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3 classes of conventional small-molecule neurotransmitters:

amino acids, monoamines, acetylcholines


(ama)
most neurotransmitters produce excitation or inhibition, not both.
T OR F?
true
MONOAMINES
-synthesized by
-what kind of effects
-located where

-each is synthesized from a single amino acid (hence the name)


-diffuse effects
-present in small groups of neurons whose cell bodies are for the most part in the brain stem
2 groups of monoamines
catecholamines and indolamines
(can't intercourse, b/c of mono)

3 catecholamines (one subset of monoamines) dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine


(dogs no echo)

what is the order of synthesis for the catecholamines tyrosine (amino acid) -- L-dopa -dopamine -- norepinephrine -- epinephrine
(totally love dat naked ear)

neurotransmitter
-released by what
-binds where
-stays within what usually -term itself: when used, it typically implies that the chemical is
being released by NEURAL terminals
-also implies that it is binding to receptors on POSTSYNAPTIC MEMBRANE of a neuron
-stay within the synapse for the most part (occasionally diffuse out and affect nearby
neurons)

functions of ACETYLCHOLINE in somatic nervous system


-skeletal muscles (somatic nervous system): many acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular
junctions. (point where neurons innervate muscle fibers)
-cells respond to acetylcholine here by depolarizing, Na channels open (here acetylcholine is
an EXCITATORY NT). results in: CONTRACTION OF MUSCLE

functions of ACETYLCHOLINE in autonomic nervous system


-on cardiac/heart muscle, acetylcholine is INHIBITORY and stimulates the opening of K
channels, leading to HYPERPOLARIZATION, causing rate of muscle contraction to slow

ACETYLCHOLINE in central nervous system has roles in what behaviors


-has a role in the following behaviors: learning, memory formation, regulation of sleep cycle,
role in muscle movement (skeletal and heart)
(Lana Must Sprint, Mighty Mouse)

HOW ACETYLCHOLINE IS SYNTHESIZED


-synthesized by an enzyme that causes the detachment of the acetyl component of
acetyl-CoA, and attaches it to choline.
-enzyme: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)

2 mechanisms that clean up neurotransmitters and remove them from the synapse
-reuptake
-enzymes

reuptake
-what does it do
-found on what membrane
mechanism found on PRESYNAPTIC membrane
-like a tube, NTs are pulled back, reabsorbed by presynaptic membrane and recycled
-in terminals it's broken up by enzymes into subparts and those subparts are used to
make new NTs, which are then wrapped in vesicles, ready for use.

enzymes
break down NTs into inactive parts in synapse
-very specific enzymes depending on the neurotransmitter

enzyme that breaks up acetylcholine


-process
acetylcholinesterase (like erase)
-breaks acetate from choline
-choline is recycled and reused (reuptake) and acetate is not recycled

name for a neuron that releases DOPAMINE


dopaminurgic neuron

epinephrine
-released by what (NT or HORMONE)
-commonly called...
-a NT that in certain parts of the nervous system, is released by NEURONS, but
more often it's functioning as a HORMONE (produced and released by ADRENAL
GLANDS, which sit atop each kidney. part of endocrine system). because it's
produced by endocrine glands, it gets into the bloodstream and affects other parts of
body
-commonly called ADRENALINE or the STRESS HORMONE

epinephrine in nervous system acts as...


neurotransmitter

epinephrine in other parts of body acts as...


hormone

epinephrine as the "stress hormone" acts upon what and does what
-acts upon sympathetic nervous system
-helps to enhance and continue stimulating the sympathetic nervous system so you
can maintain your FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE

why is epinephrine also called adrenaline


it's secreted by ADRENAL GLANDS
-ADRINURGIC neurons release ADRENALINE

NOREPINEPHRINE
-mostly found where
-role?
-most often found in AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
-role in regulating ALERTNESS AND WAKEFULNESS (no resting!!)

norepinephrine levels:
-when they peak and drop
-levels peak: at times of higher STRESS, making you more alert and focused on
what's happening around you
-levels drop in afternoon: somewhere b/w 3 and 5 (afternoon slump)
-levels rise again early evening
-released at higher levels and affect the CNS LATER in the night as it approaches the
time for you to WAKE FROM SLEEP

dopamine
-found in what two places
-excitatory, inhibitory, or both
-found in motor system of CNS. substantia nigra (inhibitory effects here)
-sometimes excitatory, sometimes inhibitory effects

parkinsons
-issue with what neurotransmitter
-symptoms
-when do sometimes become obvious
-treatment
-issue with dopamine
-if the substantia nigra (whose job it is to inhibit other areas of the motor system) is
not controlled by dopamine, other neurons will fire faster, resulting in overactivity
-leads to development of tremors, uncontrollable muscle contractions, balance
problems
-symptoms are obvious when about 80% of the dopamine is lost from the substantia
nigra due to cell death or damage
-L-dopa helps patients manage symptoms (given so that when it reaches CNS, it will
stimulate production of dopamine). neurons that are still viable will increase their
production of dopamine to compensate for loss of dopamine due to damanged
neurons. can be taken or ingested peripherally

functions of dopamine
-control of movement
-learning and memory
-MAJOR ROLE IN ADDICTIONS (dopaminurgic system: network in brain that
seems to regulate our sense of PLEASURE).

dopaminurgic system
-network in brain that seems to regulate our sense of pleasure
-drugs w/ low rate of addiction don't stimulate it usually
-natural behaviors (sex and eating) stimulate it
-elevated levels of dopamine function as reward

what enzyme deactivates all 3 neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine,


epinephrine) plus serotonin, within the synapse
monoamine oxydase (mao)

mao inhibitors
drugs/chemicals that inhibit the activity of mao, resulting in more monoamine NTs
in synapse for longer time

treatment for depression, mao inhibitors


norepinephrine is an NT implicated as being correlated w/ depression symptoms
(LOW LEVELS of norepinephrine are related or seen in individuals that suffer from
depression)
-mao inhibitors: drugs that'll allow, over time, the buildup of norepinephrine,
elevated levels at which we begin to see relief from symptoms of depression

serotonin synthesis path


precursor: tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)
5-hydroxytryptamine (SEROTONIN, 5-HT)

serotonin
-often inhibitory or excitatory
-involved in regulation of...
-plays role in (3 things)
often has inhibitory effects
-involved in regulation of MOOD (related to RELAXATION). elevated levels mean a
more relaxed state
-also plays role in eating behaviors, regulation of sleep, and state of arousal

autoreceptor
-located where
-why that name
-role
-what they do
-located on presynaptic membrane
-called autoreceptors b/c the terminal monitors itself
-regulate the cell so that it's not over or underproducing
-if a lot of NT is being released, all the extra will be forced to bind to autoreceptors,
which send feedback to terminal saying 'there's too much NT!'. this feedback
SLOWS THE RATE OF SYNTHESIS so production of NT slows and vesicles don't
release as much NT
1. Synthesized (created) 2. Put the neurotransmitters in a specific place so they can be used
(stored in synaptic Vesicle) 3. Some neurotransmitters leak out and are destroyed 4.
Exocytosis 5. Auto receptors inhibit any more release of presynaptic neuron 6.
Neurotransmitter binds to receptor (postsynaptic receptor) 7. Deactivation of
neurotransmitter
With respect to neurotransmitters, which of the following is a correct sequence?

In general the various areas of secondary motor cortex are thought to


program specific motor sequences

Neurons that fire in response to making a particular response, observing


somebody else making the response, or just thinking about the response are called
mirror neurons

The somatotopic map of the primary motor cortex is called the


motor homunculus

In 1937, the primary motor cortex was mapped by electrically stimulating the
cortex of conscious human subjects who were undergoing neurosurgery. This was
accomplished by
Penfield and Boldrey

The _______has been found to be doubly represented in each primary motor


area of monkeys?
contralateral hand

The only parts of each motor homunculus to receive somatosensory feedback


directly from skin are the
hand areas

The primary motor cortex receives cutaneous feedback from only one part of the
body: the hands. This feedback likely plays an important role in
stereognosis

Long bursts of stimulation applied to the primary motor cortex elicit


complex natural-looking response sequences

In the primary motor cortex, the neurons that participate in the movement of a
particular finger are
widely distributed over the somatotopic hand area

A study of the firing of primary motor cortex neurons while monkeys moved
freely about indicated that their firing was often related to the

end point (i.e., target) of the movement

In a remarkable demonstration, Belle, the owl monkey, controlled the


movements of a robotic arm
with the activity of neurons in her primary motor cortex

A deficit in the ability to recognize objects by touch is called


astereognosia

It has been estimated that over half the neurons of the brain are in a structure
that constitutes only 10% of the brain's total mass. This structure is the
cerebellum

Recent fMRI studies have changed the traditional view of the cerebellum by
suggesting that in addition to its sensorimotor functions it is involved in
control and learning of cognitive responses

The _________receives information from various parts of the cortex and feeds
it back to motor cortex
basal ganglia

The _____is part of a loop including the cortex and the basal ganglia
thalamus

Signals from the left primary motor cortex descend through the spinal cord white
matter in one of
four major tracts

The decussation in the medullary pyramids is part of the


dorsolateral corticospinal tract

The cell bodies of Betz cells are found in the


primary motor cortex

The axons of Betz cells are part of the


dorsolateral corticospinal tract

In general, the dorsolateral corticospinal tract controls the muscles of the


hands and feet

Only primates and a few other species, such as hamsters and raccoons, have
cortical neurons that synapse directly on
motor neurons that project to the muscles of the fingers and thumb

In neuroanatomy, "rubro" refers to the

red nucleus

Most axons of the dorsolateral corticorubrospinal tract synapse on


interneurons of the spinal gray matter that in turn synapse on motor neurons that
project to the distal muscles of the arms and legs

The brain stem structure, the_______, receives direct sensory information


about balance
vestibular nucleus

The midbrain structure, the______, receives visual and auditory information


about spatial location
tectum

In general, the ventromedial descending motor tracts control the muscles of the
trunk

Monkeys had difficulty letting go of food after their


dorsolateral corticospinal tracts were transected

Monkeys could not move their fingers independently after transections of the
dorsolateral corticospinal tracts

In the transection experiments of Lawrence and Kuypers, monkeys with all their
dorsolateral motor pathways transected sat with their arms hanging limply by
their sides. However, these same monkeys had no difficulty
using their arms for standing, walking, and climbing

When a motor neuron fires, all of the muscle fibers of its motor
unit contract together

The motor units in the ________are most likely to be the smallest?


fingers

The motor units of the thumb, fingers, and face contain the
fewest muscle fibers

There is _____motor neuron in the typical motor unit


1 (one)

All of the motor neurons that innervate the fibers of a single muscle are called its
motor pool

So-called fast muscle fibers


are pale

The biceps and triceps are


antagonistic

Bob tried to open a jar of pickles, but the lid did not budge. The muscles of his
hands and arms were
in isometric contraction

Increases in muscle tension in the absence of any shortening of the muscle are
said to be
isometric

Muscles are protected from damage caused by excessive contraction by


Golgi tendon organs

Intrafusal is to extrafusal as
muscle spindle is to skeletal muscle

Muscle spindles provide the CNS with information about muscle


length

The patellar tendon reflex is a


stretch reflex

During a stretch reflex, the extrafusal motor neuron is excited directly by the
spindle afferent neuron

The latency of withdrawal reflexes indicates that the fastest withdrawal reflex
neural circuit involves
2 synapses

____________helps distribute the work between different motor neurons of a


muscle's motor pool
Recurrent collateral inhibition

Recurrent collateral inhibition is mediated by


Renshaw cells

If given the correct sensory feedback, the cat spinal cord is capable of controlling
walking movements

The results of the treadmill experiment by Grillner (1985) suggest that part of the
central sensorimotor program for walking is in the
spinal cord

According to current theory, the sensorimotor system


comprises a hierarchy of central sensorimotor programs

The fact that the same basic movement can be carried out in different ways
involving different muscles is called
motor equivalence

One fMRI study indicated that the central sensorimotor programs for signing
one's name are stored in
secondary motor cortex

Response chunking and changing the level of control are thought to be important
processes in
sensorimotor learning

Theories of sensorimotor learning emphasize two kinds of learning-related


changes in sensorimotor programs:
chunking and transferring much of the control of the response to lower levels of the
nervous system

A major finding of the Jenkins and colleagues PET study of motor learning was
that the
contralateral primary motor and somatosensory cortexes were equally activated
during well-spiced and newly learned sequences

The process of the growth of a fertilized egg into a mature nervous system is
called
neurodevelopment

The case of Genie emphasizes the role of


experience in human neural and psychological development

A zygote divides to form


two daughter cells

The first major phase of neurodevelopment is induction of the


neural plate

The neural plate is a patch of


ectoderm

Totipotential means that a developing cell


is capable of developing into any type of cell in the organism

The very first cells to develop in the embryo are


totipotent

Embryonic cells that have the potential for unlimited renewal and have the
ability to develop into different kinds of mature cells if they are transplanted to
different sites are often called
embryonic stem cells

Immature cells that have the potential to develop into various kinds of mature
cells are called
multipotent cells

The neural plate develops directly into the


neural groove

The neural groove develops into the neural


tube

By 40 days after conception, three swellings become visible at the anterior end of
the human neural tube. The most anterior of these swellings eventually develops
into the
forebrain

By 40 days after conception, swellings are clearly visible at the anterior end of
the neural tube. There are
3

After the formation of the neural tube, the number of cells destined to become
part of the adult nervous system
increases rapidly

Most cell division in the developing neural tube occurs in the


ventricular zone

Most neural proliferation occurs in the layer of the neural tube that is adjacent to
the fluid-filled central canal

Neural tube cells migrate radially


along special glial cells

In addition to the radial migration of developing neurons, there is considerable


______migration.
tangential

There seem to be two different mechanisms of neural migration: glial-mediated


migration and
somal translocation

Research on the migration of future neocortical neurons has made one important
point: ______is everything.
timing

The pattern of migration of future neocortical neurons is referred to as


inside out

During the formation of the neural tube, a few cells break off from the neural
plate and form a structure that lies dorsal to the tube. This structure is the neural
crest

The neural crest develops into the


peripheral nervous system

Cell adhesion molecules are thought to mediate


aggregation

____________are amoeba-like in their appearance and movements


Growth cones

At the tip of each growing axon or dendrite is an amoeba-like process called


a growth cone

Growth cones extend and retract finger-like cytoplasmic extensions as if they


were feeling their way. These extensions are called
filopodia

Sperry's experiments on eye-rotation in frogs led to an influential hypothesis that


explains how growth cones find their way to their targets: the
chemoaffinity hypothesis

Frogs, unlike mammals, have retinal ganglion cells that are capable of
regeneration

In frogs, salamanders, and other simple vertebrates, retinal ganglion cells project
primarily to the
tectum

In Sperry's classic studies of eye rotation and regeneration of the optic nerves, he
assessed the visual capacities of his subjects by assessing their ability to
strike accurately at fly-like stimuli

Sperry's initial version of the chemoaffinity hypothesis of axon growth has


difficulty accounting for
the ability of axons to follow exactly the same circuitous route to their target in every
member of a species

The first growth cone of a developing tract to reach the target is called a
pioneer growth cone.

Only those growth cones that are not pioneer growth cones can normally find
their way to their targets by
fasciculation

If an optic nerve of a mature frog is transected and half of the associated retina is
destroyed,
the axons grow out from the remaining retinal ganglion cells to targets
systematically distributed over the entire optic tectum

In support of the topographic-gradient hypothesis, it has been shown that


the synaptic connections originally formed by retinal ganglion cells on the optic
tectums gradually shift as both the eyes and optic tectums grow at different rates
during development

Eyes and optic tectums grow at different rates. As they grow, the synaptic
connections that were originally formed on the tectum by axons of retinal ganglion
cells shift so that the retina is always fully and faithfully mapped on the tectum.
This finding supports the
topographic-gradient hypothesis

Less is known about synapse formation than axon growth because synapse
formation requires
coordinated activity in at least two cells

A recent finding is that synaptogenesis depends on the presence of


astrocytes

When it comes to synaptogenesis, neurons display a substantial degree of


promiscuity

In vitro, neurons will form synapses


with almost any neuron

Neuron death
is a stage of normal early neural development

Evidence suggests that many neurons die during development because of


their inability to compete successfully for their target's neurotrophins

Most of the cell death associated with early development of the brain is
apoptotic

Apoptosis is safer than necrosis because apoptosis does not involve


inflammation

The general effect of synapse rearrangement is to


focus the output of each neuron on fewer postsynaptic cells

The development of the human brain is unique in that


it develops so slowly

Between birth and adulthood, the size of the human brain


quadruples

With a few exceptions, all of the neurons that will compose the adult human
brain have developed and are in their appropriate location by the
seventh month of prenatal development

Synaptic density in the primary visual cortex of infants


is maximal by the seventh or eighth postnatal month, and then it declines

The course of human cognitive development is thought to reflect development in


the
prefrontal cortex

Perseveration is the tendency to


continue making formerly correct responses that are currently incorrect

Perseverative errors are often made by children between the ages of


7 to 12 months

Neurons and synapses that are not activated by experience usually


do not survive

The disruptive effects of total visual deprivation of the left eye on subsequent
vision through the left eye are greater when the
deprivation occurs early in life and right eye is not deprived at the same time

One eye only has to be totally deprived of stimulation for _____early in life in
order to produce significant reductions in the proportion of visual cortex neurons
that can be activated by stimulation of the deprived eye

a few days

A few days of early monocular deprivation produces a massive decrease in the


axonal _______of lateral geniculate nucleus neurons that normally conduct
signals from the deprived eye.
branching

Knudsen and Brainard (1991) raised barn owls with vision-displacing prisms
over their eyes. This led to the ontogenetic development of
a corresponding shift in the auditory topographic map in the tectum

Several studies have shown that early music training increases the size of the
auditory cortex that responds to complex musical tones.

It is now generally acknowledged that adult brains are


auditory cortex that responds to complex musical tones

The first evidence that new neurons can be created in the brains of adult animals
came in the early 1980s from the study of
songbirds

Studies have shown that about ______new neurons are created each hour in the
hippocampus of adults
2000

Adult stem cells that migrate to the olfactory bulbs are created at certain sites in
the
ependymal layer

Adult stem cells that become hippocampal neurons are created near the
hippocampus

The function of the neurons created in the adult hippocampus by neurogenesis is


currently unknown

The area of somatosensory cortex receiving input from the left hand was found to
be bigger in
musicians who finger stringed instruments with the left hand

Autism usually becomes apparent


before the age of 3 years

A major feature of the symptoms of autism is their


heterogeneity

______of individuals with autism are savants


0.1

Evidence suggests that autism


is caused by several genes and interactions with the environment

Both autism and Williams syndrome are associated with


mental retardation

Considering their mental retardation, people with Williams syndrome tend to


have remarkably good
language ability

Although they have many cognitive problems, Williams people have good
musical abilities and language abilities

Most cases of Williams syndrome are associated with


a missing section on chromosome 7

Despite general cortical thinning in cases of Williams syndrome, the thickness of


the _______cortex is often normal, or even greater than normal.
superior temporal

People with Williams syndrome tend to look like


leprechauns

The caudate and the putamen compose the

striatum

Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is often
found in cases of

Parkinson's disease

____ are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and
triangular cell bodies

Pyramidal cell

_____ neurons have apical dendrites

Pyramidal cell

The _____ of the PNS only projects from the cranial and sacral portions of the
CNS

parasympathetic nervous system

The ________ generally acts to conserve the body's energy

parasympathetic nervous system

There are _____ ventricles in the brain

4 (FOUR)

The _____ of a neuron is sometimes myelinated

axon

The neuroanatomical direction ____ is commonly used with reference to the


brains of humans or other primates, but not with reference to the brains of fourlegged creatures

inferior

"Reptilian stare" is sometimes used to describe the widely opened, unblinking


eyes and motionless face of

Parkinson's disease

Dopamine is not an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease because

dopamine does not readily penetrate the bloodbrain barrier

Parkinson's disease is treated with

L-DOPA

A membrane potential is the difference in electrical charge between

the inside and outside of a cell

In its resting state, a neuron is said to be

polarized

Salts in solution separate into positively and negatively charged

ions

There is little resistance in the resting neural membrane to the passage of

Cl- ions

Homogeneous distribution of ions in neural tissue is promoted by

electrostatic pressure

Ions pass through the neural membrane via specialized pores called

ion channels

Na+ ions are continuously forced into neurons by

their high external concentration and the negative


resting potential

According to the theory of Hodgkin and Huxley,

K+ ions continuously leak out of a resting neuron

Contributing to the unequal distribution of ions on either side of a resting neural


membrane

are sodium-potassium pumps

Sodium-potassium pumps are

transporters

A change in the resting potential of a dendrite from -70 mV to -72 mV is called

an IPSP

Hyperpolarization is to depolarization as

inhibitory is to excitatory

IPSP is to EPSP as

hyperpolarization is to depolarization

How far do most postsynaptic potentials travel before they die out?

no more than a couple of millimeters

Action potentials originate at the

axon, adjacent to the axon hillock

A neuron normally fires when

the degree of depolarization on the axon adjacent


to the hillock exceeds the threshold of activation

APs are said to be all-or-none: This means that all APs

in a particular neuron are the same

Another word for "integration" is

"summation"

There are three kinds of spatial summation and

two kinds of temporal summation

Action potentials begin by the

opening of voltage-activated sodium channels

During an action potential, the change in membrane potential associated with


the influx of sodium ions triggers the

opening of potassium channels

The end of the rising phase of an action potential occurs when the

sodium channels close

After a neuron fires, the resting potential is re-established by the

random movement of ions

The brief period of time immediately after the initiation of an action potential
when it is absolutely impossible to initiate another one in the same neuron is
called the

absolute refractory period

The wave of absolute refractoriness that follows an action potential

keeps the action potential from spreading actively


back down an axon towards the cell body

Neurons do not normally fire more than 1,000 times per second because

the absolute refractory period is typically about 1


millisecond

The fact that the intensity of stimulation is related to the rate of neural firing is
attributable to the

relative refractory period

Conduction of action potentials along an axon is

nondecremental

Active transmission is to passive transmission as

APs are to EPSPs

The conduction of an action potential along any axon is mediated by the action of

voltage-activated ion channels

Conduction of APs from the axon into the cell body and dendrites of a multipolar
neuron is

antidromic

Conduction of action potentials in myelinated axons

is faster than in unmyelinated axons

In large myelinated human motor neurons, impulses travel at about

60 meters per second

With respect to the maximum speed of axonal conduction in motor neurons, cats
are to humans as

100 is to 60 meters per second

Neurons without axons do not

generate action potentials

In neurons without axons, conduction occurs entirely in the form of

graded, decrementally conducted potentials

Axodendritic synapses

always terminate on dendrites

Neurotransmitters are often stored in

vesicles

Neurotransmitter molecules are packaged in vesicles by

Golgi complexes

Neuropeptides are synthesized in the cell body on

ribosomes

Both presynaptic facilitation and inhibition are mediated by

axoaxonic synapses

Peptide neurotransmitters (i.e., neuropeptides) are synthesized in the cell body


and

transported via microtubules to the buttons

Neuropeptides are transported from the cell body to the buttons at a speed of
about

40 centimeters per day

Many buttons contain two sizes of vesicles; the larger ones typically contain

neuropeptides

Many neurons contain and release two neurotransmitters. This situation is called

coexistence

The process of neurotransmitter release is referred to as

exocytosis

The release of neurotransmitter molecules from buttons is often triggered by

an influx of calcium ions

Once released, neurotransmitter molecules typically produce signals in


postsynaptic neurons by

binding to postsynaptic receptors

A ligand of acetylcholine is a substance that

binds to acetylcholine

Ionotropic receptors are linked to

ligand-activated ion channels

Metabotropic receptors are linked to

signal proteins and G proteins

When a small-molecule neurotransmitter molecule binds to an ionotropic


receptor, the

associated ion channel opens or closes

In comparison to ionotropic receptors, metabotropic receptors generally produce

longer lasting effects

In comparison to metabotropic receptors, ionotropic receptors produce effects


that

are less diffuse; develop more rapidly

Second messengers are formed in the

postsynaptic neuron

Autoreceptors are commonly found in

presynaptic membranes

Autoreceptors of a neuron are sensitive to the neuron's own

neurotransmitter

______ are thought to play a role in reducing excessive neurotransmitter


release

Autoreceptors

After release, most neurotransmitters are deactivated by

reuptake

After release, neurotransmitters are deactivated in the synapse by ------- and


-------

reuptake and enzymatic degradation

There is only one neurotransmitter that is known to be deactivated in the


synaptic cleft by enzymatic action; this neurotransmitter is

acetylcholine

The enzyme whose function is to deactivate a specific neurotransmitter once it


has been released into the synapse is

acetylcholinesterase

Recent technological developments have led to the discovery of

gap junctions throughout the mammalian brain;


they seem to be an integral feature of local
inhibitory circuits.

The neurotransmitter ____ is considered to be the most prevalent in the


mammalian CNS

GABA

_____ is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS

Glutamate

Monoamines are divided into two groups:

catecholamines and indolamines

_____ neurotransmitters are often released from string-of-beads axons

Monoamines

In the presence of the appropriate enzyme, dopamine is converted to

norepinephrine

_____ is not found in neurons that release norepinephrine

Epinephrine

_____ are synthesized directly from tyrosine

Catecholamines

Serotonin is synthesized from

tryptophan

Adrenergic neurons release

epinephrine

Acetylcholine is created by the addition of an acetyl group to

a choline molecule

Acetylcholine is

synthesized by adding an acetyl group to a choline


molecule

_____is an endocannabinoid

Anandamide

______ neuropeptides are currently classified by most experts as


neurotransmitters

Close to 100

Drugs that facilitate the activity of the synapses of a particular neurotransmitter


are said to be ____ of that neurotransmitter.

agonists

Vestibular function can be assessed by assessing a patient's reaction to

cold water flushed in the ear

The ironic case of Professor P. makes the point that

many research methods of biopsychology are used


in clinical settings

______ is a contrast X-ray technique designed to locate vascular abnormalities


in the brains of human patients

Cerebral angiography

A computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain is usually presented as a series of


eight or nine

horizontal sections

_____ is not an adaptation of X-ray photography and provides the most detailed
three-dimensional view of the structure of the living human brain?

MRI

Positron emission tomography is a valuable research tool because it

provides an image of brain function

A patient is sometimes injected with radioactive 2-deoxyglucose before

positron emission tomography

The reason why radioactive 2-DG is useful for revealing the level of activity of
neurons in different parts of the brain is that 2-DG

is absorbed by neurons in relation to their level of


activity and is not metabolized by neurons

Functional MRI generates images of increases to areas of the brain of

oxygenated blood flow

The BOLD signal is recorded by

fMRI

...

neuropeptides

Cocaine and amphetamine are

dopamine agonists

Cocaine and amphetamine in high doses can produce a disorder that is similar to

schizophrenia

Many effective antischizophrenic drugs

are D2 blockers

Vestibular function can be assessed by assessing a patient's reaction to

cold water flushed in the ear

The ironic case of Professor P. makes the point that

many research methods of biopsychology are used


in clinical settings

______ is a contrast X-ray technique designed to locate vascular abnormalities


in the brains of human patients

Cerebral angiography

A computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain is usually presented as a series of


eight or nine

horizontal sections

_____ is not an adaptation of X-ray photography and provides the most detailed
three-dimensional view of the structure of the living human brain?

MRI

Positron emission tomography is a valuable research tool because it

provides an image of brain function

A patient is sometimes injected with radioactive 2-deoxyglucose before

positron emission tomography

The reason why radioactive 2-DG is useful for revealing the level of activity of
neurons in different parts of the brain is that 2-DG

is absorbed by neurons in relation to their level of


activity and is not metabolized by neurons

Functional MRI generates images of increases to areas of the brain of

oxygenated blood flow

The BOLD signal is recorded by

fMRI

____ measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the brain

MEG

---- is a method used by cognitive neuroscientists to turn off part of the brain
while the effects on cognition and behavior are assessed

TMS

Unlike brain-imaging techniques, TMS permits the study of ______ between


human cortical activity and cognition.

causal relations

An electroencephalograph is

an EEG machine

In human patients, EEG activity is commonly recorded directly from

the scalp

Alpha wave EEG activity is associated with

relaxed wakefulness

A ___________ would be most likely to study cortical ERPs in human


volunteers

psychophysiologist

Signal averaging is commonly used in the recording of ERPs because it reduces


the magnitude of

random signals

The main difference between an average evoked potential (AEP) and a "raw"
evoked potential is that

a raw evoked potential is often unobservable


amidst the random noise of the ongoing EEG signal

The P300

is an EEG wave that often occurs after the


presentation of a momentary stimulus meaningful
to the subject

Components of AEPs recorded in the first few milliseconds after a stimulus are

not usually influenced by the meaning of the


stimulus

Modern computer techniques have made it possible to estimate the

location of the source of particular EEG signals

Muscle tension is monitored by

electromyography

Electrooculography is

a method of estimating eye movement from eye


muscle activity

Electrooculography is a technique for monitoring

eye movement

In electrooculography, _____ electrodes are typically used to monitor the


movements of one eye

4 (FOUR)

If you were startled by a loud noise, there would be an increase in your skin's
conductance of electricity. This response is called

a skin conductance response

_____ directly influence the SCL and the SCR

Sweat glands

Hypertension is

chronic high blood pressure

The level of 130/70 mmHg is

a healthy human blood pressure

______ have traditionally been used by physicians to measure blood pressure

Sphygmomanometers

Penile erection is

a plethysmographic response

The method by which the experimental devices are accurately positioned in


subcortical structures is

stereotaxic surgery

The reference point for many stereotaxic atlases of the rat brain is

bregma

Unlike subcortical lesions, cortical lesions are often made by

aspiration

_____ techniques are least likely to be associated with the destruction of major
blood vessels

Aspiration lesion

The ___ created by the current is the main cause of tissue damage produced be a
radio-frequency lesion.

heat

Cryogenic blockade, if properly done,

produces little or no permanent neural damage

Cryogenic blockade is often referred to as a functional or reversible lesion


because

it temporarily eliminates the contribution of a


particular area of the brain without damaging the
brain

A temporary or reversible lesion can be produced by

cryogenic blockage

Lesions restricted to structures on one half of the brain are called

unilateral lesions

Lesions restricted to structures in one half of the brain usually have effects that
are much less severe than comparable

bilateral lesions

Intracellular unit recording is not commonly used in biopsychological research


because

it is very difficult to keep the tip of a microelectrode


inside a single neuron in a moving subject

Intracellular unit recording is very difficult in

freely moving animals

Unlike other electrophysiological methods of recording neural activity,


intracellular unit recording provides measurements of

the membrane potential

In laboratory animals, cortical EEG signals are commonly recorded through

stainless steel skull screws


Three Principles of the sensorymotor system
HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZED---- From the association cortex---(the highest level)
(the president of the company)---to the muscles (the lowest levels) (the workers).The main advantage of this hierarchical organization is that the higher levels of the
hierarchy are left free to perform more complex functions..
They are parallel hierarchical systems in which signals flow between levels over
multiple paths.
-characterized by functional segregation, each level of the sensorimotor tend to be
composed of different units (neural structure) each of which performs a different
function. The sensory system information mainly flows up through the
hierarchy----- in the sensorimotor system information mainly flows down--- from
higher level of the brain to muscles---to the world.
MOTOR OUTPUT IS GUIDED BY SENSORY INPUT-----the eyes, the organs of balance, and the receptors of the skin, muscles, and joints all
monitor the body's responses and they feed their information back into
sensorimotor circuits. SENSORY FEEDBACK plays an important role in directing
the continuation of the responses that produced it. many adjustments in motor
output that occur in response to sensory feedback are controlled unconsciously by
the lower levels of the sensorimotor hierarchy without the involvement of the higher
levels.
LEARNING CHANGES THE NATURE AND LOCUS OF SENSORIMOTOR
CONTROL........
During the initial stages of motor learning each individual response is performed
under conscious control;then after much practice, individual responses become
organized into continuous integrated sequences of action that flow smoothly and are
adjusted by the sensory feedback without conscious regulation.------from conscious
to automatic.

A general model of sensorimotor system functions


Its hierarchical structure the functional segregation of the levels, the parallel
connections between levels and the numerous feedback pathways.---working in
reverse with motor system---Brain stem to the way out---make our movement
smooth---when brain makes movement automatic, the brain stem makes movement
smooth---movements come coordinated at brain stem level
-We have dermatomes in our body we get sensory guidance for all muscle
movements.

Posterior parietal association cortex


The portion of parietal neocortex posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex)
plays an important role in integrating these two kind of information, in directing
behavior by providing spatial information and in directing attention.
--Much of the output of the posterior parietal cortex goes to areas of motor cortex
which are located in the frontal cortex.------To the DORSALATERAL PREFRONTAL
ASSOCIATION CORTEX (DLPAC) to the various areas of secondary motor cortex
and the the FRONTAL EYE FIELD---a small area of the prefrontal cortex that
controls eye movements.
Posterior parietal integrates all the information from the three sensory systems--the
visual, the auditory and somatosensory system---- and passes through the
DLPAC----it is when you make judgments about the world (to sensory situation.
example: I see coffee mug-----DLCPA tells you to go and get it--------you go and get
it.

Apraxia
is a disorder of voluntary movement that is not attributable to a simple motor deficit
or to any deficit in comprehension or motivation---apraxia is often cause by
unilateral damage to the left posterior parietal lobe or its connections.

Contralateral neglect
is a disturbance of a patient's ability to respond to stimuli on the side of the body
opposite (contralateral) to the side of the brain lesion, in the absence of simple
sensory or motor deficits. Have difficulty responding to things to the left.
----egocentric left----partially defined by gravitational coordinates.-----tend to not
respond to the left sides of objects, regardless where the object are in their visual
field.
It happens at the higher level of the brain (at the object level) posterior parietal lobe
integrates sensory information.

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex (DLPAC)


Large area of the association cortex. It receives projections from the posterior
parietal cortex and it sends projections to areas of secondary motor cortex to
primary motor cortex and to the frontal eye field.
DLPAC seems to play a role in the evaluation of the external stimuli and the
initiation of voluntary reactions to them---it is related to the response rather than to
the object.

Secondary motor cortex


Areas that receive much of their input from association cortex and send much of
their output to primary motor cortex. Areas of the secondary motor cortex---Three
suplementary motor areas ( SMA and preSMA, and suplementary eye field) Two
premotor areas (dorsal and ventral) and three singulate motor areas-- in the cortex
of the singulate gyrus.

the suplementary motor area


anterior to the primary motor cortex----wraps over the top of the frontal lobe and
extends down its medial surface into the longitudinal fissure.

Premotor cortex
runs in a strip from the suplementary motor area to the lateral fissure.

Mirror neurons
Are neurons that fire when an individual performs a particular goal-directed hand
movement or when he or she observes the same goal-directed movement performed
by another.
-possible neural basis of social cognition (knowledge of others' mental processes
-likely to be found in humans
-indirect evidence from functional bain-imaging studies. they are called EMPATHY
neurons ejemplo; smile----response-- smile
-they have been found in the inferior portion of the posterior parietal lobe.---Autism
is a huge problem with mirror neurons.

Primary motor cortex


is located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. It is the major point of
convergence of cortical sensorimotor signals and it is the major, but not the only
point of departure or sensorimotor signals from the cerebral cortex.
regions of primary motor cortex support initiation of species typical movements--we do not have to learn it
-neurons direct to target of movement, rather than simple a pre-coded direction.

somatotopic
layout of the human primary motor cortex is commonly referred to as the MOTOR
HOMUNCULUS (little man) more cortex devoted to body parts that make complex
movements----Somatosensory cortex mirror the motor cortex.
-until recently, each neuron was thought to encode the direction of movement.

stereognosis
the process of identifying objects by touch

astereognosia
damage to the primary motor cortex (deficits in stereonosis) may reduce the speed,
accuracy and force of a patient's movements. the larger the lesion the less movement
you will have.

cerebellum and basal ganglia (hindbrain----mete----myencephalon.


...are both important sensorimotor structures. Interact with different levels of the
sensorimotor hierarchies---coordinate and modulate its activities. (flexible muscles
at cortical levels
-may permit maintenance of visually guided responses despite cortical damage.

CEREBELLUM
it constitutes only 10% of the mass of the brain and more than half of the brain
neurons.
-receives information from primary and secondary motor cortex, information about

descending motor signals from brain stem motor nuclei and feedback form motor
responses via the somatosensory and vestibular systems.
-involved in timing, and motor learning--may also do the same for cognitive
responses.
-output on the cerebellum is inhibitory--keeps muscles for firing each other. (trust
the cerebellum)

BASAL GANGLIA
do not contain as many neurons as the cerebellum, but in one sense they are more
complex---are a complex heterogeneous collection of interconnected nuclei.
-they are part of neural loops that receive cortical input form various cortical areas
and transmit it back to the cortex via the thalamus. Many of these loops carry signals
to and from the motor areas of the cortex.
-are thought to be involved in a variety of of cognitive functions, including learning,
in addition to their role in the modulation of motor output.

descending motor pathways


neural signals are conducted from from the primary motor cortex to the motor
neurons of the spinal cord over four different pathways:
two pathways descend in the DORSOLATERAL region of the spinal cord and two
descend in the Ventromedial region of the spinal cord.

Two dorsolateral
one group of axons that descend from the primary motor cortex does so through the
medullary pyramids
DORSOLATERAL CORTICOSPINAL TRACT (direct)more notable among its
neurons are the BETZ CELLS- extremely large pyramidal neurons of the primary
motor cortex. 1st motor cells to die---(70-80 people start to shuffle)
they synapse on small neurons in the spinal gray matter, which synapses on the
motor neurons of distal muscles of the wrist hands, fingers, and toes,
-synapse in the red nucleus of the midbrain
DORSALLATERAL CORTICORUBROSPINAL TRACT (rubro refers to red nucleus)
(indirect) synapse at red nucleus and cross before the medulla
-some control the muscles of the face.
-synapse on interneurons that in turn synapse on motor neurons that project to the
distal muscles of the arms and legs.
.+

Two ventromedial
VENTROMEDIAL CORTICOSPINAL TRACT (direct)
CORTICO_BRAINSTEM_SPINAL TRACT (indierect)
Descend ipsilateral from the primary motor cortex directly into the ventromedial
areas of the spinal white matter.
-controls proximal muscles of the trunk and limbs.

tectum
which receives auditory and visual information about spatial location

vestibular nucleus
receives information about balance from receptor in the semicircular canals of the
inner ear

reticular formation
contains motor programs that regulates complex species-typical movements such as
walking, swimming and jumping.

the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves


control the face.

sensorimotor spinal circuits


the sensorimotor hierarchy to its lowest level: the spinal circuits and the muscles
they control.
independent of the brain is the stretch reflex (sensory motor spinal reflex) does not
require brain input.

motor units (muscles


are the smallest units of motor activity--a motor neuron plus muscle fibers contract
when motor neurons fire.

motor end-plate
the release of acetylcholine by motor neurons at neuromuscular junctions activate
the motor-end plate on each muscle fiber and cause the fiber to contract.

motor pool
all of the motor neurons that innervate the fibers of a single muscle

muscle
muscle fiber bind together by a tendon

flexors
act to bend or flex a joint

extensors
act to straighten or extend it

synergistic muscles
any two muscles whose contraction produces the same movement, be it flexion or
extension.

antagonistic muscles
those like act in opposition like the biceps and triceps.

isometric contraction

activation of a muscle can increase the tension that it exerts on two bones without
shortening and pulling them together

dynamic contraction
it can shorten and pull them together.

two kind of receptors


GOLGI TENDON ORGANS--are embedded in the tendons which connect each
skeletal muscle to bone.
-detect muscle tension
and MUSCLE SPINDLE--are embedded in the muscle tissue itself--they respond to
different aspects of muscle contraction.
-detect changes in muscle lenght
Neurons
The human brain is composed of various cells, including about 100 billion that are
specialized to receive and transmit electrochemical signals. These specialized cells
are called:

neuroscience
The study of the nervous system is called:

memory
Jimmie G., the man frozen in time, had a severe problem with his

Thinking creatively, clinical implications, evolutionary perspective, neuroplasticity


Which of the following is a major theme of your text?

biopsychology
Psychobiology, behavioral biology, and behavioral neuroscience are all approximate
synonyms for:

D. O. Heeb
The man who played a key role in the emergence of biopsychology as a discipline by
writing "The Organization of Behavior" is:

1. Physiological Psychology 2. Psychopharmacology 3. Neuropsychology 4.


Psychophysiology 5. Cognitive Neuroscience 6. Comparative Psychology
Which of the following is not regarded as one of the major divisions of
biopsychology?

comparative psychology
The division of biopsychology that studies the neural mechanisms of behavior
through the direct manipulation of the brains of laboratory animals in controlled
experiments is:

neuroscience
Biopsychology is a branch or division of

It focuses on the study of behavior


What distinguishes biopsychology from the other sub-disciplines of neuroscience?

have more cortex (more complex) (cortical development)


The main difference between human brains and the brains of their mammalian
relatives is that human brains tend to be bigger and

The brains and behavior of non-human subjects are simpler than those of human
subjects 2. Insights frequently arise from the comparative approach 3. It is
possible to conduct research of lab animals (ethical reasons)
An advantage of biopsychological research on nonhuman animals as opposed to
humans is that:

1. Cheaper 2. Can report subjective experiences 3. Can follow verbal directions


The advantage of humans over other primates as subjects in biopsychological
research is that they

independent variable
In a well-designed experiment, there is only one systematic difference between the
conditions. This difference is manipulated by the experimenter and is called the:

the sexually frigid animal will often resume sexual activity if the current partner is
replaced with a new one (affected females)
The experiment of Lester and Gorzalka (1988) is significant because it constitutes
the first strong evidence of a Coolidge effect in:

applied research
Research that is intended to bring about direct benefit to humankind is:

neuro pathway that connects the left and right hemispheres


The corpus callosum is a:

nobel prize winners


What do Hubel, Sperry, Axelrod, Moniz, Pavlov, and Golgi have in common? They
are all

Psychopharmacology
Which subdivision of biopsychology is most likely to be identified with an
experiment in which the effects of Prozac on the ability of mice to learn a maze is
studied?

Psychophysiology

Which subdiscipline of biopsychology is most likely to be identified with the


assessment of the memory deficits of patients with damage to the frontal portions of
the neocortex?

cognition
A term that refers to higher intellectual processes such as thought, memory, and
attention is

functional brain imaging


The major method of cognitive neuroscience is

converging operations
Scientific progress is most likely when different approaches are focused on a single
problem, particularly when the strengths of one approach compensate for the
weaknesses of the others. This is called:

severe memory loss


The primary symptom of Korsakoff's syndrome is:

Moniz, failure, single chimpanzee in a single situation, lack of controlling


consequences/ side effects
The first prefrontal lobotomy performed on a human was:

traditional dichrotomies
A major purpose of Chapter 2 of Biopsychology is to teach you not to think about the
biology of behavior in terms of

Socrates
The idea that the human brain and human mind are separate entities was
formalized in the 1600s by

genetics is to experience
Nature is to nurture as

: a mirror
29One way to study self-awareness in nonhuman animals is to confront them with

an organism's genetic endowment, experience, and perception of the current


situation
All behavior is the product of

evolution occurs through natural selection


Darwin was not the first to suggest that species evolve, but he was the first to suggest
that

vole
The conspecific of a vole is a

sudden changes in the environment


Sudden evolutionary changes are often triggered by

evolutionary psychology
The field that focuses on the evolution of human behavior is

in which each female could raise more fit young if she had a divided help
According to one prominent theory, monogamy evolved in only those species

phenotype
An organism's observable traits are referred to as its

doubles
Just prior to mitotic cell division, the number of chromosomes in the cell:

4
How many different nucleotide bases are there in DNA

Human Genome Project


Arguably, the most ambitious scientific project of all time began in 1990: the

20,000
How many structural (protein-coding) genes are there in the human genome?

Messenger RNA
RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism: It occurs when small RNA
molecules act directly on strands of:

selectively breeding so-called maze bright and maze dulls strains of rats
Tryon is famous for

Phenylketonuria
Which of the following disorders was discovered by Asbjrn Flling, a Norwegian
dentist?

false
People with phenylketonuria have a genetic disorder that inevitably leads to
disability

Their specific birdsong during sensory phase


The male birds of many species are most likely to learn

Minnesota Study
The most extensive study of twins reared apart is the:

the contribution of genetic differences to phenotype differences among the


participants in a study; they have nothing to say about the relative contributions of
genes and experience to the development of individuals
In the Minnesota study, the heritability estimate for IQ was 70%. This means that IQ
is

developed as they aged


) Epigenetic research has found that there are genetic differences between so-called
identical twins and that these differences:

developed as they aged


Epigenetic research has found that there are genetic differences between so-called
identical twins and that these differences:

True
It is now apparent that some genes can be turned on or off due to environmental
influence

among the very poor, the heritability estimate of IQ was close to 0 AND among the
affluent, the heritability estimate was close to 1
Pinel ended his discussion of the genetics of human psychological differences with a
description of the study of Turkheimer and colleagues (2003). The important
finding of this study was that:

carry sensory signals from the skin, sle;etal muscles, joints, eyes, ears, and so on to
the central nervous system
In general, afferent nerves carry sensory information (to or from where):

Parasympathetic nervous system


Which of the following generally acts to conserve the body's energy?

dura, arachanoid, pia


From outside to inside, the three meninges are the

most proteins and other large molecules


The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into cerebral neurons of:

axon
What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated?

multi-polar neuron

Neurons with one axon and several dendrites emanating from the soma are
classified as:

oligodendrocytes
In the CNS, axons are myelinated by:

increases the speed of axonal conduction


Myelination:

microglia
The particular glial cells that engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation are

golgi stain
The first neural stain revealed the silhouettes of a few neurons on a slide; it is:

determine the general distribution of cell bodies and the nervous system
Nissl stains (e.g., cresyl violet) are frequently used to:

dorsal
The top of a dog's head is (directional term)

dorsal surface
The spine of a human runs just beneath the body's (directional term)

medulla
The myelencephalon is often called the

?
Which of the following is not in the brain stem?

??
Which of the following is a large structure visible on the dorsal surface of the human
brain stem?

tactum
The inferior and superior colliculi compose the:

In the tegmentum are the periaqueductal gray, the substantia nigra, and the red
nucleus
Which structure is not part of the tegmentum?

diencephalon
The hypothalamus and thalamus compose the:

cortex
Most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to the

Hypothalamus
Which structure of the diencephalon regulates the pituitary?

ipsilaterial
If a midsagittal cut were made through the human brain, all of the uncut axons
running from the eyes to the brain would be:

sulci
Big is to small as fissures are to:

central fissure
Between the frontal and parietal lobes is the:

telencephalon
The limbic system and basal ganglia are, for the most part, in the

limbic system
A neural circuit that includes the septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala,
hippocampus, hypothalamus, and thalamus is thought to be involved in the
regulation of motivated behaviors. This circuit is called the:

Parkinson's Disease
Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is often found
in cases of:

Parkinson's disease
) Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is often
found in cases of:

the inside and outside of the cell


A membrane potential is the difference in electrical charge between

-70Mv and is polarized


At rest, a resting potential has a voltage of

excitatory postsynaptic potentials


EPSPs are:

IPSP
A change in the resting potential of a postsynaptic dendrite from -70 mV to -72 mV
is called

inhibitory is to excitatory
Hyperpolarization is to depolarization as

axon, adjacent to the axon hillock


Action potentials originate at the

the degree of depolarization on the axon adjacent to the hillock exceeds the
threshold of activation
A neuron normally fires when:

absolute refractory period


The brief period of time immediately after the initiation of an action potential when
it is absolutely impossible to initiate another one in the same neuron is called the:

: is faster than in unmyelinated axons


Conduction of action potentials in myelinated axons

100 is to 60 meters per second


With respect to the maximum speed of axonal conduction in motor neurons, cats are
to humans as:

vesicles
Neurotransmitters are often stored in

ribosomes
Neuropeptides are synthesized in the cell body on

neuropeptides
Many buttons contain two sizes of vesicles; the larger ones typically contain:

exocytosis
The process of neurotransmitter release is referred to as:

an influx of calcium ions


The release of neurotransmitter molecules from buttons is often triggered by:

reuptake
After release, most neurotransmitters are deactivated by

Are monoamines: dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin


Which of the following is not a monoamine?

5 hydroxytryptamine
The abbreviation 5-HT stands for

the amino acid tryptophan


Serotonin is synthesized from:

epinephrine
Adrenergic neurons release

Agonist
Drugs that facilitate the activity of the synapses of a particular neurotransmitter are
said to be __________ of that neurotransmitter

1. Synthesized (created) 2. Put the neurotransmitters in a specific place so they can


be used (stored in synaptic Vesicle) 3. Some neurotransmitters leak out and are
destroyed 4. Exocytosis 5. Auto receptors inhibit any more release of presynaptic
neuron 6. Neurotransmitter binds to receptor (postsynaptic receptor) 7.
Deactivation of neurotransmitter
With respect to neurotransmitters, which of the following is a correct sequence?

dopamine agonists
Cocaine and amphetamines are:
What are the three main principles of sensorimotor function?
1. The sensorimotor system is hierarchically organized
2. Motor output is guided by sensory input
3. Learning changes the nature and locus of sensorimotor control

What is at the top of the sensorimotor hierarchy?


The association cortex

In what kinds of ways is the sensorimotor system organized?


1. hierarchical
2. functional
3. parallel

What are the only responses that are not influenced by sensory feedback?
ballistic movements: brief, all-or-none, high-speed movements

What are the two major areas of sensorimotor association cortex?


The posterior parietal association cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal association
cortex

What information does the posterior parietal association cortex integrate?


The original positions of the parts of the body that are to be moved and the positions
of any external objects with whch the body is going to interact

The posterior parietal association cortex directs behaviour provided by


______________ and it direct _________
spatial information, attention

What three sensory systems does the posterior parietal association cortex receive
input from?
1. the visual system
2. the auditory system
3. the somatosensory system

Where does much of the output of the posterior parietal cortex go?
areas of the motor cortex, which are located in the frontal cortex: to the dorsolatoral
prefrontal association cortex, to the various areas of secondary motor cortex, and to
the frontal eye field

What is the frontal eye field?


A small area of prefrontal cortex that controls eye movements

What is the posterior parietal cortex comprised of?


A mosaic of small areas, each specialized for guiding particular movements of eyes,
head, arms, or hands

What kind of deficits can damage to the posterior parietal cortex produce?
Deficits in the perception and memory of spatial relationships, in accurate reaching
and grasping, in the control of eye movement and in attention

What are the two most striking consequences of posterior parietal cortex damage?
apraxia and contralateral neglect

What is apraxia?
Apraxia is a disorder of voluntary movement that is not attributable to a simple
motor deficit or to any deficit in comprehension or motivation

Although its symptoms are bilateral, apraxia is often caused by ________


damage to the left ____________
unilateral, posterior parietal lobe

What is contralateral neglect?


Contralateral neglect is a disturbance of a patient's ability to respond to stimuli on
the side of the body opposite to the side of a brain lesion n the absence of simple
sensory or motor deficits

Most patients with contralateral neglect often behave as if the _____ side of their
world does not exist and fail to acknowledge that they have a problem
left

What is the disturbance in contralateral neglect often due to?


The disturbance is often associated with large lesions of the right posterior parietal
lobe

For most patients with contralateral neglect, the deficits in resonding occur for
stimuli to the left of their own bodies, referred to as ________
egocentric left

True or false: neurons that have egocentric receptive fields and others with objectbased receptive fields have been found in primate parietal cortex
True

What two types of evidence suggest that information about objects that are not
noticed by patients with contralateral neglect might be unconsciously perceived?
1. When objects were repeatedly presented at the same spot to the left of patients
with contralateral neglect, they tended to look to the same spot on future trials,
although they were unaware of the objects
2. Patients could readily identify fragmented (partial) drawings viewed to their right
if complete versions of the drawings had previously been presente to the left, where
they were not consciously perceived

The dorsolateral prefrontal associaton cortex receives projections from the


_________________
posterior parietal cortext

What three areas does the dorsolateral prefrontal association corex send
projections to?
1. Primary motor cortex
2. Secondary motor cortex
3. Frontal eye field

What does the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex play a role in?


The evaluation of external stimuli and the initiation of voluntary reactions to them

The activity of some neurons depends on the __________ of objects, the


activities of others depends on _______ of objects, and the activity of still others
depends on a combination of both
characteristics, locations

The activity of other dorsolateral prefrontal neruons is related to the _______


rather than to the object.
response. Note: these neurons typically begin to fire before the response and
continue to fire until the response is complete

True or false: there are neurons in all cortical motor areas that begin to fire in
anticipation of a motor activity, but those in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are
first

true

Areas of the secondary motor cortex receive much of their input from........... and
send much of their input to ..........
receive much of their input from association cortex (ie. posterior parietal cortex and
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and send much of their input to primary motor cortex

Which two areas of the secondary motor cortex were known for many years?
1. The supplementary motor area
2. premotor cortex

There are actually _____ areas of secondary motor cortex in each hemisphere
eight

What are the eight different areas in the secondary motor cortex?
Three different supplementary motor areas (SMA, preSMA, and supplementary eye
field), two premotor areas (dorsal and ventral(, and three small areas called the
cingulate motor areas.

Function brain-imaging studies have suggested that human secondary motor


cortex is similar to that of _____________
other primates

What must an area need to qualify as secondary motor cortex?


An area must be appropriately connected with association and secondary motor
areas

Electrical stimulation of an area of the secondary motor cortex typically elicits


_____________
complex movements, often involving both sides of the body

Neurons in an area of secondary motor cortex often become more active just prior
to _____________
the intiation of a voluntary movement, and continue to be active throughout the
movement

In general, areas of secondary motor cortex are thought to be inolved in the


programming of ________________ after taking general instructions from the
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
specific ptterns of movments

What are mirror neurons?


Mirror neurons are neurons that fire when an individual performs a goal-directed
hand movement of when she or he observes the same goal-directed hand movement
performed by another

What is the importance of finding mirror neurons in the venral premotor cortex?
They provide a possible mechanism ofr social cognition: knowledge of the
perceptions, ideas, and intentions of others

In what regions have mirror neurons been found?


the premotor cortex, the posterior parietal lobe

Some mirror neurons in the posterior parietal lobe respond to ____________


rather than to action itself
the purpose of an action

The primary motor cortex is organized ____________


somatotopically

Monkeys have at least two different hand areas in the primary motor cortex of
each hemisphere, and one receives input from receptors in the skin rather than
from reeptors in the muscles and joints. What does this faclitate?
sterognosis

What is stereognosis?
The process of identifying objects by touch

True or false: There is a conventional view that many primary motor neurons are
tuned to movement in a particular direction
True

In alternate studies, it was found that the firing of many primary motor cortex
neurons is most closely related to the _______ of a movemement, not to the
direction of the movemetn
endpoint

One effect of a lesion in the primary motor cortex is asterognosia. What is


astereognosia?
Astereognosia is a deficit in stereognosis (the process of identifying objects by touch)

What are two important sensorimotor structures that help cordinate and module
motor activity?
the cerebellum and basal ganglia

The cerebellum plays a major role in __________


motor learning

The basal ganglia are a complex heterogeneous collection of _____________


interconnected nuclei

The basal ganglia are involved in reward circuity as well as, in newer models,
cognition (in addition to their role in the modulation of motor output)
...

What does the central sensorimotor program theory suggest?


The central sensorimotor program theory suggests that all but the highest levels of
hte sensorimotor system have certain patterns of activity programmed into them
and that complex movements are produced by activating the appropriate
combinations of these programs

What is the fact that the same basic movement can be carried out in different ways
involving different muscles called?
motor equivalence

What inherent quality of the sensorimotor system does motor equivalence


illustrate?
plasticity

True of false: sensory information that controls central sensorimotor programs is


necessarily conscious
False: sensory information that controls sensorimotor programs is NOT necessarily
conscious. This was illustrated by the Ebbinghaus illusion; perceive different sizes,
but open hand to the same width to grab circle

What is a certain way to generate of modify central sensorimotor programs?


practice

What are two important processes that influence the learning of central
sensorimotor pathways?
1. response chunking
2. shifting control to lower levels of the sensorimotor sstem

What does the response-chuking hypothesis postulate?


According to this hypothesis, practice combines the central sensorimotor programs
that control individual response into programs that control sequences (chunks) of
behaviour. For instance, in a skille typist, sequences of letters are activated as a unit,
with a marked increase in speed and continuity. Chunks can themselves be
combined into higher-order chunks.

What are the two advantages of shifting the level of ccontrol to lower levels of the
sensorimotor system?
1. It frees up the higher levels of the system to deal with more esoteric aspects of
performance
2. It permits great speed because different circuits at the lower levels of the
hierarchy can act simultaneously, without interfering with one another