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STPM CHEMISTRY 2016

THEME: Chemistry in life

Class: 6AS4
1) Tan Wai Liang [Leader]
2) Tan Jin Yee
3) Tan Zi Hong

What is metal corrosion?

Metal corrosion is the deterioration of materials by chemical


interaction with the environment.

A metal corrosion is a natural process, which a metal will convert


itself to a more stable form

What causes the corrosion?

water or moisture in the air

acids

bases

salts

aggressive metal

Does metal occurs in natural as PURE


form?

Most of the metal does not occur in nature in pure form, except
gold, platinum and silver.

How to get pure metal?

www.essentialchemicalindust
ry.org

blast furnace

www.electrical4u.com

electrolysis

Advantages of metal corrosion

Protective layer

Surface corrosion will forms an oxide layer which will protects the
metal instead of being corroded.

Aluminium
Oxide

www.open.edu

Disadvantages!

Reduce the strength of the structure

Causing tetanus

Reduce the beauty or attractiveness of gadget and devices

www.leopardantiques.com

www.reddit.com

Research Question

How does the pH affect the rate of corrosion?

What is the rate of corrosion of different metal?

How does the oxide layer on the surface of the metal affect the rate
of corrosion of metal?

Problem Statement

The rate of corrosion of the metal is affected by the pH medium.


The rate of corrosion could be calculated by measuring the weight
loss of the metal.

Objective of research

To determine the effect of pH on rate of corrosion

To determine the rate of corrosion of different metal

To determine the effect of oxide layer on the surface of metal


against the rate of corrosion of metal

Limitation of study

The electronic balance is not sensitive enough to measure the small weight
loss of the metal.

The time taken for the experiment is short.

The temperature for the experiment is not controlled.

The removing process of the corroded metal is not standard due to the
limit of chemical in lab.

Experiment
i.

THE EFFECT OF pH ON RATE OF CORROSION

ii.

THE RATE OF CORROSION ON DIFFERENT METAL

iii.

THE RATE OF CORROSION ON DIFFERENT METAL


WITH OXIDE LAYER

Experiment I
THE EFFECT OF pH ON RATE OF
CORROSION

THE EFFECT OF pH ON RATE OF


CORROSION

Apparatus: 250 cm3 beaker, forceps, hair drier, sandpaper, electronic


balance, meter rule, scissors, 50cm 3 measuring cylinder, pH meter

Material: Lead strips x 5 (2cm x 5cm), 0.01 moldm -3 HNO3 solution,


1.010-5 moldm-3 HNO3 solution, distilled water, 0.01 moldm -3 NaOH
solution and 1.010-5 moldm-3 NaOH

PROCEDURE
1.

The 5 lead strips are cleaned using sandpaper.

2.

The 5 lead strips are immersed into acetone solution and dry using
a hair drier.

3.

The mass and the area of the 5 lead strips are measured using
electronic balance and meter rule.

4.

The pH of solution for beaker A to E which contain 0.01 moldm-3


HNO3 solution, 1.010-5 moldm-3 HNO3 solution, distilled water,
0.01 moldm-3 NaOH solution and 1.010-5 moldm-3 NaOH
solution respectively are measured using pH meter.
5.

The 5 lead strips are immersed into the 5 solution respectively and
the time is recorded.

6.

The 5 lead strips are taken out from the solution on the second days
and the time was recorded

7.

The 5 lead strips are then immersed in 0.17 moldm-3 CH3COOH


solution for 5 minutes.

8.

The 5 lead strips are then immersed in acetone solution and dry
using a hair drier.

9.

The mass of lead strips are measured using electronic balance.

10.

The data was tabulated.

TABLE
Metal pH

Initial
Weight(g)

Final
Weight(g)

Weight
loss (g)

Initial
time

Final
time

Time
taken
(min)

Rate of
corrosio
n
(mm/y)

Pb

2.0

1.33

1.25

0.08

12:12

11:35

1403

0.264

Pb

6.4

1.28

1.25

0.03

12:12

11:30

1398

0.099

Pb

7.2

1.30

1.27

0.03

12:12

11:25

1393

0.100

Pb

9.7

1.34

1.33

0.01

12:12

11:25

1402

0.033

Pb

11.6

1.33

1.34

-0.01

12:12

11:34

1400

-0.033

Graph

Deduction
Graph 1 show that the rate of corrosion decrease as pH increase. The
increase of weight of lead strips at pH 11.6 show that lead strip started
to form a protective layer on its surface.

The rate of corrosion increases as pH decreases is due to when metal


is immersed in solution with lower pH (higher concentration of H+ ions),
electrons can react with hydrogen ions adsorbed on the metal surface
from the solution to produce hydrogen gas
2H+ + 2e- H2

The occurrence of the reaction permits the continues passage of an


equivalent quantity of metal ions into solution, leading the faster rate of
corrosion of metal.

EXPERIMENT II
THE RATE OF CORROSION ON
DIFFERENT METAL

THE RATE OF CORROSION ON


DIFFERENT METAL
Apparatus: 250 cm3 beaker, forceps, hair drier, sandpaper, electronic
balance, meter rule, scissors, 50cm3 measuring cylinder, pH meter

Material: lead strip, zinc strip, tin strip, copper strip, aluminum strip
(2cm x 5cm) and 0.01 moldm-3 HNO3 solution

PROCEDURE
1.

The lead strip, zinc strip, tin strip, copper strip and aluminum
strip are cleaned using sandpaper.

2.

The 5 metal strips are immersed into acetone solution and dry
using a hair drier.

3.

The mass and the area of the 5 lead strips are measured using
electronic balance and meter rule.

4.

The pH of the solution in beaker A to E which contain 0.01 moldm-3


HNO3 solution are measured using pH meter.

5.

The 5 metal strips are immersed into the 5 solution respectively and
the time is recorded.

7.

5 metals strip are immersed into different type of solution with different
time.
TYPE OF METALS
TYPE OF SOLUTION
STRIPS
CH3COOH

TIME

lead

0.17
moldm-3
solution

aluminum

1.0 moldm-3 HNO3 solution

2 minutes

copper

1.8 moldm-3 H2SO4 solution

2 minutes

tin

0.6 moldm-3 HCl solution

10 minutes

5 minutes

0.25
-3
8. zinc strip
The 5 metal strips1.02
are then
immersed
in acetone solution and dry
moldm
HCl solution
minutes
using a hair drier.
9.
The mass of the 5 metal strips are measured using electronic
balance.
10.

The data was tabulated.

TABLE
Metal

pH

Initial
Final
Weight
Weight(g) Weight(g) loss (g)

Initial
time

Final
time

Time
taken
(min)

Rate of
corrosio
n (mm/y)

Pb

2.0

1.55

1.40

0.15

11:50

11:33

2863

0.242

Zn

2.0

1.54

1.52

0.02

11:50

11:36

2866

0.051

Sn

2.0

3.15

3.07

0.08

11:50

11:50

2880

0.201

Cu

2.0

0.80

0.78

0.02

11:50

11:48

2878

0.041

Al

2.0

0.30

0.29

0.01

11:50

11:43

2873

0.067

Graph

The rate of corrosion against type of metal (with polishing)

Deduction
Graph 2 shows that the rate of

Metal

E value (V)

Al Al3++3e-

+1.66

Zn Zn2+ +2e

+0.76

Sn Sn2++2e

+0.13

Pb Pb2++2e

+0.13

Cu Cu2++2e

-0.34

corrosion of lead, zinc, tin, copper


and aluminum metal are different in
acidic condition (pH 2). The rate of
corrosion of lead is the highest
followed by tin, aluminum, zinc and
lastly copper. By relating the rate of
corrosion to the E value for the
metal:

The S.E.P. and Redox Potential at


298K

Deduction
From the table above, it shows that the stability of the metal compare to
metal ion of Cu> Pb> Sn> Zn> Al which is differ from the rate of
corrosion of the metal which shows Cu< Zn< Al< Sn< Pb.
The abnormal behavior of the metal are most probably cause by the
oxidizing of aluminum strip before immersed in the acid and the zinc
strip is not well cleaned due to the absent of corrosion inhibit specimen.

EXPERIMENT III
THE RATE OF CORROSION ON DIFFERENT
METAL WITH OXIDE LAYER

THE RATE OF CORROSION ON DIFFERENT


METAL WITH OXIDE LAYER
Apparatus: 250 cm-3 beaker, forceps, hair drier, electronic balance,
meter rule, scissors, 50cm-3 measuring cylinder, pH meter

Material: lead strip, zinc strip, tin strip, copper strip, aluminum strip
(2cm x 5cm) and 0.01 moldm-3 HNO3 solution

PROCEDURE
1.

The lead strip, zinc strip, tin strip, copper strip and aluminum
strip are prepared

2.

The 5 metal strips are immersed into acetone solution and dry
using a hair drier.

3.

The mass and the area of the 5 lead strips are measured using
electronic balance and meter rule.

4.

The pH of the solution in beaker A to E which contain 0.01 moldm-3


HNO3 solution are measured using pH meter.

5.

The 5 metal strips are immersed into the 5 solution respectively and
the time is recorded.

7.

5 metals strip are immersed into different type of solution with different
time.
TYPE OF METALS
TYPE OF SOLUTION
STRIPS
CH3COOH

TIME

lead

0.17
moldm-3
solution

aluminum

1.0 moldm-3 HNO3 solution

2 minutes

copper

1.8 moldm-3 H2SO4 solution

2 minutes

tin

0.6 moldm-3 HCl solution

10 minutes

5 minutes

0.25
-3
zinc
strip
1.02
moldm
HCl
solution
8.
The 5 metal strips are then immersed in acetone solution
minutesand dry
using a hair drier.
9.
The mass of the 5 metal strips are measured using electronic
balance.
10.

The data was tabulated.

Snapchat-2292876068090922376.mp4

TABLE
Metal

pH

Initial

Final

Weight

Initial

Final

Time

Rate of

Weight(g

Weight(g

loss

time

time

taken

corrosi

(g)

(min)

on
(mm/y)

Pb

2.0

1.83

1.77

0.06

12:25

10:42

2777

0.100

Zn

2.0

1.62

1.60

0.02

12:25

10:47

2782

0.052

Sn

2.0

3.00

2.96

0.04

12:25

10:49

2784

0.103

Cu

2.0

0.96

0.94

0.02

12:25

10:38

2773

0.042

Al

2.0

0.30

0.30

12:25

10:50

2785

Graph

The rate of corrosion against type of metal (without


polishing)

Compare THE GRAPH!

Graph 3 show that the rate of corrosion of


Al, Sn and Pb have a great decrease if the
metal strips are not polished before
immersed into solution.

The decreases of the rate of corrosion


show that the protective layer of lead, tin,
and aluminum is very effective for protecting
the metal from being corroded.

The protective layer of aluminum has fully


protected aluminum from corrode and the
protective layer of lead and tin has
decreased the rate of corrosion of the
metal by 41% and 51% respectively.

But zinc and copper have no significant


change on rate of corrosion and it may due
to the metal does not form protective

The rate of corrosion against type of metal

layer or the protective layer of the metal


will dissolve easily under acidic condition.

Deduction
By referring to the Eh-pH graph, it shows
that the Pb2+ is the predominant species to
occur when Pb is immersed with H2O
solution at pH 2. Thus we can predict that
the lead metal have react with nitric
acid ,HNO3 to form lead(II) nitrate,
Pb(NO3)2 ,nitrogen dioxide, NO2 and
water. The lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 will
then dissolve in water to form Pb2+ and
NO3- which is colourless.
3Pb + 8HNO3 3Pb(NO3)2 + 4H2O +
2NO
Pb(NO3)2 Pb2+ + 2NO3Pourbaix Diagram: Eh-pH graph for Lead

Deduction

PbO is not form in this experiment is due to distilled water was used
in this experiment and the diffusion rate of oxygen into water is low.
The low concentration of oxygen causes the formation of PbO
does not happen or not significant to be detected by naked eyes.

Figure
1: Lead
metal
immers
ed in
pH 2
solution

Figure
2:
Corrod
ed
Lead

Deduction
The lead metal strips sample which is immersed

Figure 3:
Lead
metal
immerse
d in pH
6.4
solution

Figure 4:
Lead
metal
immerse
d in pH
7.2
solution

into solution with pH 6.4 and 7.2. The Eh-pH


diagram shows that the predominant species
that will form is PbCO3 which is an insoluble
white solid. The carbon dioxide in air react with
water forming carbonic acid, H2CO3 which is
then dissociate into hydrogen ion, H + and also
carbonate ion, CO32CO2 + H2O H2CO3
H2CO3 2H+ + CO32The carbonate ion is then react with lead(II) ion
which is form from the corrosion of lead metal by
water to form lead(II) carbonate, PbCO 3.

Deduction
While at pH 9.7, due to the higher
Figure
5: Lead
metal
immers
ed in
pH 9.7
solution

concentration of hydroxide ion, OH- ,


basic lead carbonate, Pb3(CO3)2(OH)
2

or sometime written as

2PbCO3Pb(OH) 2 is formed which is


in white powder form is formed
instead of lead(II) carbonate, PbCO3.

Deduction
Met
al

pH

Initial
Final
Weight Weight
(g)
(g)

Pb

11.
6

1.33

Weight
loss (g)

Initi
al
time

Final
time

Time
take
n
(min
)

Rate of
corrosio
n
(mm/y)

1.34 EFFECT
-0.01
12:12
11:34
1400 -0.033
THE
OF pH ON
RATE
OF
CORROSION
But at pH 11.6 the lead metal does
Figure 6:
Lead metal
immersed
in pH 11.6
solution

not corrode at all but only forming a


layer of dull grayish colour of
tarnished lead which protect it from
corrosion.

Deduction
Figure 7:
Copper
metal
immerse
d in pH 2
solution

Due to the low rate of corrosion of copper


and aluminum metal, the product formed is
unable to be predicted. Theoretically, copper
will react with nitric acid to form nitrogen
monoxide, NO2, water and copper nitrate,
Cu(NO3)2 forming a green solution while
aluminum react with nitric acid to form
colourless aluminum nitrates Al(NO3)3
and hydrogen gas.

Figure 8:
Aluminu Cu + 4HNO3 Cu(NO3)2+2NO+2H2O
blue
yellow
m metal
immerse
d in pH 2 2Al + 6HNO3 2Al(NO3)3 + 3H2
colourless
solution

Deduction
When zinc is immersed in cold and diluted nitric acid, zinc will liberate
nitrogen monoxide, NO, zinc nitrate, Zn(NO3)2 and water. The zinc
nitrate will then dissolve in water to form a colourless solution.
3Zn + 8HNO3 3Zn(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
Zn(NO3)2 Zn2+ + 2NO3The thin layer of black solid detect in the experiment may due to the
impurities in the zinc metal strips
Figure 9:
Zinc metal
(with
scrubbing)
immersed
in pH 2
solution

Figure 10:
Zinc metal
(without
scrubbing)
immersed
in pH 2
solution

Deduction
When tin (stannum) is immersed in nitric acid, tin will liberate
nitrogen dioxide, NO2, tin nitrate, Sn(NO3)2 and water. The tin
nitrate will then dissolve in water to form a colourless solution. But due
to the yellow nitrogen dioxide, NO2 that form in this reaction, the
nitrogen dioxide that remain dissolved in the solution forming a yellow
solution instead of colourless solution.
Sn + 4HNO3 Sn(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
Sn(NO3)2 Sn2+ + 2NO3Figure 11:
Tin metal
(with
scrubbing)
immersed in
pH 2
solution

Figure 12:
Tin metal
(without
scrubbing)
immersed in
pH 2
solution

Conclusion

The rate of corrosion decrease as pH increases

The rate of corrosion of the metal under acidic condition of Pb> Sn>
Al> Zn> Cu

The protective layer of aluminum, lead and tin are able to decrease
the rate of corrosion under acidic condition but not zinc and copper.