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## DESIGN OF STEEL AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1.

Draw and mark the outstand elements and internal elements for the following structural
sections.

Angle section

Outstand element

## All elements are internal

elements
2.

For a structural section , write down the expressions for the moment carrying if :
(a) section is plastic : M = Mp = Sxx x py
(b) section is compact : M = Mp = Sxx x py
(c) section is semi-compact : M > Me
M = Zxx x py (approximate)..
M = Me+ (Sxx-Zxx)x factorexact
(d) section is slender
M<Me
M = xZxx where is the extreme fibre stress at buckling
Or
M = py x Zeff where Zeff is the effective section modulus

3.

The I-section 356 x 127 UB 33 Grade 275 has the following properties:
Sx = 539.8 cm3, Ixx = 8200cm4, Zxx =473 cm3, B = 125.4 mm, D = 348.5 mm
t = 5.9 mm T = 8.5mm, r = 10.2
(a) Determine the classification for Flange.
Py = 275 for both flange and web since T<16mm and t<16mm
=sqrt(275/275) =1
b/T=62.7/8.5=7.37<9 So flange is plastic
(b) Determine the classification for Web.

## d/t=311.1/5.9=52.7<80 So web is plastic

The section is plastic since flange and web are plastic.
(c) Elastic moment
Use Zxx = Ixx/(D/2)=8200x10000/(348.5/2) =470588 or given value 473x1000
Me=Zxx x py = 470588 x 275 =129411764.7 Nmm = 129.4kNm
(d) Plastic moment
Mp = Sxx x py = 539.8 x 1000x275 =148445000Nmm = 148.4 kNm.

4.

Write down differences between cold formed steel and hot rolled steel

Property
Thickness

## Cold formed steel

0.1 mm to 7.7 mm

Shape
Weight
Economy
Types of Instability

Any shape
Light weight
More economical
Local buckling
Overall buckling
Lateral buckling
Z, C, angle, hat sections

Types of components
5.

## Hot rolled Steel

Web 10-30 mm
Flange
Standard shapes
More weight
Less economical
Column buckling in columns
Lateral buckling in beams
UB. UC, angles, channels

20 mm

150 mm

## (1) Elastic section modulus

Zxx = bd2/6 = 20 x 1502/6 =75000mm3
(2) Elastic Moment capacity
Me = Zxx x py = 75000 x 275 =20625000Nmm = 20.6kNm
(3) Plastic section modulus
Sxx = bd2/4 =112500mm3
(4) Plastic Moment capacity
Mp = Sxx x py = 112500 x 275 =30937500 Nmm = 30.94kNm.
(5) Shape factor for section
Shape factor = Sxx/Zxx = 112500/75000=1.5