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VELIZY

MOBILE COMMUNICATION DIVISION

Originator(s)
A. FREULON

EXTENDED CELL
RELEASE B6.2

Domain
Division
Rubric
Type
Distribution Codes

:
:
:
:

ALCATEL 900/BSS
PRODUCT DEFINITION
SYS-TLA
SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS
Internal :
External :

PREDISTRIBUTION:
MCD/TD Vlizy:
SYT

BTS:

CMP:
INT:
O&M:
MCD/TD Kontich:
MCD/TD Weilimdorf:
MCD/TD
Zuffenhausen:

J. ACHARD
S. BOURDEAULT
P. DUPUY
B. LANDAIS
PJ. PIETRI
C. AIT-IZZA (ffd)
M. DOBROSIELSKI
L. SZABO (fpo)
S. BAUDET (fpo)
P. KERYER (fpo)
G. COULON (ffd)
B. VIREY (ffd)
G. ECARNOT
M. ROELANDTS (fpo)
R. FRIEDRICHS
W. ALLERBORN

J.Y. AMAUDRUT
E. BRIGANT
A. FREULON
J.F. MAILLARD (ffd)
E. THANEL (fpo)
L. DARTOIS (fpo)
F. HUET
R. SZABELLEK
P. BRUMA
F. MENET
D. DELILLE (fpo)
G. GROLLEAU (ffd)
G. VAN DIJCK (ffd)
T. SCHUETZ
A. BRAUN

D. BERTHOUMIEUX (fpo)
L. CORRE
J.P. JARDEL
R. MAUGER
J. ANDRES
M. DELPRAT (fpo)
J.M HAUTENNE
J.Ph GRUAUT
E. ROUSSELOT (ffd)

P. HUPPERICH

PREDISTRIBUTION: DOC. CENTRES


MCD COLOMBES
B. Marliac

MCD STUTTGART
I. Lentzsch

MCD ANTWERP
L. Van Eyck

ABSTRACT
This document specifies the functional aspects of the extended cell feature, enabling to have site
coverage extending up to 70 km radius area.
This document describes both technical solutions for
G2 BTS.
G3.8 BTS.
Approvals
Name

D. BERTHOUMIEUX
AM

N. DENDONCKER
BSC SSAM

JP HUMEAU
BTS SSAM

App.
Name
App.

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REVIEW

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Ed. 01 Proposal 01

06/01/98

TLAr6#19

TD/SAS/EDE/0031.98

HISTORY
Release 4, 5 : 3BK 11202 0050 DSZZA
4.0.0.0
4.0.0.1
4.0.0.2
4.0.1.0
4.1.0.0

15/09/94
20/10/94

4.2.0.0

11/10/96

30/12/94
13/04/95

L Julia
L Julia
L Julia
L Julia
L Julia

document creation
Updated after TLA review TLAr4#1 (see SYS/100)
Updated after TLA review TLAr4#3 (see SYS/109)
Updated after TLA review TLAr4#5 (see SYS/118)
Updated after review of O&M system impacts of
extended cell
F. D'ARGENCE CRQ 2132 and CRQ 2550 inclusion.

Release 6 : 3BK 11202 0185 DSZZA


Ed. 01 Proposal 01

Ed. 01 Released
Ed 02 Released

04/12/97

P-J Pietri

First working version for release 6 based on the


documents:
- 3BK 11202 0050 DSZZA V4.2.0.0
- TFD 11.31: General handover algorithms
improvements
09/01/98
P-J Pietri
Approved version, updated following TLA review
TLAr6#16, as detailed in TD/SAS/EDE/0031.98
04/01/2000 A. Freulon Includes CR 3BKA20CBR062716 Improvement of G2
Extended Cell Solutin for Evolium BTS

INTERNAL REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


[i1]

3BK 10204 0327 DTZZA - General handover algorithms improvements

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY


By derogation to the QS recommendation (see document 8BL 14106 0000 BGZZA - TD
documentation layout) more than 3 levels used in the table of contents with agreement of the PQE.
END OF DOCUMENT

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< SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS >

TABLE OF CONTENTS
HISTORY ......................................................................................................................................... 2
REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ......................................................................................................... 2
RELATED DOCUMENTS ................................................................................................................. 2
PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................ 2
1. SCOPE......................................................................................................................................... 4
2. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................... 4
2.1 General Description .......................................................................................................... 4
2.1.1 Overview.................................................................................................................. 4
2.1.1.1 Commercial Interest ...................................................................................... 4
2.1.1.2 Technical constraints ..................................................................................... 4
2.1.2 Cell Topology ........................................................................................................... 6
2.1.3 Radio and link Establishment ................................................................................... 7
2.1.4 Handover ................................................................................................................. 8
2.1.5 Configuration............................................................................................................ 8
2.1.5.1 Configuration for G2 BTS. ............................................................................. 8
2.1.5.2 Configuration for G3.8 BTS. ......................................................................... 9
3. DETAILED BEHAVIOUR.............................................................................................................11
3.1 Radio aspects...................................................................................................................11
3.1.1 Antenna height ........................................................................................................11
3.1.2 Antenna pattern.......................................................................................................11
3.1.2.1 For a G2 BTS: ..............................................................................................12
3.1.2.2 For a G3.8 BTS: ...........................................................................................12
3.1.3 TOA estimation in the inner cell frame unit..............................................................12
3.1.3.1 Access burst .................................................................................................12
3.1.3.2 Normal bursts ...............................................................................................13
3.1.4 Measurements.........................................................................................................13
3.1.4.1 Case of G2 BTS. ..........................................................................................13
3.1.4.2 Case of G3.8 BTS. .......................................................................................13
3.1.5 Baseband interference.............................................................................................13
3.1.5.1 Case of G2 BTS. ..........................................................................................13
3.1.5.2 Case of G3.8 BTS. .......................................................................................14
3.1.6 RF Interference .......................................................................................................14
3.2 Telecom aspects ..............................................................................................................15
3.2.1 Synchronisation.......................................................................................................15
3.2.2 Paging procedure ....................................................................................................15
3.2.3 Radio and link establishment...................................................................................15
3.2.3.1 G2 BTS case: ...............................................................................................15
3.2.3.2 G3.8 BTS case. ............................................................................................16
3.2.3.3 Radio and link establishment in the inner cell ..............................................17
3.2.3.3.1 Generalities .......................................................................................17
3.2.3.3.2 MS camping on inner cell...................................................................20
3.2.3.3.3 MS camping on the outer cell.............................................................21
3.2.3.4 Radio and link establishment in the outer cell ...............................................22
3.2.3.4.1 Generalities .......................................................................................22
3.2.3.4.2 Detailed Behaviour ............................................................................23
3.2.3.5 Radio and link establishment in the overlap zone .........................................24
3.2.3.5.1 Generalities .......................................................................................24
3.2.3.5.2 MS camping on the inner cell.............................................................25
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3.2.3.5.3 MS camping on the outer cell.............................................................27


3.2.3.6 Directed Retry ..............................................................................................29
3.2.3.7 Handover......................................................................................................29
3.2.3.7.1 Inner cell to outer cell.........................................................................29
3.2.3.7.2 Outer cell to inner cell ........................................................................29
3.2.3.7.3 inner or outer cell to other cell............................................................30
3.3 Hardware and firmware aspects......................................................................................31
3.3.1 Cross Connection in the BTS inner cell....................................................................31
3.3.1.1 FHU asymmetric configuration......................................................................31
3.3.1.2 Manual extended cell configuration...............................................................32
3.3.2 Advance in the transmitter timing ............................................................................32
3.3.3 Synchronisation delay .............................................................................................32
4. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS ........................................................................................................33
5. RELEASE CHANGES .................................................................................................................33
6. FEATURES .................................................................................................................................33
7. GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................................34
8. APPENDIX A : LINK BUDGET FOR THE EXTENDED CELL .....................................................35

02
01
ED

04/01/00
09/01/98
DATE

CHANGE NOTE

MCD/TD
MCD/TD
APPRAISAL AUTHORITY

MCD/TD/SYT
MCD/TD/SAS
ORIGINATOR

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HISTORY
Ed. 01
Ed. 02

09/01/98
First edition
04/01/2000 2nd Edition, Includes approved CR:
3BKA20CBR062716 Improvement of G2 Extended
Cell Solution for Evolium BTS
Document checked by moderator B. Landais. No review
report

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

GSM references
[1]

03.30 Radio network planning aspects

The version numbers of the GSM technical specifications used in this Release are given in [6].

Doctree references
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

3BK 11202 0276 DSZZA - Handover preparation


3BK 11202 0217 DSZZA - Internal channel change
3BK 11204 0171 DSZZA - FBS Logical Configuration Management
3BK 11202 0268 DSZZA - Paging and Access Grant Control
3BK 11203 0043 DSZZA - Alcatel BSS Application Document to GSM - General Overview

RELATED DOCUMENTS
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]

ART/DST/SSA/VK/MC/672/93 - Antenna parameter for > 35 km radius cell with GSM


8AM 41093 0000 DSZZA - Design specification of the Extended Cell Feature in the BSS
3BK 11210 0073 DSZZA - Digital signal processing in the frame unit
ART/DST/DAS/118/CH/94 - Rapport de mesures radio concernant la diversite d'antenne
SFR
3BK 10204 01510 DTZZA Improvement to BTS G2 Extended Cell Solution on Evolium BTS.

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1. SCOPE
The purpose of this document is to specify the functional aspects of the feature "extended cell" which
provides a coverage range up to 70 km with two colocated BTS.
One cell covers the range from 0 to 35 km and another cell covers the range from 35 to 70 km.
This document is meant to give a general idea of all hardware and software aspects of the feature.
However, it should be referred to O&M specification and HW specification documents for details.
This document is valid for G2 BTS and G3.8 BTS. Difference of implementation relative to both BTS
hardware versions are described when needed.

2. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
2.1 General Description
2.1.1 Overview
2.1.1.1 Commercial Interest
For an operator, the major costs of equipment roll-out are related to the site (and not just the
hardware). The maintenance cost is directly proportional to the number of sites as for the site rental
cost, when applicable.
The interest for having large cells is therefore to reduce the number of sites when the traffic density
is sufficiently low.
This should be particularly efficient to insure the coverage of rural areas, highways and offshore
coverage.
For these reasons, a solution to obtain a coverage range up to 70 km can be very adequate.
Due to radio planning constraints, two major possibilities can be offered and combined:
- omnidirectional coverage up to about 50 km radius
- or linear coverage up to 70 km radius (mono or bi-directional)
For an omnidirectional extended cell site with 50 km range, the coverage is multiplied by two..
For a linear bi-directional extended cell site with 70 km range, the linear coverage is also multiplied
by two.
With G2 BTS, two BTS are needed to realize the extended cell (one for the extended inner cell and
one for the extended outer cell). 1 TRX is provided for each cell.
With G3.8 BTS, the extended inner cell and the extended outer cell are on the same BTS. Each cell
is provided with up to 4 TRX.

2.1.1.2 Technical constraints


The GSM specifications use a TDMA/FDMA multiple access scheme. The MS receives the frame
synchronisation through a RF channel that experiences a propagation delay.
In order to minimise the guard band between adjacent timeslots, the MS is instructed by the
infrastructure to advance its transmission timing in order to compensate for the propagation delay.
The maximum range defined in GSM for the access to a cell is 35 km.
When a MS attempts to make a call at a greater distance the call will fail.
Among possible solutions the chosen implementation allows to make use of all timeslots of the
TDMA frame and to use the combined configuration for the CCCH channel. G2 solution is mainly
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based on the prototype developed and tested by Alcatel Australia described in [8]. G3.8 solution is
based on the same principle but with several enhancements.
The BSC software is capable of controlling extended cells realized with G2 BTS and G3.8 BTS.

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2.1.2 Cell Topology

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Two colocated BTS provide coverage up to maximum 70 km.


The extended cell mechanism allows to compensate for the propagation delay of a burst up to 70 km
distance, but the link budget determined from the operational constraints (BS output power, antenna
gain, propagation attenuation, range limitation due to obstacles or earth curvature) will in the last
place determine the effective range. An example of power budget is given in Appendix A.
The inner cell handles the calls distant up to 35 km, while the outer cell handles traffic from 33 km to
the maximum range as determined by the network planning (max 70 km).
At the border of the two cells an overlapping area allows to provide a continuous coverage. A
mechanism must be foreseen to avoid Ping-Pong handover.
In the overlap area, a mobile can establish a call on the outer cell only (see section 3.2.3.3).
Several topologies are possible, depending on the type of the inner cell and outer cell antennas.
The basic rule is that the maximum range can only be achieved with highly directive antennas (see
appendix A ).
Three different options are outlined on the following schemes ( fig 1, fig 2 , and fig 3 ). The option
illustrated by figure 3 is possible only with a G2 BTS. With G3.8 BTS, the technical solution chosen
implies that the inner cell is always barred (see justification further). Consequently the inner cell must
be completely overlapped by the outer cell to avoid holes in the network coverage. This excludes
the cell topology presented in figure 3 with a G3.8 BTS.
In addition, when the antenna patterns for the inner cell and the outer cell are the same, it is possible
to use the same antennas for the both cells.
In this configuration, the Tx RF signals are combined with an external combiner (possibly a WBC).
Two antennas are used for diversity reception.
G2 BTS: The Rx Front ends then split the RF signal on outer BCCH frequency to both the RACH
catcher and the outer cell BCCH CU.
G3.8 BTS: The RF signal on outer BCCH frequency must be provided to both the inner cell BCCH
TRE, and the outer cell BCCH TRE.

Highway

figure 1 : topology of extended cell for linear


coverage

outer cell
70km
inner cell

35 km

outer cell
outer limit
50 km radius

inner cell
outer limit

Town

inner limit

inner
cell

35 km radius

outer cell

highway

figure 2 :topology of extended


cell with omnidirectional
antennas

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figure 3 :topology of extended cell with


omnidirectional inner cell and directive

outer cell . Possible only with a G2 BTS.

2.1.3 Radio and link Establishment


The figure 4 shows the outer cell antenna main lobe, with a typical antenna which has about 20 dB
gain, a vertical aperture of 6.5 and an horizontal aperture of 60. We have assumed that the
antenna is pointed towards the outer cell limit.
With G2 BTS, due to radio conditions and planning (BS power, antenna directivity and gain), it is
possible that in some parts of the inner cell the MS will camp on the outer cell (see figure 4).
With G3.8 BTS, the inner cell is always barred, so the MS will always camp on the outer cell, even if
located in the inner cell range.

outer cell antenna


200 m

3.25

main lobe coverage


70 km

35 km

3.7 km
side lobes

MS here will camp on outer cell

inner cell
outer cell

main lobe coverage

side lobes

figure 4 coverage of the outer cell antenna , vertical elevation and above view

When these MS will try to set-up a call, they are out of the range of the outer cell BTS to be handled
properly (see 3.2.3).
For this reason, a special radio and link establishment procedure is used in the inner cell to cope with
this possible behaviour .
It basically consists of receiving the CHANNEL REQUEST messages on either BCCH frequencies
inner or outer and sending the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND for a SDCCH on the inner
cell on both BCCH frequencies.
This special procedure is valid both for MS sending a CHANNEL REQUEST message to a G2 BTS
or a G3.8 BTS. With a G3.8 BTS, only the events of the procedure related to the reception of a
CHANNEL REQUEST message on the outer BCCH frequencies can occur.

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2.1.4 Handover
In the extended cell , the handover procedure is purely controlled by settings of the handover
detection parameters. Two special causes allow handover from the inner cell to the outer cell and
handover from the outer cell to the inner cell. There is no change in the BSC handover algorithm
either for handover preparation or execution.
Appropriate settings of the handover parameters (see 3.2.3.5) make sure that the necessary distance
has been reached before handing a call over to the outer or the inner cell, otherwise the handover
would fail.
The handover between inner and outer cell must not prevent handover towards a possible third cell.

2.1.5 Configuration
This document should not be considered as the technical reference for any O&M aspects, only the
functional behaviour is addressed. For further details see the O&M documents [4].
The telecom parameters used for the extended cell also follow some mandatory and recommended
rules :(e.g. the BSIC of both inner and outer cell are the same ). These rules must be checked or
forced by O&M so as to make the operator aware of most technical constraints . For further details
see the O&M documents [4].

2.1.5.1 Configuration for G2 BTS.


The extended cell has only 1 TRX in the inner cell and 1 TRX in the outer cell. In addition to the
BCCH carrier unit, there is an additional carrier unit in the inner cell which is tuned on the outer cell
BCCH frequency. This CU is only used on TS0, to receive access bursts sent by MS on the outer cell
frequency when they are in the inner cell area, it is therefore called in the following "RACH catcher".
In order to prevent interference , the RACH catcher transmitter is switched off.
To compensate for the propagation delay back and forth 33km to reach the outer cell border, the
receiver of the outer cell is delayed by 60 bit periods (1 bit period = 554 m).
Propagation conditions with multipath rays can cause important variations in the received level in the
inner cell, therefore it is possible that the outer cell frequency will be better received by a MS in the
inner cell. When the MS will send its access burst, the 60 bit delayed receiver of the outer cell will
prevent the correct decoding of the burst.. This is the reason for the RACH catcher.
The figure 5 gives a principle scheme of the extended cell configuration on TS 0. The uplink data
received on both frequencies of inner and outer cell are fed to the inner cell frame unit, which selects
the decodable data by means of the diversity algorithm. For other timeslots, the configuration is the
standard one.
As a consequence, the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT must be rerouted to the outer cell to be sent to
the mobile.
In order to achieve the special radio and link establishment procedure for the inner cell, a logical
relation must be created in the BSC database to link the inner cell to its outer cell.
This will enable proper addressing of the copied IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT CMD message from
the TCU controlling the inner cell BCCH FU to the TCU controlling the outer cell BCCH FU.
The extended cell feature does not allow frequency hopping, since there is only one TRX per cell, but
it makes use of the BTS internal switch (FQHU or STSE/P ) to combine the bursts received by two
different CUs.
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Additionally, the inner cell BTS configuration must obey strict rules, concerning the connections of
the BCCH CU and the RACH catcher in the BTS racks.

2.1.5.2 Configuration for G3.8 BTS.


The extended cell has up to 4 TRX in the inner cell and up to 4 TRX in the outer cell.
The function equivalent to the one realized by the RACH catcher with a G2 BTS is now handled by
software located in a TRE. The TRE, which supports the inner cell BCCH, can transmit on the inner
BCCH frequency on time slot 0 downlink, while the RACH on time slot 0 of this TRE is tuned on the
outer cell BCCH frequency. There is no RACH reception on the inner cell BCCH frequency in the
inner cell. Consequently the inner cell is barred, and can be entered only by a handover.
In case of BCCH/CCCH combined with SDCCH/4, only the part of time slot 0 dedicated to RACH is
tuned on outer BCCH frequency. The SDCCH/4 uplink in the inner extended cell are tuned on inner
cell BCCH frequency. Consequently if combined CCCH/SDCCH is used in the inner extended cell,
then the same configuration is required in outer extended cell, and vice-versa (ie same in both cells).
To compensate for the propagation delay back and forth 33km to reach the outer cell border, the
receiver of the outer cell is delayed by 60 bit periods (1 bit period = 554 m).
The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT must always be routed to the outer cell to be sent to the mobile.
The same procedure as specified for G2 BTS in the BSC can handle also this case.
The extended cell feature does not allow frequency hopping in this release.
The range extension kit is supported.

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TCU
inner

TCU
outer

0185_02.DOC
10/01/2000

FU inner

inner BTS

FU outer

outer BTS

normal
diversity

FHU
normal

FHU
diversity

Tx
Rx

Tx
Rx

Tx Rx

CU
BCCH inner

BCCH outer

CU RACH catcher

CU
BCCH outer

RACH

CCCH/C

RACH

RACH

CCCH/C

60 bits

figure 5 : configuration of the extended cell on timeslot 0 for a G2 BTS.

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3.1 Radio aspects


3.1.1 Antenna height
In order to provide line of sight ray path towards the MS , the outer cell antenna must be set
sufficiently high to overcome the earth curvature. The figure 6 shows the achieved range with either
a handheld MS or a MS antenna on a roof top. The diagram is based on a CCIR approved formula
(see [7]).

Extended cell range for varying BTS antenna height


70
65
60
Range (km)

55
50
45
40
35

250

240

230

220

210

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

30
50

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3. DETAILED BEHAVIOUR

BTS height (m)


MS height = 1.7 m

MS height = 7 m

figure 6 : maximum range due to earth curvature (ITU-R formula)

The figure 6 shows that for 70 km range with vehicle mounted mobiles, the minimum BTS antenna
height should be about 200m.
In this case the antenna must be installed on an elevated point , which can potentially limit the
possible sites for extended cell with wide coverage.

3.1.2 Antenna pattern


In order to achieve the necessary link budget (see annex A for link budget example), it may be
necessary to use a high gain antenna for the outer cell, which means also a highly directive antenna.
Therefore two major planning options are possible : either providing the maximum range for the
outer cell at the expense of a sectorized coverage, or providing omnidirectional coverage for both
cells at the expense of smaller range.
Note : In order to achieve the necessary range, the receiver in the outer cell should be equipped with
antenna diversity.
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Note : field trials in Australia with 400 m height omnidirectional antennas and 30W transmitters have
allowed to perform calls at 50 km distance over ground.
Due to higher outer cell antenna gain or BS power there are some places in the inner cell area where
the MS could receive the outer cell BCCH at a higher level than the inner cell BCCH. The contrary
may also happen : the inner cell is the best cell in the outer cell area.
3.1.2.1 For a G2 BTS:
In this last case, if an MS is camping on the inner cell when it is more than 35 kms far from the BTS,
it cannot access the network because the BTS will receive its CHANNEL REQUIRED messages too
late.
To avoid this misbehaviour, if the inner cell radio coverage is included in the outer cell radio
coverage (i.e. both cells are omnidirectional or both cells are directive), it is strongly recommended
to bar the inner cell.
If the inner cell is barred and the outer cell fails, the operator shall unbar the inner cell to provide
degraded operation mode.
3.1.2.2 For a G3.8 BTS:
The inner cell is always barred, the problem described above cannot occur. If the outer cell fails, the
only way for the operator to provide degraded operation mode is to reconfigure both cells as normal
cells and to unbar the inner cell (if the outer cell is still transmitting, it should then be barred).
As the inner cell is always barred, radio planning must ensure that the outer BCCH reception by the
MS in the inner cell range is good enough for the MS to camp on the outer cell when actually located
in the inner cell range.

3.1.3 TOA estimation in the inner cell frame unit


In the inner cell frame unit of G2 BTS, both signals coming from the CU BCCH and the RACH
catcher are processed together in order to estimate the TOA for access burst on the RACH.
In a G3.8 BTS, the TOA estimation is the same for an extended cell and a normal cell.
In all cases, the output of the TOA estimation function in the demodulator (see [9]) depends on the
burst type :
- for the access bursts, the TOA estimation is between 0 and 63 bit periods.
All negative values are transformed to 0.
- for the normal bursts the TOA estimation is from -3 to + 6 bit periods.

3.1.3.1 Access burst


G2/FU2 BTS
For the Access bursts, depending on the difference of TOA on both paths, either the TOA calculated
on the path with maximum SNR will be taken into account or the TOA of path A . In our case, this
path leads to the BCCH inner cell CU .
The measurement of the TOA for the RACH accesses will not be impaired by CU RACH catcher.
G3.8 BTS:

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As there is only one path for Access burst reception there is no specific problem for TOA
measurement.
3.1.3.2 Normal bursts
For the normal bursts, which are sent on TS 1 to 7, only received signal coming from the CU BCCH
inner cell is sent to the decoder. Therefore, the filtering of the TOA is not impacted.

3.1.4 Measurements
3.1.4.1 Case of G2 BTS.
For G2/FU2, in case of diversity, the RX_LEV values for both normal and diversity receiver path are
measured by the CU and averaged to yield the RX_LEV value reported to the BSC.
This is made only if both receiver path are declared valid by the frame unit interface software. This
will be the case for SDCCH channels mapped on TS 0.
For TS 1-7, the problem will not occur, since both CU BCCH inner cell receiver outputs are sent to
the FU (see section 3.3.1.) .
This means that the measured levels for Uplink reported to the BSC by the inner cell will be correct
on TS 1-7 and erroneous on TS0. Normally, the signal level received by the RACH catcher should be
lower (due to propagation attenuation) than the one received by the CU BCCH. Since the levels are
averaged in their natural values, the error on the measured RXLEV will be in the range [0 - 3 dB]. In
addition, the RACH catcher will measure a part of the uplink burst level in TS7 of the outer cell, when
it is in use, due to the 60 bit period delay in the outer cell synchronisation.
This could perturb the power control and handover algorithm, for the SDCCH channels if they are
mapped on TS0 (CCCH/C configuration used). It is therefore recommended to disable SDCCH
handover in the inner cell if the TS 0 is used for SDCCH , or TS 7 on the outer cell is not idle (see
section 3.1.6.).
For the RXQUAL measurement performed by the channel decoder, the effect of combining the soft
decision bits of both demodulating chains is yet undetermined.
Nethertheless, the sensitivity loss due to the combining of useful bits and noise is about 1 dB (see
[10]).
The possible quality degradation on SDCCH can therefore be considered a minor issue.
3.1.4.2 Case of G3.8 BTS.
There is only one demodulation chain for the BCCH TRX of the extended inner cell, so the potential
problem considered with a G2 BTS is not relevant for a G3.8 BTS.
3.1.5 Baseband interference
3.1.5.1 Case of G2 BTS.
There is a risk of uplink interference on TS0 in the inner cell because both signals received by CU
BCCH and RACH catcher are baseband added before channel decoding.
This effect will impair the uplink quality but should not affect the perceived quality of speech.
Measurements done by connecting random noise to one demodulator input have shown a
degradation of about 1 to 2 dB of the sensitivity (defined as received level to have a required BER).

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3.1.5.2 Case of G3.8 BTS.


There is only one demodulation chain for the BCCH TRX of the extended inner cell, so the potential
problem considered with a G2 BTS is not relevant for a G3.8 BTS.

3.1.6 RF Interference
This section is relevant for both G2 BTS and G3.8 BTS.
There is a potential for uplink RF interference in the inner cell on TS0 when a call is going on in the
outer cell on timeslot 7.
The figure 7 shows the combination of the Access burst received in the inner cell on frequency
BCCH outer cell and speech burst from a call on the outer cell.
It is possible that an on-going call on TS7 in the outer cell will jam the access burst of MS in the inner
cell.

BCCH outer
TS7

Outer cell

TSO

NB
TSO

60 bits

BCCH outer

Inner cell

RACH
figure 7 : potential interference from outer cell on inner cell RACH

In this release, in order to overcome the problem, the TS7 of the outer cell is always set to IDLE
configuration so that it is never allocated.

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3.2 Telecom aspects

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3.2.1 Synchronisation
In order to have an extended cell mechanism, two cells are needed : the first one extends from 0 to
35km and the second one from 33 to maximum 70 km .
In order to compensate for the propagation delay to reach the outer cell (back and forth), the
reception window in the outer cell is delayed by 60 bit periods (221.5 s), corresponding to 33 km.
The inner and outer BTS are synchronised, the inner cell BTS being the master and the outer BTS
the slave. The delay in the receiver of the outer cell is introduced by delaying by 60 bit periods the
entire frame clock of the outer BTS.
In order to have a synchronous BCCH transmission for the inner cell and the outer cell (to catch
correctly the access bursts in the RACH catcher), the transmitter timing in the outer cell is advanced
by 60 bit periods.
For a G2 BTS:
With the current hardware it is impossible to only delay the receiver, this forces to use two different
BTS for the extended cell.
The synchronisation of the BTS is shown on figure 10.
For a G3.8 BTS:
The extended inner cell and extended outer cell are located in the same BTS.
3.2.2 Paging procedure
There is no impact of the extended cell on the paging procedure.
In order to set up a call requested by the network side, the paging procedure is used to make the
destinating MS switch from idle to connected mode (see [5]). This procedure is purely controlled by
the MSC (also the repetition of the paging) and the role of the BSS is mainly to distribute the paging
message according to MSC instructions (by LAI or list of cells).
The MS in the outer cell will always select the outer cell BCCH frequency.
In the inner cell of a G2 BTS, it is possible that in some places the BCCH outer cell frequency be
preferred to BCCH inner cell frequency because it is received at a higher level due to different radio
propagation conditions. With a G3.8 BTS, the MS will always camp on the outer cell.
The principle of the paging procedure is to send a paging message in all cells belonging to the
location area in which the mobile is currently registered.
It is recommended to set the inner and outer cell in the same location area, since strong variations in
the signal level (e.g. coming from side lobes of a directive outer cell antenna) may cause high
location updating rate.
3.2.3 Radio and link establishment
3.2.3.1 G2 BTS case:
The reason for the RACH catcher is that in the inner cell (including the overlap area), the MS may
send a CHANNEL REQUEST on either BCCH inner cell or BCCH outer cell frequency. As there is no
way to know on which frequency this message is received in the inner cell frame unit, it implies that
the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT must be sent on both frequencies, in order to reach successfully the
MS.
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Since there may be a potential for MS blocking if two consecutive IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT are
received by a MS camped on the BCCH outer frequency in the overlap zone, the BSC does not copy
the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND messages to the outer cell when the MS is in the
overlap area.
In this way, there are always two IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT messages sent over the air on two
different frequency. Only one message is listened to by the MS.
Remark : The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is copied whatever the BTS_TEL state or the
barring status of the outer cell.
3.2.3.2 G3.8 BTS case.
The scenario designed for the G2 BTS case can be applied to the G3.8 BTS case. The MS sends
CHANNEL REQUEST messages only on the outer BCCH frequency and will only receive
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT messages transmitted on outer BCCH frequency.

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3.2.3.3 Radio and link establishment in the inner cell


3.2.3.3.1 Generalities
The required behaviour of the BSC is the same with a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS.
When a MS wants to establish a radio connection with the infrastructure, it has to request a
dedicated channel. This is done by sending on a common channel (RACH) a access burst which
contains a request reference and the reason for the request.
The multiple access used on the RACH is slotted ALOHA where the instants for burst transmission
are defined by the broadcast of synchronisation information by the BTS. These information are
broadcast on the BCCH frequency on TS 0.
Among the possible BCCH frequencies, the MS will use the one which has the best reception level.
The BCCH of the inner and outer cell are broadcast simultaneously.
As the outer cell can be possibly received at a higher level than the inner cell ( e.g. due to different
antenna gain), the MS may camp on the outer cell , even when it is in the inner cell area.
G2 BTS case:
When the MS in the inner cell will try to establish a radio connection, he will send an access
burst on either BCCH inner cell or BCCH outer cell frequency. In both cases, these bursts will
be successfully received in the inner cell frame unit.
G3.8 BTS case:
Due to the barring of the inner cell, the MS will only send Access burst on the outer BCCH
frequency.
Note : Since the BSIC of the two cells are the same, the decoding of the access bursts sent on
either BCCH frequencies is possible in the inner cell frame unit .
For a G2 BTS, the equipment connection and the synchronisation of the air interfaces for the
extended cell are indicated on figures Erreur! Signet non dfini. and 10. The case represented
corresponds to both inner and outer CCCH in the combined configuration and the outer cell FU
equipped for diversity.
For a G3 BTS, all functions are performed by the TRE, so figure 8 is not relevant. The
synchronisation presented on figure 9 is valid.

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BSC

internal
switch

normal

Tx

Rx

TCU
FU inner

CU
BCCH inner

diversity

inner

Tx

Rx

CU RACH catcher

Tx off

STSE
BCCH outer
inner BTS

STSR

normal

Tx

Rx
CU

TCU
FU outer
outer

diversity

Tx

Rx

BCCH outer

outer BTS

data links
clock links

figure 8 : functional scheme


figure 9 : functional scheme for extended cell with CCCH/combined configuration in a G2 BTS

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Air Interface Synchronisation

CCCH/C
RACH

DL
UL

BCCH inner cell


frequency

RACH

DL
UL

BCCH outer cell


frequency

7 TCH

Inner cell

outer cell

CCCH/C
RACH

7 TCH

DL
UL

BCCH outer cell


frequency

60 bits
figure 10 : air interface synchronisation for extended cell

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3.2.3.3.2 MS camping on inner cell


This case is possible only with a G2 BTS. With a G3.8 BTS, the inner cell is barred, the MS cannot
camp on the inner cell, this scenario will never occur. However, to have the same software in the
BSC to controll a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS, the same BSC behaviour can be implemented with the
G3.8 BTS with the BCCH TRE inner/outer instead of FU inner/outer.

imm ass cmd


5
chan reqd
2
TCU
inner
imm

BSC ass

6'

3
chan act
4
chan act ack

6
imm ass
normal
FU inner diversity

UA
8
SABM 7
1
chan req

MS camped on
inner cell

CU2
BCCH outer

inner BTS

if TA < 60

CU1
BCCH inner

cmd

normal

TCU
outer

FU outer

diversity

CU1
BCCH outer
The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT is lost

imm ass

outer BTS
figure 11 : RF link establishment for the inner cell, MS camping on inner cell . G2 BTS case.

(1)

The MS camping on the inner cell will send access bursts on the RACH. These bursts will be
received by CU BCCH inner cell, demodulated and decoded and finally sent to the FU.

(2)
After having received a CHANNEL REQUEST from a MS on BCCH inner cell or frequency,
the
inner cell FU will send a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to
the BSC containing the
random
reference sent by the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent
over the air
and the measured TOA.
(3)
The TCU controlling this frame unit will allocate an SDCCH subchannel to the transaction
and ask
the BTS to activate this subchannel.
(4)
is

The BTS will activate the requested channel and send back an acknowledgement, once this
done.

(5)
The TCU will then send in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND the designation of
the
channel (allocated on the BCCH inner cell frequency). If the timing advance IE is smaller
than 60,
the message is also copied to the TCU controlling the outer cell BCCH.
(6)

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH.
In order to address the assignment message correctly the random reference and the frame
number when the access was made are sent back to the mobile.

(6')
The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message sent over the air by the outer cell BTS is lost,
because
the MS does not listen to that frequency.
(7)
The mobile will check its random reference and frame number before taking the message
into
account. It will then switch its transceiver to the inner cell BCCH frequency and send
repeatedly
an SABM frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS.
(8)
The BTS will
frame sent on the

acknowledge the establishment of the LapDm link to the MS with an UA


SDCCH allocated to the MS.
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3.2.3.3.3 MS camping on the outer cell

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This case can happen with a G2 BTS and a G3.8 BTS.


Figure 11 shows the message flow inside a G2 BTS. With a G3.8 BTS, the message flow on the
Abis and radio interfaces is the same but the function inside the BTS are performed by the TRE.

imm ass cmd


imm ass
chan reqd
2
TCU
inner
imm 5

BSC ass

3
chan act
4
chan act ack

if TA < 60

FU inner

6'

normal
diversity

CU1
BCCH inner

CU2
BCCH outer

inner BTS

SABM
7
8
UA
chan req
1

MS camped on
outer cell

cmd

TCU
outer

FU outer

normal
diversity

CU1
BCCH outer
6
imm ass

outer BTS
figure 12 : RF link establishment for the inner cell, MS camping on outer cell

(1)

The MS camping on the outer cell will send access bursts on the RACH on outer cell BCCH
frequency. These bursts will be received sucessfully in the inner cell by the CU RACH
catcherand FU for a G2 BTS, or by the inner cell BCCH TRE for a G3.8 BTS.In the outer
cell, the access burst arrive too early to be successfully decoded (see fig 10).

(2)

After having received a CHANNEL REQUEST from a MS on BCCH outer cell frequency,
the inner cell frame unit (for a G2 BTS) or the inner cell BCCH TRE (for a G3.8 BTS) will
send a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the random reference sent by
the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent over the air and the
measured TOA.

(3)

The TCU controlling this FU (G2 BTS) or TRE (G3.8 BTS) will allocate an SDCCH
subchannel to the transaction in the inner cell and ask the BTS to activate this subchannel.

(4)

The BTS will activate the requested channel and send back and acknowledgement, once this
is done.

(5)

The TCU will then send in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND the designation of
the channel ). The message will be sent to the inner cell frame unit (G2 BTS) or the inner
cell BCCH TRE .
The TCU controlling the inner cell BCCH will then send a copy of the message to the
TCU handling the BCCH of the outer cell. This is done if and only if the timing
advance IE included in the CHANNEL REQUIRED is smaller than 60, thus indicating
that the MS is strictly in the inner cell (in order to avoid that the MS receives two
Immediate Assignment messages when located in the overlap zone).
The TCU controlling the outer cell BCCH will forward the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
COMMAND to the outer cell frame unit (G2 BTS) or outer cell BCCH TRE (G3.8 BTS).

(6)

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH of the
outer cell.
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(6')

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message sent by the inner cell is lost, because the MS
listens to the outer cell frequency.

(7)

The mobile will switch its transceiver to the inner cell BCCH frequency and send repeatedly
an SABM frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS.

(8)

The BTS will acknowledge the establishment of the LapDm link to the MS with a UA frame
sent on the SDCCH allocated to the MS.

Note : The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT is sent to the mobile on both the inner cell and the outer cell
BCCH frequencies, although only the one sent on the outer cell BCCH frequency is useful.

3.2.3.4 Radio and link establishment in the outer cell


3.2.3.4.1 Generalities
The required behaviour of the BSC is the same with a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS.
The MS located in the outer cell area (strictly) are assumed to camp on the outer cell, because of
different antenna patterns or BCCH emission power in the inner cell and outer cell BTS or inner cell
barring
(see remark in 3.1.2.).
When the MS in the outer cell will try to establish a radio connection, he will send an access burst on
BCCH outer cell frequency.
The delay in the outer cell receiver compensates the back and forth propagation time of the radio
waves to the border of the outer cell.
For all layers (starting from layer 1), the fact of being an extended outer cell is
transparent.

completely

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3.2.3.4.2 Detailed Behaviour


Figure 12 shows the message flow inside a G2 BTS. With a G3.8 BTS, the message flow on the
Abis and radio interfaces is the same but the function inside the BTS are performed by the TRE.

TCU
inner

BSC
chan reqd
2
TCU
outer

3
chan act

FU outer

normal
diversity

4
chan act ack
5
imm ass cmd

outer BTS

chan req
CU1
BCCH outer

1
6
imm ass
SABM
7
UA

MS camped on
outer cell

figure 13 : RF link establishment for the inner cell, MS camping on outer cell . G2 BTS.

(1)

The MS in the outer cell will send access bursts on the RACH of the outer cell. These bursts
will be succesfully received by the CU/FU of the outer cell BCCH (for a G2 BTS) or by the
outer cell BCCH TRE (for a G3.8 BTS), . In the inner cell, the access burst arrive too late to
be successfully decoded (see fig 10).

(2)

After having successfully decoded an access burst, the outer cell frame unit (G2 BTS) or
TRE (G3.8 BTS) will send a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the
random reference sent by the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent
over the air and the measured TOA.

(3)

The TCU controlling this frame unit (G2 BTS) or TRE (G3.8 BTS) will allocate an SDCCH
subchannel to the transaction and ask the BTS to activate this subchannel.

(4)

The BTS will activate the requested channel and send back an acknowledgement, once this
is done.

(5)

The TCU will then send the designation of the channel in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
COMMAND.

(6)

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH of the
outer cell.

(7)

The mobile will switch its transceiver to the required channel and send repeatedly an SABM
frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS.

(8)

Once the contention resolution procedure has been successfully completed, the BTS will
acknowledge the establishment of the LAPDm link to the MS with a UA frame sent on the
SDCCH allocated to the MS.

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3.2.3.5 Radio and link establishment in the overlap zone

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3.2.3.5.1 Generalities
The required behaviour of the BSC is the same with a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS.
The delay of the outer cell receiver is equal to 60 bit periods, and the maximum allowable timing
advance in the inner cell before handover to the outer cell is 62.
However, the inner cell BTS is able to decode access and normal bursts with a TOA up to 69, which
is clipped to 63.
There is thus some overlap between the maximum time of arrival of the inner cell and the minimum
time of arival of the outer cell. The figure 14 shows a possible example in the case of
omnidirectional extended cell.

outer cell
TOA = 30

TOA = 69
inner cell

TA = 0

overlap zone

figure 14 : overlap zone in the extended cell

Due to this the accesses made by the MS on the RACH of the outer cell will be successfully decoded
in both cells.
In order to avoid any MS misbehaviour in case of receiving two consecutive IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT messages at a short interval, the TCU controlling the inner cell FU (G2 BTS) or the
inner cell BCCH TRE (G3.8 BTS) will not copy to the outer cell TCU the IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND for the CHANNEL REQUIRED messages which have a TOA 60.

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3.2.3.5.2 MS camping on the inner cell


This case is possible only with a G2 BTS. With a G3.8 BTS, the inner cell is barred, the MS cannot
camp on the inner cell, this scenario will never occur.However, to have the same software in the
BSC to controll a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS, the same BSC behaviour can be implemented with the
G3.8 BTS with the BCCH TRE inner/outer instead of FU inner/outer.

imm ass cmd


5
chan reqd
2
TCU
inner

3
chan act

6
imm ass
normal
FU inner diversity

4
chan act ack

BSC

inner BTS

TCU

FU outer

normal
diversity

outer

CU1
BCCH inner

chan req
1
7
SABM
8
UA

CU2
BCCH outer
MS camped on
inner cell
CU1
BCCH outer

outer BTS
figure 15 : RF link establishment for the overlap zone, MS camping on inner cell

(1)

The MS camping on the inner cell will send access bursts on the RACH. These bursts will be
received by CU BCCH inner cell, demodulated and decoded and finally sent to the FU.

(2)

After having received a CHANNEL REQUEST, the inner cell frame unit will send a
CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the random reference sent by the
mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent over the air and the measured
TOA.

(3)

The TCU controlling this frame unit will allocate an SDCCH subchannel to the transaction
and ask the BTS to activate this subchannel.

(4)

The BTS will activate the requested channel and send back and acknowledgement, once this
is done.

(5)

The TCU will then send in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND the designation of
the channel (allocated on the BCCH inner cell frequency). Because the Access Delay IE
included in the CHANNEL REQUIRED message has a value greater than 60, the inner
cell TCU will not send a copy of the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT command to the outer
cell TCU.

(6)

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH.
In order to address the assignment message correctly the random reference and the frame
number when the access was made are sent back to the mobile.

(7)

The mobile will check its random reference and frame number before taking the message
into account. It will then switch its transceiver to the inner cell BCCH frequency and send
repeatedly an SABM frame to establish the layer 2 connection with the BTS.

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Once the contention resolution procedure has been successfully completed, the BTS will
acknowledge the establishment of the LAPDm link to the MS with an UA frame sent on the
SDCCH allocated to the MS.

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(8)

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3.2.3.5.3 MS camping on the outer cell


Figure 15 shows the message flow inside a G2 BTS. With a G3.8 BTS, the message flow on the
Abis and radio interfaces is the same but the function inside the BTS are performed by the TRE.

imm ass cmd


5
chan reqd
2
TCU
inner

3
chan act
4
chan act ack

BSC

inner BTS

TCU
outer

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT


is lost

6'
imm ass
normal
FU inner diversity

CU1
BCCH inner

CU2
BCCH outer

chan req
1
MS camped on
outer cell

imm ass cmd


5
chan reqd
2
FU outer

normal
diversity

3
chan act
4
chan act ack

CU1
BCCH outer

chan req
1
6
imm ass
7
SABM
8
UA

outer BTS
figure 16 : RF link establishment for the overlap zone, MS camping on outer cell

(1)

The MS camping on the outer cell will send access bursts on the RACH. These bursts will be
received by CU BCCH outer cell and CU RACH catcher for a G2 BTS. These bursts will be
received by the inner cell BCCH TRE and outer cell BCCH TRE for a G3.8 BTS.

(2)

After having decoded an access burst, the inner cell and outer cell frame units (G2 BTS) or
TRE (G3.8 BTS) will send a CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the BSC containing the
random reference sent by the mobile, the TDMA frame number when the message was sent
over the air and the measured TOA..

(3)

Each TCU controlling the frame unit/TRE having BCCH will allocate an SDCCH subchannel
to the transaction and ask the BTS to activate this subchannel.

(4)

The BTS will activate the requested channel and send back and acknowledgement, once this
is done.

(5)

The TCU will then send in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND the designation of
the channel . Because the Access Delay IE included in the CHANNEL REQUIRED
message has a value greater than 60, the inner cell TCU will not send a copy of the
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT command to the outer cell TCU.

(6)

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is sent over the air to the MS on the AGCH of
both inner and outer cell.
In order to address the assignment message correctly the random reference and the frame
number when the access was made are sent back to the mobile.

(6')

The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message is lost on the inner cell air interface, because the
MS does not listen to that frequency.

(7)

The mobile will get the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNEMENT on the BCCH outer cell frequency,
check its random reference and frame number before taking the message into account. It will
then switch to the designated channel and send repeatedly an SABM frame to establish the
layer 2 connection with the BTS.

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(8)
The BTS will acknowledge the establishment of the LapDm link to the MS with a UA frame
sent on the SDCCH allocated to the MS.

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3.2.3.6 Directed Retry


The required behaviour of the BSC is the same with a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS.
For protocol aspects it should be referred to [3] and for system behaviour to [2]
The Directed retry consists of a SDCCH to TCH intercell handover that is triggered when a call is
queued, waiting for a TCH to become free.
Two types of behaviour are possible (possibly both at the same time) :
- Directed Retry on handover alarms
- Directed Retry on detection of a possible target cell (this is called Forced Directed Retry).
In the first case the directed retry obeys the same rules as an intercell handover : once a handover
cause has raised an alarm, the candidate cell evaluation process produces a list of ranked cells
(GRADE or ORDER) and the first cell in the list which has a free TCH is chosen to attempt the
Directed Retry.
This process should function correctly in the extended cell, since it follows the special rules applied
for handover (see section 3.4.).
In the second case, the forced directed retry alarm is raised each time a neighbour cell is received at
a sufficient level by the MS. Then a special candidate evaluation process only takes into account the
Power Budget and the number of free channels in the destinating cell. In this case, there is no
checking that the necessary range for handover has been reached.
In order to avoid call terminations due to directed retry into the inner or outer cell within an incorrect
distance range it is recommended to disable the forced directed retry towards the inner and the
outer cell. For this purpose, the parameter Freellevel_DR(n) is set to the maximum value (255) for
the inner and the outer cell. This is done automatically at the OMC-R, at configuration time.

3.2.3.7 Handover
The required behaviour of the BSC is the same with a G2 BTS or a G3.8 BTS.
The principle of the overlap area is to provide a hysteresis zone for handover between the inner and
outer cells. A handover from the inner to the outer cell will only be triggered if the timing advance
has reached 63. A handover from the outer cell to the inner cell will only be triggered if the timing
advance has reached 0.
3.2.3.7.1 Inner cell to outer cell
From the inner cell to the outer cell , the handover alarm is only triggered by the handover cause too
long MS-BS distance (refer to [2]).
When this cause is triggered the extended outer cell is always a candidate cell.
However the operator setting of the handover parameters must insure that this cause is only
triggered when the distance from the serving inner cell BTS is greater than the limit of the overlap
zone (TA > 62) by setting U_TIME_ADVANCE to 62.
In order to avoid the extended outer cell to be filtered by the filtering process the flag
EN_PBGT_FILTERING must be set to DISABLE.
The candidate cell evaluation process is recommended to be the GRADE mode.
3.2.3.7.2 Outer cell to inner cell
In the same way, from the outer cell to the inner cell , the handover alarm is only triggered by the
handover cause too short MS-BS distance (refer to [2]).
When this cause is triggered the extended inner cell is always a candidate cell.
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However the operator setting of the handover parameters must insure that this cause is only
triggered when the timing advance applied by the mobile reaches by setting L_TIME_ADVANCE to
0.
In order to avoid the extended inner cell to be filtered by the filtering process the flag
EN_PBGT_FILTERING must be set to DISABLE.
The candidate cell evaluation process is recommended to be the GRADE mode.

3.2.3.7.3 inner or outer cell to other cell


The setting of the handover parameter does not prevent any handover cause to trigger an alarm for
a handover towards a third cell.
In addition, if the outer or inner cell is always present in the candidate cell evaluation, the evaluation
of the GRADE parameter is not biased by the setting of the handover parameter for the inner and
outer cell.
It is possible to use exactly the same rules and parameters for handover towards a third cell as in the
macrocellular normal cases.

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3.3 Hardware and firmware aspects


The extended cell feature is supported by G2 BTS and G3.8 BTS. This section is relevant only for
the G2 BTS. In the G3.8 BTS, the function equivalent to the one realized by the RACH catcher with
a G2 BTS is now handled by software located in a TRE.
3.3.1 Cross Connection in the BTS inner cell
3.3.1.1

FHU asymmetric configuration

The principle of the cross connection is that received bursts by BCCH CU and RACH catcher are
transmitted to the FU on TS0. On other timeslots, the RACH catcher bursts are not transmitted to the
FU and there is no interference caused by this additional CU.
In order to connect both CU BCCH and RACH catcher to the FU on TS0 and to connect only CU
BCCH to the FU on timeslots 1-7 , the logical cabling indicated on figure 17 is be done, using
asymmetrical FHU configuration..
The board performing the FHU functionnality is the STSE/P (G2 BTS). The different configuration for
both FHU is achieved by means of two different radio definitions per timeslot for both FHU. They are
computed by the OMU on basis ot the RACH catcher ARFN and on the CU,ARFN list.
The OMU determines the CU which is the RACH catcher (here shown in position of CU2) with these
two information and then gives the required radio definition for each FHU.

normal
FU inner

TS 0-7

n
CU BCCH

diversity

FHU
normal
16

TS 0

1
2

TS 1-7
FHU
redundant

n
RACH catcher
r

16
figure 17 : connection scheme for the inner BTS

This unsymmetric layout enables antenna diversity to be operated on timeslots 1-7 for the inner cell.
Remark : This unusual data flow in the BTS has no consequence on the FU/CU loop mechanism,
since on TS 1-7, both normal and diversity paths are used in the exchange between FU and CU
BCCH (the FU/CU loop mechanism functions on a per frame basis).
Note : The RACH catcher may be installed on any position in the BTS, this will be indicated to the
OMU by means of CU RACH catcher ARFN + CU, ARFN list.

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3.3.1.2 Manual extended cell configuration


The STSE/P board shall have a number of dip-switches enabling to configure it for the extended cell
mode. When in the extended cell mode and in the master clock mode, the STSE/P should make the
connections as indicated in the section 3.3.1.1.
Additionally , the board shall have a dip switch to configure its logical recabling for the CU RACH
catcher in position 2 or 3.

3.3.2 Advance in the transmitter timing


The compensation of the supplementary propagation delay back and to the outer cell inner limit is
performed by delaying by a fixed value of 60 bits the receiver of the outer cell BTS.
To achieve this, the whole outer BTS clock is first delayed by 60 bits and the transmitter timing is
advanced by the same value to compensate for this shift.
Thi s function requires a change in the transmitter firmware, which becomes then another hardware
variant for the extended cell.
This modification will be built in (not changeable by Q1 command) and only the status of the Tx will
be readable by the OMU (either normal or advanced) in order to perform consistency checking.
3.3.3 Synchronisation delay
In the slave configuration for the G2 BTS four timing signal are sent to both STSR :
- the octal bit clock
- the frame clock (synchronised to the octal bit clock)
- the frame number (an asynchronous signal)
- the synthesiser clock at 13 MHz
The necessary 480 octal bit period delay must be introduced directly in the STSR board firmware, as
an option that can be set by a dip-switch or an OMU Q1 command, just like the clock repeater
function.

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4. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
For possible future improvements, see ref [11].
SEQ18INCORPORERFUSIONFORMATSEQ18
5. RELEASE CHANGES
REALEASE 4
This feature is new for Release 4.
RELEASE 4 to 5
No change.
RELEASE 5 to 6
Change in the way of setting the handover parameters.
RELEASE 6.2
Solution adapted to G3.8 BTS, with following improvements with G3.8 BTS only:
The extended inner cell and extended outer cell are in the same BTS.
The extended inner cell and extended outer cell can each support up to 4 TRX.
With a G3.8 BTS, the inner cell shall always be barred.
6. FEATURES
Release 4
MFD/4/7.2 Extended cell radius.
Release 6
TFD 11.31: General handover algorithms improvements.
Release 6.2:
[11] 3BK 10204 01510 DTZZA Improvement to BTS G2 Extended Cell Solution on Evolium BTS.

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7. GLOSSARY
BCCH
Broadcast Common Control Channel
BSC
Base Station Controller
BTS
Base Transceiver Station
BSIC
Base Station Identity Code
CU
Carrier Unit
CCCH
Common Control Channel
DLS
Data Load Segment
FDMA
Frequency Division Multiple Access
FOS
Faulty Out of Service
FQHU
Frequency Hopping Unit
FHI
Frequency Hopping Interface
FHU
Frequency Hopping Unit, designs STSE, STSR and STSP boards(G2)
FU
Frame Unit
FUIF
Frame Unit Interface
LAI
Location Area Identity
LapDm
Link Access Protocol for D access mobile
MCLU
Master Clock Unit
MCLR
Master Clock Repeater
MS
Mobile Station
OPR
Operator out of service
RACH
Random Access Channel
RF
Radio Frequency
RTS
Radio Time Slot
SNR
Signal to Noise Ratio
STSE/P
Station Unit Timing and Switching Entity
STSR
Station Unit Timing and Switching Repeater
TA
Timing Advance
TOA
Time Of Arrival
TCU
Terminal Control Unit
TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access
TRE
Transmission Reception Equipment
TS
Timeslot
TSC
Training Sequence Code
WBC
Wide Band Combiner
ALOHA
Multiple access protocol based on statistical access and control of collision with
ACK/NACK mechanism. In the slotted ALOHA protocol, the accesses to the media can only occur at
given synchronised instants called slots.

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8. APPENDIX A : LINK BUDGET FOR THE EXTENDED CELL


Power budget for GSM 8W mobile , fixed installation in a car or a boat, 30 W BTS with
omnidirectional antenna of 200 m height.
TX
RF output power at antenna feeder (dBm)
Cable + connector
Antenna gain
EIRP (dBm)

MS to BTS
39
-2
+4.5
41.5

BTS to MS
45
-3
+12
54

RX
RF input power min (dBm)
Cable + connector
Antenna gain
Diversity gain
Log normal margin
Interference margin
Minimum required received isotropic power
(dBm)

BTS to MS
-104
+2
-4.5
0
+5
+3
-98.5

MS to BTS
-104
+3
-12
-3
+5
+3
-108

The maximum allowed propagation path loss is :


- Uplink : 149.5
- Downlink :152.5
The critical path is the uplink path.
In a rural open environment (desert) the path loss is : Loss = 90.7 + 31.8 log d [1]
This means that the range is 70 km.
In a rural quasi open environment (country side) the path loss is : Loss = 95.7 + 31.8 log d
This means that the range is about 50 km.
If a highly directive antenna was used, the gain could be increased to about 18 dB. In quasi open
environment the range would be increase to 70 km (75 km for pure link budget).
These estimations are purely indicative and should not serve as a reference for network planning.

END OF DOCUMENT

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