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PENGARUH DESTINATION PERSONALITY

TERHADAP DESTINATION LOYALTY PADA WISATA


BAHARI TAMAN NASIONAL WAKATOBI
Oleh
Nursaban R. Suleman1)
nursabansuleman@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study aims to investigate the influence of dimensions of destination personality on
destination loyalty in in marine tourism of National Park Wakatobi.
The number of samples are 100 respondents and survey method is used to analyze the
collected data. Data analysis used multiple linear regression.
These results indicate that sincerity, excitement, conviviality has significant and positive
effects on destination loyalty
Keyword: destination personality, destination loyalty
1.

Pendahuluan
Pariwisata merupakan salah satu yang sector terbesar dan paling cepat
berkembang dalam industri di seluruh dunia. Dimana pariwisata adalah sektor penting
yang pengembangannya tidak dapat terlepas dari bidang ekonomi dan sosial budaya. Dari
tahun ke tahun, kontribusi sektor pariwisata kepada pembangunan nasional mangalami
tren peningkatan, hingga menjadi sektor yang makin diperhitungkan.
Peranan pariwisata merupakan salah satu sektor yang saat ini memiliki
penerimaan penting dalam kemajuan ekonomi suatu negara (Artuer et. al., 2013:1).
Selain menghidupkan kembali berbagai sektor yang ada, sektor pariwisata menghasilkan
lapangan pekerjaan dan sumber pendapatan.
Salah satu upaya dalam mengembangkan sektor pariwisata nasional adalah
dengan melakukan pengelolaan pariwisata seperti pada kawasan Taman Nasional.
Dimana Taman Nasional adalah kawasan pelestarian alam yang mempunyai ekosistem
asli, dikelola dengan sistem zonasi yang dimanfaatkan untuk tujuan penelitian, ilmu
pengetahuan, pendidikan, menunjang budidaya, pariwisata dan rekreasi alam.
Demikian pula dengan taman nasional Wakatobi yang dikenal dengan slogan
surga nyata bawah laut sebagai ciri dari taman nasional ini. Pada Taman Nasional
Wakatobi terdapat 750 spesies coral dan biota laut dari 850 spesies yang ada di dunia.
Nama Wakatobi adalah singkatan atau akronim dari empat pulau besar yaitu WangiWangi, Kaledupa, Tomia dan Binongko. Taman Nasional ini memiliki beberapa produk
wisata seperti: 1) Obyek wisata alam, seperti; pemandangan, lembah, pantai, telaga,
peninggalan budaya, babi hutan, kera, rusa, burung enggan, serta udara sejuk, 2) Atraksi,
seperti; wisata bahari, rekreasi laut, 3) Sarana dan prasarana, seperti; wisata budaya, goa
alam, terumbu karang serta potensi yang dapat dikembangkan seperti; snorkel, diving,
berjemur, menyusuri goa alam, dan memancing.
Sebagai gambaran mengenai pariwisata pada taman nasional Wakatobi, dapat
dilihat dari jumlah kunjungan wisatawan sebagai berikut:

Tabel 1. Jumlah Kunjungan pada Taman Nasional Wakatobi, Tahun 2014


Taman
Tasional

Wakatobi

Tahun
2010
Indonesia
Asing
1,509

233

2011
Indonesia
Asing
6,177

41,822

2012
Indonesia
Asing
4,775

4,223

2013
Indonesia
Asing
2,199

543

Sumber: Statistik Kementerian Kehutanan Tahun 2011-2014

Kondisi di atas menunjukan bahwa walaupun jumlah kunjungan terlihat fluktuatif


namun taman nasional Wakatobi memiliki prospek utuk dikembangkan. Untuk itu
dibutuhkan beberapa kajian seperti mengetahui kepribadian destinasi guna dapat
membedakan dengan destinasi lainnya sehingga wisatawan bersedia untuk berkunjung
kembali maupun merekomendasikan pada orang lain.
Persaingan global atas destinasi wisata menjadi faktor penting dan merupakan
tugas bagi Destination Marketing Organizing (DMO) guna untuk menarik para
wisatawan (Pike dan Ryan, 2004, dalam Ekinci & Hosany, 2006:127). Suatu destinasi
selalu berusaha untuk menjadi khas, untuk itu kepribadian destinasi (destination
personality) dipandang sebagai metafora yang layak guna untuk memahami persepsi
wisatawan akan destinasi dan untuk menyusun identitas destinasi yang unik. Meskipun
penelitian brand personality diawali dalam domain consumer goods pada awal 1960-an
namun penerapan brand personality pada destinasi dianggap relatif baru (Ekinci &
Hosany, 2006; Hosany, Ekinci, and Uysal 2006, 2007).
Kepribadian destinasi (destination personality) dapat membantu untuk
menciptakan suatu hubungan yang unik dan menguntungkan dalam benak konsumen, dan
dapat membangun serta meningkatkan brand equity. Sebuah kepribadian merek (brand
personality) yang baik dapat mempengaruhi preferensi konsumen dan pelanggan (Sirgy
1982; Malhotra 1988) dan mengembangkan ikatan emosional yang lebih kuat (Biel
1993), kepercayaan, dan loyalitas (Fournier 1998).
Kepribadian destinasi (destination personality) menurut Ekinci & Hosany
(2006:127) dipandang sebagai hal penting yang layak guna untuk memahami persepsi
wisatawan akan destinasi dan untuk menyusun identitas destinasi wisata yang unik
(Caprara, Barbaranelli, dan Guido 2001; Crask dan Henry 1990; Morgan, Pritchard, dan
Piggott 2002, Triplett 1994).
Dalam mewujudkan pelaksanaan destination branding, salah satunya adalah
dengan meningkatkan kepribadian destinasi (destination personality) sebagai sebuah
strategi oleh destination marketer untuk membedakan suatu destinasi dari para pesaing
(Chen dan Phou, 2013:271). Dimana destination personality diharapkan mampu
membentuk destination loyalty seperti niat berkunjung ulang (revisit to intention) dan
merekomendasikan kepada orang lain (word of mouth).
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh destination personality
yang terdiri dari: 1) Ketulusan (sincerity); 2) Kegembiraan, (excitement); 3) Keramahan
(conviviality) terhadap destination loyalty (revisit intention, recomendation WOM) pada
wisatawan bahari Taman Nasional Wakatobi.
2.

Kajian Pustaka

Destination Personality
Merujuk terminologi Aaker (1997), menurut Ekinci & Hosany (2006),
kepribadian destinasi (destination personality) didefinisikan juga sebagai serangkaian
karakteristik manusia yang berhubungan dengan tujuan wisata. Dalam literatur
pariwisata, telah berkembang pesat atas studi seperti destination image selama 3 dekade

terakhir, namun mengenai kepribadian destinasi (destination personality) sebagian besar


jarang diselidiki.
Sedangkan yang menjadi asumsi dasar dari destination branding menurut Ahmet
Usakli (2007:16) adalah bahwa destinasi wisata juga dapat dicap sama halnya merek
dengan sebuah produk. Namun menurut Ahmet Usakli (2007:16) yang mengutip dari
Hankinson, (2001) menyatakan bahwa dalam menciptakan merek suatu destinasi
merupakan proses yang lebih kompleks serta lebih sulit daripada menciptakan merek
pada produk atau jasa.
Untuk lebih memahami konsep mengenai brand personality maupun destination
personality, maka sebagai tahap awal kita akan menjabarkan beberapa definisi tentang
kepribadian merek (brand personality) ataupun kepribadian destinasi (destination
personality) seperti yang dirangkun pada table berikut:
Tabel. 2 Definisi Brand/Destination Personality
Author
Reeves, R.
(1961)

Plummer (1985)

Upshaw (1995);

Aaker
(1997:347)
Gelder (2005:41)
Hosany et al.,
(2006):

Definition
In copy strategies brand personality was used as a common, practical, but
rather loose, word for assessing non-productbased, nonfunctional
dimensions of the brand; it captured the singularity of the source of the
product as if it were a person.
Brand Personality is the human personality traits or characteristics to a
brand in order to help communicate to consumers its physical elements or
attributes.
the brand personality serves to suggest to the consumer whether the
brand is appropriate or not appropriate for his or her particular
situation. It can also be the facilitator of consumer and brand, the link
through which the communication evolves.
the set of human characteristics associated with the brand
Brand personality is developed to enhance the appeal of a brand to consumers
Destination personality as "a multidimensional construct and defined as the set
of human characteristics associated to a tourism destination"

Sedangkan yang menjadi asumsi dasar dari destination branding menurut Ahmet
Usakli (2007:16) bahwa destinasi wisata juga dapat dicap sama halnya merek dengan
sebuah produk. Namun menurut Ahmet Usakli (2007:16) yang mengutip dari Hankinson,
(2001) menyatakan bahwa dalam menciptakan merek suatu destinasi merupakan proses
yang lebih kompleks serta lebih sulit daripada menciptakan merek pada produk atau jasa.
Berdasarkan kerangka kerja brand personality (Aaker, 1997:352) yang meliputi;
1) Sincerity (ketulusan) terdiri dari: down-to-earth (pengertian), honest (jujur),
wholesome (sehat), cheerful (gembira), 2) Excitement (kegembiraan) terdiri dari; daring
(berani), spirited (bersemangat), imaginative (imaginatif), up-to-date (terbaru), 3)
Competence (kompetensi) yang terdiri dari; reliable (diandalkan), intelligent (cerdas),
successful (berhasil), 4) Sophistication (kecanggihan) yang terdiri dari; upper-class
(berkelas), charming (mempesona), 5) Ruggedness (kekasaran) yang terdiri dari;
outdoorsy (diluar), tough (kuat).

Tabel. 3 Brand Personality Scale


Sincerity
down-to-earth
honest
wholesome
cheerful

BRAND PERSONALITY
Excitement
Competence Sophistication
daring
reliable
upper-class
spirited
intelligent
charming
imaginative successful
up-to-date

Ruggedness
outdoorsy
tough

Sumber: Aaker, (1997:352)

Dalam konteks destinasi Ekinci & Hosany (2006:130) menguji penerapan


kerangka kerja brand personality yang diukur menggunakan BPS oleh Aaker (1997) pada
penduduk asli Inggris. Dalam penelitiannya dilakukan dengan 2 sampel yang berbeda
keduanya terdiri dari 250 wisatawan asal Inggris. Hasil penelitian Ekinci & Hosany
(2006:133) menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik kepribadian destinasi yang signifikan
terdiri dari 3 dimensi penting daripada 5 dimensi yang original (Aaker, 1997) yang
meliputi: "ketulusan", "kegembiraan" dan "keramahan". Ketulusan dan kegembiraan yang
ditemukan menjadi dua faktor utama. Keramahan adalah baru dan juga khusus untuk
konteks destinasi. Penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan bahwa kepribadian destinasi
(destination personality) memiliki dampak positif pada perilaku niat untuk
merekomendasikan (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006).
Adapun dimensi destination personality yang dihasilkan (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006)
seperti yang terlihat pada tabel berikut:
Tabel 4. Destination Personality Scale
DESTINATION PERSONALITY
Sincerity
Excitement
Conviviality
Reliable
Exciting
Friendly
Sincere
Daring
Family
Intelligent
Original
oriented
Successful
Spirited
Charming
Wholesome
Sumber: Ekinci and Hosany (2006:127)

Destination Loyalty
Loyalitas secara harfiah diartikan sebagai kesetiaan seseorang terhadap suatu
objek. Loyalitas menunjukkan kecenderungan seseorang untuk menggunakan suatu
merek tertentu dengan tingkat konsistensi yang tinggi. Ini menandakan bahwa loyalitas
selalu berkaitan dengan preferensi pelanggan dan pembelian aktual.
Menurut Campon et al. (2013:13) bahwa loyalitas pada sektor pariwisata
sangatlah kurang dipelajari, sehingga ada banyak pertanyaan yang beredar tentang
bagaimana untuk menjaga pelanggan agar loyal dalam jangka panjang (Zamora et al.
2005) dalam Campon et al. (2013:13).
Saat ini setiap destinasi menghadapi persaingan yang terberat dalam beberapa
dekade dan mungkin akan menjadi lebih sulit agar tetap eksis di tahun yang akan datang,
sehingga manajer pemasaran destinasi perlu memahami mengapa wisatawan setia dengan
destinasi dan apa yang menentukan loyalitas mereka (Chen dan Gursoy 2001). Seseorang
mungkin akan bertanya apakah destinasi tertentu dapat menghasilkan loyalitas pada
setiap orang yang mengunjunginya.
Yoon dan Uysal (2005) dalam Campon et al. (2013:17) yang mencatat bahwa
destinasi dapat dianggap sebagai produk, dimana wisatawan berniat mengunjungi
kembali atau merekomendasikan suatu destinasi kepada calon wisatawan lainnya seperti
teman atau keluarga. Chen dan Gursoy (2001) mendefinisikan secara operasional bahwa

loyalitas destinasi sebagai tingkat persepsi wisatawan dari destinasi sebagai tempat wisata
yang baik.
Dalam beberapa dekade terakhir, para peneliti pariwisata atau olahraga telah
memasukkan konsep loyalitas konsumen pada produk pariwisata, destinasi, atau rekreasi.
Namun, dalam mengevaluasi kegunaan dari konsep loyalitas serta aplikasi untuk produk
pariwisata telah dibatasi, meskipun loyalitas telah dianggap sebagai salah satu kekuatan
pendorong utama di pasar yang kompetitif (Yoon & Uysal, 2005).
Untuk mengukur sikap loyalitas destinasi, termasuk niat kunjungan kembali dan
merekomendasikan (word-of-mouth) umumnya digunakan untuk menyimpulkan loyalitas
konsumen, dan ditemukan menjadi pengukuran loyalitas (Chi & Qu, 2008). Beberapa
penelitian sebelumnya telah menunjukkan bahwa konsumen yang loyal lebih cenderung
untuk membeli kembali produk / jasa di masa yang akan datang (Petrick et al, 2001;
Sonmez & Graefe, 1998). Hal ini juga menyarankan bahwa wisatawan yang setia
bersedia untuk merekomendasikan destinasi kepada orang lain (Shoemaker & Lewis,
1999). Selain itu, korelasi yang baik juga telah ditemukan antara niat pembelian kembali
konsumen dan WOM yang positif (Oh, 2000; Oh & Park, 1997).
Kumar et al. (2006) mengungkapkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara
kepribadian merek dan loyalitas merek. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa kepribadian merek
dapat mempengaruhi loyalitas merek konsumen untuk barang-barang konsumsi.
Walaupun bukan dalam konteks destinasi wisata, namun penelitian ini mendukung
hubungan tersebut dalam penelitian ini.
Hipotesis
Berdasarkan tinjauan literatur, maka hipotesis penelitian adalah:
1) H1: Sincercity berpengaruh terhadap Loyalitas Destinasi
2) H2: Excitement berpengaruh terhadap Loyalitas destinasi
3) H3: Conviviality berpengaruh terhadap Loyalitas destinasi
Sincercity

Excitement

Conviviality

H1
H2

Destination
Loyalty

H3

Gambar 1. Kerangka Penelitian


3.

Metodologi Penelitian
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh kepribadian destinasi
yang meliputi: Sincercity (x1), Excitement (x2), Conviviality (x3) terhadap loyalitas
destinasi (Y).
Untuk mengumpulkan data penelitian ini menggunakan metode non probability
sampling yaitu convenience sampling. Lokasi penelitian dalam penelitian ini adalah
Taman Nasional Wakatobi, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia.
Populasi target penelitian ini adalah wisatawan yang sedang maupun sudah
berkunjung ke TN Wakatobi, dengan ukuran sampel sebesar 100 orang.
Instrumen penelitian mengacu pada penelitian sebelumnya digunakan untuk
mengumpulkan karakteristik responden menggunakan enam (6) item, dan untuk
kepribadian destinasi (Ekinci and Hosany, 2006:127) yang diukur melalui lima (5) item

pada Sincerity, empat (4) item pada Excitement, dan enam (6) item pada destination
loyalty (Yoon dan Uysal, 2005). Instrumen penelitian menggunakan 5- skala Likert.
Respondent Profile
Variable

Frequency

Percentatio
n

Male

58

58

Female

42

42

21 30

21

21

31 - 40

31

31

41 50

26

26

51 60

16

16

60 and above

Senior high school

18

18

College degree

28

28

University degree

36

36

Master degree/Doctoral

18

18

Indonesian

64

64

Overseas

36

36

< 3.000.000

14

14

3.000.000 - 5.000.000

22

22

5.000.000 - 7.000.000

32

32

7.000.000 - 10.000.000

18

18

> 10.000.000

14

14

Family and friends

22

22

Advertising

14

14

Government Agency

22

22

Exhibition

18

18

Travel Agent

24

24

Gender

Age

Education

Place of Origin

Income (Rp)

Sources of Information

Berdasarkan hasil kuesioner dari 100 responden, dimana persentase responden


laki-laki dan perempuan masing-masing adalah 58 persen dan 42 persen, menunjukkan
bahwa dominasi laki-laki liburan pada wisata bahari di TN Wakatobi. Di seluruh sampel,
21 persen berada pada kisaran umur 21 sampai 30 tahun, 31 persen berada pada kisaran
umur 31 sampai 40 tahun, dan 26 persen berada di kisaran 41-50 tahun, 16 persen di
kisaran umur 51-60 tahun dan 6 persen berusia lebih dari 60 tahun. Untuk tingkat
pendidikan, 18 persen lulusan SMA, 28 persen memiliki gelar diploma atau sederajat, 36
persen memiliki gelar sarjana dan 18 persen memiliki gelar master atau doktor. Untuk
tempat asal mereka, 64 persen adalah orang Indonesia, dan 36 persen adalah orang asing.

Selanjutnya untuk sumber informasi, 22 persen informasi dari keluarga atau teman, 14
persen dari periklanan, 22 persen dari instansi pemerintah, 18 persen dari pameran, dan
24 persen dari agen perjalanan wisata.
4.

Hasil dan Pembahasan


Hasil uji validitas dan uji reliabilitas instrumen dari semua variabel, Sincercity
(x1), Excitement (x2), Conviviality dan destination loyalty menyatakan semua valid dan
reliabel.
Nilai rata-rata, standar deviasi dan korelasi terlihat pada tabel 2. Dari tabel tersebut,
nilai rata-rata paling tinggi adalah sincercity kemudian disusul oleh excitement, dan
paling rendah adalah conviviality, hal ini menunjukkan dimensi destination personality
saling berkorelasi positif satu sama lain, dan seluruh dimensi destination personality
berkorelasi positif dengan destination loyalty. Korelasi antara dimensi destination
personality dengan destination loyalty berdasarkan nilai korelasi menunjukkan korelasi
yang kuat.
Tabel 2. Statistik Deskriptif dan Koefisien Korelasi
No

Variable

1
2
3
4

Mean

Std. Deviation

Sincerity
100
16,7600
Excitement
100
12,6400
Conviviality
100
9,5600
Destination Loyalty
100
20,1800
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

3,30020
2,13447
2,18498
3,77493

Korelasi
2

1
1
0,788**
0,756**
0,811**

1
0,810**
0,813**

1
0,779**

Sumber : Hasil Olah Data, 2014

Untuk mengetahui pengaruh dimensi destination personality (sincercity,


excitement, conviviality) terhadap destination loyalty pada penelitian ini diguakan
analisis regresi berganda.
Tabel 3. Hasil Analisis Regresi Berganda
Independent Variable
Sincerity
Excitement
Conviviality
Adjusted R2 = 0,844

Standardized Coefficients
Beta
,382
,335
,219
F = 97,222

p
2,037
2,332
2,748

,045
,022
,007

p = 0,000

Dari tabel 3 di atas, nilai Adj. R2 sebesar 0,745, hal ini menunjukkan dimensi
destination personality (sincercity, excitement, conviviality) menjelaskan varians
destination personality sebesar 84,4%. Pada nilai sebesar 5%, secara bersama-sama
dimensi destination personality (sincercity, excitement, conviviality) berpengaruh positif
terhadap destination loyalty, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan nilai F sebesar 97,222 (p = 0,000).
Secara sendiri-sendiri dimensi sincercity, excitement, conviviality berpengaruh terhadap
destination loyalty, hal ini terlihat dari nlai signifikansinya dibawah nilai sebesar 5% (p
< 0,005). Dengan hasil tersebut mendukung hipotesis H1, H2, dan H3 dengan kata lain,
sincercity, excitement, conviviality berpengaruh positif terhadap destination loyalty.

Sincercity
0,382
0, 045
Excitement

0, 335
0, 022

Conviviality

Destination
Loyalty

0, 219
0, 007

Gambar. Kerangka Konsep dan Hasil


5.

Kesimpulan
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh dimensi destination personality
(sincercity, excitement, conviviality) terhadap destination loyalty pada wisata bahari
taman nasional Wakatobi. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan sincercity, excitement, dan
conviviality berpengaruh positif terhadap destination loyalty, dengan kata lain destination
loyalty yang tinggi dapat dicapai dari peningkatan destination personality pada pada
wisata bahari taman nasional Wakatobi. Antar dimensi destination personality saling
berubungan satu sama lain. Sincercity memiliki proporsi yang lebih besar dalam
menjelaskan destination loyalty yakni sebesar 38,2%, disusul excitement (33,5%) dan
terakhir conviviality (21,9%). Walaupun demikian, penelitian ini memiliki beberapa
keterbatasan diantaranya, mengenai ukuran sampel penelitian dalam kaitannya dengan
populasi yang sebenarnya, keterbatasan ini mungkin memiliki dampak langsung terhadap
kemungkinan generalisasi hasil penelitian dan oleh karena itu, untuk penelitian
selanjutnya dapat menggunakan ukuran sampel yang lebih besar.

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Sirgy, M. J. (1982). Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of
Consumer Research, 9(3), 287-300.
Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia, 2013

Upshaw L. (1995). Building brand identity: A strategy for success in a hostile market
place. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Yoon, Y. and Uysal, M. (2005), An examination of the effects of motivation and
satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model, Tourism Management, Vol.
26, pp. 45-56.

INFLUENCE OF DESTINATION PERSONALITY ON


DESTINATION LOYALTY IN MARINE TOURISM OF
NATIONAL PARK WAKATOBI
Oleh
Nursaban R. Suleman1)
nursabansuleman@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study aims to investigate the influence of dimensions of destination personality on
destination loyalty in in marine tourism of National Park Wakatobi.
The number of samples are 100 respondents and survey method is used to analyze the
collected data. Data analysis used multiple linear regression.
These results indicate that sincerity, excitement, conviviality has significant and positive
effects on destination loyalty
Keyword: destination personality, destination loyalty
1.

Introduction
Tourism is one of the largest and most rapidly growing sectors around the world.
The development of tourism can not be separated from economic and socio-cultural. Over
the years, the contribution of the tourism sector in national development increased, and
became the leading sectors.
According Artuer et. al., (2013:1) that tourism is one sector which currently has
a critical reception in the economic progress of a country. In addition to reviving the
different sectors, the tourism sector generates employment and income sources.
One of the efforts in developing the tourism sector is to manage tourism in the National
Park area. National Park is a nature conservation area which has a native ecosystem,
managed by the zoning system is utilized for the purpose of research, science, education,
support aquaculture, tourism and outdoor recreation.
Similarly, the Wakatobi National Park, known slogan "real underwater paradise"
as a feature of this national park. Have some tourism products which include: 1) Natural
attractions, such as; scenery, valleys, beaches, lakes, cultural heritage, wild boar,
monkeys, deer, birds are reluctant, as well as the cool air, 2) Things to do, such as; marine
tourism, recreation, 3) facilities and infrastructure, such as; cultural tourism, natural
caves, coral reefs and the potential that can be developed such as; snorkel, diving,
sunbathing, down a natural cave, and fishing.
As an overview of tourism in Wakatobi National Park, can be seen from the
number of tourist arrivals as follows:
Table 1. Total visitors to the National Park, Wakatobi, 2014
Year
National
Park
Wakatobi

2010
Domestic

1,509

2011

Foreign

233

2012

2013

Domestic

Foreign

Domestic

Foreign

Domestic

Foreign

6,177

41,822

4,775

4,223

2,199

543

Source: Ministry of Statistics 2011-2014

The above conditions indicate that the number of visits seen fluctuating but
Wakatobi National Park has the prospect of weeks to develop. That requires some

assessment as to know the personality of the destination in order to be able to distinguish


other destinations that have an impact on the intention to re-visit and recommend to
others.
Global competition top tourist destinations is an important factor and it is the
duty of the Destination Marketing Organizing (DMO) in order to attract tourists (Pike and
Ryan, 2004, in Ekinci & Hosany, 2006: 127). Each destination is always trying to be
typical, then the destination personality is seen as a viable metaphor in order to
understand the perception of tourists going to the destination and that the destination has
to design the identity and uniqueness.
Although the brand personality research in the domain of consumer goods
beginning in the early 1960s (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006). But the application of brand
personality to tourism destinations are considered relatively new (Ekinci & Hosany,
2006; Hosany, Ekinci, and Uysal, 2006, 2007; Pitt, Opoku, Hultman, Abratt, &
Spyropoulou, 2007; Tasci & Kozak, 2006).
Destination personality helped to create a unique and profitable relationship in
the minds of consumers, and thus be able to build and enhance brand equity (Keller 1993;
Johnson, Soutar and Sweeney 2000; Phau and Lau, 2000). A brand personality (brand
personality) that can either affect customer preferences (Sirgy 1982; Malhotra, 1988) and
increase the emotional bond (Biel 1993), trust, and loyalty (Fournier, 1998).
To realize the successful implementation of destination branding is to increase
the destination personality as a strategy by destination marketers to distinguish between a
destination with competitors (Chen and Phou, 2013: 271). Where destination personality
are expected to form the destination loyalty as intention to revisit and recommend to
others (word of mouth).
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of destination personality,
such: 1) sincerity; 2) excitement; 3) conviviality of destination loyalty (revisit intention,
WOM-Recommendation) on tourists National Park Wakatobi.
2.

Literature Review

Destination Personality
Referring terminology Aaker (1997), according to Ekinci and Hosany (2006),
destination personality is defined as "a set of human characteristics associated with the
destination". In the tourism literature, has developed rapidly over the image studies such
as the destination for the last 3 decades, but most of the personality of the destination is
rarely investigated.
While the Basic Assumptions of the destination branding is that tourist
destinations can also be labeled the same as a brand with a product. In creating a
destination brand is a process that is more complex and difficult, than creating a brand on
the product or service. (Hankinson, 2001) in, Ahmet Usakli, 2007: 16)
To understand the concept of brand personality and destination personality, it will
describe some definitions of brand personality or destination personality as summarized
in the following table:
Table 2. Definitions Brand/Destination Personality
Author
Reeves, R.
(1961)

Definition
In copy strategies brand personality was used as a common, practical, but
rather loose, word for assessing non-productbased, nonfunctional
dimensions of the brand; it captured the singularity of the source of the
product as if it were a person.

Author
Plummer (1985)

Upshaw (1995);

Aaker
(1997:347)
Gelder (2005:41)
Hosany et al.,
(2006):

Definition
Brand Personality is the human personality traits or characteristics to a
brand in order to help communicate to consumers its physical elements or
attributes.
the brand personality serves to suggest to the consumer whether the
brand is appropriate or not appropriate for his or her particular
situation. It can also be the facilitator of consumer and brand, the link
through which the communication evolves.
the set of human characteristics associated with the brand
Brand personality is developed to enhance the appeal of a brand to consumers
Destination personality as "a multidimensional construct and defined as the set
of human characteristics associated to a tourism destination"

The framework of the brand personality (Aaker, 1997: 352) consists of; 1)
Sincerity (down-to-earth; honest; wholesome; cheerful), 2) Excitement (daring; spirited;
imaginative; up-to-date;, 3) Competence; (reliable; intelligent; successful, 4)
Sophistication (upper-class; charming, 5) ruggedness (outdoorsy; tough).
Table 3. Brand Personality Scale
Sincerity
down-to-earth
honest
wholesome
cheerful

BRAND PERSONALITY
Excitement
Competence Sophistication
daring
reliable
upper-class
spirited
intelligent
charming
imaginative successful
up-to-date

Ruggedness
outdoorsy
tough

Sumber: Aaker, (1997:352)

In the context of destination, Ekinci and Hosany (2006: 130) examined the
application of the framework of the brand personality as measured using the BPS by
Aaker (1997) in English natives. In research carried out by two different samples both
consist of 250 tourists from the UK. The results of the study Ekinci & Hosany (2006:
133) suggests that a significant personality characteristics destination consists of three
important dimensions than the original 5 dimensions (Aaker, 1997) which includes:
"sincerity", "excitement" and "friendliness". Sincerity and excitement that is found to be
the two main factors. Friendliness is a new and specific to the context of the destination.
The study also revealed that personality destination (destination personality) have a
positive impact on behavioral intentions and recommend WOM (Ekinci & Hosany,
2006).
The dimensions of the resulting destination personality (Ekinci & Hosany, 2006)
as shown in the following table:
Tabel 4. Destination Personality Scale
DESTINATION PERSONALITY
Sincerity
Excitement
Reliable
Exciting
Sincere
Daring
Intelligent
Original
Successful
Spirited
Wholesome
Sumber: Ekinci and Hosany (2006:127)

Conviviality
Friendly
Family oriented
Charming

Destination Loyalty
Loyalty is literally defined as a person's loyalty to an object. "Loyalty shows a
person's tendency to use a particular brand with a high degree of consistency. This
indicates that loyalty is always associated with customer preferences and the actual
purchase.
According Campon et al. (2013: 13) that loyalty in the tourism sector is very
poorly studied, so there are many outstanding questions about how to keep customers to
be loyal in the long run (Zamora et al. 2005) in Campon et al. (2013: 13).
Currently each destination facing severe competition in decades and will
probably be more difficult to remain in existence in the years to come, so that the
destination marketing managers need to understand why tourists loyal to the destination
and what determines their loyalty (Chen and Gursoy 2001). One might ask whether a
particular destination can generate loyalty to everyone who visits.
Yoon and Uysal (2005) in Campon et al. (2013: 17) notes that "the destination is
considered as a product, where tourists intend to visit again or recommend the destination
to potential tourists such as friends or family". Chen and Gursoy (2001) operationally
define that destination loyalty as perceived level of tourists from destinations as a good
place.
In recent decades, researchers tourism or sport, has incorporated the concept of
customer loyalty for tourism products, destinations, or recreation (Backman & Crompton,
1991; Baloglu, 2001; Iwasaki & Havitz, 1998; Pritchard & Howard, 1997). However, in
evaluating the usefulness of the concept of loyalty as well as applications for tourism
products has been limited, despite the loyalty has been regarded as one of the main
driving forces in a competitive market (Yoon & Uysal, 2005).
To measure the attitude of destination loyalty, including the intention to revisit
and recommend (word-of-mouth) is generally used to infer consumer loyalty, and found
to be a measure of loyalty (Chi & Qu, 2008). Several previous studies have shown that
loyal customers are more likely to repurchase products / services in the future (Petrick et
al, 2001; Sonmez & Graefe, 1998). It also suggests that travelers are loyal to recommend
the destination to others (Shoemaker & Lewis, 1999). In addition, a good correlation has
been found between the intention to visit again and positive WOM recommendations (Oh,
2000; Oh & Park, 1997).
Kumar et al. (2006) stated that there is a relationship between brand personality
and brand loyalty. The results show that the personality of a brand can influence
consumer brand loyalty to consumer goods. Although not in the context of tourist
destinations, but this study supports the association in this study
Hipotesis
Based on the literature review, the research hypothesis is:
1) H1: Sincercity is positively related to destination loyalty
2) H2: Excitement is positively related to destination loyalty
3) H3: Conviviality is positively related to destination loyalty
Sincercity

Excitement

Conviviality

H1
H2

Destination
Loyalty

H3

Figure 1. Research Framework

3.

Research Methodology
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of destination personality are:
Sincercity (x1), Excitement (x2), Conviviality (x3) towards destination loyalty (Y).
To collect the data of this study using a non-probability sampling method, namely
convenience sampling. Location of the study in this research is the Wakatobi National
Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
The target population of this study was tourists who were or had been to
Wakatobi National Park, with a sample size of 100 tourists.
The research instrument refers to previous research was used to collect the
characteristics of the respondents used six (6) items, and for destination personality
(Ekinci and Hosany, 2006: 127) as measured by the five (5) items on Sincerity, four (4)
items on Excitement, and six (6) items on destination loyalty (Yoon and Uysal, 2005).
Research instruments used 5- Likert scale.
Respondent Profile
Variable

Frequency

Percentatio
n

Male
Female

58
42

58
42

Age
21 30

21

21

31 - 40
41 50

31
26

31
26

16
6

16
6

18
28
36
18

18
28
36
18

64
36

64
36

14
22
32

14
22
32

7.000.000 - 10.000.000

18

18

> 10.000.000
Sources of Information
Family and friends

14

14

22

22

Advertising
Government Agency

14
22

14
22

Exhibition
Travel Agent

18
24

18
24

Gender

51 60
60 and above
Education
Senior high school
College degree
University degree
Master degree/Doctoral
Place of Origin
Indonesian
Overseas
Income (Rp)
< 3.000.000
3.000.000 - 5.000.000
5.000.000 - 7.000.000

Based on the results of questionnaires of 100 respondents, of which the


percentage of respondents male and female respectively 58 percent and 42 percent,
indicating that male dominance vacation in marine tourism in Wakatobi National Park. In

the entire sample, 21 percent are in the age range 21 to 30 years, 31 percent are in the age
range 31 to 40 years, and 26 percent were in the range of 41-50 years, 16 per cent in the
age range 51-60 years, and 6 percent were more than 60 years. For the level of education,
18 percent of high school graduates, 28 percent have a degree or equivalent diploma, 36
percent have a college degree and 18 percent have a master's degree or doctorate. To their
place of origin, 64 percent are Indonesian, and 36 percent are foreigners. Furthermore, for
resources, 22 percent of information from family or friends, 14 percent of advertising, 22
percent from government agencies, 18 percent of the exhibition, and 24 percent of travel
agents.
4.

Results and Discussion


The results of testing the validity and reliability of the instrument of all the
variables, Sincercity (x1), Excitement (x2), Conviviality and destination loyalty declare
all valid and reliable.
The average value, standard deviation and correlations shown in Table 2. From the
table, the average value is highest sincercity followed by excitement, and the lowest is the
conviviality, this indicates the destination personality dimension correlated positively
with each other, and the entire destination personality dimension correlated positively
with destination loyalty. The correlation between the dimensions of personality
destination by destination loyalty based on the value of the correlation showed a strong
correlation
Table 5. Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Coefficient
No

Variable

1
2
3
4

Mean

Std. Deviation

Sincerity
100
16,7600
Excitement
100
12,6400
Conviviality
100
9,5600
Destination Loyalty
100
20,1800
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

3,30020
2,13447
2,18498
3,77493

Korelasi
2

1
1
0,788**
0,756**
0,811**

1
0,810**
0,813**

1
0,779**

To determine the effect of destination personality dimensions (Sincerity,


Excitement, Conviviality) towards destination loyalty in this study used multiple
regression analysis.
Table 6. Results of Multiple Regression Analysis
Independent Variable
Sincerity
Excitement
Conviviality
Adjusted R2 = 0,844

Standardized Coefficients
Beta
,382
,335
,219
F = 97,222

p
2,037
2,332
2,748

,045
,022
,007

p = 0,000

From Table 6 above, the value of Adj. R2 of 0.745, this indicates the destination
personality dimensions (sincercity, excitement, conviviality) explained variance of 84.4%
destination personality. In the value of 5%, simultaneously destination personality
dimensions (sincercity, excitement, conviviality) positive effect on destination loyalty, as
shown by the F value of 97.222 (p = 0.000). Individually sincercity dimension,
excitement, conviviality effect on destination loyalty, as seen from below nlai
significance value of 5% (p <0.005). With these results support the hypothesis H1, H2,

and H3 in other words, sincercity, excitement, conviviality positive effect on destination


loyalty.
Sincercity
0,382
0, 045
Excitement

0, 335

Conviviality

0, 219
0, 007

0, 022

Destination
Loyalty

5.

Conclusion
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh dimensi destination personality
(sincercity, excitement, conviviality) terhadap destination loyalty pada wisata bahari
taman nasional Wakatobi. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan sincercity, excitement, dan
conviviality berpengaruh positif terhadap destination loyalty, dengan kata lain destination
loyalty yang tinggi dapat dicapai dari peningkatan destination personality pada pada
wisata bahari taman nasional Wakatobi. Antar dimensi destination personality saling
berubungan satu sama lain. Sincercity memiliki proporsi yang lebih besar dalam
menjelaskan destination loyalty yakni sebesar 38,2%, disusul excitement (33,5%) dan
terakhir conviviality (21,9%). Walaupun demikian, penelitian ini memiliki beberapa
keterbatasan diantaranya, mengenai ukuran sampel penelitian dalam kaitannya dengan
populasi yang sebenarnya, keterbatasan ini mungkin memiliki dampak langsung terhadap
kemungkinan generalisasi hasil penelitian dan oleh karena itu, untuk penelitian
selanjutnya dapat menggunakan ukuran sampel yang lebih besar.

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satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model, Tourism Management, Vol.
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