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TUGAS INSTRUMENTASI DAN PENGENDALIAN PROSES

MENYUSUN FUNGSI TRANSFER DAN DIAGRAM BLOK


PENGENDALI SUHU PADA PEMANAS TANGKI BERPENGADUK

Disusun oleh :
Kelompok 2
Tiara Rahma
(121120010)
Dharamawan Hendra
(121120016)
Bagas Agung Jahaga
(121120093)
Nurmadjina Qolbi
(121120028)
Christmas Gultom
(121120128)

PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK KIMIA


FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI
UNIVERSITAS PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL VETERAN
YOGYAKARTA
2015

Persoalan :
Pengendalian suhu pada stirred tank heater
FEED

FEED
f1(t), L/s
T1(t), oC

Tsp

f2(t), L/s
T2(t), oC

TT
11
11
TC
11

PRODUCT
f3(t), L/s
T3(t), oC

qe (t)

1. Susun neraca energi dan fungsi transfer untuk loop tetbuka


2. Buat diagram blok proses di atas dalam loop terbuka.
3. Kasus pengendalian T3(t)
Cv = T3(t), Mv = Qe (t)
Disturbansi.
4. Buat simulasi pengendalian suhu T3(t)terhadap gangguan input.
No
Parameter Tank
1
Laju alir volumetrik arus 1, 1(L/s)
2
Laju alir volumetrik arus 2, 2 (L/s)
3
Laju alir volumetrik arus 3, 3 (l/s)
4
Suhu arus 1, T1 (C)
5
Suhu arus 2, T2 (C)
6
Suhu arus 3, T3 (C)
7
Energi ( panas ) listrik , qe ( watt )
8
Volume cairan dalam tangki (I)
= 997 g/l
Cp= 4.2 j/(g.t)
Gm (s) = 1
Gf (s) = 1
Gc (s) = kc , control
Penyelesaian:
1.Necara Energi loop Terbuka
Rin - Rout + R generasi = R akumulasi.

Nilai Tank
14.870 x 10-3
22.634 x 10-3
37.504 x 10-3
26
26
31
920
5

Unsteady
f 1. .cp .T 1 ( t )+ f 2. . cp . T 2 ( t ) f (t) Cp T (t) + q (t)= v Cp
3
e
e

dTe(t)
.........1)
dt

pada saat Steady state


t=0
T1(0) = 1
T2(0) = 2
T3(0) = e
qe(0) = Qe
f1.. Cp. 1(t) +f2 Cp 2 f3 Cp 3 + Qe = v Cp

d e(t )
.........2)
dt

selisih pers (1) - (2) :


f 1. .cp . ( T 1 ( t ) 1 ) + f 2. . cp .(T 2 ( t ) 2) f3(t) Cp (Te (t) -e) + (qe (t)-Qe)= v
Cp

d (Te ( t ) e)
.........3)
dt

Term deviasi
T 1 ( t ) 1 =

T 2 ( t ) 2 =

Te ( t ) e =
qe(t)

f1.. Cp.

Qe = Qe
1 (t) +f Cp
2

2(t) f Cp
3

e(t ) + Qe(t) = v Cp

de(t )
dt
:f Cp

1 (t) +

2(t)

e(t ) +

Qe(t )
f Cp =

2(t)

e(t ) +

K Qe =

2(s ) +

K Qe = s

v
f

de(t )
dt

1
f Cp =K
v
f

1 (t) +

de(t )
dt

Laplace:
1 (s) +

e (s) + e(s)

1 (s) +
e ( s )=

2(s ) +

K Qe = (s +1 e ( s)

1( s)
2(s ) Qe( s)
+
+
(s+1)
(s+1) (s+1) .......4)

(s)

1
s+1
+

2(s )

1
s+1

e( s)

+
Q e(S)

k
s+1

k
s+1

2.Persamaan linier term deviasi


Neraca Energi :
Rin Rout +R generasi = R akumulasi
keadaan unsteady
f1(t).. Cp.T1(t) +f2(t) Cp T2(t) f3(t) Cp T3 (t) + (UA(Ts(t)-T (t))= v Cp
.........5)
t=0
T1(0) = 1
T2(0) = 2
T3(0) = e
f1(0) = f1
f2(0) = f2
f3(0) = f3
Ts(0) = s

d 3 (t)
dt

f1.. Cp. 1 +f2 Cp 2 f3 Cp e + (UA(s -e)= v Cp

d e
dt

selisih pers (1)-(2)


(f1(t)-f1).. Cp.(T1(t)- 1) +(f2(t)-f2 ) Cp(T2(t)- 2) (f3(t)-f3 ) Cp(Te- e) + (UA((Ts(t)d (Te ( t ) e)
s)-(Te(t) -e))= v Cp
dt
(f1(t)-f1).. Cp.(T1(t)- 1) +(f2(t)-f2 ) Cp(T2(t)- 2) (f3(t)-f3 ) Cp(Te- e) + (UA(Ts(t)d (Te ( t ) e)
s))-(UA(Te(t) -e))= v Cp
dt
(f1(t)-f1).. Cp.(T1(t)- 1) +(f2(t)-f2 ) Cp(T2(t)- 2) (Te- e)( (f3(t)-f3 ) Cp-UA) +
d (Te ( t ) e)
(UA(Ts(t)-s)) = v Cp
dt
: (f3(t)-f3 ) Cp-UA)
f
2(t
)f
2
(f 3(t)f 3) CpUA
( f 3(t)f 3) CpUA
(f 1(t )f 1). . Cp.(T 1(t) 1)
+(
(Te- e) +

Cp(T 2(t ) 2)

(f 3( t)f 3) CpUA
(UA (Ts(t) s))

(f 3( t)f 3) CpUA
= v Cp d (Te ( t ) e)

dt

Kf1(T1(t)- 1) +Kf2(T2(t)- 2) (Te- e) + Ks(Ts(t)-s)) =

d (Te ( t ) e)
dt

(f 3( t)f 3) CpUA
Kf1= (f 1(t )f 1). . Cp.

(f 3( t)f 3) CpUA
Kf2= (f 2(t )f 2). . Cp.

(f 3( t)f 3) CpUA
UA
Ks=

Kf1.

v
f
1 (t) + Kf2

Term Deviasi:
T 1 ( t ) 1 =

T 2 ( t ) 2 =

2(t ) e(t ) + Ks( s(t) =

de(t )
.......6)
dt

Te ( t ) e =

Ts ( t ) s =

Transformasi Laplace:
de(t )
dt

Kf1.

1 (t) + Kf2

2(t ) e(t ) + Ks( s(t) =

Kf1.

1 (s) + Kf2

2(s ) e( s) + Ks s(s) = s . e( s)

Kf1.

1 (s) + Kf2

2(s ) + Ks s(s) = s . e( s) + e(s)

Kf1.

1 (s) + Kf2

2(s ) + Ks s(s) = (s+ 1)

e ( s )=

Kf 1. 1( s)
+
(s+1)

Kf 2. 2( s)
+
( s+1)

Ks . s(s)
( s+1) ........7)

Neraca Energi di Koil:


d T s( t)
Ts ( t )T (t)
CM
=
w(t)

)
UA
dt

kondisi steady state


t=0

Ts(0)= s
T(0)=
w(0)=w
d (t)
CM
dt

= w(t) -

s ( t ) (t )
)
UA

selisih unsteady state dan steady state


CM

d (T s ( t ) )
dt

T ( t )
=( w(t)-w) - ( Ts ( t ) s ) ))
UA

CM

d (T s ( t ) )
dt

T ( t )
=( w(t)-w) - UA ( Ts ( t ) s )+ UA )

term deviasi
s = T s ( t )
= T ( t )
CM

d e (t)
dt

e( s)

= w(t) - UA s ( t )+ UA e (t)

:UA


Cm d e (t)
s ( t ) + e(t)
=
UA w(t)UA dt

laplace
cs e s = kw w(s) - s ( s )+ e (s)
Cm
cs= UA

kw= UA

cs s ( s )+ e s ( s ) = kw w(s) + e( s)
(cs+1) e s ( s ) = kw w(s) + e( s)
kw w (s)

e s ( s )
e ( s )=
e ( s )

Kf 1. f 1(s)
+
(s +1)

Kf 2. f 2(s )
+
( s+1)

Ks . s(s)
(s+1)

e (s)
[ ( cs+1)

Ks
1
Kf 1. f 1 ( s )
Kf 2. f 2 ( s )
e ( s )
= ( s+1 ) + ( s+1 ) +
( s+1 ) ( s+1 )

Kf 1. f 1 ( s )
( s+1 )
e ( s )=
Ks
1
1
( s+ 1 ) ( s+1 )

e ( s )=

( s)

= ( cs+ 1) + ( cs+1)

Kf 2. f 2(s)
(s+1)
Ks
1
1
( s+1 ) ( s+1 )

kw w (s)
( cs+ 1) ]

Ks . s ( s )
kw w ( s )
( s+ 1 ) + ( cs +1 )

Ks . s ( s ) kw w ( s )
+
( s+1 ) ( cs+1 )
+
Ks
1
1
( s+1 ) ( s+1 )

kf 1 ( s +1 )
kf 2 ( s+1 )
ks kw
f 1(s) +
( s+ 1 )( s+1 )ks
( s+1 ) ( s+1 ) ks f2(s)+ ( s+1 ) ( s+1 ) ks

Pengurangan 1 dan 2
(f1(t)f1)Cp(1(t)1) + (f2(t)f2)Cp(2(t)2) + qe (t) - qe= v Cp

d 3 ( t ) 3
dt

F3 (t) Cp
Term deviasi
1(t) = 1(t) 1
2(t) = 2 (t) 2
3(t) = 3 (t) 3

F1(t) = f1(t) f1
F2(t) = f2(t) f2
F3(t) = f3(t) f3

Qe (t) = qe (t) - qe

Jadi :
F1(t) 1+ F2(t) 2(t) 3(t) + Qe (t)
F3 (t)

F3 (t)

F3 (t) Cp

dT 3(t )
dt

v
F3 (t)

Dimana :
=

v
F 3(t)

F 1(t)
F 3(t)

T1(t) =

K=

= 3(t) ,

T2(t) =

F 2(t)
F 3(t)

1
F 3(t Cp)

Transformasi Laplace :
T1 (s) + T2(s) - T3(s) + Qe(s) K = s T (s)
T3 = T
T1 (s) + T2(s) + Qe(s) K = s Ts(s) + T (s)
T(s) =

T 1(s )
s +1

T 2( s)
s +1

Qe(s)
s +1

..........................4)

Neraca Energi di Koil


CM

d s (t)
dt

= w(t) - qe (t)

......................5)

T3

Pada t=0
CM

d s
dt

= - q eq

......................6)

Pengurang 5 dan 6
CM

d [ s ( t ) s]
dt

= (w(t)-) qe (t) + q eq

Term Deviasi
Ts(t) = s(t) s
W(t) = w(t)-

Qe(t) = qe (t) q eq
Jadi,
CM

d T s( t)
dt

= W(t) Qe(t)

------------------------------------------------------------------- : Qe(t)
Qe( t)

C M d T s(t )
=
W(t)
Qe
Qe( t)
Qe
dt
CM
Qe

c =

Kw =

Qe

Sehingga
c

d T s(t)
dt

= Kw W(t) - 1

Transformasi Laplace
c S Ts(s) = Kw W(s) 1
c S Ts(s) = Kw W(s)
Ts(s) =

Kw
c S

W(s) -

1
c S ...................................7)

1. Fungsi transfer dan diagram blok proses

Dari persamaan 4)
Kf
T(s) = S + 1 F(s) +

Ks
S + 1 Ts(s)

Penggabungan persamaan 4) dan 7)


T(s) =

Kf
S + 1

F(s) +

Ks
Kw
[
S + 1
c S+1

W(s) +

T (s)

c S+1

Diagram blok :
Kf
S +1

F(s)

+
W(s)

Kf
S +1

Kf + Ti(s)
S +1

T(s)

Kf
S +1

2. Jika suhu T(t) dijaga tetap dengan memanipulasi laju alir steam w(t)
a. Diagram blok loop tertutup
F(s)

Gf

W(s)

B
Wsp(s

Ksp

+
-

E(s

Gc

M(s)

Gv

T(S)

Gs

A
+

C(s)

Gm

b. Fungsi transfer Gload (s) dan Gsp (s)


C(s) = W(s) Gm
E(s) = Wsp(s) Ksp C(s) = Wsp(s) Ksp W(s) Gm
M(s) = E(s)Gc = (Wsp(s) Ksp W(s) Gm) Gc = Wsp(s) Ksp Gc W(s) Gm Gc
T(s) = M(s) Gv = (Wsp(s) Ksp Gc W(s) Gm Gc) Gv
= Wsp(s) Ksp Gc Gv W(s) Gm Gc Gv
A = T(s) Gs= (Wsp(s) Ksp Gc Gv W(s) Gm Gc Gv) Gs
= Wsp(s) Ksp Gc Gv Gs W(s) Gm Gc Gv Gs
B = F(s) Gf
W(s) = A + B = Wsp(s) Ksp Gc Gv Gs W(s) Gm Gc Gv Gs + F(s) Gf
W(s) + W(s) Gm Gc Gv Gs = Wsp(s) Ksp Gc Gv Gs + F(s) Gf
W(s) (1 + Gm Gc Gv Gs) = Wsp(s) Ksp Gc Gv Gs + F(s) Gf

W(s) =

Ksp Gc Gv Gs
1+Gm Gc Gv Gs Wsp(s) +

Gf
1+Gm Gc Gv Gs F(s)

Servo Problem
W (s)
Wsp (s)

Gsp (s) =

Ksp Gc Gv Gs
1+Gm Gc Gv Gs

Regulatory Problem
W (s )
F (s)

Gload (s) =

Gf
= 1+Gm Gc Gv Gs

3. Regulatory Problem
JikaT(s) konstan dan F(s) naik
Gload (s) =

W (s )
F (s)

Gf

= 1+Gm Gc Gv Gs

Gf
W(s) = 1+Gm Gc Gv Gs F(s)
Jika
Gm(s) = 1
Gf(s) = 1
Gc(s) = Kc

1+

1
iS

Gv(s) =

W (s)
M (s)

Gs (s) =

Ks Kw
T (s)
=
(

S
+1
)(
cS +1 ) Ks
W (s )

Kv

= v S+ 1

Maka :
1
W(s) =

1+ Kc

Ks Kw
( S +1 ) ( cS +1 )Ks

][

][

Kv
1
1+
vS +1
iS

[]
1
s

4. Pada regulatory problem, tiba-tiba F berubah menjadi f(t) = 20 ft3/mnt