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Chapter 5 :

Energy and chemical


changes

BAB 5 :
TENAGA DAN
PERUBAHAN KIMIA

Terdapat dua jenis


perubahan ;
A. Perubahan Kimia
B. Perubahan Fizik

Perubahan Fizik
Melibatkan perubahan sifat fizik
seperti keadaan,bentuk dan saiz
bahan.
Proses adalah berbalik
Tiada bahan baru terbentuk
Eg :
Peleburan ais
Pemanasan lilin
Penghabluran hablur iodin
Penghabluran larutan teou
kuprum(II)sulfat
Pendidihan air

Perubahan Kimia
Perubahan yang menghasilkan bahan
baru yang mempunyai sifat dan
komposisi kimia yang berlainan
daripada
bahan asal.
Proses adalah tidak berbalik
Eg :
Pengaratan besi
mengoreng telur
Pembakaran pita magnesium
Pemanasan serbuk kuprum(II) karbonat

Perubahan Fizik Versus Perubahan Kimia


Perubahan Fizik
Bahan tidak berubah secara
kimia,hanya berlaku
perubahan dari segi fizikal
sahaja.

Perubahan Kimia
Bahan berubah secara kimia dan
fizikal

Tidak menghasilkanMenghasilkan benda


baru
benda baru

Do not change the chemicalNew substance have different


Chemical Properties from the
nature of substances
original substances

Proses berbalik

Proses Tidak berbalik

Perubahan haba dalam


tindakbalas kimia
Tindakbalas kimia boleh dikelaskan
kepada :

A. Tindakbalas eksotemik
B. Tindakbalas endotemik

Tindakbalas Eksotermik

Haba dibebaskan ke persekitan


Ini menyebabkan suhu persekitaran meningkat
Tindakbalas Endotemik

Haba diserap dari persekitaran


Ini menyebabkan suhu persekitaran menurun

Experiment PEKA
Title : Exothermic and Endothemic Reactions

Aim : To Study the exothermic and endothemic reaction

Hypothesis : Different type of chemical reactions


cause changes in temperature

Variables :
a) that is kept constant :
b) that is manipulated :
c) that responds :.

Material : Sodium hydroxide crystals, ammonium


chloride powder, water
Apparatus : Test tube, thermometer and spatula

Procedure :
3
1. Approximately 5 cm of distilled water is poure
a test tube.
2. A few sodium hydroxide crystal are added into
test tube using spatula.
3. A thermometer is dipped into the mixture
4. After a few minutes, the temperature on the
thermometer is recorded in the table below
5. The outer wall of the test tube is touched
6. The experiment is repeated by using ammoniu
chloride powder.

Result :

Material

Sodium
hydroxide
Crystals with
Distilled water
Ammonium
Chloride
Powder with
Distilled water

Initial
Final
Temperature Temperature Changes in
Of substancesOf substances Temperature
(C)
(C)
(C)

Outer wall
Of test tube

Analysis :

1. When sodium hydroxide crystals is added to dist


water heat is released and exothermic reaction a
occurred.
2 When ammonium chloride powder is added to dis
water heat is absorbed and endothemic reaction a
occurred.
3. Hypothesis be accepted

Proses industri yang melibatkan


perubahan haba
A.Proses Haber - menghasilkan
ammonia secara
industri
B.Proses Sentuh menghasilkan asid
sulfurik secara
industri

Conclusion :

A. Exothermic reaction is a chemic


reaction that involve the increa
in temperature
B. Endothermic reaction is a chem
reaction that involve the decrea
in temperature

Proses Haber

produces ammonia from the reaction between


hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas in a ratio of
3:1

A mixture of the two gases is passed over a


catalyst (iron) at temperature of 450 - 50
and pressure of 200 atmospheres
Nitrogen

+ Hydrogen

Proses Haber

menghasilkan ammonia daripada tindakbalas a


gas hidrogen and gas nitrogen dalam nisbah
3:1

Campuran antara dua gas bertindakbalas denga


mangkin(iron) pada suhu of 450 - 500 C
dan tekanaan 200 atmospheres
Nitrogen

+ Hydrogen

THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

Most
reactive

The higher metal in the


series, the more reactive
it is

The lower metal in the


series, the less reactive
it is

THE
REACTIVITY
SERIES logam
OF METALS
Siri
kereaktifan
Semakin tinggi logam
semakin reaktif
Most
reactive

Semakin rendah logan


semakin kurang reaktif

Metal s reactivity with water


Metal + Water

Metal hydroxide + hydro

Eg : Potassium + Water

Potassium hydrox
+ Hydrogen gas

Metal s reactivity with Acids


Metal + Acids
Salt + hydrogen
Eg: Zinc + Sulphuric acid
Zinc
Sulphate +
Hydrogen

Kereaktifan logam dengan air


Logam + Air

Logam hydroxide + hydr

Eg : Potassium + Air

Potassium hydroxi
+ Hydrogen gas

Kereaktifan logam dengan


asid + Asid
Logam
Garam + hydrogen
Eg: Zinc + Asid Sulfurik
Sulphate +

Zinc
Hydrogen

Kereaktifan Logam dengan Oksigen


Metal + oxygen
Eg : Iron + Oxygen

Metal Oxygen
Iron Oxide

Metals Reactivity with Oxygen


Metal + oxygen
Eg : Iron + Oxygen

Metal Oxygen
Iron Oxide

Siri Kereaktifan
Logam
THE REACTIVITY
SERIES
OF METALS
Bertindakbalas sangat aktif
dengan air,asid dan oksigen
Most
reactive
Tindak balas aktif

Tiada tindak balas

Penentuan Kereaktifan Logam Menggunakan Tindakbalas


Dengan Oksigen
Glass wool
(Wul kaca)

Metal filling
(Serbuk logam)

Potassium manganate (VII)


(Kalium mangganat (VII))

Heat (Panaskan)

Heat (Panaskan)

DIAGRAM 2

Bahan

Observation

Kuprum

Tiada tindakbalas

Zinc

Terbakar dengan nyalaan


sederhana

Magnesium
Aluminium

Terbakar dengan nyalaan


sangat terang
Terbakar dengan nyalaan
terang

Kesimpulan turutan menaik : Magnesium, Aluminium,Zinc dan kup


dan Zinc

The Position of Carbon in the Reactivity Series o


Metals
Mixture
Carbon + copper (II)
oxide
Carbon + Zinc oxide

Observation
Burns with a bright flame

Glows brightly

Carbon + Magnesium oxide No change even when heated


for a long time
No change even when
Carbon + Aluminium oxide heated for a long time

Conclusion : Carbon is situated between alumin


and Zinc

Kepentingan siri kereaktifan logam


membolehkan kita membandingkan
kecergasan tindakbalas sesuatu
logam
Meramal sama ada tindakbalas
berlaku atau tidak
Menentukan kaedah pengestrakan
logam

Method of extraction
Electrolysis of the molten
ore

Most
reactive

Heating mixture of ore and


carbon

Heating ore in air

Kaedah Pengestrakkan
Method
of extraction

Electrolysis logam tulen

Most
reactive

Pemanasan campuran logam


tulen

Pemanasan diudara

Pengestrakan Timah
Bijih timah(kasiterit) wujud dalam bentuk timah oksida
1.Timah oksida dipanggang untuk
menyingkirkan kotoran seperti
sulfur dan arsenik.
2. Timah oksida dicampurkan dengan karbon
dan batu kapur dan dimasukkan dalam relau
panas.
3. Hasil yang didapati ialah timah dan karbon
dioksida.
4. Batu kapur terurai kepada kapur tohor( kalsium oksida)
5. Kapur tohor bertindakbalas dengan bendasing seperti
silika membentuk sanga.

Pengestrakan besi
Bijih besi wujud dalam 2 bentuk iaitu :Hematit dan
Magnetit
1.Bijih besi,karbon dan batu kapur dimasukkan
kedalam relau bagas.
2. Karbon akan bertindakbalas dengan besi
oksida untuk menghasilkan besi dan karbon
dioksida.
3. Batu kapur diurai oleh udara panas kepada
kapur tohor.
4. Kapur tohor akan bertindakbalas dengan
bendasing membentuk sanga.

Electrolysis
Breaking using electricity

Electrodes
Substances that allow electricity to enter an electrolyte

Electrolyte

Substances that decompose when electricity passes through.

Anode
positive electrode

Catode
negative electrode

Electrolysis
Proses penguraian elektrolit kepada juzuknya apabila arus mengalir.

Electrodes
Rod-rod yang mengkondiksi elektrik

Electrolyte

Larutan yang mengkonduksi arus elektrik dan mengalami perubahan


kimia

Anod
Elektrod positif

katod
elektrod negatif

Anion a negative ion


Cation a positive ion

Contoh:
Plumbum (II) Bromida

Basic electrolysis.
The process of electrolysis occur in two steps :
Movement of ions to the electrodes.
- the anions move toward the anodes and the cations move
towards the cathode.
Discharge of ions at the electrodes
- at the anode, anions are discharge by donating electrons
and at the cathode, cations are discharge by receiving
electrons.

Purification

Extraction

Uses of electrolysis
in industries
Electroplating

Pengestrakan

Penulenan

Kegunaan elektrolisis
Dalam industri
Penyaduran

Extraction
Extraction Of
Of
Metals
Metals
Reactive metals can only be extracted
from their ores by electrolysis.
The extraction is done by electrolysis
process.
Molten compounds are used so that
electricity can pass through it.

2O + 4e O2
3

Al + 3e Al

Purification
Purification Of
Of
Metals
Metals
Metals which are extracted from
their ores are not very pure.
The impure metal can be purified
through purification process.

PENULENAN LOGAM
KATOD
Kepingan logam yang tulen
dijadikan katod
ANOD
Kepingan logam tak tulen di
jadikan anod
ELEKTROLIT
Larutan garam logam

Electroplating
Electroplating of
of
metals
metals
Process of depositing a layer of metal on
another substance using electrolysis.
A more expensive or attractive metal such
as silver or gold is coated onto the object.
Make the object more attractive and more
resistant to corrosion.

Electroplating process
The item that is to be electroplate is used
as the cathode. The planting metal is used
as the anod.
This is a process during which metallic
object coated with a thin and even layer
of another metal.
This process is important to prevent
rusting for decorative items.
To avoid corrosion
To make object look shiny and better
Gold, silver and platinum are used to coat
decorative item.

PENYADURAN LOGAM

KATOD
battery

anode

Copper

The material takes places in cathode is material


decorative Item. For example is folks, key and
spoon.
cathode

The positive ion Cu 2++ are attached to the cathode


and accept two electrons and get deposited as a
cathode, in this case is the key.
Cu 2++ + 2e Cu

ANOD
The material takes places are metal that is used to
plated.
Copper (II)
Sulphate
solution

key

For good electroplating it should be the silver


because metal ion will plate onto the key as well
as the silver.
Cu Cu 2+ + 2e

SEL RINGKAS

Terdiri daripada dua electrod yang berbeza


diletakkan dalam elektrolit.

Elektrolit boleh terdiri daripada larutan garam,asid


atau alkali.
Logam yang lebih reaktif bertindak sebagai terminal
negative dan logam kurang reaktif bertindak sebagai
terminal positive.

A simple cell
Batteries
+
switch

Copper
plate

Zinc plate

Dilute sulphuric acid


Zinc more reactive than copper

Jenis sel dan Kegunaannya


a. Sel Kering
- kegunaan :Radio transistor, Alat kawalan jauh
dan jam loceng
b. Akumulator asid-plumbum
- kegunaan : kereta dan motosikal .
c. Bateri argentum oksida - merkuri
- kegunaan : bateri jam tangan
d. Bateri nikel kadmium
- kegunaan :telefon bimbit

CAHAYA DAN TINDAKBALAS KIMIA


Contoh tindakbalas kimia yang memerlukan
tenaga cahaya :
a.Proses fotosintesis
b. Kesan cahaya terhadap kertas fotografi

Fotosintesis

Proses sintesis makanan dalam daun hijau


tumbuhan menghasilkan glukos dan gas
oksigen.
Sunlight

Air + karbon dioxida


chlorophyll

glukos
+ oksigen

Kesan cahaya terhadap kertas fotografi


Permukaan kertas fotografi mempunyai lapisan
yang terdiri daripada argentum bromida yang
sensitif kepada cahaya matahari.
Kawasan kertas fotografi yang terdedah kepada
cahaya kelihatan kelabu kerana pembentukan logam
argentum.
Light

Argentum Bromida

Argentum + bromin