller: (hkl).
Perhatikan penggunaan
brackets for planes.
kurung biasa untuk bidang.
Miller Indices are the smallest
integral multiple of the
reciprocals of the plane
intercepts on the
crystallographic axes.

Index Miller adalah bilangan


kelipatan terkecil dari
kebalikan perpotongan antara
bidang dengan sumbu
kristalografi.

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Steps to Miller Indices


1. Define your origin
2. Note intercepts
p of p
plane on axes: 1,1,
, ,
3. Take reciprocals: 1,1,0
4. Factorise. (110)
z

Negative signs are


written
i
above
b
the
h
numbers:

1 (read: bar one).

x
Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Exercises
z
z
1
1/2

1/2

y
y

3/4

x
x

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Exercises

y
y
x
x
Please note that the Miller
Indices (hkl) represent a set
of parallel planes with the
same lattice parameters.
Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

y
x
x

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

We say that the


planes (110),
(110), (101),
(101) (011)
(101),
(011),
(011) are belong
to one family.
The family of the
planes are
denoted in
braces: {110}

5.b. Directions [uvw]


A lattice line in a crystal can be
specified by a vector from the origin
to another point uvw. Since the line
passes through the origin, the other
point, uvw, on its own describes the
direction of the line.

Sebuah garis di dalam kristal


dapat didefinisikan sebagai
sebuah vektor dari titik awal 000
ke sebuah titik uvw. Karenanya,
titik uvw secara otomatis
t
ti
menunjukkan arah dari garis tsb.

The lattice line is placed in a square Garis direpresentasikan dalam


kurung siku [uvw] untuk sekaligus
brackets [uvw], to show that they
menunjukkan arah garis.
represent the direction of the line.
Similar to Miller Indices, the [uvw]
describes not only a lattice line
through the origin and the point
uvw, but the infinite set of lattice
lines which are parallel to it and
have the same lattice parameters.

Seperti halnya Index Miller, [uvw]


bukan hanya menunjukkan
sebuah garis dari titik awal ke titik
uvw, tapi juga mewakili seluruh
garis yang sejajar dengannya dan
memiliki parameter kisi yang
sama.

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

b
a

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Directions [111], [111], [111]


and [111] in a cubic crystal
belong to one family and are
written as: <111>

x
Please note the use of brackets:
(hkl) : a particular plane
{hkl}: a family of planes
[uvw]: a particular direction
<uvw>: a family of directions
Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Homework

Do exercises 2.1 2.6. on pages 19 -20 in W.


Borchardt-Ott,
Borchardt
Ott, Crystallography, 2nd ed., 1995.
I strongly suggest you to do it ON YOUR OWN.
Please remember, crystallography is about the
ability to manipulate things in 3 dimensions. So,
the first way to master it is by practice, the
second way is by practice and the third way is
by practice.
practice

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

5.c. Zone Equation


Zone equation shows the relationship between a set of lattice
planes (hkl) with a set of lattice lines [uvw].

zone equation: hu + kv + lw = 0
Applications of Zone Equation
1. If two or more planes (h1 k1 l1) (h2 k2 l2) intersect such that
the lines of intersection [uvw] are parallel, the planes are in
one zone and the line of intersection [uvw] is called the zone
axis. In this case, all planes in the zone must satisfy the
zone equation
equation.
Jika satu atau lebih bidang (h1 k1 l1) (h2 k2 l2) berpotongan
sedemikian sehingga garis-garis perpotongannya [uvw]
sejajar, maka bidang-bidang tsb dikatakan berada dalam
satu zone dan garis perpotongannya [uvw] disebut sumbu
zone. Dalam hal ini, seluruh bidang harus memenuhi
Dr. Ir. Bondan
T. Sofyan,zone.
M.Si.
persamaan

We have to solve two simultaneous equations:


h 1u + k 1v + l 1w = 0
h 2u + k 2v + l 2w = 0
2. The lattice plane (h k l) on which two lattice lines (u1 v1 w1)
(u2 v2 w2) lie, can be determined by using the zone
equation.
Dua garis (u1 v1 w1) (u2 v2 w2) berada dalam satu bidang
(h k l) bila memenuhi persamaan zone.
We have to solve two simultaneous equations:
hu1 + kv1 + lw1 = 0
hu2 + kv2 + lw2 = 0

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

5.d. Interplanar spacing (Jarak antar bidang)


d100
d200
d111

(100)
(200)
(111)
Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Interplanar spacing
Using the Miller Indices
(hkl) of a plane we can
determine the spacing of
the planes in a lattice.

Dengan menggunakan
de Miller
e kita
ta dapat
Index
menentukan jarak antar
bidang dalam sebuah kisi.

In the illustration, a plane


makes intercepts A, B
and C on the x,y and z
p
y A
axes respectively.
normal to the plane from
the origin passes through
the point D.

Pada gambar berikut,


sebuah bidang memotong
sumbu x, y dan z pada
titik A, B dan C. Garis
normal bidang dari titik
awal memotong di titik D.

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Interplanar spacing

Consider the triangles


g
OAD, OBD, OCD.
OA=a/h, and
cos = OD/OA=h.d/a
OB=a/k, and
cos = OD/OB=k.d/a
OC = a/l, and
cos = OD/OC =l.d/a

y
C

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Interplanar spacing
Since: cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1,
substitution yields:

(h.d/a)2 + (k.d/a)2 + (l.d/a)2 = 1

d =

a
h2 + k 2 + l 2

eg. d100 = a2/1 = a.

d200 = a/2

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Interplanar spacings

Cubic

1 h2 + k 2 + l 2
2 =
2
d
a

Tetragonal

1
h2 + k 2 l 2
+ 2
2 =
2
d
a
c

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Interplanar spacings

Hexagonal

4 h2 + hk + k 2 l 2
1

+ 2
2 =
2
a
3
c
d
Orthorhombic

1
h2 k 2 l 2
2 = 2 + 2 + 2
a
b
c
d
Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

Plane spacing in a 2d lattice


b
a

Dr. Ir. Bondan T. Sofyan, M.Si.

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